Military Review

The surface complex. Smart Mines for the Navy

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A few months ago, the first information appeared on the development of a fundamentally new domestic mine weapon complex for fleet. It is expected that by the end of the year the system with the code "Surface" will go into service. A promising complex has implemented a number of important ideas designed to ensure a sharp increase in combat qualities in comparison with existing products.




Surface Information


The first details of the complex with the code "Surface" appeared at the very beginning of the spring of this year. Domestic media, citing sources in the Navy command, published interesting data on a promising project and the possibilities of a new weapons.

The other day, the "Surface" system again fell into news. This time we are talking about one of the carriers of mine weapons. It was previously mentioned that the complex will be able to use various ships and aircraft, and now a specific model of equipment has appeared in the media. One of the carriers of mines and controls will be the upgraded Be-12 Chaika anti-submarine aircraft.

Thanks to the media, currently there is information about the architecture of the promising complex, the principles of operation and some of the possibilities. The current status of the project and estimated completion dates are also known. Exact performance characteristics, however, have not been published. The appearance of new products remains unknown.

Smart mines


The complex "Surface" includes two main elements - the actual sea mines and a special control unit. Mines in their appearance and capabilities are similar to some older products, while the control unit uses the most advanced solutions.

Mines from the complex are equipped with acoustic and magnetic target sensors, as well as carry communications. The type of installation and method of operation of the products are unknown. Also, the principle of operation of the fuse is not specified.

An important feature of the “Surface” is the lack of direct connection between the target sensors and fuses - the blasting process is controlled by the control unit. Mina is able to identify the physical fields of the target and carry out its recognition by characteristic features. Mention is made of the presence of a self-learning hardware unit capable of exchanging data with the control unit.

The mine complex control unit is a computer system with elements of artificial intelligence designed to control the operation of mines. The unit must receive data from the ammunition, process it and give instructions based on the current situation. Due to such opportunities, the “Surface” complex forms a “smart” controlled fence in the water area.

According to media reports, the control unit of the complex is capable of giving mines different tasks that correspond to the current situation and threats. So, ammunition can identify specific targets and hit only them. Due to this, it is possible to hit the enemy ships or to counteract his mine action. Mines will be able to identify specific ships and undermine them or ignore them. In particular, they are able to miss a minesweeper with mine action weapons, but hit any other ship.

Determining the type of target by physical fields is also a means of identifying “friend or foe”. In this case, their ships will be able to safely pass through the fence, while the enemy expects an explosion.

Mine with self-learning equipment can be used both as part of the complex, and separately. However, the absence of a complex control unit should reduce the potential of the weapon. To fully utilize all the features of the “Surface”, a control unit with AI and a number of other mines in the water area are required.

In the first news about the complex, it was mentioned that domestic ships, submarines and marine aviation. In early September, more accurate data appeared on this subject. Currently, the modernization of the Be-12 anti-submarine aircraft is being prepared, and it is they who will become one of the carriers of the “Surface”. After the upgrade, "The Seagulls" will be able to carry a wide range of weapons; the presence of a mine complex will increase the range of tasks.

Timing and Strategies


As of March, the Surface complex was in a high degree of readiness. Then it was reported that the tests of the new development will be completed before the end of the year. The timing of adoption was not specified, but it is obvious that this will happen in the very near future. Apparently, at first the new complex will replenish the ammunition of existing ships and submarines capable of using mine-torpedo weapons.

According to recent reports, the deadlines for completing the tests remain the same. At the same time, the fleet command began to develop concepts for the use of new weapons. The “surface” is seriously different from existing mines, and new techniques are needed to realize all of its benefits.

Of all the potential carriers of the complex, only the Be-12 aircraft is known so far. In January, the Ministry of Defense announced its intention to begin the modernization of such equipment this year. Thus, in the coming years, the Navy will receive both new mine weapons and improved carriers for it.

The benefits to the fleet


Now in service with the Russian Navy there are several types of sea mines with different characteristics and capabilities. Such weapons allow you to put barriers with the help of surface ships, submarines or aircraft. Existing mines generally meet the needs of the fleet, but this does not exclude the need for further development of mine-torpedo weapons.



A characteristic feature of mines that are in service is their independence - a barrier is a number of mines that are not connected to each other and are unable to coordinate actions. The new “Surface” project proposes to supplement mines with communications and introduce a separate control unit with AI elements into the complex. As a result, the fence becomes a single coordinated system.

An autonomous mine complex can be deployed in a given area and act completely independently, waiting for enemy ships. Depending on the task, the “Surface” can be installed on the routes of movement of ship connections, at ports and on sea lanes. Having received the appropriate task, the control unit will wait for the desired target to appear and organize its defeat.

An important feature of the complex is compatibility with different carriers. Ships and submarines will be able to establish relatively large and long minefields, including at a great distance from their bases. The use of carrier aircraft such as the Be-12 will ensure quick deployment in the area of ​​the intended passage of the enemy - including just before its appearance.

Mines from the "Surface" are able to determine the type of target by physical fields. In addition, the AI ​​of the control unit must process the incoming signals. Due to this, it is possible to increase both the combat effectiveness of the barrier and its survivability. Having identified the minesweeper, the complex will be somewhat protected from its means of combating mines. Accordingly, the likelihood of successfully maintaining the fence with the subsequent defeat of real targets increases.

Thus, the new weapon system gives the Navy a whole series of new opportunities that increase the effectiveness of mine deployments. At the same time, a fundamentally new weapon has obvious drawbacks. Obtaining new opportunities is associated with the introduction of complex electronic components - primarily, a control unit with AI elements. This negatively affects the cost of development, production and operation of the complex.

The appearance of a fundamentally new mine complex has led to the need to develop concepts for its use. Determining the best practices is a necessary step and will have obvious positive consequences.

The introduction of a new mine weapons complex will begin no earlier than 2020, but the results of this process are worth the wait. In addition to the “simple” mines of old models, the navy will receive products with more capabilities. However, while the fleet and industry need to complete the tests and organize mass production. Probably, in connection with this, the military will reveal new details of the Surface project.
Author:
Photos used:
Russian Ministry of Defense / mil.ru, Wikimedia Commons
22 comments
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  1. Amateur
    Amateur 10 September 2019 18: 27 New
    +3
    8 September 2019 of
    Russian Navy will receive armament complexes self-learning minefields
    Without a signature.
    The surface complex. Smart Mines for the Navy
    Today, 18:00 Ryabov Kirill

    Groundhog Day Again?
  2. Alexander Alekseev_2
    Alexander Alekseev_2 10 September 2019 18: 39 New
    +4
    Only old people - Be-12 will go into battle?
    1. Alien From
      Alien From 11 September 2019 00: 05 New
      +1
      Be 12 is now nanotechnological, but that's where ?????? And for what money ?????
  3. Shrek
    Shrek 10 September 2019 18: 54 New
    +3
    The main thing is that self-learning minefields do not learn something bad or wrong ... well, you understand)))
    1. Paranoid50
      Paranoid50 11 September 2019 01: 24 New
      +2
      Quote: Shrek
      so that self-learning minefields do not learn something bad

      Duc, given the widespread application possibilities:
      The use of carrier aircraft such as the Be-12 will ensure quick deployment in the area of ​​the intended passage of the enemy - including just before its appearance.
      Often use the good old method of "cheeky" mining (in front of the adversary’s nose), and then they just won’t have time to learn something superfluous. yes
  4. Alceers
    Alceers 10 September 2019 19: 08 New
    0
    What will Timokhin say with Klimov?
  5. Seniorseaman
    Seniorseaman 10 September 2019 19: 59 New
    +1
    In light of the above, there is an idea: A harmless bulk carrier passes in the area of ​​the naval base of a potential enemy and "loses" several times some objects that at the right moment, by order of the Supreme Commander ... What is not an option for use?
    1. Alceers
      Alceers 10 September 2019 20: 07 New
      -1
      Quote: Seniorseaman
      What is not a use case?

      Yeah, an excellent option ... Here are just a list of war crimes, for which there is no statute of limitations, have you read for a long time?
      1. Starover_Z
        Starover_Z 10 September 2019 20: 57 New
        -3
        Quote: Alceers
        Quote: Seniorseaman
        What is not a use case?

        Yeah, an excellent option ... Here are just a list of war crimes, for which there is no statute of limitations, have you read for a long time?

        And is the US military base with aviation and missiles around Russia an act of "peace and humility"?
      2. Titus
        Titus 10 September 2019 21: 55 New
        0
        God forbid, of course, but the war will write everything off .... in fact, let the adversary spend money and resources on counteraction.
    2. Avior
      Avior 10 September 2019 23: 45 New
      0
      and an order will be delivered to them in a paper bag with a wax seal?
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 11 September 2019 11: 06 New
      +3
      Quote: Seniorseaman
      A certain harmless bulk carrier passes in the area of ​​the naval base of a potential enemy and "loses" several times some objects that at the right moment, by order of the Supreme Commander ... What is not an option for use?

      Great option. The adversary during the next prophylactic sonar inspection of the bottom in the area of ​​the naval base detects the next discrepancies with the old data, sends the anti-theft standard and finds a mine in one of the suspicious places. And then - two options. Either they rinse us for a long time and with facts in our hands at the UN and other organizations, or "captors" suddenly appear at our bases. And, taking into account the state of our mine-sweeping forces (3 new warheads for 4 fleets and a failure with means of PMO), only we will be worse.
      In general, everything is as always - glass house and stones.
  6. Seniorseaman
    Seniorseaman 10 September 2019 20: 25 New
    0
    Quote: Alceers
    Quote: Seniorseaman
    What is not a use case?

    Yeah, an excellent option ... Here are just a list of war crimes, for which there is no statute of limitations, have you read for a long time?

    Well, not right now, a little later, in case of alarm!
  7. Earthshaker
    Earthshaker 11 September 2019 06: 19 New
    0
    Mines with external control of AI, and even anchor - the theater of the absurd. For adversaries, this is implemented autonomously in bottom mines, without using AI. On what physical principles will the communication between the control unit in the aircraft and the minefield be carried out? Using the RSL? Using a wired connection? How will communication stability be ensured? So many questions and so few answers.
  8. dgonni
    dgonni 11 September 2019 08: 28 New
    +3
    AI is good. The only question is, how will he know the noise profile and physical fields of the ships of all potential opponents? And if on Avik more or less portraits are available. Then for all the other ships and boats of probable opponents there is nothing! This is not the beginning of the 80s when our boats grazed across the oceans and everything was constantly written.
    The second! Only super long radio waves pass under water! I’m even scared to imagine the size of the control unit with AI. If the signals are transmitted underwater like GAS, then such drilling in the water area will immediately be detected and all meaning will be immediately lost.
  9. sen
    sen 11 September 2019 09: 36 New
    +1
    Old "good" rocket-propelled mines RM-2 and RM-2G with protection against acoustic trawl.
    http://allmines.net/catalog/russia/mines/rm2/
    1. Fizik M
      Fizik M 11 September 2019 16: 43 New
      +2
      well ... classification and protection modes against trawls were implemented in Lira ...
      and as for the modern "fine processing" in the new HB mines, the afftor stupidly scored even to read on this topic (tyap-blunder and the article (or rather the opus) is ready)
  10. Fizik M
    Fizik M 11 September 2019 16: 41 New
    +1
    article in the style of "what I do not know (and ABSOLUTELY) - about that I sing" lol
    this verbal trash is difficult to even comment on (just nothing) no
  11. Brylevsky
    Brylevsky 11 September 2019 18: 35 New
    +1
    Quote: dgonni
    how will he know the noise profile and physical fields of the ships of all potential opponents? And if on Avik more or less portraits are available. Then for all the other ships and boats of probable opponents there is nothing!

    There is. Acoustic "portraits" of ships and ships of a potential enemy can be collected not only by a submarine or a ship on alert duty. This may be, for example, an anti-submarine defense aircraft that uses sonar buoys. But it is too rude, expensive and obvious. With greater success, vessels converted from fishing trawlers are used for these purposes. In appearance - an ordinary "fisherman". But only a specialist can determine that in front of him is not a fishing vessel, but a reconnaissance ship. They "scorch" along the antennas, of which there is a lot of them on their superstructure ... Navy men all over the world are not fools, and have long learned how to "redeem" such cunning boats ... Nevertheless, such vessels are part of the Russian Navy. Where I’m based, I won’t say - all the intelligence services in the world already know. As a rule, they are converted from STR-420 and STR-503, and before them SRTM of the Mayak and Ocean type were used. So, here is another way to maintain an up-to-date database of targets in the ship CIUS. In general, ours, that their intelligence is trying to use all available means in a complex way: this means that if somewhere naval maneuvers or even a ship’s passage, along which nothing is still in place, are likely to “graze” there and our submarines (theirs, respectively, with us), and something will fly or hang, and something will float, depicting trawling or wallet fishing ... The Americans have added an oceanographic buoy to this entire arsenal type ODAS. In addition to everything else, they installed on it a block of cameras of various ranges, directional hydrophones and a device for fixing the operation parameters of ship radars and radio communications. Thus, the underwater target is audible; the surface target is also visible in several ranges. Then all this “infa” flies off through the satellite somewhere, I don’t know where ... where it is processed and then loaded into the BIOS of American ships and boats. In general, near our naval bases several times, at different periods of time, they discovered (usually by accident) bottom registrars that belonged to, you know, to whom. I suspect that we also do not remain in debt (given the rapid development of technology), but this is only my guess. I called you the well-known methods of taking acoustic "portraits" of ships and boats that have been and are still being applied. There is another way, but I don’t know anything about it: undercover work, for example.
  12. Vladimir1155
    Vladimir1155 11 September 2019 19: 26 New
    0
    only minesweepers are not enough, so that large surface ships all die in mines? one mine for each one is enough ... isn’t it better to establish a mass release of mines and forces of PMO, and stop making surface ships suicide bombers?
  13. Fizik M
    Fizik M 11 September 2019 21: 18 New
    +1
    Quote: Brylevsky
    In appearance - an ordinary "fisherman"

    Well, "an ordinary fisherman" (instead of a real goal, he will write
    or some "our BDRM" (because amers GNATS equipment zelo quality imitates all this)
  14. karabass
    karabass 26 October 2019 13: 08 New
    0
    I already wrote that weapons cannot be endowed with intelligence! As soon as it grows wiser, it will immediately refuse to fight, and if the commander begins to put pressure on him, then he will immediately be shot and deserted