Military Review

Foreign copies of the Soviet C-75 air defense system (part of 2)

As mentioned in the first part of the review, the final tests of the HQ-2 anti-aircraft missile system began in the 1967 year, that is, a year after the official adoption of the HQ-1 air defense missile defense forces. The new modification had the same range of destruction of air targets - 32 km and the ceiling - 24500 m. The probability of hitting a target of one missile defense, in the absence of organized interference, is about 60%.

One of the first versions of the SJ-202 missile guidance station

The HQ-2 anti-aircraft missiles initially differed little from the missiles used in the HQ-1, and generally repeated the Soviet B-750 SAM, but the GJ Sling GJ Sling created in China had significant external and hardware differences from the Soviet prototype CHP-202. Chinese experts used their own element base and changed the location of the antennas. However, fine-tuning the hardware of the guidance station was greatly delayed. At the beginning of 75's, the Chinese radio-electronic industry lagged far behind not only from Western countries, but also from the USSR, which in turn had a negative effect on the noise immunity and reliability of the first stations of the SJ-70 type.

Foreign copies of the Soviet C-75 air defense system (part of 2)

SJ-202А guidance station

Simultaneously with the adjustment to the required level of reliability of the guidance equipment, the capacity of the missile tanks was increased, which gave an increase in the launch range. The theft of advanced Soviet missiles delivered to Vietnam through the territory of the PRC allowed the Chinese specialists to create a more reliable radio-fuse and a new warhead with an increased probability of hitting the target.

The ZUR guidance station and the HQ-2 air defense missile and control cabins in combat position

According to data obtained by American intelligence, until the second half of the 70's, the combat capability of the anti-aircraft missile battalions in the PLA air defense units was low. Approximately 20-25% of the HQ-2 ADMS had technical problems that prevented them from carrying out a combat mission. The low level of preparation for Chinese calculations and the general decline in the production culture and technological level that occurred in the PRC after the Cultural Revolution had a negative effect on the combat readiness of the air defense forces. In addition, there were very serious problems with the creation of a stock of anti-aircraft missiles in the troops. The Chinese industry with high voltage forces ensured the supply of the minimum required amount of missiles, while the quality of production was very low, and missiles were often refused after launch.

Refueling anti-aircraft missile complex HQ-2

Since missiles often had leaks of fuel and an oxidizer, in order to avoid emergencies that could lead to the destruction of expensive equipment and the destruction of calculations, the PLA’s air defense command issued an order to conduct combat duty with a minimum amount of missiles at the launcher, and to thoroughly check them. It was possible to increase technical reliability in the HQ-2A modification, the production of which began in the 1978 year.

Field position SAM HQ-2A

The maximum range of destruction of air targets on this model was 34 km, the altitude was able to bring to 27 km. The minimum launch range has been reduced from 12 to 8 km. The speed of missiles - 1200 m / s. The maximum speed of the target is 1100 m / s. The probability of hitting one missile is about 70%.

Launcher with missiles, which were part of the HQ-2A SAMs

After the creation of the HQ-2 air defense system, the developers frankly stalled. Of course, there were certain reserves in terms of improving the reliability of all elements of the complex, and Chinese specialists had a vision of how to improve the flight characteristics of the rocket. At the same time, its own scientific school was just emerging in the PRC, and there was no necessary base for basic research and technological developments. The rupture of military-technical cooperation with the USSR led to a slowdown in the rate of development of new types of high-tech weapons, and the improvement of the Chinese air defense systems was continued by stealing Soviet secrets.

Unlike North Vietnam, Syria and Egypt in the second half of the 60's early 70's were supplied with the most advanced air defense equipment. Thus, Egypt became the recipient of quite modern modifications of the C-75 family. In addition to the 10-cm of the CA-75М “Dvina” complexes, this country before 1973 was transferred: 32 СРК X-NNXX Desna and 75 СРК С-8М Volga, as well as more 75 anti-aircraft missiles (including 2700 B-missiles -344).

After the Egyptian President Anwar Sadat decided to make peace with Israel and headed for rapprochement with the United States, all Soviet military advisers were expelled from Egypt. Under these conditions, Chinese intelligence was able to find approaches to the Egyptian leadership, and a number of samples of the latest Soviet-made military equipment and weapons were exported to the PRC. Thus, a fairly fresh export version of the C-75M air defense missile system with B-755 extended-range missiles became a source of inspiration for Chinese specialists in creating new HQ-2 variants.

Due to spoiled relations, the Soviet Union ceased cooperation with Egypt in the field of defense. Since the development of the air defense resource complex at the beginning of the 80-s sharply faced the problem of their maintenance, repair and modernization, this prompted the Egyptians to begin independent research in this direction. The main purpose of the work was the extension of the service life and the modernization of the V-750BN (13D) anti-aircraft missiles that had served their warranty periods. With Chinese technical and financial support near Cairo, an enterprise was established on the basis of workshops for the repair and maintenance of air defense equipment built by the USSR, where a ZER and other elements of the air defense missile system were being repaired. In the second half of the 80-s in Egypt began its own assembly of anti-aircraft missiles, with some key elements: control equipment, radio shakers and engines were supplied from China.

After the specialists of the French company "Tomson-CSF" joined the modernization program, part of the equipment of the Egyptian air defense missile systems was transferred to a new solid-state element base. The modernized version of the Egyptian “seventy-fifths” received the oriental poetic name - “Tair Al-Sabah” (“Morning Bird”).

Satellite image Goole Earth: the position of the Egyptian air defense system C-75 in the vicinity of Ismailia

At the moment, about two dozen C-75 are deployed in positions in Egypt. The main part of the medium-range air defense system modernized by means of the PRC and France is located along the Suez Canal and protects Cairo. All Egyptian C-75 air defense systems are based on well-prepared and well-fortified stationary positions. Their control cabins, diesel generators, transport-charging vehicles with spare rockets and auxiliary equipment are covered under a thick layer of concrete and sand. On the surface there were only tumbled launchers and an antenna post station guidance. Not far from the air defense system there are prepared positions for small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery, which should cover the C-75 from strikes from a low altitude. Attention is drawn to the fact that the positions themselves and the access roads to them have been thoroughly cleaned of sand and are in very good condition.

Satellite image Goole Earth: the position of the Egyptian air defense system C-75 in the vicinity of Cairo

Due to Chinese and French support, Egypt is currently the world's largest operator of modernized Soviet C-75 family complexes. Due to the implementation of a large-scale overhaul program, updating of electronic units and the adjusted production of anti-aircraft missiles, the country of the pyramids still carry the “seventy-fives” combat duty built in the USSR more than 40 years ago.

Satellite image Goole Еarth: reconstructed stationary position north of Suez, C-75 air defense system deployed alongside

However, based on the analysis of satellite images of Egyptian anti-aircraft complexes made in previous years and in the 2018 year, it is clear that the C-75 air defense systems are gradually being removed from service. At the same time, the former positions, where the seventy-fives were on duty for a long period of time, are undergoing a major overhaul and are expanding, and the anti-aircraft missile battalion technology previously based here is often deployed in a “clean field” nearby. Based on all this, it can be assumed that in the near future it is planned to deploy long-range anti-aircraft missile systems with large self-propelled launchers, in size corresponding to the Russian C-400 or Chinese HQ-9.

The mutually beneficial military cooperation with Egypt provided an opportunity to familiarize themselves with the original Soviet modifications of the C-75, previously unknown to Chinese specialists, which gave a new impetus to the improvement of Chinese anti-aircraft complexes. HQ-2 has been upgraded in several directions. In addition to improving noise immunity and increasing the probability of hitting the target, at the beginning of 70-s, based on existing developments, an attempt was made to create a complex with a firing range of more than 100 km and to give it anti-missile capabilities. The new air defense system, based on the HQ-2, received the designation HQ-3, but could not successfully complete work on it.

The Chinese designers went by using the available components and assemblies of the rocket, with a significant increase in the capacity of the fuel and oxidizer tanks and the use of a more powerful first booster stage. The range of tracking and guiding missiles at the target was increased by increasing the power of the emitted signal and changing the operating mode of the SNR equipment.

During test launches, the experimental rocket demonstrated a range of controlled flight of more than 100 km. However, due to the increased mass and size, the new missile defense system compared to the HQ-2 had much worse maneuverability. In addition, at a distance of more than 50 km, the former radio command guidance system gave too large an error, which sharply reduced the accuracy of the guidance. The new missile was capable of hitting targets at altitudes over 30 km, but this was not enough to fight ballistic missiles. In addition, the probability of destroying the combat unit of the ICBM fragmentation warhead was very small, and to create a small-sized "special" warhead for installation on a relatively narrow missiles in those years in China did not consider it possible. As a result, the creation of long-range and anti-missile modifications based on HQ-2 was abandoned.

The 1979 Sino-Vietnamese conflict demonstrated that the ground units of the PLA are in dire need of a medium-range mobile air defense system capable of covering troops on the march in and concentration areas. The basic HQ-2 modification turned out to be completely unsuitable for this. Like its Soviet counterpart, the C-75, the Chinese complex had more than two dozen technical units for various purposes and was deployed in engineering-prepared sites.

The strengthened position of the Chinese air defense system HQ-2

Although the complex was considered mobile, most of the Chinese air defense systems were on combat duty in a stationary version, at positions well prepared in engineering terms, where there were reinforced concrete shelters and solid rocket transport routes. Under these conditions, the low passability and low speed of movement of rocket tractors and cab conveyors did not matter. But since the armed forces of the PRC did not have medium-range military complexes, the PLA command demanded the creation of a highly mobile air defense system based on the HQ-2. The main way to increase the mobility of the NQ-2B air defense system, adopted in 1986, was the introduction of the WXZ 204 self-propelled launcher, based on the lightweight tank Type 63.

Launcher ЗРК HQ-2B on a tracked conveyor WXZ 204

All other elements of the NQ-2B SAM system were towed. For this modification, a more interference-free guidance station and a rocket with a launch range of up to 40 km and a minimum hit area of ​​7 km were developed. After becoming acquainted with the Soviet B-755 (20D) sourced from Egypt, the new Chinese anti-aircraft missile was equipped with more advanced radio control and radio equipment, autopilot, radio fuse, warhead with ready striking elements, an adjustable thrust liquid-propellant rocket engine and a more powerful starting accelerator. At the same time, the mass of the rocket increased to 2330 kg. The speed of the SAM is 1250 m / s, the maximum speed of the target is 1150 m / s. The launcher on a tracked chassis, with a loaded rocket, weighed about 26 t. The diesel engine could accelerate the car on the highway to 43 km / h, cruising range - to 250 km.

However, it was impossible to move with a fully equipped rocket at high speed and for a considerable distance. As is known, anti-aircraft missiles with liquid propellant rocket engines in the filled state are rather delicate products, which are strongly contraindicated for significant shock-vibration loads. Even minor mechanical effects can lead to loss of tightness of tanks, which is fraught with the saddest consequences for the calculation. Therefore, placing the C-75 missile launcher on a tracked undercarriage is devoid of any special meaning. The presence of self-propelled PU certainly reduces the deployment time somewhat, but the mobility of the complex as a whole does not dramatically increase. As a result, having suffered with self-propelled tracked launchers, the Chinese abandoned the mass production of the HQ-2B SAM system in favor of the HQ-2J, on which all elements were towed.

Launchers and SNR SJ-202В on the position of the air defense system HQ-2J

If you believe the brochures presented at the end of 80-x at international exhibitions of weapons, the probability of hitting one missile, in the absence of organized interference, for the HQ-2J SAMs 92%. The anti-aircraft missile system, thanks to the introduction of an additional target channel in the SJ-202В SNR, is capable of simultaneously firing two targets in the working sector of a guidance radar, targeting up to four missiles.

SJ-202В missile guidance station and control cabins on the HQ-2J air defense missile system in the vicinity of Beijing

In general, the HQ-2 family of air defense systems repeated the path traveled in the USSR with a delay of 10-12 years. At the same time, the Chinese People’s Republic did not create an analogue of the Soviet B-759 (5YA23) SAMs with a range of up to 56 km and a height of 100-30 000 meters. Soviet ZUR B-2 (XNUMHD).

The defeat zones of the Soviet anti-aircraft missiles 20D and 5YA23, which were part of the C-75М2, С-75М3 and С-75М4 air defense missile systems

There is also no information that the Chinese specialists managed to repeat the characteristics of the noise immunity of the guidance equipment of the Volkhov C-75М3 air defense system adopted in service in the USSR in the 1975 year. At the same time, Chinese specialists were able to install television-optical sightings with the introduction of an optical tracking channel on later versions of HQ-2J, which, under the conditions of visual observation of an airborne target, conducted its tracking and firing without using radar SAM systems in the radiation mode. Also in the second half of the 80-x to protect the positions of the air defense missile system in the PLA air defense forces from anti-radar missiles appeared remote simulators, reproducing the radiation of missile guidance stations.

In addition, all Chinese complexes, deployed on a permanent basis around important administrative, industrial and military facilities, were placed on well-equipped stationary positions in engineering terms. According to information published in Western reference books from 1967 to 1993, more than 120 SAM systems HQ-2 of various modifications and around 5000 anti-aircraft missiles were built in the PRC. As of the middle of 90-x on the territory of the People's Republic of China, there were approximately 90 operating positions of the HQ-2 SAMs.

Satellite image of Goole Earth: an airliner flies over the position of the NQ-2 SAM system in the vicinity of the administrative center of Urumqi, in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

About 30 anti-aircraft systems were exported to Albania, Iran, North Korea and Pakistan. According to Vietnamese sources, two divisions of the early modification of the HQ-2 as part of Chinese military assistance in the early 70s were sent to the DRV. However, after switching on, due to low noise immunity, they were quickly suppressed by electronic warfare and destroyed by the American aviation.

As new variants were put into service, the previously released complexes were being refined in the course of medium and major repairs. At the same time, in order to increase combat capabilities, a H-2 multi-function station with an antenna phased array was introduced into the composition of some HQ-200В / J SAM systems. Radar H-200 was originally developed for the KS-1A SAMs, which, in turn, was developed from the middle of the 80-s to replace the HQ-2 family of complexes. For use as part of the HQ-2В / J air defense system, the radio command guidance system of anti-aircraft missiles is being introduced into the hardware of the H-200 radar.

Multifunctional radar H-200

According to Western experts, the H-200 radar was created by borrowing technical solutions from the American AN / MPQ-53 radar. According to Chinese data, the H-200 radar is capable of detecting a high-altitude target with an 2 EPR at a distance of up to 120 km and accompanying it from the 85 km. With a flight altitude of 8 km, the range of steady tracking is 45 km. The station after completion of the HQ-2В / J complex can simultaneously fire three targets, directing six missiles at them. This modernization has significantly increased the combat capabilities of the rapidly growing obsolete SAMs of the first generation. Most of the HQ-2J SAMs modified for use with the H-200 radar are located in the vicinity of the Chinese capital.

Goole Earth satellite image: HQ-2 air defense system position north-west of Beijing

In the past, more than 20 HQ-2 divisions were deployed around Beijing. The highest density of anti-aircraft positions was located from the north-western direction, on the way of the most probable breakthrough of Soviet long-range bombers. At the moment, most of the aging HQ-2 air defense systems deployed around the capital of China have been replaced by modern long-range multichannel air defense systems of Russian and Chinese production: C-300PMU1 / 2 and HQ-9.

To be continued ...

Based on:
Articles from this series:
Foreign copies of the Soviet C-75 air defense system (part of 1)

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  1. Wildcat
    Wildcat 1 December 2018 06: 17
    Excellent article! hi
    Managed to put the first asterisk! winked
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 1 December 2018 08: 19
    For this modification, a more noise-resistant guidance station was developed, and a missile with a launch range of up to 40 km and a minimum damage zone of 7 km. After getting acquainted with the Soviet V-755 (20D) missiles received from Egypt, the new Chinese anti-aircraft missile used more advanced radio control and radio visualization equipment, an autopilot, a radio fuse, a warhead with ready-to-use striking elements, an adjustable thrust liquid-propellant rocket engine and a more powerful launch accelerator. At the same time, the mass of the rocket increased to 2330 kg. SAM flight speed - 1250 m / s, the maximum speed of the fired target - 1150 m / s. The launcher on a tracked chassis, with a rocket loaded, weighed about 26 tons. A diesel engine could accelerate the car along the highway to 43 km / h, range - up to 250 km.
    Well I do not know? We had two cases in the regiment, though with MGM, when the calculations during the training did not make sure that the saddle and the semitrailer had a good grip and when the semitrailer fell, the model broke between the tanks. Thank you, Sergey, it is interesting to compare with the missiles that were in service with us. In! 970, we could use all 6-cm missiles at our air defense system, since the plant carried out all the modifications on the M-1 cycle. The last improvements before the modernization of the M-2 cycle were the installation of a selection unit for firing in low-altitude and passive modes and equipment for 15D rockets (V-760). It turns out that the Chinese improvements to their air defense systems were incomplete and the French have not understood our ideas for upgrading the S-10 air defense system for 75 years. During the subsequent operation of the S-75M systems, modernized versions of the 20D rocket were developed for them:
    • 20DA - missiles that have served the warranty period, during repairs were converted at the plants into 20DS modification missiles.
    • 20DP - a variant of the V-755 missile, modified to aim at a target in a passive section of the trajectory. By Decision of the military-industrial complex N136 of September 12, 1960, work was begun to expand the affected area of ​​subsonic air targets by guiding missiles in the passive section of the trajectory. It was supposed to increase one and a half times the maximum range of missile launch on a subsonic target with an EPR of 6-8 m (sq) and provide the distant border of the affected area of ​​55-60 km. Design tests were to begin in the II quarter. 1961 The increase in the flight time of the rocket required a comprehensive work on its modification. To ensure a longer flight of missiles with a working liquid propellant rocket engine, a variant of the engine was developed, which received the designation C2.720.A2. It was necessary to carry out improvements to the 5E11 radio fuse, the self-liquidation system, the safety-executive mechanism, and the onboard power supply. Of particular difficulty was the power supply of the on-board equipment and the steering gear drive, which ensured the transfer of aerodynamic rudders. The delay time of the self-liquidator rocket was increased. Due to the use of missiles in the passive section of the trajectory, the far boundary of the affected area of ​​the modified complexes was increased to 56 km. The self-liquidation of the rocket was carried out by limiting the flight time or during a miss regardless of the flight time. During the warranty period, the 20DP missiles, which had expired during repairs, were converted at the factories into 20DS modification missiles.
    • 20DU - (V-755U) - a modification of the 20D rocket with a reduced prelaunch time was transferred to serial production in the second half of the sixties. The length of the rocket is 10,8 m, the mass is 2398 kg. The missiles that have served the warranty period were refitted in factories into 20DSU modification missiles during repairs.
    • 20DS - modification of a missile with a selection unit to ensure firing at targets with a flight height of less than 200 m;
    • 20DSU - a modification of the rocket equipped with a selector block; the on-board equipment has been modified to reduce the time for prelaunch preparation.
    The only thing that is interesting is the latest Chinese developments on solid-state elements
    1. Bongo
      2 December 2018 14: 53
      Quote: Amurets
      It turns out that the Chinese refinements of their air defense missile systems were not complete and the French didn’t understand our ideas on upgrading the C-10 air defense missiles after 75.

      Nikolai, good evening!
      The fact is that the Sino-French modernization of the C-75 air defense system in Egypt was primarily aimed not at increasing the combat capabilities of the anti-aircraft missile system and the hardware of the complexes, but at extending the service life under conditions when technical support and maintenance from the USSR ceased.
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 1 December 2018 08: 47
    Thanks for the interesting stuff.
  4. merkava-2bet
    merkava-2bet 1 December 2018 09: 55
    I hope that Sergey and the C-125 air defense system will also interestingly describe, thank you.
    1. Bongo
      1 December 2018 11: 52
      Quote: merkava-2bet
      I hope that Sergey and the C-125 air defense system will also interestingly describe, thank you.

      It has already been:
      LAW C-125 in the XXI century
  5. san4es
    san4es 1 December 2018 11: 03
    hi Good afternoon. Thank.
    At present, in Egypt, approximately two dozen S-75s are deployed in positions.
    March 1975. Preparation in the Egyptian desert.

    repeat About Chinese HQ-2, no videos were found. But for some reason, there is a film about the work of calculating S-75 air defense systems in Vietnam soldier
    (History and Modernity)

    1. Bongo
      2 December 2018 03: 52
      Quote: san4es
      About Chinese HQ-2, clips were not found.

      Here is a Chinese feature film about the first combat use of HQ-1. However, guidance stations and HQ-2 SAM missiles are in this role.

      [media = https: //]
  6. Spike Javelin Touvich
    Spike Javelin Touvich 2 December 2018 02: 41
    Thank you Sergey good
    1. Bongo
      2 December 2018 03: 00
      Quote: Spike Javelin Touvich
      Thank you Sergey good

  7. sivuch
    sivuch 2 December 2018 10: 48
    Sergey, hello
    First, check the mail.
    Secondly, the phrase that Egypt, unlike Vietnam, received the most advanced technique, is also inaccurate. Thank God, they sent not all modern equipment.
    And about the transportation of missiles from the liquid propellant rocket engine - as I understand it, this refers to the liquid-core missiles of the 75 complex. Krugovskys, as I remember, drove normally.
    1. Bongo
      2 December 2018 13: 51
      Quote: sivuch
      Sergey, hello

      Quote: sivuch
      First, check the mail.

      I look necessarily ... yes
      Quote: sivuch
      Secondly, the phrase that Egypt, unlike Vietnam, received the most advanced technique, is also inaccurate. Thank God, they sent not all modern equipment.

      Come on, what was not in 1973 in Egypt, what was in the USSR? The S-75 and S-125 were supplied of course in export modifications, but they basically differed in the system of state recognition and combat control. In terms of SAM and the SAM equipment itself, these were the most modern modifications. Egypt did not receive the long-range S-200A, but the Angara was only put into service at that time. The Arabs did not have mobile "Kroogi", but they even began to deliver them to the ATS countries later. "Strela-1" was in the Egyptian army, the "Wasp" was adopted somewhere in 1971, and in 1973 it was almost not even in the air defense of the SV. But the Arabs had the newest and very effective at the time "Square". Now let's compare with what of all of the above was available in Vietnam?
      Quote: sivuch
      And about the transportation of missiles from the liquid propellant rocket engine - as I understand it, this refers to the liquid-core missiles of the 75 complex. Krugovskys, as I remember, drove normally.

      You understand correctly, dear comrade ... but there is one nuance that you, as a person who wrote a wonderful monograph about the Krug air defense system, cannot but know. SAM ZM8 used ramjet (Ramjet) operating on liquid fuel (kerosene). When they talk about the LRE, they usually mean the engine that runs on liquid fuel and oxidizer.
      1. sivuch
        sivuch 2 December 2018 18: 35
        Hi, hello.
        If I understand correctly, we are left alone here. Maybe it's for the best.
        Firstly, what was not. Generally speaking, air defense is not only an air defense system (Captain Evidence). I meant both the radar and the ACS. Say, according to the well-known table of BMPDs for more than 120 S-75 and S-125 divisions, only 4 ASURK-1M were delivered. Most likely, they did not even have time to apply them, although the competent authorities probably rummaged.
        .Right here
        War in the sky of Egypt
        (On the 30th anniversary of the participation of Soviet aircraft in hostilities in the Middle East in 1969 - 1971)
        they write that they put several automated control systems for targeting IA -
        Egyptian Air Force acquired several battalion and regiment kits of ACS (VP-OZM and VP-02M). Their crews were hastily staffed with specialists with higher education and students of technical universities. However, due to the insufficient training of the pilots and the calculations of the launcher, the combat use of the automated control system, according to our data, was not carried out. Subsequently, the equipment of the systems was dismantled. ZIL-131 tractors with increased cross-country ability (automatic wheel pressure) began to be used for transportation of cargo in the desert.
        About the same with the radar. As far as one can judge, the most recent radars - P-37, P-40, P-18 them, thank God, did not manage to send them.
        It's hard to say about Strela-1. Dima remembers that these zrk guarded the canal. However, nothing was said about direct participation in the battles. The list of losses of Israeli aviation about them is neither a dream nor a spirit. Despite the fact that they were quite successfully noted in all subsequent conflicts, except 1982.
        With the Circle - I don’t argue that others (especially Vietnam) didn’t have this either. Just the phrase The most modern weapons require clarification. Vega, if sclerosis does not change, appeared in 1970.
        But, of course, there was no question of sending her to Egypt. Wasps in 73 just wouldn't help
        1. Bongo
          3 December 2018 06: 32
          Quote: sivuch
          If I understand correctly, we are left alone here. Maybe it's for the best.

          Well, judging by the "+", this is not entirely true.

          Quote: sivuch
          I had in mind and radar and ACS

          Regarding Sistem governance agree yes Nevertheless, by 1973, Egypt and the SAR had a very strong air defense grouping, in Israel there was no such thing. And I still think that it was for the most part the most modern technology for that time, although of course the "Arab friends" were not supplied with everything that was in the USSR. As for the Egyptian radars, you have to dig here. It is possible that the P-18 was still supplied.
          1. Aibolit
            Aibolit 5 December 2018 00: 09
            Quote: Bongo
            Nevertheless, in 1973 Egypt and the SAR had a very strong air defense group,

            To ensure continuous combat readiness of the ZRD, as a rule, two missiles at the starting position were contained in the “Preparation II” mode. The mode of constant readiness led to the fact that on many missiles the life of flight equipment (up to 200 hours in the sum of the modes "Preparation II" and "Preparation I") soon became exhausted.

            2–2,5 times exceeded the established deadlines!
            This led to the fact that on-board equipment about 70% of the missiles on duty, worked from 100 to 300 hours at established operational resource of 150 hours
            during the incoming inspection, there was a departure in the frequency of the defendant for operational tolerance.
            Entrance control was carried out on all missiles received in the UAR

            the indicated drawback occurred in 32% of verified missiles!

            About 40% of the SA-75M air defense systems of the UAR have been in operation since 1962. The intensity of operation is high and has reached in recent years in connection with the conduct of hostilities more than 3000 hours per year

            Faults caused by improper or careless operation include the following:
            - Wear of bearings of scanning engines for antennas PA-11 and PA-12;
            - corrosion and contamination of the inner surface of the main waveguide of the PA-42 unit due to its untimely inspection and cleaning;
            - contaminate klystron chambers, corrosion coating of the plunger of klystron chambers and manual gear;
            - failure of up to 30-40% of the control block sockets due to non-standard plugs. wassat

            Launchers SM-bZ-P.
            Most of the malfunctions that occurred on the launcher during long-term operation are caused by "non-compliance" (Arabs, what to take from them) PU maintenance instructions, and also the sloppy work of combat crews.
            The following malfunctions occurred in launchers:
            - burning contact in the contactors ATP-2M (40% PU);
            - the car’s reverse brakes do not work due to a malfunction of the pneumatic system (15% of the control system);
            - the gas reflector winch does not work due to the bent winch screw screw (8% PU);
            - the levers of the boom breaking mechanism are bent due to improper installation of the copier 01-296 during operation (5% PU);
            —The covers of the IMB-3 block (6,4% PU) were torn;
            - due to the curvature of the rod, the handle for the accelerated cleaning of the cart reverse jack does not rotate (22% PU) .;
            - the boom of the PU spontaneously rises about an elevation of about 30 ° due to the misalignment of the belt brakes (8% of the PU).
            sand there
            There was a frequent failure of individual mechanical units in the I-65M and I-63M blocks: a ZA6.332.076 gearbox, PK.6.273.003 stopper, and AT-261 diaphragm clutch. The failure of the mechanical components is explained by the ingress of: fine dust into the blocks, untimely cleaning and lubrication of the mechanical components.

            Everything as later in Libya
            Shooting of air defense systems S-175 and S-75 was carried out in violation of the rules for firing SAM and the recommendation of the SAF. The level of learning calculations is insufficient. Positions have not changed

            Quote: Bongo
            It is possible that the P-18 was still delivered.

            SRTs P-12 And P-15.
            P-18 "Terek" adopted in the USSR in 1971 (1972), the Egyptians have almost stopped fighting with Israel
            1. Bongo
              5 December 2018 05: 07
              Dear Ivan Arnoldovich lol , it is a pity that you could not take part in the discussion of the publication when it just came out. But the post is cool! good
              As for this:
              Quote: Aibolit
              P-18 "Terek" adopted in the USSR in 1971 (1972), the Egyptians have almost stopped fighting with Israel

              Then everything is ambiguous. The export version of "Cuba" - "Square" also appeared in 1971, which did not prevent the Arabs from using it very effectively in the "Yom Kippur War." And the regimental means of detecting these complexes initially included more advanced stations than the P-12 and P-15.
              1. Aibolit
                Aibolit 5 December 2018 14: 53
                Good day Sergey.
                I am really busy. Occupants strained:
                Until January 1, 2019, all enterprises (absolutely everything !!!) are required to conduct a special assessment of working conditions. Do not forget. Labor inspections can begin immediately after the New Year holidays. A special assessment of working conditions was introduced back in 2014 by Federal Law No. 426-ФЗ “On a Special Assessment of Working Conditions”.

                the first fine is 60-000 rubles, and again 90 rubles.
                SOUTH for office plankton?
                Quote: Bongo
                Then everything is ambiguous. The export version "Cuba" - "Square" also appeared in 1971,

                Deploy and apply SA-6 and P-18: TWO BIG DIFFERENCES.
                Aby where would you put the P-18
                1. Bongo
                  5 December 2018 14: 59
                  Quote: Aibolit
                  Aby where would you put the P-18

                  And how does the deployment of the P-18 fundamentally differ from the P-12 based on the ZIL-157? The mobility and deployment time of these stations is about the same.
                  1. Aibolit
                    Aibolit 5 December 2018 17: 33
                    Quote: Bongo
                    And what is the deployment procedure for the P-18 fundamentally different from the P-12 based on the ZiL-157

                    1. Why ZIL-157?
                    P-18 is five transport units.
                    * Hardware, car - a Ural-375A car with a K-375 body, the mass of the car is 12430 kg. Transmission and receiving equipment, indicators, and protection equipment are located in the hardware machine.
                    * AMU car - a Ural-375D car with a special body, the mass of the car is 12936 kg. The AMU machine contains elements of the AMU, winches for mounting the AMU, spare parts.
                    * The NRZ-P machine product 1L22 is a Ural-375A car with a K-375 body, the mass of the car is 12430 kg. In the NRZ machine there are transceiver equipment, elements of the AMU NRZ.
                    ** Two trailers power PS-1 and PS-2 type 700G, the mass of trailers 6545 and 6631 kg, respectively. In PS-1 and PS-2 trailers, there is one AD-10-T / 230-M power supply unit, as well as cable reels and spare parts for the station

                    2. Yes, almost nothing.
                    Deployment Only
                    Quote: Bongo
                    The export version "Cuba" - "Square" also appeared in 1971,
                    and P-18. Right?

                    When choosing a position, a significant influence of the terrain relief on the formation of the radiation pattern of the station in the vertical plane should be taken into account

                    The best position is a flat horizontal area with a radius of 500–1000 m in an open area or near a water surface.
                    7 Allowable position unevenness limits: at a distance of 100 m from the antenna - no more than 0,55 m; at a distance of 500 m - up to 3 m; at a distance of 1000 m - up to 5 m. The slope of the position is allowed no more than + 0,5-2 °. The site should be selected at a distance of at least 1000 m from the forest and rural-type settlements and at least 2000 m from urban-type settlements. Individual trees and small bushes do not affect the operation of the station. Closing angles must not exceed 15 '. The water surface increases the detection range of the station. Therefore, it is advisable to locate the station near the water surface on a sloping bank no further than 100 m from the coast with a water surface mirror width of at least 400 m

                    In any case, she would not have been sent to Egypt to 1972-73. Why? What would Israel have access to?
                    1. Bongo
                      6 December 2018 14: 13
                      Quote: Aibolit
                      Why ZIL-157?

                      Because the P-12HA was located exactly on this chassis (on two cars)
                      Quote: Aibolit
                      P-18 is five transport units.

                      Excuse me, how many cars (without a radar interrogator, a spare parts kit and a mobile diesel generator) are necessary for radar to work in position? And let's compare the required number of machines with the P-12?
                      Quote: Aibolit
                      When choosing a position, a significant influence of the terrain relief on the formation of the radiation pattern of the station in the vertical plane should be taken into account

                      Yes, you are a direct captain of evidence ... and for the P-12 which operates in the same frequency range, and on the basis of which the P-18 is created, this condition is not met? what
                      Quote: Aibolit
                      In any case, she would not have been sent to Egypt to 1972-73. Why? What would Israel have access to?

                      Have you heard about the Yom Kippur War, and when did it take place? In your opinion, P-18 is a more critical technology in terms of technology than the Kub (Square) air defense system? No.
                      Syria and Egypt were just crammed with 1973, with new Soviet air defenses.
                      I don’t know how in Egypt (most likely, too), but in the SAR and air defense of the Soviet Union the P-18 radars were included in the regimental set of the Kub-Kvadrat air defense system.