Military Review

Heinkel He 177. Hitler's only long-range bomber

84
During the Second World War, Germany had at its disposal only one long-range bomber, which was built in series. It was Heinkel He 177, and its first flight took place in November 1939 of the year. It was the brainchild of Heinkel engineers that became the only long-range heavy bomber that came at the disposal of the Luftwaffe and was comparable in its capabilities (carrying capacity and flight range) with similar four-engine bombers available to the Royal Air Force of Great Britain and the United States Air Force. Fortunately for the allies, from 1942 to the end of the 1944 year of the He 177 bombers, about 1100 units were released, and the machine itself was not very reliable and received the sarcastic nickname "Luftwaffe lighter."



Long-range bombers Heinkel He 177 Greif at the airport near Königsberg, 1944 year, photo: waralbum.ru


On the way to a long-range bomber


Despite the fact that Germany launched the Second World War without a long and heavy bombing aviation, and all its air forces were created to implement the concept of a blitzkrieg, work on creating long-range bombers that could easily reach targets in the UK and on the territory of the USSR began long before the war, in 1934. It was then that the first task was formed not to build a heavy long-range bomber. Subsequently, a specification appeared for the creation of a heavy four-engine bomber, which became known under the unofficial name of uralbomber.

Initially, Dornier and Junkers were involved in the program, whose engineers developed the four-engine Do-19 and Ju-89 bombers. At the same time, the flight range of the Do-19 bomber was supposed to be 2000 km, which did not fit into the Ural-Bomber concept. This definition was assigned to the program for the creation of German heavy long-range bombers much later, perhaps even after the end of World War II. One way or another, both projects of Dornier and Junkers showed unsatisfactory results. The big problem was the lack of powerful engines, which did not allow achieving an acceptable flight speed. So, Do-19 with four Bramo 322Н-2 engines with 715 horsepower. each accelerated to only 250 km / h, which was even lower than the speed of the Soviet four-engine bomber TB-3, which received new engines by 1936, allowing it to accelerate the aircraft to 300 km / h.

After the death of the ideological inspirer of the program for creating long-range bombers, General Walter Wefer, in June 1936, the program was curtailed. His successor, Lieutenant General Albert Kesserling, revised the whole concept, suggesting the Luftwaffe to focus on creating a more promising heavy bomber - the Bomber A program. Heinkel was entrusted with the work on the new program in June 1937, whose specialists began to develop their own version of the long-range bomber, known as the "1041 Project", which later became the He 177 bomber. According to the updated program, the long-range bomber had to reach speeds of up to 550 km / h, provide a range of about 5000 kilometers with a combat load of up to a ton of bombs.


Heinkel He 177 Greif in Flight


At the same time, the development of a new aircraft was carried out without extra effort, by that time the German military had decided on the concept of a future war. So, Kesserling rightly believed that for combat operations in Western Europe twin-engine machines would be quite small in size and flight range. The main goals that the Luftwaffe had to solve lay in the tactical and operational plane, and not at the strategic level. Taking into account the limited capabilities of the German aviation industry, it was only possible to force the work and serial production of long-range bombers to the detriment of the production of fighter aircraft and tactical bombers. At certain points, the strategic bomber project was held only due to the fact that the fleet needed a distant naval reconnaissance that could interact with submarines. The Germans realized their mistakes after the war took a protracted character, and the concept of the blitzkrieg finally collapsed in the snowy fields near Moscow. Then Hitler’s generals were faced with the fact that they didn’t have bomber aircraft that could be used to attack military factories beyond the Urals, even despite the vast territory occupied by territories located in the European part of the Soviet Union.

The first flight of the He 177 long-range bomber took place on 19 on November 1939, after the outbreak of World War II. Previously, the plane has already managed to get the official name Greif (vulture or griffin). The name was chosen with reference to the coat of arms of the city of Rostock, on which the griffin was depicted. It was in this German city that the headquarters of the Heinkel aircraft manufacturing company was located at that time. In the future, the aircraft was continuously developed, being quite difficult to master and problematic, primarily because of its original power plant. Serial production could be established only in the 1942 year, but even after launching the series, the aircraft was constantly improved, and the designers worked to correct the identified defects, achieving a significant reduction in accident rate and malfunctions on board only in the 1944 year.

Technical Features of the Heinkel He 177 Greif Bomber


Since the terms of reference for the new aircraft did not regulate the number of engines in any way, the designers settled on a scheme with two engines, although, in fact, it was a question of two twin engines located in one nacelle. The body of the bomber was all-metal, duralumin sheets acted as a skin. The aircraft was a freestanding mid-plane with a square fuselage, but with seriously rounded corners. The crew of the aircraft consisted of six people.

Heinkel He 177. Hitler's only long-range bomber

Heinkel He 177 Greif


The length of the aircraft was 22 meters, wingspan - 31,44 meters, wing area - 100 square meters. In its dimensions, the German long-range bomber was quite comparable with the famous American "Flying Fortress" B-17. At the same time, the Griffin was superior to the American bomber in maximum flight speed, and its maximum take-off weight was almost one and a half tons more - 31 000 kg.

A distinctive feature of the only long-range bomber that was at the disposal of the Luftwaffe was its unusual power plant. The twin power plant was a rather sophisticated Daimler-Benz DB 606 engine, which, in turn, was a pair of two in-line liquid-cooled DB 12 601 cylinder engines installed side-by-side in one engine nacelle and working on one common shaft rotating a four-blade propeller . The total power of such twin engines was 2700-2950 hp. An aircraft engine, which alone would develop such power, in Germany then simply did not exist.

Heinkel's designers had the opportunity to use four engines of lower power, but they settled on this design for a number of reasons. The use of two nacelles on such a large aircraft was preferable from the point of view of aerodynamics, such a move by the designers helped to reduce air resistance, and also increased the maneuverability of the long-range bomber. In the future, the Germans expected to create a new powerful engine of the same power, simplifying the transition of the aircraft to a new power plant of the same power as the spark, without major design changes. In addition, the designers stopped on twin engines and for the reason that at the time of the beginning of the design, the Ministry of Aviation put forward to the 30-ton long-range bomber a schizophrenic demand for the possibility of dive bombing. The designers simply could not provide such an opportunity to a four-engine aircraft.


Heinkel He 177 Greif in Flight


At the same time, engine sparking has become an inexhaustible source of problems for the new bomber, which is not by chance received the nickname "Lighter". In pursuit of improved aerodynamics, the designers arranged the engine compartment with the highest possible density. As a result, even fire-fighting bulkheads could not be found in it, and oil pipelines and oil tanks were located not far from the engine exhaust pipes. In flight, these pipes often red-hot. All electrical wiring was very tightly placed. As a result, in flight, with any depressurization of the fuel system or oil lines, a fire became inevitable. In addition to this, the problem was that at high altitude the oil sometimes began to boil, which led to disruption of the engines, in the best case, the motors simply overheated and stalled, in the worst case, a fire started on board. German designers managed to achieve relative stability in engine operation only by the 1944 year. Despite the fact that the aircraft were adopted in the 1942 year, their combat value was very conditional. Despite the very good flight characteristics, the aircraft was characterized by unacceptable problems with the power plant and the strength of the airframe.

One of the features of the aircraft, in addition to engines, was the landing gear, which, although it was a three-post, had its own differences. In order not to increase the size of the nacelles, the Heinkel designers made the main landing gear double. Each of these rather massive half-racks had its own wheel and cleaning mechanism. Half-posts were retracted into the wing of the He 177 long-range bomber in different directions. The design made it possible to fit a fairly massive landing gear into the relatively thin wing of the aircraft.

Another feature and innovation of the Germans was to be the location of defensive bomber weapons in three remotely controlled towers (for the first time on German planes), but the designers failed to cope with this task. Only the upper defensive turret was realistically remotely controlled, which housed the 2X13 mm MG-131 machine gun. At the same time, the composition of the defensive armament of the bomber was quite impressive: 1 or 2 7,92 mm machine gun MG-81G, up to 4 x 13 mm machine guns MG-131 and two 20 mm automatic guns MG-151. The maximum bomb load of the bomber could reach 7000 kg, but in reality it rarely exceeded 2500 kg. The aircraft could use the German guided bombs Henschel Hs 293 and Fritz-X, which proved to be quite effective weapons against naval targets, especially allied transport ships.



Combat use of long-range bombers Heinkel He 177


In total, by the end of the 1944 year in Germany, they managed to assemble approximately 1190 Heinkel He 177 bombers of various modifications. Despite the rather large series, they could not have a significant impact on the course of World War II. The debut of the new long-range bomber was the help of the Paulus army surrounded by Stalingrad. The Germans were forced to attract all available means to establish the "air bridge", including the latest long-range bombers, which they began to use as transport vehicles, transferring them to the airfield in Zaporozhye. However, such use of aircraft was not justified, as the machines were not converted for the transport of goods. Therefore, the Griffins could take on board no more cargo than the much lighter and more reliable He 111 bombers. In addition, they could not take the wounded out of the boiler, so they returned back empty, another problem was landing heavy vehicles at field airfields. Very quickly, the aircraft reoriented to bombing Soviet troops and the positions of anti-aircraft batteries. In total, near Stalingrad, the Germans lost 7 He 177 aircraft, all as a result of engine or chassis accidents.

Another area of ​​application of new long-range bombers was the fight against convoys of the Allies. The most notable achievement was the sinking of the He 177 bomber with the help of the Henschel Hs 293 26 guided bomb on November 1943 of the year of the British Rohna transport with a displacement of more than 8500 tons. The disaster occurred off the coast of Algeria. 1149 people were killed along with transport, including 1015 of the US military, which became the second largest marine casualty in the number of victims stories The US Navy, which was superior only to the death of the battleship Arizona in the harbor of Pearl Harbor, when 1177 American sailors died as a result of the explosion and flooding of the ship.


Heinkel He 177 Greif with Henschel Hs 293 guided bombs


In 1944, bombers were actively used on the Eastern Front to strike targets in the depths of defense. The most widespread raid was the strike on the railway junction in Velikiye Luki on 16 on June 1944, when 87 He 177 bombers were simultaneously used. Also, aircraft were involved for raids on Smolensk, Pskov and Nevel. Earlier in February 1944, long-range bombers took part in Germany’s latest attempt to conduct massive air raids on London as part of Operation Steinbock (Mountain Goat). The losses of He 177 bombers were relatively low, the Germans lost just over ten aircraft in three months of raids, but the effect of the raids was small, and the total Luftwaffe losses amounted to 329 bombers, which could be useful to the Germans in the summer of 1944 on the Eastern Front or after the Allied landing in Normandy.

By the end of the 1944 year, most of the remaining long-range Heinkel He 177 Greif long-range bombers had ceased combat activities, standing upright at base airfields. The main reason was an acute shortage of aviation fuel and lubricants. By the fall of 1944, Soviet troops removed Romania from the war, depriving Germany of Romanian oil, and the Allied aircraft inflicted serious damage on German synthetic fuel plants. Under these conditions, the Reich did not have enough fuel even for fighter aircraft, so it was not advisable to spend it on bulky voracious aircraft. And even earlier, Hitler’s generals turned down the serial production of their only long-range bomber, focusing on the release of fighter aircraft, including the latest jet aircraft.
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  1. EXPrompt
    EXPrompt 1 October 2019 18: 16
    +7
    Yeah ... the car was too innovative.
    Heikel was far ahead of time, trying to maximize the aerodynamics of a large airplane, and making a couple of engines in 2900ls is too innovative for the start of 40x.
    Here comes the result, an extremely capricious engine and a flammable aircraft, which they could not bring to mind ..
    1. gurzuf
      gurzuf 1 October 2019 18: 51
      +2
      More likely from hopelessness.
    2. Jager
      Jager 1 October 2019 19: 03
      +1
      And what is the innovation? In a complex, fragile and not reliable car? A 12-cylinder in-line engine in a spark for an airplane is some kind of game. The very concept of this bomb carrier was not particularly needed by Germany.
      Anyway, he’s terrible, he recalls a crutch.
      1. EXPrompt
        EXPrompt 1 October 2019 23: 37
        +9
        This is in fact an attempt to cram a 4-engine strategist into a cleaner aerodynamic form with lower drag to achieve higher speeds. This is the concept.
        1. Town Hall
          Town Hall 1 October 2019 23: 46
          +4
          Quote: EXPrompt
          This is in fact an attempt to cram a 4-engine strategist into a cleaner aerodynamic form with lower drag to achieve higher speeds. This is the concept.

          One of the (absurd) requirements put forward for the aircraft is bombing from a 60-degree dive. Hence the "strange" motors went. 4 a motor aircraft is a priori incapable of diving.
    3. KPblC
      KPblC 2 October 2019 11: 49
      +2
      And what Germans had options, none other than Amer could digest the digestible engines of 2000-3000 hp during the war.
      + The Germans' love for "Nebilungs on Wunderwaffles" also played, judging by the layout of the weapons (20mm in the bow and stern with low angles of fire, 13mm do not shoot through almost the entire lower hemisphere), it is tailored for defense "every man for himself" that is, for use or single or in small groups.
    4. dima314
      dima314 2 October 2019 15: 08
      -1
      How could rational Germans mold more than 1100 expensive and completely useless pitches in conditions when it was necessary to provide the front with something more necessary? !! The top of idiocy and nothing innovative! They are engaged in innovation on experimental, but not serial machines! And stuffing stupidly 2 engines into the nacelle is the height of stupidity, not innovation!
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 3 October 2019 12: 49
        +2
        Quote: dima314
        How could rational Germans mold more than 1100 of expensive and completely useless pitches in conditions when it was necessary to provide the front with something more necessary? !! The top of idiocy and nothing innovative!

        Your comment, as well as the article itself, once again showed the survivability of stamps about WWII aircraft.
        1. dima314
          dima314 16 October 2019 08: 55
          0
          some great thought doesn’t reach me) Here is a concrete and terribly unsuccessful pitch that contributed to the speedy defeat of Germany, and you are talking about some tenacious cliches) it was easy to philosophize or what?
    5. NF68
      NF68 2 October 2019 15: 44
      +1
      Quote: EXPrompt
      Yeah ... the car was too innovative.
      Heikel was far ahead of time, trying to maximize the aerodynamics of a large airplane, and making a couple of engines in 2900ls is too innovative for the start of 40x.
      Here comes the result, an extremely capricious engine and a flammable aircraft, which they could not bring to mind ..


      It was Ernst Heinkel who was discouraging the leadership of the Luftwaffe from such a twin power plant, since even earlier during the tests of this power plant it was constantly odd. Heinkel proposed to install conventional engines on the Non-177 4. But Heinkel was not listened to, although aviation experts in Germany and, not only in Germany, knew that Ernst Heinkel and his company had already had enough experience and bad advice, as a rule, did not give. The result is known.
  2. Amateur
    Amateur 1 October 2019 18: 23
    0
    It was Heinkel He 177, and its first flight took place in November 1939. It was the brainchild of Heinkel engineers that became the only long-range heavy bomber,

    А
    Fw.200 Condor
    ? Or does the author consider him a stealth airplane?
    1. Comrade
      Comrade 1 October 2019 18: 54
      +5
      The FW 200 was created as a civilian aircraft; its entry into the Luftwaffe as a long-range reconnaissance aircraft was an improvisation.
      And the bomb load, as for the "heavy bomber", was not impressive.
      Just four bombs 250 kg.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 2 October 2019 00: 23
        +1
        Quote: Comrade
        The FW 200 was created as a civilian aircraft; its entry into the Luftwaffe as a long-range reconnaissance aircraft was an improvisation.

        In Germany, in the 3-0s, heavy and medium-sized aircraft, purely as military, were not created, but were created as mail or passenger aircraft on the orders of Lufthansa. Thus, the Germans bypassed the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles.
        1. Comrade
          Comrade 2 October 2019 02: 15
          +2
          Quote: Amurets
          In Germany, in the 3-0s, heavy and medium-sized aircraft, purely as military, were not created, but were created as mail or passenger aircraft on the orders of Lufthansa. Thus, the Germans bypassed the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles.

          Design work to create a long-range passenger plane Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor was launched in winter 1935-1936 g., when the Germans "Treaty of Versailles" was already a light bulb.
          This is clearly seen in the example of the creation of the diving bomber Junkers Ju 87, which was developed at the company's factory in Dassau after A. Hitler came to power precisely as dive-bomber. His first flight took place on 17 on September 1936, a year before the start of the design of the Focke-Wulf Fw 200. You can also mention the bunker Junkers Ju 88, the technical task for the development of which is precisely as a high-speed twin-engine bomber was issued by the German Ministry of Aviation in October 1935. So if the Germans in the middle of the 1930’s wanted a four-engine bomber, they would have ordered it without looking at the Treaty of Versailles, as was done in the cases described above.
        2. KPblC
          KPblC 2 October 2019 11: 54
          +3
          The FW 200 is a purely civilian vehicle, it has 2 fuel systems (high-octane gas for takeoff and low-octane for cruising speed) and these 2 fuel systems stretch all over the airplane’s bottom naturally there is nothing surviving about it and nothing can be covered canvases or solitary transport of nightmare.
  3. Amateur
    Amateur 1 October 2019 18: 26
    0
    It was Heinkel He 177, and its first flight took place in November 1939. It was the brainchild of Heinkel engineers that became the only long-range heavy bomber,

    А
    Fw.200 Condor
    ? Or does the author consider him a stealth airplane?
    1. aleksandaravin
      aleksandaravin 4 October 2019 10: 33
      +1
      Condor Civilian remake! Nicknamed "The Beach of the Atlantic"!
  4. Undecim
    Undecim 1 October 2019 19: 22
    0
    After the death of the ideological inspirer of the program for creating long-range bombers, General Walter Wefer, in a plane crash
    I wonder with whose easy hand, General Walther Wever became a Weefer?
    1. Town Hall
      Town Hall 1 October 2019 19: 24
      +6
      I can not guarantee that this is the case, but in German V it is often read as F
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 1 October 2019 20: 08
        +3
        If you do not delve into the dialects, but focus on the literary language.
        According to the established rules, the letter v denotes the sound [v] in words of foreign origin, and in the original German tokens it denotes the sound [f]
        The dumb consonant [f] is traditionally conveyed by the letter v in:
        in the prefix ver-: verstehen, vergessen, verschicken,
        in the prefix vor-: vorgehen, vorkommen, Vorort,
        in the prefix vorbei-: vorbeikommen, vorbeigehen, vorbeilaufen,
        in German words at the beginning of the word: Vater, Veilchen, Vettel, Vetter, Vieh, viel, vielleicht, vier, Vlies, Vogel, Vogt, Volk, voll, voellig, vom, von, vor, vordere, vorn.
        Two more words are added to these words, in which the deaf consonant [f] is pronounced in the middle of the word: Frevel, Nerv - Nerven.
        In other cases, at the beginning of the word, the letter v denotes a voiced consonant [v]
        1. Town Hall
          Town Hall 1 October 2019 20: 16
          +4
          I am not strong in German grammar. To put it mildly. But I definitely remember that the aristocratic Von and the well-known surnames-Feller, Vettel-are written through V. Therefore, I suggested that it is possible from the same opera
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 1 October 2019 20: 11
        +6
        Absolutely right! Last name Wever should read as Wefer. The reading indicated by Viktor Nikolaevich is nothing more than Englishism, however, like the spelling of the name in Latin script.
        1. Town Hall
          Town Hall 1 October 2019 20: 21
          +4
          Changes in the transcription of foreign names, city names, etc. are allowed in many languages. In Russian Rome-Rome, Genova-Genoa, Firenze-Florence. The Italians "take revenge" with the same coin) They write Moscow as Mosca. Which, by the way, means Fly )
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 1 October 2019 20: 35
            +8
            Anecdote from the collapse of the USSR
            "Estonia demanded from Russia to write the toponym" Tallinn "with two" n "
            In response, Russia suggested the Estonians to write another toponym "Kolymaa".
          2. dmmyak40
            dmmyak40 1 October 2019 23: 32
            +3
            It all depends on what kind of translation technique is used: transcription or transliteration. In the first case, the word in the translated language is pronounced as it is pronounced in the original, and secondly, as it is spelled. For instance.
            "Ode on the day of Her Majesty Empress Elizabeth Petrovna's accession to the all-Russian throne in 1747" by Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. There are lines: "And the Russian land to give birth to the quick minds of Newtons."
            Offhand, who is Nevton? This is Isaak Newton. In those days, transliteration was used more often (as it is written - it is pronounced), because very few knew the rules of English phonetics.
      3. Blacksmith 55
        Blacksmith 55 1 October 2019 20: 53
        +3
        I know German pretty well, you're right. One simple example, the word Vater (father) reads as Vater.
        1. EXPrompt
          EXPrompt 1 October 2019 23: 42
          0
          The closer to aviation, the more so to the German one, the closer the word Versuch (ferzukh) is a prototype (of an airplane)
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 1 October 2019 20: 12
      +1
      Victor Nikolaevich, you are wrong.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 1 October 2019 20: 29
        +2
        I may be wrong, of course, German is not my element, but I did not understand about the font in Latin — does German really use any other?
        Nevertheless, I would like to know in more detail by what rule v is pronounced f in this case.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 1 October 2019 20: 47
          +1
          Guilty, probably incorrectly put it. You wrote the name Walter in English grammar.
          For the rest, you correctly pointed out the rules of German grammar and phonetics. I have no deeper knowledge in this matter.
          1. Blacksmith 55
            Blacksmith 55 1 October 2019 20: 58
            +2
            Walter can be written in another version as Walther. But these are different names.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 1 October 2019 21: 10
              0
              Well, then let's decide what the name of Weefer was.
              1. Alf
                Alf 1 October 2019 21: 16
                +5
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Well, then let's decide what the name of Weefer was.

                Tie up with grammar, let's speak out for the plane. laughing
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 1 October 2019 21: 22
                  +3
                  Allow me to run? soldier
                  1. bubalik
                    bubalik 1 October 2019 21: 26
                    +3
                    ,,, arranged a "camomile" am nothing is clear crying
                    Stirlitz sat by the fireplace and knitted. Knitting calmed Stirlitz. After knitting, the tied Mueller remained lying by the fireplace. tongue
                    1. Zliy_mod
                      Zliy_mod 2 October 2019 10: 26
                      +2
                      Stirlitz came to the beach and lay down on pebbles, Sveta was offended got up and left.
                  2. Alf
                    Alf 1 October 2019 21: 37
                    +2
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    Allow me to run? soldier

                    Ausfuhren!
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 1 October 2019 21: 52
                      +4
                      Zum Befehel, herr General!
                2. Undecim
                  Undecim 1 October 2019 21: 44
                  +2
                  What would you like to know about the plane, Vasily?
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 1 October 2019 22: 00
                    +2
                    Quote: Undecim
                    What would you like to know about the plane, Vasily?

                    Yes, in principle, nothing, I just drew attention to the departure from the topic. hi
                    It's just that I'm fine now, I'm sitting and blowing Auchanovskoe beer. The beauty ! drinks
                    1. Undecim
                      Undecim 1 October 2019 22: 16
                      +2
                      And I thought you had some special question. As for me, such a departure from the topic is better than throwing poop on the topic, as under the article on Lend-Lease.
                      1. Alf
                        Alf 1 October 2019 22: 22
                        +2
                        Quote: Undecim
                        And I thought you had some special question. As for me, such a departure from the topic is better than throwing poop on the topic, as under the article on Lend-Lease.

                        I completely agree !
              2. Blacksmith 55
                Blacksmith 55 1 October 2019 21: 36
                +1
                Walther Wever was not familiar to me, I first read about him now. Looked briefly at the spelling on Wikipedia, it reads like Walter Wefer. The name is spelled with "h" Walther.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 1 October 2019 21: 42
                  +1
                  Yeah, I caught the difference in names! Thank!
              3. Undecim
                Undecim 1 October 2019 21: 40
                +2
                In German, it is written as Walther Wever (https://ns-reichsministerien.de/2018/03/12/walther-wever/). A German translator voices like Weaver.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 1 October 2019 21: 44
                  +1
                  Was wrong about the name! I apologize!
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 1 October 2019 21: 53
                    +2
                    The main thing is that there are always so many experts, but not a single person who speaks German and resolves the dispute. I found Yermolovich’s book with recommendations for transferring proper names from the point of view of linguistics and translation theory, although he is an expert in English and French, but he also gives tables for practical transcription for German. At the beginning of the proper names v as f. But further it is unknown.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 1 October 2019 21: 59
                      +1
                      Toucher! But about the surname, do you agree?
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim 1 October 2019 22: 01
                        +1
                        No, I doubt it yet.
                2. Saxahorse
                  Saxahorse 1 October 2019 23: 51
                  +1
                  Quote: Undecim
                  A German translator voices like Weaver.

                  Something tells us that the translator did the English. :)

                  How this surname sounds is hardly very important, the topic of the article has already gone very far.
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 2 October 2019 00: 29
                    +2
                    And what about the topic of the article? The usual site copyright, it’s good that there are no mistakes. Can you significantly add? We are pleased to read it.
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 1 October 2019 19: 31
    +5

    Powerplant He-177. The power plant DB-606 consisted of two V-engines DB-601 located at an angle of 44 degrees relative to each other and working on a common gearbox. The device of the gearbox allowed during the shutdown of one of the engines.
    1. antivirus
      antivirus 1 October 2019 20: 45
      +2
      all around dusk, the German genius triumphs
      next to ours, about --- war, intelligence. and here it’s just just vampires on.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 2 October 2019 10: 52
        +2
        Quote: antivirus
        all around dusk, the German genius triumphs

        Oh, come on. Some people still produce and use a 112-cylinder engine - a pair of two 56-cylinder "stars". smile
        1. sh3roman
          sh3roman 14 October 2019 05: 33
          0
          On that 95 ??? Motors nk?
        2. lelik613
          lelik613 18 September 2021 08: 51
          0
          Factory "Zvezda"?
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 21 September 2021 13: 54
            0
            Quote: lelik613
            Factory "Zvezda"?

            He is the most - diesel "stars" from "Zvezda" for small ships of the Navy.
    2. Town Hall
      Town Hall 1 October 2019 22: 41
      +1
      The choice of such a "strange" motor is not a whim of the designers. This is a consequence of Kesselring's one requirement for the aircraft.
      And the engines weren’t the main problems. At least in the first test period.
    3. Warrior2015
      Warrior2015 3 October 2019 12: 53
      +2
      Quote: Undecim
      The device of the gearbox allowed during the shutdown of one of the engines.

      That's it, this is one of the chips that are usually silent about.
  6. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 1 October 2019 20: 02
    0
    But was the Germans also 4-motor?
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 1 October 2019 20: 49
      +2
      Of the serially built Focke-Wulf Fw 200 "Condor", but this is not a bomber.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 1 October 2019 21: 06
        +1
        By the way, I read somewhere, Hitler disliked this plane, preferring "Aunt Yu"
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 2 October 2019 02: 31
          +3
          From 1933 to 1939, Hitler used the Yu52, then the FV-200.
      2. Dooplet11
        Dooplet11 2 October 2019 10: 09
        +1
        The "military" modification of the FW-200C makes up the majority of the total of 276 produced. If we consider that this modification had a nominal combat load of more than 2 tons of bombs, then this is still a bomber. Bad? Yes. Conversion from a transporter? Yes. But, - a bomber.
    2. Ural-4320
      Ural-4320 2 October 2019 15: 51
      +1
      Me-264 amerikabomber
      True, the series was not.
      http://www.airwar.ru/enc/bww2/me264.html
  7. bubalik
    bubalik 1 October 2019 21: 40
    +2
    with the He 177 bomber using the guided bomb Henschel Hs 293 26 on November 1943 of the British Rohna transport with a displacement of more than 8500 tons. Disaster occurred at

    ,,, well, most likely the merit of the Henschel Hs293 bomb. Here's another example, the sinking of the Liberty ship SS Paul Hamilton torpedo bombed by the German torpedo bomber Junkers U-88 (Ju-88) 20 April 1944 years .
    The ship, which was part of the UGS-38 convoy, was transporting ammunition. At the time of the explosion, there were 76 crew members and 504 troops on board.

    ,,, 580 dead and still what like the 3 ship sank from this convoy. And also the Henschel Hs293 bombs.
    ,,, by the way, that according to Ron that according to Hamilton in the USA it is still under the heading secret mainly, only in 90 of the year they began to give information to the relatives of the victims.
  8. Dedok
    Dedok 2 October 2019 08: 57
    0
    In essence: we see an innovative approach to solving the problem.
    No matter how many accidents he has - but the decision on the chassis must also be recognized as innovative.
    On the rectangular fuselage - a little annoying, but apparently then it was the norm.
    1. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 2 October 2019 09: 53
      0
      but the decision on the chassis must also be recognized as innovative.
      - rather, "not traditional".
  9. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 2 October 2019 10: 36
    +3
    The Germans realized their mistakes after the war became protracted, and the concept of the blitzkrieg finally collapsed in the snowy fields near Moscow. Then Hitler’s generals were faced with the fact that they didn’t have bomber aircraft that could be used to attack military factories beyond the Urals, even despite the vast territory occupied by territories located in the European part of the Soviet Union.

    In fact, the Germans had no mistake in the concept of aviation development. The fact is that the blitzkrieg was the only strategy possible for the Reich - Germany was losing a long war. Therefore, aviation had to be done exactly under the blitzkrieg, without being distracted by other directions.
    If the Reich needs an uralbomber, then the war is lost. Because strikes against industry are not needed in a short-lived war - the outcome of this war is decided by the armies and the armaments already produced, and not by the competition of industrial potentials. If it came to blows to factories, it means that the front has stood up and the battle of economies has begun.
    1. Warrior2015
      Warrior2015 3 October 2019 12: 55
      0
      Quote: Alexey RA
      If the Reich needs an uralbomber, then the war is lost. Because strikes against industry are not needed in a short-lived war - the outcome of this war is decided by the armies and the armaments already produced, and not by the competition of industrial potentials. If it came to blows to factories, it means that the front has stood up and the battle of economies has begun.

      Not certainly in that way. The Reich won the war, OR in the West, OR in the East, but NOT TOGETHER, and without America. And long-range bombers could well come in handy, and the Germans wanted to get them, just the industry did not pull.
  10. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 2 October 2019 10: 42
    +1
    In addition, the designers stopped on twin engines and for the reason that at the time of the start of design, the Ministry of Aviation put forward to the 30-ton long-range bomber a schizophrenic demand for the possibility of dive bombing. The designers simply could not provide such an opportunity to a four-engine aircraft.

    And here are the roots of the well-known TK Tupolev's long-range diving bomber: since the Germans do this, then this is possible, so the USSR can not lag behind.
  11. bars1
    bars1 2 October 2019 15: 28
    0
    But there was a project of a four-engine He.277 bomber. It was a He.177 with the classic placement of 4 engines on the wing. Heinkel came up with a proposal for its creation back in 1940. But Goering was categorically against, work on the He.277 went "underground". Work on the aircraft received official approval in 1943.
  12. Engineer
    Engineer 2 October 2019 18: 49
    0
    I did NOT notice if someone wrote about the fact that the plane was required to dive from an angle of 60 degrees.
    It was not someone who demanded, but General Ernst Udet

    In general, for me, the highlight of the aircraft were remote turrets. Sweetie bully

    http://alternathistory.com/distantsionno-upravlyaemye-tureli-fdl-b-131-1-a-fdl-v-131-v2a-pritselnoe-prisposoblenie-vse-b-177-1-a-i-distantsionnyj-privod-fa3/
    1. aleksandaravin
      aleksandaravin 4 October 2019 10: 54
      0
      Milch demanded!
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 4 October 2019 10: 55
        0
        It seems that it is Udet.
        Bully. Debaucher and the drunkard (s)
        More precisely, an addict and an alcoholic
        1. aleksandaravin
          aleksandaravin 4 October 2019 10: 58
          0
          Perhaps you are right, because Udet back in the 1920s. in the USA for the Money at the Air Show "bombed" with Cement Bags! Then he moved on the Dive! Consequence - Ju-87 and Hs-123! "Hooligan. Deboshir and drunkard (c)
          More precisely, a drug addict and an alcoholic. "The drug addict is Fat Herman! The Jew Milch sat down on him (Udet)! And how He rotted Heinkel!
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 4 October 2019 11: 06
            0
            Udet also of these))
            Udet Milchu made the task pretty easy.
            1. aleksandaravin
              aleksandaravin 4 October 2019 11: 07
              0
              But the Germans write that Milch brought him to ...?!
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 4 October 2019 11: 15
                0
                They say (C) that if you plump and hang around you begin to perceive everything very close to your heart)
  13. aleksandaravin
    aleksandaravin 4 October 2019 10: 32
    0
    1- The same Luftwaffe loser, like the Me-210! 2 - Burned like a candle! 3 - Victim of the Great Squabble between Heinkel and Milch, which received the name "Jewish War" in the RLM (Reich Air Ministry)!
  14. aleksandaravin
    aleksandaravin 4 October 2019 10: 46
    0
    And most importantly! Heinkel had Two (!) 4-engineers He-274 and He-277, which did not have such Shortcomings! And in Metal (flew)! Only the attempt to force Him to Dive is comparable with Dury with respect to Him (1-2 planes were crashed) ?!
  15. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 4 October 2019 16: 57
    0
    Only 10 lost Xe-177s over the front line in the East delivered the necessary aluminum for the spars of 400-500 Yak-9 fighters.
  16. Basarev
    Basarev 29 November 2019 16: 16
    0
    Have you noticed too? Both the Germans and the Russians all the time had problems with the engines, they had to compromise. But in Angloamerica everything was in perfect order. Because instead of ideological nonsense, industry should have been developed and friends with technology holders should be as close as possible.
  17. pafegosoff
    pafegosoff 7 December 2019 15: 44
    0
    In "Technique for Youth" somewhere in 1970, it was told about a sabotage operation performed on a 4-engine airplane, possibly a He-177A-5 / R2. The estimated range was 5600 km.
    Or maybe it was Piaggio or Dornier ... Since the planes were rather experienced, they were not used by the Luftwaffe, like our Special Purpose Squadron (my leader flew in it first in Africa, then in Italy (when the south was seized) instructors and weapons were thrown to I. Broz Tito. Golovanov's long-range aviation was also not part of the Air Force (he was personally subordinate to I. V. Stalin) The same U-2 and SR-71 belonged to the CIA and not the Air Force. Further.