Military Review

Emperor Peter III. Conspiracy

96
So, on December 25 of 1762, after the death of Elizabeth Petrovna, her nephew, who entered the history under the name of Peter III.


Emperor Peter III. Conspiracy

Peter III. Engraving of the end of the 18th century by an unknown author


His right to the throne as the only direct and legitimate descendant of Peter I was undeniable. But the emperor’s wife, German Catherine, had her own plans, and the crown of Peter the Great, bloodied, had to fall from the head of his grandson in order to be in the hands of an impostor. This was unthinkable, almost impossible, but Catherine was passionate, unlike her husband, and her accomplices were passionate: they did not reflect and did not doubt, went ahead and were not afraid of blood. In the eyes of astonished Europe and shocked Russia, a person ascended the Russian imperial throne, who had absolutely nothing to do with him. Comfortably sitting on the seized throne, Catherine pretended that nothing special had happened. And then, having settled down, she did not transfer power to yet another descendant of Peter the Great - her son Paul, becoming a usurper for the second time. And almost made everyone - both contemporaries and descendants - believe in the legality of their actions and their power.

The coup d'état perfect by Catherine became possible not only because of the bold and decisive actions of her supporters, but also thanks to the numerous mistakes of the emperor. These errors are partly due to the absolute legitimacy of this monarch and the lack of legitimate claimants to the throne. Peter was confident in his power and believed that he could afford both the haste of reforms that cause dissatisfaction in the Senate, the Synod and the guard, and indulgence towards his opponents and opponents. And meanwhile, traitors have long gathered around his wife, many of them naively believed that they would become the main characters after the victory over the legal emperor. Catherine was assigned, in the best case, the role of a nominal regency with the young Paul. Rather different people were going to rule the country, we will still name their names.

Underestimation by Peter Catherine and condescending attitude towards her


Peter did not feel any warm feelings for his openly neglecting wife. Her behavior has long been scandalous and defiant, many at the Court believed that now the emperor would surely get rid of the intrigue - send her to Zerbst or send her to the monastery. Or, at least, she will appoint a staff of new courtiers from among the people loyal to him, isolating her from suspicious friends in power structures and, most importantly, in the guard. But Peter was never vindictive, and, contrary to rumors, he did not intend either to divorce his wife or to imprison her in a fortress or monastery. In addition, Catherine's constant intercessor was the emperor’s beloved uncle, Georg Ludwig, who, once, was in love with the young German princess, who still bore the name of Sophia Frederick Augustus, and now did everything to avert the anger of her husband from Catherine. Catherine, in public, habitually played the role of a wife, suffering from the arbitrariness of an insignificant tyrant - her husband:
"Sometimes, with everyone, as if against her will, tears were wrapped up in her, and, arousing universal regret, she acquired a new remedy. Secret accomplices divulged about her calamities, and it seemed that she, in fact, was left in such negligence, and in such disbelief that she is deprived of all power at her disposal, and that her servants obey her only out of zeal ... A penetrating eye would notice her cold greatness on her face, under which great intentions are hidden. "

(Rühler.)


I.P. Argunov. Catherine II, 1762


Moods in the guards of St. Petersburg


Peter III was well aware of the recent palace coups, witnesses of which still lived in St. Petersburg, and of the role that officers of the guard regiments played in them. Academician J. Shtelin reports:
"Even when he was the Grand Duke, he called the Janissaries of the guard soldiers living in the same place in the barracks with their wives and children, and said: They only block the residence, are not capable of any work, nor military exertions, and are always dangerous for the government."


I fully agree with Peter and the French diplomat Favier:
"In particular, the numerous and extremely useless corps of the guards, these Janissaries of the Russian Empire, whose garrison is located in the capital, where they seem to be holding a courtyard, is badly located towards him (the emperor).


The secretary of the French Embassy in Russia, Claude Carloman Rühler, in his notes called the Russian guard regiments "guards, always awful to their sovereigns."


Secretary of the Embassy of France Claude Carloman Ruleur


Famous mainly for her ugly behavior and brawls in the taverns of the capital, Elizabeth's Life Company (the grenadier company of the Preobrazhensky Regiment - 362 man), who once won the throne for this empress, Peter dismissed.


Life Company Officer


As for the rest of the “Janissaries,” the logical decision was to send the regiments corrupted by the capital’s life away from Petersburg to the Western Group of Forces, which was now in Pomerania, making Frederick II very accommodating, and encouraging the king to help him conquer Schleswig and Russia Ditmarshen owned by her emperor. For the guards officers who had already got used to the “balls, beauties, lackeys” and the obligatory “crunch of the French roll”, these intentions of Peter (who, having outlined them, unfortunately did not have time to put them into practice) seemed like a terrible lawlessness. Peter III underestimated the unwillingness of the guard to leave St. Petersburg. The guardsmen were indifferent to the war for the interests of Austria and France, in which they did not take part, to the war for the interests of Russia in which they were to participate - it was extremely negative.

Claude Rühler testifies:
"These regiments, accustomed from ancient times to the late service at the Court, during the reign of the inheritance of women, were ordered to follow the sovereign in a distant war, regretfully leaving the capital against their will."


And therefore, the agitation that the Orlovs actively conducted among them was perceived more than positively.


J.L. de Valley. Alexey and Grigory Orlov


Officers of the units, which, according to the testimony of the Prussian ambassador B. Goltz, "on the day of the coup completely surrendered to the empress":


Shiflyar S.P. Izmaylovsky Regiment officer in everyday uniform



Horse Guards Officer


Opposition in the Senate and the Holy Synod


The senators and members of the Synod were also dissatisfied with the new emperor, whom he forced (oh, horror!) To come to their jobs on time and to deal with real cases, rather than empty talk. Not to touch the Senate and the Synod (and also to be crowned faster) "prayed" Peter even Frederick II. But, in relation to the bureaucrats, the emperor remained adamant, and he decided to carry out the coronation after negotiations with Denmark and resolving the issue with Schleswig.

The characters in the conspiracy


In April 1762, Catherine, in secret from everyone, gave birth to a son from Grigory Orlov, who received the title of Count Bobrinsky.


Karl Ludwig Johann Khristinek, portrait of Alexei Grigoryevich Bobrinsky, painted in 1769, Hermitage


Freed from the burden, the adventurer could now fully devote herself to a conspiracy against her husband and the legitimate emperor.

A conspiracy against Peter III took shape in the summer of 1762, and Peterhof became the headquarters of the conspirators.

Everyone knows about the Orlov brothers, however, much more titled persons also spoke out against the legal emperor. We list some of them. Count Nikita Panin - tutor of Crown Prince Paul, senator and chamberlain. He was one of the main ideologists of the conspiracy. His brother Peter is a general-general who took part in the Seven Years War. Count Kirill Razumovsky - Marshal, commander of the Izmailovsky Guards Regiment, hetman of Ukraine, president of the Academy of Sciences. Baron Korf - chief of the St. Petersburg police. Prince Mikhail Vorontsov (it is curious that the other Vorontsovs were loyal to the emperor, including the Chancellor of the Empire). Princess Yekaterina Dashkova (countess Countess Vorontsova, godmother of the emperor and the younger sister of his mistress) and her husband Mikhail are a high-degree St. Petersburg Freemason. Among the conspirators, a certain “Mr. Odar” also wandered away, who kept in his house a pre-printed Manifesto of ascending the throne of Catherine. According to the adviser to the Danish embassy Andreas Schumacher, the notorious Count Saint-Germain was in Russia under this name. That is, people seem to be serious. Yes, and Catherine herself, according to her own statements, and the words of the court flatterers, was a "wise wise" lady. But when you begin to get acquainted with the circumstances of the drunken revolt of the guards, which, according to the organizers of the conspiracy, was supposed to lead to the overthrow of the legitimate emperor, there are great doubts both in Catherine’s mind and in the adequacy of her accomplices.

Conspiracy against the Emperor: The Beginning


The "recipe for" coups in Russia of those years was known even to foreigners. Saxon envoy Petzold, after Elizabeth Petrovna came to power, said:
"All Russians recognize that you can do anything with a certain number of grenadiers, a cellar with vodka, and a few bags of gold."


Ekaterina had a “bag of gold” - she “borrowed” 100 thousand rubles from the English merchant Felten (you, of course, guessed which country’s ambassador transferred the money to her through a modest British merchant). "Cellar with vodka" - organized: purchased with this money more than 35 thousand buckets. There were grenadiers led by the Orlov brothers. But then ...

Frederick II, for example, was categorical:
"Their plot was reckless and poorly composed."


Judge for yourself: instead of immediately arresting Peter III (the business of the guards was familiar - they grabbed Biron in the middle of the night, and Anna Leopoldovna and her husband), on June 26 and 1762 the Orlovs began to solder the personnel of the capital's garrison, spreading rumors about the death of Peter III . It was alleged that the emperor died in Oranienbaum as a result of a fall from a horse.

On 27 of June, a certain Transfiguration soldier appeared in the office of his regiment and reported on the suspicious behavior of the Orlovs and the outrages happening in St. Petersburg. At that time, one of the active participants in the conspiracy was in the office - Lieutenant P.B. Passek, who did not react to this report in any way. The surprised soldier turned to Captain Izmailov, who, in turn, reported everything to Major Volkov. Passek was arrested, the news of the unexpected and strange mass sweeping of the capital’s guards and the arrest of one of the alleged conspirators was sent to the emperor - in Oranienbaum. According to Rüller, Peter attributed the received news extremely frivolously:

"When they informed him of the signs of a conspiracy and of the arrest of one conspirator, he said:" This is a fool. "


But the moment for the conspirators was truly critical. The same Rühler reports:
"Without the precaution of Piedmontz Odar, who was secretly known only to him and Princess Dashkova, everything would be lost."


Odar (Saint-Germain), who learned about this arrest from one of his agents, informed Ekaterina Dashkova about it, the other conspirators. As a result, on the night of June 28, Catherine fled from Peterhof to the barracks of the Izmailovsky Regiment - this explains Peter's confusion, to which none of the servants could explain where his wife disappeared: he even suggested that they could have abducted her.

By the morning of June 28, the soldiers of the St. Petersburg garrison had reached the right condition, and when Catherine asked them to "vote for their candidacy," they, poorly understanding what was happening, took the oath to "Empress Catherine Alekseevna." The ministers and senators, who remembered well about the coups of the past, hastened to join the “will of the masses” (the jokes were drunk with a drunken soldier, and the emperor, according to rumors, had already died). Orthodox hierarchs also appeared with joy, to whom Catherine promised to return the slaves (monastic serfs) taken away from them by her husband.


Catherine II on the balcony of the Winter Palace, welcomed by the guard and the people on the day of the coup on 28 June 1762 year. Original by Joachim Kestner



The oath of the Izmailovsky regiment to Catherine II. Unknown artist. The end of the XVIII - the first third of the XIX century.


At that time Gabriel Derzhavin served in the Preobrazhensky regiment. He was not aware of the conspiracy, but, without understanding anything (like many others), together with his company, he came to the Winter Palace. Here is a strange picture that the future poet and dignitary saw:
“Suddenly, a strange procession entered the jubilant crowd, before having managed to walk along the main streets of the capital. Soldiers in mourning clothes carried lighted torches, a coffin covered with black cloth seemed to flutter between them. The procession went slowly, in complete silence, disappearing so but all of a sudden, as it appeared, no one could comprehend anything - but rumors crept in like a loop: they say the emperor died. "


Rüller writes about the same thing:
"Suddenly there was a rumor that the emperor had been brought. The crowd, prompted without noise, parted, crowded and in deep silence gave place to a procession, which slowly made its way in the middle of it. It was a magnificent funeral, carried along the main streets, and no one knew: whose burial? Soldiers, dressed like Cossacks, carried torches in mourning, and while the attention of the people was all in one place, this ceremony was hidden from view ... hardly twenty people even in the palace understood this incident as it was. without knowing whether the emperor is alive or not, and exclaiming incessantly “Hurray!” ... they thought that they proclaimed emperor the young grand duke and give mother regency. ”


That is, many in the capital then decided: Catherine was “shouted out” by the Empress because her husband died.

Princess Yekaterina Dashkova later said: "We took our measures well."

At this time, a young French footman, who arrived from St. Petersburg, told Peter that Catherine was in the capital and in the city "holiday": "all the troops are under arms." And then another messenger appeared, sent by the barber of the emperor Bressan, who delivered a note of the following content:
"The guard regiments rebelled; the empress is ahead; beats 9 hours; she goes to the Kazan Church; it seems that all the people are fond of this movement, and the loyal subjects of your majesty are nowhere to be found."


The Emperor’s Tormented Inaction


In 1987, A. Gorodnitsky wrote an interesting poem about the events of that day:

"The rustle of the waves of the oncoming is heard
And the distant singing of the trumpet.
Over the palace sharp roof
Gilt emblems shine.
Parquet floor in the chambers will not creak,
Watch strike does not sound suddenly.
The emperor plays the violin, -
The state is getting out of hand.
The infantry keeps the line at the fence -
Sovereign is a faithful army.
We must urgently order something, -
Something else can be done ...
Gilt fish sleep in the pond
Parsley and onions are cut in the kitchen.
The emperor plays the violin, -
The state is getting out of hand.
Those close in terrible alarm
The play is drawing to a close
Approaching a dusty road
The cavalry jumps to the palace.
To the voice of the violin, anxious and unsteady,
A stranger intertwines a sound.
The emperor plays the violin, -
The state is getting out of hand. "


No, Peter III, of course, did not play the violin that day - not before that. But he "played with the conspirators in the giveaway," and was still in Peterhof. Among his entourage were, among others, Chancellor M.I. Vorontsov, former head of the abolished Peter the Secret Chancellery Count A.I. Shuvalov, Field Marshal N.Yu. Trubetskoy, General-General P.A.Devier, Adjutant General A.V. .Gudovich, Major General M.M. Izmaylov, Lieutenant General A.P. Melgunov. And also next to him was Field Marshal Burchard Christoph Minich, a man with iron nerves and unbending will, who had passed fire, water, copper pipes, the death sentence and the exile to Pelym that remained unfulfilled.


Portrait of Count Minich by G. Buchholz. hermitage Museum


He went to the Crimea, took Bakhchisaray, Ochakov and Khotin. It was Minich who, in 1740, with a bunch of soldiers arrested the omnipotent Biron, and, probably, now, deep down, he made fun of dumb amateurs who, in his opinion, were doomed: someone would have to go to the chopping block, someone - with torn nostrils to hard labor. It was impossible to find a more experienced and authoritative consultant and specialist in this situation, no matter how hard you try. At that time, the field marshal turned 79 years old, but he was full of energy, retained good spirits of body and soul ("he returned from exile with rare vigor in those years" - Rüller), and unsuccessfully tries to offer his services. And Peter has a bunch of options to suppress this stupid rebellion. At first, Minikh invited him, taking all 12 grenadiers, to ride with him to Petersburg, assuring him that this was enough - to stop a possible rebellion, the emperor needed only to personally show himself to the troops and people. Taking into account the stories of Derzhavin and Rühler (about the strange "funeral procession"), we can assume that the timely appearance of the emperor in St. Petersburg, indeed, could change a lot.

Rühler writes about the events of that day:
"One regiment was sad; they were wonderful cavalrymen, from whom the emperor was a colonel from his childhood and whom, upon ascending to the throne, he immediately led to Petersburg and gave them a place in the Guards Corps."


Peter could safely count on this regiment.

The Preobrazhensky hesitated, Schumacher reports:
"Strong rivalry reigned between the Preobrazhensky and Izmailovsky regiments."


Transfiguration commanders P.I. Izmailov and P.P. Voeikov (who arrested Passek) and another officer - S.R. Vorontsov, appealed to their subordinates with a call to remain faithful to the emperor. The soldiers, in response, shouted: "We will die for him!"

Another option proposed by Minich was an immediate move to Kronstadt, where Peter would be invulnerable.


Kronstadt, engraving


The emperor refuses to go to either Petersburg or Kronstadt. The second person in the state, Chancellor of the Empire M.I. Vorontsov, accompanied by A.I. Shuvalova and N.Yu. Trubetskoy was sent to St. Petersburg to investigate the situation, but the top officials of the state were detained by a picket of conspirators and escorted to Catherine. Awaiting their return (or, at least, some news from them) Peter III is inactive, and precious time is running out. Here the character of this emperor, about which J. Shtelin said:
"In words, I was not at all afraid of death, but in fact I was afraid of all danger."


In the Soviet film "Ordinary Miracle," the king talks about this type of people:
"He ... at the slightest misfortune stopped, did nothing, hoped for the best. When his beloved wife was strangled with him, he stood by and persuaded: be patient, maybe it will cost."


The conspirators were also well aware of these character traits of Peter III, who counted mainly on the cowardice and weakness of the emperor’s will. And, the people who are now surrounding the monarch also know that he does not have the courage of Peter I and the Norman courage of Charles XII, the emperor is neither a leader nor a fighter. Feeling his indecision and making sure that there will be no miracle, the courtiers begin to leave him.

Meanwhile, the walls and towers of Kronstadt are visible from Peterhof’s wharf - and he’s "nobody" yet: Peter hesitates, but the conspirators at first "forgot" about him. Finally, at the insistence of Minich, General Devière goes there, he succeeds first, but after him, Admiral Talyzin arrives from Catherine, who orders the arrest of Deviera - the conspirators take control of Kronstadt.

But Peter can go to the location of his victorious army: it’s known how the front-line soldiers of the rear rats and the capital’s parquet sharkuns “love” everywhere and at all times - the soldiers and officers would be very happy to tickle them with their bayonets. It is commanded by this army (80 of thousands of soldiers!) - P.A. Rumyantsev, the best Russian commander, supporter of Peter, because of this, after the victory of Catherine, he will be removed from his post, for some time he will be in disgrace.


P.A. Rumyantsev, portrait of an unknown artist of the late 18th century


And it’s a coincidence: to meet one of the emperor’s foreign guests along the Narva Highway there are interchangeable horses and carriages - even now sit down and ride, wherever you want with all possible comfort. You can even go straight to Holstein - if you are tired of reigning in Russia. And now let Catherine and her accomplices, shaking with fear, wonder where the rightful Emperor of Russia Peter III went.

And at the disposal of the emperor are the Holstein units - three thousand unconditionally loyal to him, well-trained, disciplined soldiers. And not only Germans serve in them, there are many Russians. These are quite combat-ready and self-sufficient units that even have their own artillery.


Officer and flute player of the artillery battalion of the garrison of Peterstadt


Around 6 o'clock in the evening, having finally received an order, they leave the barracks of Petershtadt and begin to build up in battle formations. The road is every minute. Even one news of the approach to the capital of military units loyal to the emperor, sobering up very, very many. Moreover, no one will really know what strength Peter and his supporters managed to gather (after all, on the march there are regiments heading to Pomerania), and fear has “big eyes”. Most parts of the army garrison will either go over to the side of the legitimate authorities or take a wait and see attitude - in the hope of joining the winners later. A few conspirators from among those who have nothing to lose will be quickly killed (and there are only 40 people - the rest are used “blindly” and do not quite understand what is happening). Racing ministers will rush to Peterhof, Catherine will wallow at Peter's feet, begging not to be executed, not to be locked in a fortress and not sent to eternal repentance in a Siberian monastery, but released to Zerbst.

But Peter cancels the order: he decides to go to Kronstadt, not knowing that the fortress is already under the control of traitors - she does not accept her emperor. But the unfortunate conspirators, in whose hands the entire Russian fleet, did not even think about blocking the Baltic coast, and in Narva and Revel have no idea what is happening in St. Petersburg. Peter has at his disposal a yacht (which he will send to Peterhof) and a galley on which he arrived at Oranienbaum. In Revel, you can transfer to any vessel suitable for a sea crossing and go anywhere on it - at least to Pomerania, to the army of Rumyantsev, even to Holstein. This is exactly what Minih is now offering. But, according to Rühler, the courtiers dissuade the emperor:
“They said that the rowers did not have enough strength to carry to Revel.“ So, ”said Minikh,“ we will all help them. ”The whole Court shuddered at this offer ... the emperor was told that he was not in such extremes; it is indecent for such a powerful sovereign to leave his possessions on one ship; it is impossible to believe that a nation will rebel against it, and it is true that the purpose of this indignation is to reconcile him with his wife. "


Peter goes to Oranienbaum, where he receives a report on the march of the guards: it becomes clear that no one is going to "reconcile" him with Catherine. Overtighted courtiers beg Peter to surrender to the mercy of his wife. But the units loyal to Peter are ready to stand to death. In Oranienbaum, by all the rules of fortification science, the Peterstadt fortress was built, which has the shape of an 12-finite star. It is surrounded by earthen ramparts 4 meters high with four bastions, protected by ditches with water with a width of three to a half to four meters, and a depth of 2 meters. Inside Petershtadt is another pentagonal fortress (St. Peter), now serving as an arsenal court.


Plan of the Peterstadt Fortress


You can’t take Petershtadt on the move - yes, the conspirators are not ready for a serious battle: they are marching (“This procession was likened to a holiday” - Rüller). The vast majority of soldiers and officers of the St. Petersburg garrison are accidentally involved in the rebellion, they have no motivation to shed their blood for Ekaterina dressed up in the Transfiguration uniform.


The uniform of the chief officer of the life guard of the Semenovsky regiment, in which Catherine II led the guards campaign on Peterhof 28 June 1762


And, in general: it’s one thing to drink “mother Catherine's” free vodka for the health, and it’s quite another to shoot on the orders of a visiting German woman a “natural emperor”, the grandson of Peter I. And in St. Petersburg, meanwhile, the soldiers are sober and horrified from his "sedition". And the mood in the troops participating in the "campaign against Peterhof" will soon change.

After the arrest of the emperor, the conspirators will open taverns for the soldiers, and vodka will pour over the river. Agitators sent around the city will scream toasts to Catherine - they are picked up by the drunken soldiers of the regiments participating in the campaign on Oranienbaum. But others are gloomy silent, and sometimes climb into a fight.

G. Derzhavin reports that
"pickets with loaded guns and with lighted wicks were placed on all bridges, squares and intersections. Petersburg was in such a martial law, and especially around the palace, in which the empress stayed about eight days, that is, to the very death of the emperor."


C. Rühler reports that when
"the body of the deceased was brought to St. Petersburg and flaunted ... soldiers interfered in the crowd of people and, looking at their sovereign, found pity, contempt, some kind of shame and late repentance on their faces."


That is, before the murder of the captured Peter III, Petersburg was in a state of siege. And if the emperor did not give up and was alive? In the besieged Peterstadt or in the army of P. Rumyantsev, it does not matter. He needs to hold out just a few days, until the euphoria and fervor in which the soldiers of the St. Petersburg garrison are now abated. Then, when it turns out that they were deceived, cynically and rudely “used blindly”, that the emperor is alive and not going to give up, the most prudent themselves will twist Orlov’s hands and drag them to Peter, begging him for forgiveness. In the next article, after reading excerpts from the memoirs and official reports of contemporaries, diplomats from different countries, you will be able to verify the validity of this thesis.

Surrender of Peter III


But we will return in June 1762 and see that Emperor Peter III has already surrendered and has given up the fight. Unlike the passionate conspirators, he was a "harmonious personality" and was not ready to confront them. Struck by the betrayal of people whom he fully trusted and who could not accuse him of even the slightest injustice, on June 29, even before the approach of the rebel troops, the emperor gave up power. Before that, he ordered the loyal soldiers and officers to be paid a month in advance and gave them the last order: to return to the barracks and not to make any attempts to resist.

Rühler reports:
“At this spectacle, Minich, surrounded by indignation, asked him: Can he not die like an emperor before his army? If you are afraid,” he continued, “of a saber strike, then take a crucifix in your hands, they dare not harm you, but I will command in battle. "


The emperor does not listen to him.

Frederick II will say later:
"The lack of courage in Peter III, despite the advice of the brave Minich, destroyed him."


Peter still makes his last attempt to escape: orders his saddle to ride his beloved horse, intending to head towards Poland, but Elizaveta Vorontsova
"convinced him to send the empress to ask her to let them go together to the duchy of Holstein. According to her, this meant fulfilling all the empress's wishes."

(Rühler.)

So, leaving Catherine the crown and the throne, Peter only asks for permission to go to Holstein with Elizabeth Vorontsova and Adjutant Gudovich.

The Austrian envoy Marcy d'Argento reported to Vienna:
"There is no example in world history that the sovereign, depriving his crown and scepter, show so little courage and pep."


And Frederick II said to Count Segur of the abdication of Peter:
"He allowed himself to be ousted from the throne like a child who is sent to sleep."


The first to approach Oranienbaum was the detachment of Alexei Orlov, who “won” over the Holstein recruits armed with wooden muskets, who were peacefully engaged in parade ground (rebellion was a riot, but no one canceled combat training). Then horse detachments of Generals V.I. arrived in Oranienbaum Suvorov, and A.V. Olsufiev, who disarmed the Holstein troops. Ready to fight, but who received orders not to resist, the soldiers parted with weapons very reluctantly, showing annoyance and resentment. Eyewitnesses recall the ugly behavior of V.I. Suvorov, the father of the future generalissimo, who knocked his hat off his already unarmed prisoner officers with his sword, mockingly reproaching them for lack of respect. They also talked about the robbery of captured soldiers and officers by drunken guardsmen.

It should be said that the famous son of Vasily Suvorov never humbled himself until the prisoners were humiliated. According to the information found by A.S. Alexander Vasilievich respected Pushkin even with respect to E. Pugachev: during the escort he did not cause any additional inconvenience and "asked the glorious rebel with curiosity about his military operations and intentions." But the participant in the conspiracy of Catherine, Peter Panin, dissatisfied with the response of the captive Pugachev (his words made a big impression on the people around him), in Simbirsk publicly "hit the impostor in the face to the blood and tore a tuft of beard from him." In order to object to an illiterate Cossack, not with his fists, but with words, the general-general, apparently, did not have enough intelligence.


Portrait of Pugachev, written in the XVIII century, on top of the portrait of Empress Catherine II. The name of the artist is unknown. It is stored in the State Historical Museum of Moscow


The sad fate of the Holstein soldiers and officers of Peterstadt


But back in June 1762 year. The day after the "surrender" of the garrison of Petershtadt, his troops were divided: Russian subjects were sworn in to the new empress, the Holstein soldiers and officers were transferred to Kronstadt. On their fate Rühler reports:
“Soon they were put on ships and sent to their homeland; but because of the fateful effect on them of their cruel fate, the storm drowned almost all of these unfortunates. Some escaped on the nearest rocks to the shore, but were also sunk while the Kronstadt governor sent to St. Petersburg to ask whether they will be allowed to help. "


Thus, Peter III, by his cowardice, killed not only himself, but also people devotedly devoted to him, ready to die in battle, protecting his life, honor and crown.

The next article will talk about the murder of Peter III in Ropsha and the "posthumous adventures" of this emperor.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Ryzhov V.A. Peter III. Too good for his age?
Ryzhov V.A. Emperor Peter III. Way to the throne
Ryzhov V.A. Short reign of Peter III. Lies and truth
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 3 October 2019 18: 19
    +8
    The parallel with the story from The Ordinary Miracle is overwhelming.
    1. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 4 October 2019 10: 14
      +4
      The author, no matter the article about Peter III, is all the more wonderful and wonderful ...
  2. bober1982
    bober1982 3 October 2019 18: 26
    -3
    The most unsuccessful author's article, well, what is it ...... metropolitan taverns, crunch french rolls (?!),and others,candy bagels. Not all this seriously.
    1. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 4 October 2019 10: 17
      +4
      Not all this seriously.
      I would not even seriously take Ryzhov with his delusional vision of history from the word ABSOLUTELY!
  3. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 3 October 2019 18: 32
    +9
    Valery, hello! hi Nevertheless, it seems that Petershtadt was more an expensive "toy" than a full-fledged fortress, albeit built according to all the rules of the then military science. Yes, and the place there is small - conventionally, one hundred by a hundred (well, even more) meters. It would not have been possible to sit for a long time! hi The last cubic meters of turf were laid in Petershtadt just two days before the coup. Peter didn’t have enough time to play enough with him. sad
    The fortress of St. Peter then, conditionally, no longer existed, its borders became the borders of the serf court as a result of its restructuring in Peterstadt. Accordingly, the front gate has become an internal gate. The fortress of Yekaterinburg still remained on the other side of Karasta, but it was even smaller and hardly suitable for defense by then ... what and, well, four more ships of the "amusing flotilla" on the pond. drinks
    In addition, the beloved uncle of the emperor, George Ludwig, acted as the constant intercessor of Catherine

    Which was at the same time the chief of the Horse Guards Regiment. Unloved Chef .. angry The soldiers of the regiment were overjoyed with the coup, and the unpopular "uncle" was thoroughly ripped off, as the historian Pavlenko writes. laughing
    Then horse detachments of Generals V.I. arrived in Oranienbaum Suvorov

    The Generalissimo's daddy, as Shtelin writes, “the monster of Suvorov,” shouted to his subordinates: "Chop the Prussians!" Pay attention to the attitude of Vasily Ivanovich - for his emotional attitude, he is equal to the Prussian enemies and Holstein on the parade ground. Apparently, he was breathing unevenly towards them ... Also, Stelin wrote that the hussars did not answer this call, saying that they were deceived, they say, the king is dead. Sorry, I’m quoting not directly, but based on the materials of museum workers. drinks
    Peter III underestimated the unwillingness of the guard to leave St. Petersburg.

    150 years later, a machine gun regiment would not want to leave for war from Petrograd. Naturally, the soldiers of this regiment will rush into the thick of the revolutionary events of February 1917 ...
    Thanks, appreciated, put a well-deserved plus! drinks With respect, Nicholai hi
    1. VLR
      3 October 2019 19: 30
      0
      Good afternoon, Nikolai. In one article your "namesake" (who is a great Lithuanian swordsman and so on, so forth, so on) will meet in Venice with a very interesting person, whose name you probably already guessed smile
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 4 October 2019 00: 42
        +2
        In one article your "namesake" (who is a great Lithuanian swordsman and so on, so forth, so on) will meet in Venice with a very interesting person, whose name you probably already guessed

        hmm .. something tells me that this person .. what Well, yes, let's not get ahead of ourselves! wink well, in anticipation of the meeting I’ll go, as usual, to indulge in passions in Nesvizh and the World! fellow where are my shepherds there? wink Bardze Dzinkuyu, Pan Kohanka! drinks
  4. DimanC
    DimanC 3 October 2019 18: 55
    +7
    Well, what else is there to comment on? If the emperor was so "fabulous ....." that he didn't even try to resist, why was he suddenly "too good"? How not to recall Richelieu, who wisely told all amateurs to come up with new "fair" laws that, they say, first achieve the implementation of existing ones, and then come up with new, "more just" ones. So it is here. Yes, Peter III accepted a whole bunch of manifestos, decrees, etc. ... And immediately everyone rushed to execute them? And if not, what then? "Lev Zaitsev, once getting a kick in a tram, gathered all his will into a fist - and no longer travels on a tram !!!" So it will skip in a humorous TV show, but in real life - no. I have a strong feeling that if Peter had lasted a couple of years longer on the throne, he would have been devoured anyway. He was not a master of ideological struggle, so he could not resist the libel that his ill-wishers would spread. He did not have an inner core, thanks to which he could achieve the implementation of his ideas and decrees in life. With such shortcomings, he was doomed as the head of state. He was "lucky" to fly off the throne early enough for negative propaganda to make him a black name, otherwise those "many" guardsmen who showed signs of shame after a hangover would have sighed with relief this time. And, probably, there would be no "posthumous" adventures - the people would have figured out who he is and what.
    1. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 4 October 2019 09: 23
      +1
      I have a strong feeling that if Peter had held the throne for a couple of years longer, he would have been devoured.
      Not that word! This emperor was a priori a stranger to Russia, did not know her, did not understand and did not want to understand.
      The author has a pathological craving for, to put it mildly, the worthless Emperor Peter III and abundantly pours mud on the really GREAT Empress Catherine II, who led Russia to the great powers without which nothing was decided in the world.
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 4 October 2019 10: 50
        +1
        I agree with you in the first part, when you spoke to Peter, and to Catherine ... I agree with the reservations
        1. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 4 October 2019 10: 51
          -1
          and with Catherine ... agree with reservations
          Which for example?
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 4 October 2019 14: 48
            +2
            Let's just say that I’m not very impressed with her behavior
            1. Alexander Suvorov
              Alexander Suvorov 4 October 2019 15: 06
              -1
              Let's just say that I’m not very impressed with her behavior
              In terms of her favorites or what?
              If in the sense of favorites, so she is not the first and not the last to sin. For example, it’s absolutely violet to me with whom and how she slept, but the fact that she turned Russia into a superpower and brought to the logical end all the undertakings of Peter the Great means EVERYTHING to me! And do not care about her love joys, we are all not without sin, and she was the same woman of flesh and blood like everyone else and had the same weaknesses as other representatives of the fairer sex. I don’t see how it can be reproached here.
              As a mother, she was certainly no one, I agree here, but there is one saying BUT! Firstly, Elizabeth was banally taken away from Pavlush and Katya practically did not participate in his upbringing, and then she became an empress and she simply had no time for it. However, like the rest of the statesmen, who completely and completely subordinated themselves to serving the good of Russia.
              So I definitely do not see what she can be blamed for!
              1. Astra wild
                Astra wild 4 October 2019 19: 09
                0
                She, as a mother, was far from the most revealing. What I agree with you: she managed to pick up active assistants., And this characterizes as my leader
              2. Pavel Yusov
                Pavel Yusov 26 September 2021 10: 03
                0
                You are deeply mistaken. This usurper has done so much bad for Russia that her future offspring will certainly be damned. What is the use of a person if he gains the whole world, and does harm to his soul. Katka, the impostor, died very badly (she sat on a parachute, and then a stroke), they could not even give her communion according to the Orthodox (a heavy punishment from God for terrible sins). According to your judgments, you are a person who does not believe in God. The Lord allowed Katka to the impostor - to punish the Russian people for their sins (and they were very grave), and took the pious Emperor Peter III to him as a martyr. Just for the fact that this scum killed Metropolitan Arseny (he is numbered among the saints and glorified as a great martyr), she will burn in hell forever and ever! Katyukha did not understand foreign policy at all, all this was done by her many lovers. By the way, she did not believe in God, so she died such a terrible death. She ruined Russia to the extreme, enslaved the Russian people into slavery, closed 2 \ 3 churches and monasteries (Khrushchev the miracle worker could envy her). That is why the Russian Orthodox Church has a negative attitude towards Catherine. The worst ruler, Russia has never known (except for the current rule of Putin). And you watch smaller films on Channel One, where Jews do not slightly distort Russian history.
            2. Amateur
              Amateur 4 October 2019 15: 07
              +1
              Didn't comply with the "Moral Code of the Builder of Communism"? feel
            3. Hantengri
              Hantengri 4 October 2019 19: 52
              +1
              Quote: Astra wild

              Let's just say that I’m not very impressed with her behavior

              "The woman just wanted to rest!" (c) Be condescending.
              1. Astra wild
                Astra wild 4 October 2019 20: 13
                0
                So I'll try
                1. Walking
                  Walking 5 October 2019 17: 50
                  +2
                  Well, I can’t believe me that under Peter the Crimea would have been taken, the Crimean Khanate would have been liquidated and all those victories over Turkey would have been.
  5. Ezekiel 25-17
    Ezekiel 25-17 3 October 2019 19: 06
    +4
    Peter 3 was a weak and stupid sovereign. And Catherine beat him.
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 3 October 2019 19: 06
    +21
    From article to article, the author makes titanic efforts to prove that Peter III was a good man, and his wife, a German, was a bad man. In principle, there is nothing reprehensible or unnatural in this desire. However, there are several significant drawbacks. Excessive emotionality is harmful to historical research, turning them into a novel. Criticizing Pikul author. nevertheless, in the creative plan, trail follows him.
    The second, the most important, in my opinion, about which the author, mentioning in passing, immediately forgot. For the tsar, the emperor of a country with an absolute monarchy, to be a good person in the universal understanding is absolutely not necessary and completely insufficient. The last author with his articles just clearly shows. There are completely different requirements for kings.
    The king is the fulcrum of the country, the people, its dynamic center, the guarantor of order and the supreme judge, the supreme guardian and defender of the dogmas of the dominant faith in the country.
    To perform such ambitious, often contradictory tasks, qualities are needed that cannot be assessed with a philistine standard. Here, one person must combine honesty with justice and cunning with cruelty, wisdom with cunning, modesty as the guardian of laws and reckless luxury to maintain the status of the country and the dynasty. You can list for a long time.
    The more the claimant to the throne meets the "royal" requirements, the better for the kingdom.
    If the applicant is simply a "good man" - the kingdom is in for trouble, turmoil, interregnum and other misfortunes, until the throne ascends not even by right of inheritance, but by its qualities a corresponding, passionate, as the author says, ruler will restore order.
    Such changes are expensive for the country, it’s better to take a coup right away. So, personally, the author convinced me that Peter III was a good person. But the ease with which he was thrown from the throne and into the grave is direct evidence that the king is worthless from him. Well, he is not fit to be an emperor!
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 3 October 2019 19: 19
      +6
      And sometimes a stream of events goes on - and you can’t oppose anything to it. Why was Godunov not good? But everything came to confusion.
    2. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 4 October 2019 10: 35
      -1
      I absolutely agree with you. To be a good head of state, to be a good person is not necessary and even rather harmful. Power, like politics in general, is a dirty thing and approaching the assessment of a person in power from the point of view of a good or bad person is utter stupidity. Such great figures as Catherine the Great, Peter the Great, Joseph Stalin were very bad family men. They simply had no time to deal with family affairs, all the time taking control of the state. And the author’s attempts to expose Catherine in the light of a sort of imperial walking girl look like settling accounts with a truly Great personality.
      I already wrote that the ability to rule is, first of all, the ability to select worthy helpers for yourself. With regard to Catherine, it is not doubt Orlov, Potemkin, Rumyantsev, Suvorov, Ushakov and others. Those who made up the glory of both Russian weapons and the glory of Russia as a whole.
      So all this author’s attempt to pull an owl on a globe is complete nonsense from all points of view. A serious historian would roll him like an asphalt rink a frog!
    3. alebor
      alebor 4 October 2019 11: 09
      +2
      Hence the conclusion: before "taking office", Peter III had to carefully study N. Machiavelli's treatise "The Sovereign". bully
    4. Pavel Yusov
      Pavel Yusov 26 September 2021 10: 24
      -1
      I disagree with you! Nicholas II was also a very gentle and kind person, but this did not prevent him from making Russia a strong country. And the fact that Peter III as a person (in a difficult situation) was confused and frightened, there is nothing reprehensible here. Perhaps he simply did not feel the support in those who surrounded him. Perhaps he was misled by the scale of the catastrophe as Nicholas II on the train with the traitor Ruzsky. After all, Nicholas II was also convinced that everything was lost, and renunciation would save Russia from death. Neither Peter III nor Nicholas II knew that the riots were on the verge of complete failure. As Oleg Platonov writes, only 1 regiment from the front was enough to suppress the uprising in Petrograd in the bud. But the sovereign did not know the real situation, because almost everyone had betrayed him. The same thing happened with Peter III. If Peter III decided to surrender, then he had a reason. Perhaps he did not fully trust Munnich, maybe he was informed that all the units in St. Petersburg rebelled against his rule. In any case, the king was a very gullible person. But gullibility is not a vice, so I have to disagree with your conclusions. We have very little reliable and truthful information about those events, so we can only judge about many points indirectly. I personally do not believe that such an intelligent and educated king like Peter III would give up power without serious reasons. Remember the Decembrist uprising. Nicholas the first was saved by the fact that the conspirators did not show due determination, and instead of starting to seize important objects in the city, they stood all day on Senate Square, waiting for some orders.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 26 September 2021 10: 28
        +1
        Nicholas II was also a very gentle and kind person, but this did not prevent him from making Russia a strong country.

        Is this a joke about a strong country under Nicholas II?
  7. Doliva63
    Doliva63 3 October 2019 19: 34
    +1
    Gorbi reminded me of something, and how the drunk Yeltsin came to power.
    1. Reserve officer
      Reserve officer 3 October 2019 21: 17
      +2
      Valentine, not really. In the Russian Empire, coups d'etat, as a rule, occurred for the good of the state, and led to its strengthening. But Gorbachev and Yeltsin are just two nominees with high self-conceit, the fuss of which eventually led to the death of the Soviet Union.
  8. kalibr
    kalibr 3 October 2019 19: 54
    +4
    Valery, I read and enjoy directly!
    1. VLR
      3 October 2019 19: 55
      +2
      I try, and knowing that there are readers like you - especially smile
      1. Reserve officer
        Reserve officer 3 October 2019 21: 18
        +4
        Valery, thanks for the article.
      2. Alexander Suvorov
        Alexander Suvorov 4 October 2019 09: 29
        0
        I try, and knowing that there are readers like you - especially smile
        A cuckoo praises a rooster for praising a cuckoo. (I.A. Krylov) Funny ...
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 4 October 2019 14: 49
          +1
          She herself remembered Ivan Andreevich Krylov
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 4 October 2019 19: 23
            0
            Colleagues, what's wrong if you remember Ivanovna Andreevich? He has fables that can be used as illustrations for many occasions. When I read about the conspiracy Listok, Shuvalov and others, I remembered "Dragonfly and the Ant": Anna Leopoldovna danced everything, and when she came to her senses it was already too late
      3. Pavel Yusov
        Pavel Yusov 26 September 2021 10: 29
        0
        All night I read your articles on this topic. I don't even remember when this happened to me) Thank you very much for your work!
  9. Denis Medveezhikoff
    Denis Medveezhikoff 3 October 2019 21: 50
    -11
    A good article about the ruler of Russia, deposed and slandered. It would be interesting to read about another slandered and ousted ruler - Mikhail Gorbachev, who is also accused of betrayal ... Was it all so? I read that Andropov was still preparing the perestroika, and Gorbachev almost drove her to kicks, that the putsch events were staged as a theatrical performance where the finale was determined from the very beginning, and where was the KGB, how they managed to play it, or were involved.
    1. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 4 October 2019 09: 35
      +1
      It would be interesting to read about another slandered and deposed ruler - Mikhail Gorbachev, who is also accused of betrayal ...
      And you don’t want to read about Boris the drunkard, you also “slandered” the poor fellow?
      What a pathological craving to pour slops over real heroes such as Catherine the Great, Ivan the Terrible, Joseph Stalin and try to whitewash the most worthless degradants like Peter III, Nikolai II the bloody, Misha-labeled, Borya the wino ?!
      Is this such a way of moral masochism?
  10. Demagogue
    Demagogue 3 October 2019 22: 29
    -2
    The theory of the author of the article regarding the passionarity of the "Anhalt-Zerbst Kurva" and the rest of the conspirators seems untenable. On the face of a typical "panda", formed to receive benefits. That is, a group of persons entered into a preliminary conspiracy to redistribute the resource. Passionarity was not needed here. The situation is commonplace in world history. Let's say Sulla or Caesar also squeezed out someone else's property, but they were also passionate. They had to be like that, because the opponents were also determined guys. And Peter 3 is not Mary for you. You don't need a knife on a fool.
    The problems of the empire began long before the assassination of Peter 3. From Elizabeth. The coup is just a consequence of the problems. The level of control achieved by Peter 1 could not be maintained; the booth began. And all sorts of parasites took advantage of this. The mediocrity, which the more educated Germans squeezed in power, really wanted to eat. The same situation as with False Dmitry, only there were Poles and Belarusians, and here the Germans. As usual, they explained to the population that they would definitely heal with their native bloodsuckers. In fact, it was robbed so that the Germans never dreamed of. Next is Pugachev and all things.
  11. Lannan Shi
    Lannan Shi 4 October 2019 00: 32
    0
    Ekaterina had a "bag of gold" - she "borrowed" 100 thousand rubles from the English merchant Felten

    Can I take an interest in the source? Valishevsky does not offer. We do not study the history of the three musketeers and sewing. Is not it?
    1. VLR
      4 October 2019 01: 06
      +3
      In fact, Felten’s money is a well-known fact that is not denied or disputed by anyone, and is given in any monograph on the coup of 1762. Just open any, any year and any author and read it.
      Or - the memoirs of contemporaries. For example, Mercy d'Argento and Beranger, in their reports, called Odard "secretary" and "pillar of the conspiracy." They consider his main merit to be the money he found for the conspiracy. First, he turned to the French ambassador with a request to hand over 60, he refused. But the British gave - as much as 000 thousand.
      1. VLR
        4 October 2019 01: 19
        +4
        The French ambassador who did not give money is Breitel.
        1. VLR
          4 October 2019 01: 40
          +4
          Beranger - replaced Breitel as Ambassador of France to St. Petersburg.
          Mercy d'Argente - Ambassador of Austria to St. Petersburg.
          Are people authoritative enough for you? Not Sewing?
          1. Lannan Shi
            Lannan Shi 4 October 2019 03: 06
            -4
            Quote: VlR
            Beranger - replaced Breitel as Ambassador of France to St. Petersburg.
            Mercy d'Argente - Ambassador of Austria to St. Petersburg.

            Nope. Not authoritative at all. How can an Austrian and a Frenchman know about the actions of an English agent? Katya bragged about? Well, the right word is nonsense. Gossip collected, nothing more. Sewing at full height.
      2. Lannan Shi
        Lannan Shi 4 October 2019 02: 20
        +1
        Quote: VlR
        In fact, Felten’s money is a well-known fact,

        The earth is round. Well-known fact. But in fact - the deepest delusion. So what links to the monograph can be found? Or do you really believe that every Peter's janitor knew that Katya was rummaging through the embassies, taverns and shops, looking for someone to borrow a couple or three tons of silver? So, for information about the "well-known". 100.000 re, at that time, these are not "bags of money", but carts. More than 2,5 tons. I dropped one such ruble on my leg, on my little finger. The nail then came off. Just delivery is already a military operation.
        By the way. Why kate 2,5 tons of silver? Distributing to the whole guard in a row makes no sense. Not the amount to rebel just because of them. To your favorites? Again, it makes no sense. The case will burn out, it will drip at times. Won't burn out? 100-200-300 kg of cargo obviously will not increase speed. And hanging over a bag of silver ... Well, yes, a notable perversion.
        Well, about "more than 35.000 buckets of vodka." A bucket as a measure of volume is 12,3 liters. 25 bottles. Or 875.000 in total. The population of St. Petersburg in the middle of the 18th century is about 100.000. A total of 8,5 bottles per nose. Including babies and those dying of old age. Alcoholic coma and death, to all of Peter, from 1/3 "purchased". And it's easy to drown the guards in that vodka. However, the sailors, and the Holsteins too. The purpose of purchasing liquor in such quantities? There are no reasonable ones. But like a fairy tale - beautiful. By the way. Almost a million bottles, even now, the volume is worthy. And then ... Almost 400 tons, and with containers well over 500 ... A wagon train for 1000 carts. No documentary evidence? Only the OBS agency? Where were these buckets kept? For 1 sq. meter will fit 9 pieces. 40 acres of buckets of vodka ... Well, they couldn't forget that.
        You understand what the matter is. If everything "well-known" is true, then Katya and Peter, and the courtyard, and the army team, all without exception suffered from idiocy.
        1. VLR
          4 October 2019 09: 29
          +2
          Beranger received first-hand information - from Odard, who, having received 30 from Catherine, later became an informant for the ambassadors of France and Saxony. Perhaps, he embellished his merits a little (a zero to the amount, perhaps, attributed - how could it be without it). But the fact that Catherine received money from the British is beyond doubt.
          1. Lannan Shi
            Lannan Shi 4 October 2019 14: 19
            0
            Quote: VlR
            Beranger received first-hand information - from Odard, who, having received 30 from Catherine, later became an informant for the ambassadors of France and Saxony.

            Beranger is a representative of the enemy. Enemy number 2. For 2 centuries. The term information war was not yet, and the habit of throwing mud at enemies is completely. Kati's correspondence with Williams is known. Her - "I will reign or die", which, in principle, is already treason and the camera, is. But getting money, pulling on a petty prank, for some reason is a terrible secret. Where is the logic? The intention to make a coup is entrusted to paper, and the receipt of left money, the norm for that Russia, is hidden. Outdoor games of psychos.
            Everything is easier. The elimination of the pet, for Katya, is a matter of life and death. For the inner circle - power and money. A lot of money, not a pathetic 100 thousand. For the guard as a whole - influence, privileges and, again, serious money. And 2,5 tons of silver and 400 tons of vodka do not climb into this scheme.
            Odar. There is one subtlety. Breytel really met him. And really did not give money. Because ... This muddy person could not prove that he acts on behalf of Katya. Simply put - an attempt to fraud. By the way, do you really believe that Katya entrusted such a question to a person who is officially under police supervision? It’s ridiculous.
            By the way. Orlov at that moment was the treasurer of artillery. And he could operate with amounts larger than the paddling pool and limes combined.
            In the balance. No need for lime money. There is no evidence. Only the words of the paddling pool. Oh well. In 1914, no less worthy Germans told that the Cossacks of infants at their peaks are fried. AND? Will we discuss? How much did they eat and under what sauce?
            Katya was not an angel. But pouring excess dirt is ugly. Petya dug his own grave, and climbed into it himself. I don’t touch my personal qualities, but as an emperor he was a complete zero. So he did not manage to understand how the state machine works.
            PS
            Odar was not an informant of Saxony. Almost immediately after the coup, he was thrown out of Russia. Politely, but thrown out. And he received, according to Vorontsov, not 30.000, but 1.000.
            1. VLR
              4 October 2019 14: 55
              +1
              Lord, how pleasant and unusual it is to receive reasoned objections!
              According to Odar - yes, he first received 1000 - for the road, since in July he expressed a desire to go on some business to Italy. In February 1763 he returned to St. Petersburg, where he was appointed a member of the "commission for the consideration of trade" and received from Catherine a stone house and 30. It is believed that, having studied the situation, he switched from his former patrons - N. Panin and Dashkova to the Orlovs, and was involved in exposing the Khitrovo conspiracy, which was going to destroy the Orlovs. Perhaps it was for this that a tranche of 000 followed. And on June 30, 000, he left Russia forever.
              As for the money from the French and the British: could he have applied in parallel? They won't give it there, you see, it will "break off." And if they give it in two places at once, it's also good. At least Beranger claimed that the British gave money.
              1. Lannan Shi
                Lannan Shi 4 October 2019 15: 10
                0
                Quote: VlR
                By Odar

                I'll bet in the evening. Job. It is not good when a group coach is waiting.
              2. Lannan Shi
                Lannan Shi 5 October 2019 13: 40
                0
                Quote: VlR
                According to Odar - yes, at first he got 1000 - on the road, since in July he expressed a desire to go to Italy for some business.

                Uh-huh. I went for my family. In the midst of the "distribution of gingerbread". There was time to risk my head, but there was no time to receive awards. Where is the logic?
                Quote: VlR
                In February 1763, he returned to St. Petersburg, where he was appointed a member of the "commission for the examination of trade" and received from Catherine a stone house and 30. It is believed that, having studied the situation, he switched from his former patrons, N. Panin and Dashkova, to Orlov, and had to do with exposing the Khitrovo conspiracy

                That is, 30 was given to him not for a coup, but for intrigue after it. Notice, you said that, not me.
                Quote: VlR
                As for the money from the French and the British: could he have applied in parallel? They won't give it there, you see, it will "break off." And if they give it in two places at once, it's also good.

                That you begged for yourself, and not for Katie you do not dispute, as I see?)
                Quote: VlR
                At least Beranger claimed

                Beranger could claim that he was a cross between a shark and a virgin mary. Neither his chest from allegations will grow, nor his teeth in 3 rows.
                100.000 for this coup the amount is excessive. Paid recruitment was not observed. And "heart-to-heart talk" in taverns ... Orlovs would have died without "speaking" even 10% of the amount. This time. I have already said that the conspirators had no problems with finances in the spring of 1762. It makes no sense for them to chase this hundred. They will win, they will cut a budget of 13,5 lam. Will they lose? You can't take more than a couple of kilos with you. This is two. Well, tris. I can admit that although this money was not needed, in March-April it could still be used somehow. But by the end of May, obtaining them loses all meaning. Especially later. Suppose they gave a brazen 100 thousand. June 20. What exactly did they go for?
                There is no evidence of receipt of money. It makes sense to get them too. To receive at the indicated time is not even nonsense, outright idiocy. The only confirmation is the words of the paddling pool. Sorry, the logic is against. And if you recall that from the XNUMXth to the second half of the XNUMXth century, France was in the second place in the list of enemies, immediately after the Ottomans ... The banal pouring of mud on the enemy. And nothing more.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 5 October 2019 18: 32
                  0
                  Hmm .. but don’t put a finger in your mouth, smartly discuss! good bravo, bravo .. wink
                  Beranger could claim that he was a cross between a shark and a virgin mary.

                  Recalled another phrase. When some ill-wisher of Alexander Dumas the father tried to poke his nose at the origin (Dumas was a quarter African - quarter), the author of historical novels threw back:
                  "My father was a mulatto, my grandfather was a Negro, and my great-grandfather was a monkey. You see, sir, my family begins where yours ends!" request
            2. Astra wild
              Astra wild 4 October 2019 14: 57
              +1
              Odari probably set the minus: he was offended that he was valued low
              1. Lannan Shi
                Lannan Shi 4 October 2019 15: 11
                -2
                Quote: Astra wild
                Minus probably Odary set

                Not. There is a handful of liberal fascists. I stumbled a little, in the leaven of their pseudo-patriotism. That's minus upon the appearance of any post. Nice damn it. Not in vain did I trample corns. good
                1. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 4 October 2019 20: 25
                  +1
                  My friend, here, in my opinion, is different: the alternative is contagious, here someone is tired of classical historians and begins ..
            3. Astra wild
              Astra wild 4 October 2019 15: 02
              +1
              "not 30, but 000" here is cleaner than one zero ascribed to itself.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 4 October 2019 10: 39
          +4
          Quote: Lannan Shi
          Just delivery is already a military operation. By the way. Why kate 2,5 tons of silver? Distributing to the whole guard in a row makes no sense. Not the amount to rebel just because of them. To your favorites? Again, it makes no sense. The case will burn out, it will drip at times. Won't burn out? 100-200-300 kg of cargo obviously will not increase speed. And hanging over a bag of silver ... Well, yes, a notable perversion.

          And where is it written about the transportation of the entire amount at one time? The money could remain in Felten's depository and seized by the conspirators as needed. Initially, at the time of the "transfer" agreement, such an amount in cash might not exist at all.
          1. Lannan Shi
            Lannan Shi 4 October 2019 14: 20
            -1
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            And where is it written about the transportation of the entire amount at one time? The money could remain with Felten depositary and withdrawn by the conspirators as necessary.

            Odar's visit to Breitel - June 13. Refusal 16 like. Coup 28. From a purely technical point of view, there is no time for "small tranches" About "get it from the impudent, take it out, distribute a part, buy 400 tons of vodka", but all this in a week ... Fantasy rules.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 4 October 2019 15: 02
              +3
              Did I even write a word about vodka? About money, read carefully
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              Initially, at the time of the "transfer" agreement, such an amount in cash might not exist at all.
              It might not have existed, in full and after the coup. And ten more years after the coup. I think you know such a financial instrument as a "bill of exchange"?
        3. Astra wild
          Astra wild 4 October 2019 13: 25
          0
          Lanan Shi, you are smart: you are good at managing numbers. You +
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 4 October 2019 13: 40
            +5
            Yeah, the numbers are good. Everything else is bad.
            1. Lannan Shi
              Lannan Shi 4 October 2019 14: 42
              -4
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              Yeah, the numbers are good. Everything else is bad.

              And history is numbers plus logic. And all the other romantik passes at best in the section of Dumas. And even more often - tales of Tsar Saltan.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 4 October 2019 15: 34
                +6
                History is first of all people, their actions and the consequences of these actions, a continuous stream of interpenetrating causal relationships. And what you have indicated (numbers plus logic) is mathematical statistics
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 4 October 2019 15: 49
                +5
                Funny, dear. You and I kind of oppose each other, but they minus the same way. Gremlins!
                1. bubalik
                  bubalik 4 October 2019 15: 56
                  +4
                  We do not read books,
                  Tele - not in honor!
                  We beat with the mouse in death
                  seti.
                  Not squeamish about Troll-virtual methods,
                  We have nowhere to retreat
                  Behind - Real !! am

                  laughing
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 4 October 2019 16: 02
                    +5
                    Nice adaptation of Marshak! See "The Cat and the Quitters"
            2. Astra wild
              Astra wild 4 October 2019 15: 09
              0
              Anton, you must agree that you can agree with the logic of Lannan
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 4 October 2019 15: 23
                +5
                I do not agree, while it comes to money and logistics.
  12. olegactor
    olegactor 4 October 2019 00: 35
    0
    it's like an article about how bad Catherine is and what a good "German tsar" Peter 3 to whom everything German was closer than Russian .... EKATERINA did so much for Russia that she rightfully earned the name Catherine the Great .... AND IN ESSENCE SHE BECAME MORE RUSSIAN what was Peter3
  13. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 4 October 2019 08: 49
    +5
    Well, well, just the same "the only, legitimate and direct ..."
    This is, of course, if you do not take into account John Antonovich, languishing in Kholmogory.
    Just a minute. Great-grandfather of John - Ivan Alekseevich older than Peter. Therefore, his offspring has priority. In addition, the mother of Peter - Anna, whatever one may say - is illegitimate.
    In general, with the rights of the Holstein-Gogthorp to the throne, as the "daughters of officers" say, everything is not so simple.
    As for the article, I cannot disagree with at least one of its messages - the emperor may be any tyrant, maniac, murderer ... but he cannot be a junk. Not that profession.
    1. VLR
      4 October 2019 10: 18
      0
      "Well, well, just the same" the only, legitimate and direct ... "
      You, apparently, did not read the previous article. It also tells about the meeting of "2 emperors" in Shlisselburg. ...
      1. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 4 October 2019 20: 32
        +1
        I don’t remember, maybe. And what did Anna manage to be born on 13 years later in a previous article?
        1. VLR
          5 October 2019 20: 05
          0
          You messed up something
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 4 October 2019 10: 51
      +4
      Quote: Senior Sailor
      Great-grandfather of John - Ivan Alekseevich older than Peter. Therefore, his offspring has priority.

      Taki Peter I, with his "Rule of Succession to the Throne," abolished this tradition. And "ladder law" generally died out in the XNUMXth century.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 4 October 2019 11: 40
        +4
        Taki Peter I, with his "Rule of Succession to the Throne," abolished this tradition.

        and the transfer of the throne was settled by the sovereign Pavel Petrovich, having adopted the "Act of succession". Despite the fact that in its essence the act has, rather, the character of precedent, expressing the personal will of a single tsar, his "will", it seems, they were guided by in the future. soldier
        On the night of Paul's murder, the empress experienced a severe emotional outburst, a kind of insanity. In confusion, she said something that now she will reign herself. The question is that her newly killed husband himself "removed the ladder" that could lead women to power .... And, naturally, Palen crushed her with authority. He coldly reprimanded that, they say, the past cannot be returned. The Empress surrendered.
        But theoretically, the opportunity to rule for women remained, but ... after the death of all men! hi
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 4 October 2019 11: 52
          +2
          Well, Paul can be understood. Having seen all this coven, you can’t think of anything else like that!
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 4 October 2019 23: 46
            +2
            Having seen all this coven, you can’t think of anything else like that!

            Anton, not just "having seen enough" .. Having suffered from the fact that all mama's "sweet peasants" have been wiping their feet about you for almost thirty years ... And almost losing the throne! Yes, he decided to settle. Moreover, the decision is absolutely logical. I didn't want anyone else to have such a fate as myself! soldier After all, Alexander proclaimed heir .. request The text is in Wikisource. Absolutely local order, own, regarding his own offspring, so that there would be no unrest and other conflicts between children. hi
            As for my mother's favorites .. Pavel and Zubov did the most noble thing. He gave the palace, even explained himself, and said "who will remember the old .." soldier And then Teeth was one of the killers! angry
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 5 October 2019 00: 03
              +2
              "No good deed should go unpunished." Have you convinced yourself more than once?
        2. Astra wild
          Astra wild 4 October 2019 13: 18
          +1
          Pani Kohanu, I read that the wife of Paul 1 was "hindered" by the daughter-in-law, the wife of Alexander 1
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 4 October 2019 20: 36
            0
            Maria Fedorovna, really wanted to become Maria1. This is in Kiev and somewhere else
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 5 October 2019 00: 33
              +2
              Maria Fedorovna, really wanted to become Maria1. This is in Kiev and somewhere else

              Beautiful lady, what's your name? love It seems that you said kind words about my opus about Peterstadt ... Sincerely, Nikolay. hi
              from the notes of Czartoryski (by no means a friend of Russia):
              (when they woke up and said that her husband was dead - P.K.) Empress Maria Fedorovna appeared before the conspirators very excited ........ When she saw the grenadier, she went to them and said, repeating several times: "Well, since there is no longer the emperor who fell victim to the villainous traitors, now I am your empress, I am your only legitimate sovereign! Protect me and follow me!"
              Prince Adam did not participate in the events. He wrote according to others.
              The picture is as follows. In severe stress, bordering on insanity, the empress follows Paul's chambers. They don’t let her in. In the end, in an extreme upset of feelings, she kneels before the guards, asking for a pass ... Experienced grenadiers crybut dare not break the order. (memoirs of Sablukov). Grenadier Perekrestov gives her a glass of water. She staggered back, and the grenadier drinks from a glass of CAM, saying: "Eat it, mother, the water is not poisoned, do not be afraid for yourself ..." (memoirs of Langeron).
              Countess Daria Lieven writes that her mother-in-law dissuaded the queen from further self-abasement. Maria retired to her chambers, never seeing the corpse of her husband, who at this time is "put in order" - they smear, rub, and a cocked hat is pulled over the blackened eye ...
              Then Bennigsen is allowed to see her. He answers a number of questions. And then Palen appears. And he talks about his participation. According to Bennigsen (he generally tried to shield himself, although he was the main strong-willed person during the regicide), Pahlen adds a few "good advice."
              The Empress realizes that nothing can be changed ....
              But it was precisely at her request that all the characters in the drama were later removed from the palace!
              The leader of the conspirators, Count Palen, every year on the eve of the murder got drunk to unconsciousness .....
      2. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 4 October 2019 20: 30
        +2
        And what has that "ladder right"? It has sunk into oblivion back in the time of Ivan Kalita. in any case, his children rebelled against this and, which is typical, won.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 4 October 2019 21: 10
          +2
          Yes, it was, by the way, about the succession order of succession by seniority.
  14. Oleksandr Morozov
    Oleksandr Morozov 4 October 2019 10: 17
    +2

    Thus, Peter III, by his cowardice, killed not only himself, but also people devotedly devoted to him, ready to die in battle, protecting his life, honor and crown.


    Well, here is your conclusion on Peter III based on the results of this part, and now imagine that this person would rule the empire for a much longer time. Meanwhile, the 70-80 years of the 18th century is a great time to expand the country to the south, while England and France are busy and they were not up to Turkey. Could Peter take advantage of it, for me it is so very doubtful. Yes, the kingdom of Catherine was not as cloudless as it was represented by historians of the 19th century and the Russian Empire was not able to solve the land issue. Catherine’s court was not a model of morality and huge finances were spent on visible luxury, but we still do with many things of that era.
  15. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 4 October 2019 11: 09
    +3
    Thanks for the interesting study, Valery! It is a study that most of the audience took for the apology of Peter III.
  16. Jovi
    Jovi 4 October 2019 12: 13
    +2
    An interesting series turns out to the author thanks
  17. Astra wild
    Astra wild 4 October 2019 13: 13
    +2
    "was a lady" a wise thing "Valery, and Catherine was distinguished by a tenacious mind and it really is." The Lord did not give a woman physical strength, but gave a sophisticated mind and the ability to endure pain longer "(A. L. Myasnikov)
    "Catherine dressed up in the Preobrazhensky uniform", and in the illustration below, the uniform of the Semenovsky regiment, how is this to be understood? The Preobrazhensky and Semyonovsky regiments are the oldest guards regiments in Russia, and the Izmailovsky regiments were created under Anna Ivanovna and the Preobrazhensky and Izmailovsky regiments have always had somewhat strained relations. So I read at Pikul
    1. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 4 October 2019 15: 21
      +1
      "Catherine dressed up in the Preobrazhensky uniform", and in the illustration below, the uniform of the Semenovsky regiment, how is this to be understood?
      And so to understand, the author does not care about such trifles, the main thing is to pour more slop on Catherine and put degenerate Petrushka in the best light, that’s the whole purpose of this opus ...
  18. andrew42
    andrew42 4 October 2019 15: 06
    +1
    Well, yes, the "sweetest youth" was this Peter Holsteinets. Modern history also knows such miliag - Yegorushka Gaidar, for example, was the most intelligent intellectual, but how can you think about it! Under Peter III, the Russian state would have ceased to exist. Frederick, Holstein, the interests of the European monarchies - these are all political toys and details, not at all the essence. Even an attempt to put pressure on the Synod (I have no sympathy for the priests) and the monastic ownership of the peasants was not a plus, but a minus, for the motives were completely different, namely: to categorically lower the influence of Russian church hierarchs, not because the clergy, But because the Russians Minich were also a great specialist, he was like the German teams of the Russian Schweinen to drive, he divided Russia with Osterman and Biren quite successfully in his time, they found a well-wisher of the Russian State, there is nothing to say. Leaving aside the personal moral character of Catherine, we can safely assert the only true thing: with the help of her candidacy, our country remained in power, OWN, NATIONAL ELITE. There was no other "banner" to suppress the "German revenge" against the Russian throne. It is in this that we were lucky with Catherine: a feudal, but own country, where Russians in a broad sense) rule over the Russians, with their own system of values, not completely trampled down by historical tradition (even so), and a state religion independent of Geyropa.
  19. Astra wild
    Astra wild 4 October 2019 15: 51
    +3
    Valery, you and Vyacheslav Olegovich force me to climb into Google. These are colleagues: Mikhail, Mrs. Kokhan or Viktor Nikolaevich, they cite facts as a keepsake, but I have to check.
    Odar (Saint - Germain): "a typical adventurer ... a man without a fatherland, without a family or tribe" (A. Stroyev).
    Catherine's conspiracy is a typical gamble, but a successful one. And it is quite logical that the international adventurer Saint-Germain fit into her, but to make him actually the main protagonist of the conspiracy? What if he will "lay" them to Emperor Peter 3? After all, there could be such a situation: he received a certain amount from the British or the French, and then he would go and tell the emperor everything. Something like this "Your Majesty, bad" radishes ", they thought to remove you, and they are helped by such and such, and here is the proof - money" he can any amount, but the difference in his pocket. Then he will refute: the Orlovs conspirators? They will not initially have faith. English or French, but they have to get away.
    I do not refute or support the fact that the British gave money, someone said that for a successful revolution money is needed. This is possible, but also to believe various adventurers.
  20. Astra wild
    Astra wild 4 October 2019 21: 21
    +3
    She read Gorodetskog again: "The Emperor plays the violin
    The state is leaving the hands "
    And I thought: if in 1762 a miracle happened and Peter 3 retained power. The corps of Rumyantsev approached or the Transfiguration men spoke out against the rebels, and the author says about this: "A few conspirators, from among those who have nothing to lose, will be quickly killed" + "Holstein Guard" and as they say: "Fenita la comedy". But Peter would not have benefited from this lesson. He would have continued to play the violin and after 3-4 years he would have lost power and it is not yet known who would have picked it up. Power is such a "commodity" that it does not stale.
    And so in the summer of 1762 he saw through the violin both his life and the life of devoted guardsmen. And left a wide field for speculation
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 5 October 2019 01: 01
      0
      Rumyantsev’s corps approached or the Preobrazhensky rebelled against the rebels

      hmm .. in the Soviet history textbooks there was a tale about Nikolai Pavlovich. Like, he ordered to shoot at the Decembrists. And the astonished old fireworks whisper with white lips: "Sovereign .. your own .." belay
      Nobody would shoot at their own. stop And all sections of the population are already tired of the war. Everyone understood that the Seven Years' War brought only the ruin of the treasury and the death of soldiers. Who would go on a new campaign? Well, if only the Holstein "guard". negative already funny. bully
      The question is different. Peter bit to the holiest! am Unwillingly, he quarreled with the priests. Regarding the Lutheran chapel in the Winter Palace and the appearance of the priests (beards, long robes), the skinny "emperor" quarreled with the Novgorod Metropolitan (this is in the notes of Mersey, EMNIP). soldier And for our ancestors, the question of faith was national idea! The picture is as follows: an underdog with a protruding liver surrounds himself with his fellow tribesmen, oppresses the Russian guard, spends time with the marching "tin soldiers" in cozy Oranienbaum, publicly humiliates his wife (whatever behavior she may be!). And rumors are spreading (well-founded!) about the change of faith! Do you think a couple of phrases mean nothing? Rumors spread faster than bullets! I checked it myself laughing
      In this situation, not a single good decree of Peter could change public opinion. It was enough to drink the soldiers hating the tsar-king and utter a couple of fiery slogans! And wrap it all ..... fellow
      Moral: you need to UNDERSTAND the country in which you live. And if you are trying to change it - go tough, and to the end, like Peter the Great. angry
      But, I must say, on the same "rake" of Peter III came his own son, Tsar Paul ... request
      My friends, with respect to all, Nikolai! drinks
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 5 October 2019 09: 04
        +1
        Pane Kohanku (Nikolay?), You tell Valery this
      2. VLR
        5 October 2019 10: 50
        0
        Nikolai, you’re exaggerating a little. The Russian army was tired, but it fought under Elizabeth - Peter stopped the war. The soldiers of Rumyantsev, blessing the new emperor, rested all this time and gained strength in Prussia. The war with Denmark would probably not have taken place: preparations for it were a demonstration aimed at intimidating the negotiations scheduled for July 1762. Denmark hinted at the seriousness of intentions and was offered to choose: a concession or a war with Russia and Prussia (Friedrich singled out 20 000 soldier). The Danes, most likely, would not rest. The example of war-ravaged neighbors was very eloquent, the prospects for a war against Russia and Prussia were very sad.
        As for the "humiliation of the wife, whatever she may be."
        First, Catherine herself spread rumors about these humiliations. Secondly, any normal man taught such a wife “physically” at that time, as well as her lovers. Up to chopping off the head of the impudent person, which will then be placed, in alcohol, in the cheater's bedroom - Peter 1, Catherine 1 and W. Mons as an example. Peter III had opportunities in this regard - wow! But he was, as many wrote, too lenient.
        Well, rumors of Lutheranism are black PR, and nothing more. They are not confirmed by anything.
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 5 October 2019 12: 05
          +2
          Valery, Vladkub cited a quote from Platonov: the prohibition of house churches, and the desire that the priests take off their cassock, remove the icons from the church + deprive "a piece of bread." It is not necessary for the people to know about the deprivation of land allotment, and to deprive the church of icons and priests of their robes is already more than enough.
          Even I, completely alien to religion, cannot church without it, and this is in the 21st century, and then?
          1. VLR
            5 October 2019 13: 15
            0
            These are all rumors spread by the hierarchs who were "offended" by Peter III. "I was going", they say. And the desire somewhere "expressed" to someone. But he did not take off his robes from anyone, and did not remove a single icon from any church.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 5 October 2019 13: 31
              +2
              Colleagues, pluses to both. Chic discussion. Despite sometimes disagreeing, it's just a great opportunity to debate. Right word, I bow to both! drinks
              Valery, if you do not mind, I will try a little later to quote Pavlenko about the church. feel He had a fight with the Metropolitan. Anyway. I will not argue, just a little, and in a friendly way! drinks in general, the cycle is beautiful. good
          2. Pavel Yusov
            Pavel Yusov 26 September 2021 10: 41
            0
            Who needs to be denounced is Katka the slut. This scum (you cannot call it otherwise), closed in Russia 2 \ 3 churches and monasteries, the pious zealot of Orthodoxy, Metropolitan Arseny (glorified in the face of saints), killed, subjecting him to unheard-of torture. The slut died as she lived (on a parasha in her own shit), and the Lord did not allow her to receive communion. Such is the lot of impostors and destroyers of God's anointed ones. Now in hell it burns and enjoys the hellish flame. And her husband, the martyr Peter III, rests in the Kingdom of Heaven. God always marks rogue. There was NOT in the history of Russia a worse ruler than Catherine the Second (only Putin has already outdone her).