Military Review

Battle robots

A combat robot (or Military robot) is an automatic device that replaces a person in combat situations to save human life or to work in conditions incompatible with a person’s capabilities for military purposes: reconnaissance, combat operations, demining, etc.

Battle robots

Combat robots are not only automatic devices with anthropomorphic effects that partially or completely replace a person, but also operate in an air and water environment that is not a human environment (aviation remote-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles, underwater vehicles and surface ships). The device may be electromechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic or combined.

The first drawing of a humanoid robot was made by Leonardo da Vinci, and in 1495, he presented a detailed model of a mechanical knight, able to sit, move his arms and head, and also raise the visor. The project was developed based on studies of the proportions of the human body.

Since the beginning of the 18th century, reports about cars with “signs of reason” began to appear in the press, but in most cases it turned out that this was a fraud. Inside the mechanisms hid live people or trained animals.

In 1898, Nikola Tesla developed and demonstrated a miniature radio-controlled vessel.

At the end of the 19th century, the Russian engineer Chebyshev invented a mechanism — a stupor, having a higher maneuverability, and who “made a contribution” to robotics in the future.

At the beginning of the 20th century, work was underway in secret military laboratories to create various combat vehicles.

In 1910, inspired by the success of the Wright brothers, a young American military engineer from Ohio, Charles Kettering, suggested using aircraft without a person. According to his plan, a device controlled by a clockwork mechanism in a given place was supposed to drop wings and fall like a bomb on an enemy. Having received funding from the US Army, he built, and with varying success, tested several devices, called The Kattering Aerial Torpedo, Kettering Bug (or simply Bug), but they were never used in combat.

In 1921, the Czech writer Karel Čapek presented to the public a play called “Rossumian Universal Robots”, from which the word “robot” originated (from Czech. Robota).

In 1933, the first unmanned aerial vehicle Queen Bee was developed in the UK.

In 1931, Stalin approved a plan for the reorganization of troops, which relied on Tanks. In this regard, television tanks were built - controlled in battles by radio at a distance, without a crew. These were serial tanks T-26, TT (abbr. From Teletank), a control tank (from which a group of "crewless" tanks was controlled). At the beginning of the 1940s, 61 radio-controlled tanks were in service with the Red Army. These machines were used for the first time during the Soviet-Finnish war, where the demolition tank, also created on the basis of the T-26 tank, distinguished itself.

Very soon, these structures showed an “Achilles heel”: once, during exercises, the machines suddenly ceased to execute commands from operators. After a thorough inspection of the equipment, no damage was found. A little later, it was found that the high-voltage transmission line passing near the exercises, interfered with the radio signal. Also, the radio signal was lost on rough terrain.

With the outbreak of the Patriotic War, the development of the improvement of teletokank stopped.

During the Second World War, Goliath self-propelled mines were used. it weapon not considered successful due to high cost, low speed (9.5 km / h), low permeability, wire vulnerability and thin armor (10 mm), which was unable to protect the self-propelled mine from any anti-tank weapon.

The Cold War introduced a new round in the development of combat vehicles. High-precision intelligent robots have emerged that can analyze, see, hear, feel, distinguish between certain chemicals and perform chemical analyzes of water or soil.

In 1948, a reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicle AQM-34 was created in the USA. His first flight took place in 1951 year, in the same year, the "drone" was put into mass production.

In 1959, an unmanned reconnaissance aircraft La-17Р was developed in the design bureau of S. Lavochkin.

In the course of the Vietnam War, the US Air Force actively used the Firebird and Lightning Bag unmanned aerial vehicles.

In March, 1971, the Commission of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers of the USSR made a decision on the development of unmanned aircraft.

In the 1979 year, at the N. Bauman Technical University, by order of the KGB, an apparatus was made for the disposal of explosive objects — the ultra-light mobile robot MRK-01.

In 1996, a fundamentally new tank, capable of fully autonomous operation, was tested.

In 2000, the “Vasya” reconnaissance robot was successfully used in Chechnya to detect and neutralize radioactive substances.

Since the beginning of the XXI century, many countries have increased investment in the development of new technologies in robotics. According to the Pentagon on 2007 — 2013 years, the United States has allocated about 2010 billion dollars for the development of such devices before the 4 year.

In 2005, the Russian Navy experienced the Gnome underwater robot in the Baltic Sea. He has a circular view locator, which allows him to see at a distance of more than 100 meters and independently neutralize mines.

In 2006, a “robot-watch” was created in South Korea to protect the borders with North Korea.
The American company Foster-Mille has developed a combat robot, which was equipped with a large-caliber machine gun. In the summer of 2007, three robots of this company were successfully tested in Iraq, after which the company received an order for 80 machines.

In June 2007, a number of US companies announced that they would soon create a combat unit of multifunctional combat robots. Their collective intelligence will operate according to the same laws as in insect communities (for example, ants). The main task of such combat vehicles is to ensure adequate actions in case of loss of its contact with the combat group.
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  1. Honory
    Honory 11 July 2012 16: 02
    I have no doubt that armies from robots will become a reality in 50-100 years