Military Review

Armored train Part of 4. And what is not a military unit?

43
The interest of readers to the subject of armored trains simply obliged the authors to significantly expand the range of issues related to this, we are not afraid of this word, the railway complex. And today we will talk about the unarmored component. About those for whom the battle was not only on the front lines, but also in the near rear. About those who ensured the autonomy of an armored train, and not only. In short, we will focus on the base of an armored train.




Any train, as we have repeatedly written, is primarily a train. And like any composition, an armored train consists of many different platforms and cars. This diversity is caused not only by the tasks that the armored train performs, but also by the possibilities of the railway itself, as well as simply by the requirements of the time.

The armored train often worked autonomously. Not so far away, it would be right to say - at a certain distance. From warehouses, repair shops, garrisons and hospitals.

In fact, the armored train was a garrison. Only mobile. Changing the location depending on the needs of the front.

That is why, as in any garrison, the trains had not only their own ammunition depots, but also clubs, bakeries, hospitals, workshops and even "hotels" for relaxing calculations and transporting passengers (paratroopers).

Again: there were no two identical bases of armored trains. Each base had its own "zest".

We have no opportunity to tell about all the bases. First of all, because there is no documentary evidence for the majority of BP on the composition of these bases. Therefore, the story today will be about the components of the armored train, which were the main ones.

And we should start with the platform, which, for some reason, even visitors to museums pay little attention to, not to mention specialists. Platform, which, although it belongs to the base, but fully participates in all combat operations of the BP.



This platform is referred to differently. Covering platform, control platform and even landing platform. The armored train is usually equipped with four, less often two such platforms. And they are located in front and behind the composition.



Most often, these platforms are completely not protected from enemy fire. Although there were armored platforms. However, the most widely received armored reservation. Just because the branding could be carried out very easily and quickly by the forces of the train crew or the landing force.

What is branding? Yes elementary sandbags around the perimeter of the platform. Cheap and angry, as they say. For example:



And here is another nuance. Sand could well be useful in repairing damaged paths. In particular, for backfilling the inevitable craters formed during the explosion of a projectile, a bomb, a mine ...

Attentive readers have repeatedly stressed the similarity of an armored train with a warship. Add another argument to the supporters of this point of view. Very often the observer was located on the second platform. The one looking forward!

The task of control platforms is simple. Respond to the enemy's mine and take a hit, designed for combat platforms and wagons.

In addition, the platform was needed for the transport of sleepers, rails and all that was needed to repair crews BP. Sometimes platforms were used as places for transporting retreating or advancing assault units, or wounded soldiers.

Now about the "house" of an armored train, where it returns after the next combat operation. The base of the armored train was left at the nearest station, stage or in another convenient place. What automatically made this place the center of the military garrison.

The main "building" of the garrison was the headquarters. In this particular case - the staff car. The carriage was really staff. Virtually all the necessary for the work of the headquarters, most often the division of the BP, the components were. From radio stations, telegraph and autonomous power supply, to household amenities. Usually, a staff carriage did not differ in appearance from a regular passenger carriage.







Further, the base included from 2 to 4-x passenger cars to accommodate a replaceable crew of bepo and other specialists. The cars did not differ from standard, "civilian", passenger cars. Thus, the crew received the necessary rest between the battles without departing from the armored train.









Another carriage was obligatory - ammunition depot. The armored train is a fairly well-armed complex. And, accordingly, he needed a lot of ammunition. Therefore, he drove a black locomotive a whole car of cartridges and shells. Together with spare parts for the repair of weapons. Visually, the car looked like a regular freight car.

Do not forget about the PPR (party political work). The base of the armored train was often a club car. The club was usually equipped in a freight car and outwardly also did not differ from the usual.





What entertainment was available fighters? Naturally, radio and movies. It was realizable. Library. Gramophone with records, some musical instruments. Of the games there could only be dominoes or chess checkers, card games were not encouraged.

Such cars as, for example, a bakery car were not surprised either. First and foremost, of course, for supplying the BP crew with bread.









A shift of three bakery specialists baked 108 bread loaves every three hours. Change, of course, could be two or three. That is, the car could easily bake 864 kilogram loaves per day.

Naturally, there was no such need for the BP crew. Accordingly, the capabilities of the car could be used to supply bread to military echelons passing through the station. This was under the authority of the military commander of the station where the car was located.

In the documents of that time one can sometimes find references to infirmary wagons. However, we are most likely talking about hospitals equipped in passenger cars. Usually one or two compartments in the car for the train crew and master repairmen were equipped to the needs of the infirmary. Medical workers with a minimum supply of medicines also lived there.

We can say that this is “just in case”, which could occur on the stretch from one station to another. Airstrike, a sudden enemy, sabotage, and so on. The wounded and sick were at the base of the BP only until the first opportunity appeared to transfer them to the hospital or to the sanitary train.

Of course, there were kitchens in the trains.



Armored train Part of 4. And what is not a military unit?


Some trains included locksmiths. But these were isolated cases, since everything necessary for repair was usually available in railway depots at home stations.



Well, another element of the base, which can not be forgotten. "Lamb".



The civil locomotive of the series "O", which drove the entire armored train along the front-line roads. The resource of the armored train was small and was not used outside the combat zone.

Black locomotive, a civilian hard worker of railways, through which armored trains were transferred from one front to another or were taken out for repair in the rear workshops. The steam locomotive, which today can be seen in large numbers at numerous Russian stations as monuments.

In various sources you can find other cars that were for some time in the bases of armored trains. But this is a piece of specimens. And we think it is inappropriate to describe them.

Being engaged in armored trains, the authors came to the conclusion that it would be more correct to call the armored train train complexes. It is no coincidence that we used this phrase in the article.

An armored train is not only an armored artillery or anti-aircraft battery. This is a completely independent military unit. With all the inherent components of the military unit. And how the base of armored trains was used during the war only proves this thesis.

But about the use of armored trains, more precisely, about the tactics of their use, we will talk in the next article.
Author:
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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. KVU-NSVD
    KVU-NSVD 4 November 2018 07: 49
    +2
    But an interesting question - were train brigades on armored trains from military personnel or civilians? Although in wartime this concept for railway workers is probably quite vague
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 4 November 2018 09: 44
      +3
      Most likely from the military. L / s of the railway troops.
    2. domokl
      domokl 4 November 2018 09: 59
      +7
      Quote: KVU-NSVD
      0
      But an interesting question - the train crews on the armored trains were from military or civilian

      The team of armored steam locomotives was not military personnel. These are railway workers. And even they wore their own uniform. So civilians ...
      1. Felix99
        Felix99 5 November 2018 11: 19
        +2
        Railroad workers are not civilians in wartime. NKPS is the same paramilitary organization with a charter and hierarchy as the NKVD.
  3. The comment was deleted.
  4. vladcub
    vladcub 4 November 2018 08: 50
    +3
    Blinding with sand, and in the civil war in Tashkent they made an "armored train" armored with sacks of cotton. I saw this on the website.
  5. Amurets
    Amurets 4 November 2018 08: 52
    +8
    Some trains included locksmiths. But these were isolated cases, since everything necessary for repair was usually available in railway depots at home stations.
    All the same, one can disagree with the authors here because the planned types of repairs can somehow be planned, agreed upon, but even this put an additional burden on the personnel of the base station depots, bleeding mobilization. the lack of the most popular spare parts and the diversity of the passing rolling stock. And there were works that needed to be done immediately, because it was impossible to move without repairing the damage, and the black locomotive could not always help.
    1. domokl
      domokl 4 November 2018 10: 07
      +3
      Quote: Amurets
      but this also put an additional load on the personnel of the base station depots,

      Mistake. Armored train repair workshops were set up in many depots in the rear. It is on the repair of armored trains. Do not forget that the resource of the armored steam locomotives themselves was scanty. Very fast slagging of boilers ... You cannot clean the boiler in the field either. We rolled black steam locomotives of an armored train to the rear ...
      A little later, these same workshops received additional load-repair of sanitary trains.
      Recovery of damaged armored trains in the field is not possible. First of all, precisely because of the design of this complex. Bronelists in their own workshop can not be replaced. And the chassis too.
      In general, we found reliable facts about the presence of only a few carriages-workshops. But the enemy used such cars much more. Although he had the opportunity to be repaired in the captured depot.
      By the way, workshop cars were also used for the repair of small arms.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 4 November 2018 10: 50
        +14
        Quote: domokl
        Very fast slagging of boilers ..

        What for? The slag was removed very quickly both from the blower and from the furnace. Arkady Sakhnin, himself in the past a steam locomotive driver, in the book "Machinists" describes this work as follows: "- What's the matter, mechanic? - shouted the duty officer.
        “We’ll clean the firebox,” the machinist answered gloomily.
        And now the train is standing. The stoker pulls the cutter, scraper and a huge shovel from the tender.
        Cleaning the firebox is a delicate matter and it is the responsibility of the assistant ..... The stoker rakes the heat to the front wall, to the pipes themselves, and cleans the middle of the slag. It works very quickly: the furnace is very cooled, and in the boiler there is steam and boiling water. Pipes or connections may leak. He is in a hurry, his clothes were wet on him, sweat is flowing from his face, but he hasn’t before. Heat is scooped up on the places cleared of slag.
        Everything has already been blown up with slag. It also needs to be cleaned. This is the duty of the stoker. Usually the assistant cleans the firebox, and then the fireman scrapers from the blower with a scraper. But now the driver, having thrown down a scraper, shouts:
        - Hey, take out the blower, but live!

        Now the planned preventive work included washing and lifting. Here, the help of the basic depots was really needed. And scheduled work was required much more often than repairing combat damage. For locomotives, I do not remember the overhaul mileage, for TE-3 locomotives; TE-10 of various modifications in the 70s amounted to 10 km +/- 000% for the mileage which received a terrible drag.
        1. Curious
          Curious 4 November 2018 14: 52
          +10
          The range of runs of steam locomotives between lifting repairs, depending on the series, condition of the track and other conditions, ranged from 45 to 000 km.
          The mileage between flushing depended on the series of the engine and the quality of the feed water and ranged from 4000 to 10000 km.
          Many drivers, thanks to the proper maintenance of the engine, brought the inter-flushing run to 20 km or more.
          Source
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 4 November 2018 11: 23
        +6
        Quote: domokl
        In general, we found reliable facts about the presence of only a few carriages-workshops. But the enemy used such cars much more. Although he had the opportunity to be repaired in the captured depot.

        And I have no complaints about you, your work is really interesting, this is not your fault, but unfortunately a lot was not documented or lost after the Second World War. Even our old people, in the 70s, did not remember everything about how they fought in the special columns of the NKPS. And what about women: assistant drivers, firemen who remembered how they dreamed of sleeping after a trip. And the men: the washers, fitters, KIPovtsy, remembered how hard it was to restore the locomotives when everything was kept on welding and surfacing, because the best locomotives and the best brigades left for the West, in special columns of the NKPS. It became easier somewhere in 1944 when American Lend-Lease steam locomotives went.
        1. Roman Skomorokhov
          4 November 2018 14: 04
          +10
          Quote: Amurets
          And you have no complaints


          Nicholas, please note that we have not touched on the topics of steam locomotives yet. Precisely because we do not understand them. Now I’ll go to Tula again, the deputy head of the Moscow Railway promised to help with a specialist in locomotives, and then we'll talk. Having a specialist behind his back - why not?
          1. Severok
            Severok 4 November 2018 22: 54
            +2
            Yes, steam engines should remain on the Moscow road, on the Kirov road, like in Petrozavodsk, there were specialists. There steam locomotives worked at one time back in the 80s.
            In the direction east of Yaroslavl, I have not heard about steam engines, but you need to ask the community. When a team works - Magnitogorsk is built without heavy equipment in less than 5 years.
  6. Blacksmith 55
    Blacksmith 55 4 November 2018 12: 32
    +5
    Thanks to the authors for an interesting series about armored trains. As far as I know, all railway workers had armor from being drafted into the army, but many of them served trains near the front and participated in battles themselves. My family has a relative who worked in the Ministry of Railways, he told me a lot about the work and history of railway.

    I offer authors a new topic. Why not tell the pages about the work of weather forecasters, it's not a secret that the weather has always played a very big role in wars and battles.
    Because of the vagaries of the weather, many wars were lost (or won).
    You can even create a whole series of articles about the workers of the "heavenly kitchen".
    Regards, Blacksmith.
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 4 November 2018 13: 38
      +6
      Quote: Blacksmith 55
      Thanks to the authors for an interesting series about armored trains.

      The authors really did a great job, but the photographs of the staff carriage in places with blunders. I really "liked" the photos with modern plumbing, and with the STA-M67 start-stop telegraph apparatus, the production of which, as follows from the designation, began in 1967. Alas, in many of our museums work absolutely illiterate technically "scientists".
      1. Roman Skomorokhov
        4 November 2018 14: 00
        +4
        Quote: zyablik.olga
        but photos of the headquarters car in some places with blunders.


        Well, that was in the car, then in the photo. So, probably, not a photo is to blame, but a car.

        Quote: zyablik.olga
        I "liked" the photos with modern plumbing


        Well, plumbing is not exactly modern, it's you in vain. I, at least, did not use this one, but on trains from the year 1976 I ride systematically and regularly.

        Quote: zyablik.olga
        Start-stop telegraph CTA-M67, the production of which, as follows from the designation, began in 1967.


        This is yes. What they found was placed, but: note, it stands alone. Not coupled with wartime mannequins.

        Quote: zyablik.olga
        Alas, in many of our museums work absolutely illiterate technically "scientists".


        I agree, but again, with reservation. Here, everything is as close to reality as possible, because the exhibit is the property of Russian Railways, and who besides them can know better?

        It seems to me that this armored train to many exhibits can give such a head start at least only because it is not empty inside ...
        1. zyablik.olga
          zyablik.olga 4 November 2018 14: 21
          +6
          Quote: Banshee
          Well, plumbing is definitely not modern, it's you in vain.
          Sorry Roman, but I don’t believe in earthenware plumbing in the head car of WWII times No. .

          Quote: Banshee
          This is yes. What they found was placed, but: note, it stands alone. Not coupled with wartime mannequins.

          Is it?

          As for "what they found", apparently they were not looking for it too much. While serving under the contract, I came across ST-35s at the ZPU. They differ from the STA-M67 and STA-2M telegraph sets in the absence of a puncher.
          Quote: Banshee
          Here everything is as close as possible to reality, because the exhibit is the property of Russian Railways, and who can know better than them?

          You clearly overestimate the level of historical knowledge of employees of Russian Railways.
          Quote: Banshee
          It seems to me that this armored train to many exhibits can give such a head start at least only because it is not empty inside ...

          I agree with that! yes
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. vladcub
            vladcub 4 November 2018 18: 28
            +4
            Olya, for your attention to you5: many could not pay attention to such "little things". How do you like the corrugation under the tap? Even now, the corrugation has not been replaced everywhere, otherwise it was 1941-1945. Probably the time machine helped both the plumbing and the 1967 telegraph machine rammed
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 4 November 2018 18: 32
              +1
              PS
              It seems to me that during the war years there could not be a fire alarm lamp like on the ceiling of a car.
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 4 November 2018 15: 43
        +3
        Quote: zyablik.olga
        The authors really did a great job, but the photos of the head car in places with mistakes
        Greetings Olga, When love When the last section of the Far Eastern Railways was electrified and ZabZhD began work, then there was a similar staff car. I especially looked closely or did not pay attention, but apart from mannequins, I did not find any special differences. In 1985, the carriage was the usual military. I even had to fill the car with water, and then I had to wait for the guide, the personnel didn’t get where and how to get water.
        1. Cetron
          Cetron 5 November 2018 01: 51
          +2
          In the railway museum in Jelgava (Latvia) there is a head coach of Marshal Baghramyan.
    2. Roman Skomorokhov
      4 November 2018 14: 01
      +7
      Quote: Blacksmith 55
      I propose a new theme to the authors. Why not tell on the pages of the work of weather forecasters, it's no secret that the weather has always played a very large role in wars and battles


      Find an assistant who understands the question - we'll do it. The theme is really dark.
      1. Blacksmith 55
        Blacksmith 55 4 November 2018 15: 02
        +7
        Thank you, I will look forward to it.

        There are a lot of topics in VO, it is impossible to read everything (although you want to), or you need to sit for days. Therefore, I read selectively, articles of interest.
        Many thanks to those who created VO, do not agree with some authors and comments in everything, but this is normal.
        Regards, Blacksmith.
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 4 November 2018 15: 26
        +4
        Quote: Banshee
        The theme is really dark.

        Not only dark but also very interesting, for example, the 45th ADD division on Pe-8 heavy bombers, equipped with airborne forces from the NSR and the Naval Fleet, who knew the international weather code perfectly and were the first to go as weather scouts. This was well written in his books by the legendary navigator of the Polar Aviation, Valentin Akkuratov. Or how pilots of the ADD fell into a thunderous front massively in 1942, raiding Koenigsberg, about which Twice Hero of the Soviet Union A. I, Molodchiy wrote in his memoirs.
      3. Freeman
        Freeman 4 November 2018 15: 59
        +3
        Quote: Banshee
        Quote: Blacksmith 55
        I propose a new theme to the authors. Why not tell on the pages of the work of weather forecasters, it's no secret that the weather has always played a very large role in wars and battles


        Find an assistant who understands the question - we'll do it. The theme is really dark.

        I give a "tip" where you can get material about the importance of weather forecast in the appointment of the date of the landing of the Allies in Normandy.
        https://wattsupwiththat.com/2014/06/06/the-weather-forecast-that-saved-d-day/

        You can still find this book.

        And other sources from the network.

        For those interested in how the weather affected the course of world history, there is a series of the Viasat History channel

        Three episodes are devoted to the influence of weather on the course of military campaigns:
        3. The Lost Legions of Rome
        5. Washington Storm Thunderstorm that Saved DC
        8. Russia's Secret Weapon
      4. merkava-2bet
        merkava-2bet 4 November 2018 16: 26
        +1
        As well as repair and restoration brigades of railway tracks, not a word about them. And also about special trains, already modern, transportation of special cargoes, rocket fuel, special ammunition, cryogenic tanks, etc. Thank you.
        1. domokl
          domokl 7 November 2018 05: 01
          0
          Quote: merkava-2bet
          +1
          As well as the repair and restoration teams of railway tracks, not a word about them

          Brigades were part of the team of armored trains. And they were in the carriage around the clock. What they are intended for all is clear for.
          By the way, in fact, if we talk about the specialization of fighters and railway workers of Bepo, it turns out quite a lot of interesting things. For example, hard to believe, but ... The steam crew of one of the trains consisted of 19 (!) People. Two locomotives and a replaceable crew ...
          And they lived on the base in an ordinary car.
  7. vladcub
    vladcub 4 November 2018 15: 29
    +3
    A little off topic. Now I remembered a little-known fact from the civil war. In the summer of 1918 in Samara during the Socialist Revolutionary rebellion, the city was easily captured by rebels, except for surrendering the sponge. One week before the rebellion, the Chekists received news of a possible mutiny; for some reason they didn’t heed the Chekists' message and they took measures: they collected several thousand bags, collected sand and laid a sponge on them. The rebels could not do anything, and there were few shells to use artillery.
  8. nnz226
    nnz226 4 November 2018 15: 32
    +2
    I wonder why the entire BP command staff (on mannequins) in cornflower-blue caps? That all the armored trains of the NKVD obeyed ???
    1. Viktor.N.Aleksandrov.
      Viktor.N.Aleksandrov. 4 November 2018 18: 44
      +1
      Also a question arose on caps. Insignia on army mannequins, and NKVD caps.
    2. domokl
      domokl 4 November 2018 18: 44
      +2
      No. Just this museum piece from the NKVD. The railroad workers were restoring "their armored train" ...
  9. Cat Kuzya
    Cat Kuzya 4 November 2018 16: 58
    -1
    Do you think armored trains are a thing of the past? And here you are mistaken: https://rg.ru/2018/09/05/bronepoezd-amur-otrazil-napadenie-uslovnogo-protivnika-na-ucheniiah.html?utm_source=warfiles.ru wink
  10. vladcub
    vladcub 4 November 2018 18: 39
    +1
    Quote: nnz226
    I wonder why the entire BP command staff (on mannequins) in cornflower-blue caps? That all the armored trains of the NKVD obeyed ???

    And I didn’t pay attention to the shape. Apparently, Olya is right: "absolutely technically illiterate" researchers "are working
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 4 November 2018 19: 08
      +3
      Quote: vladcub
      And I didn’t pay attention to the shape. Apparently, Olya is right: "absolutely technically illiterate" researchers "are working

      The NKVD had their own armored trains. "Researchers" can be literate, only to work either in a devil-may-care manner, or as the superiors order. There, in addition to plumbing with a telephone, there is also a modern electrician. And, incidentally, I also had to cover the rotten roof of the lorry by May 9 with plywood and upholstery with linoleum.
    2. RoTTor
      RoTTor 12 November 2018 00: 27
      0
      And parts of the protection of important railway facilities (tunnels, bridges, large railway junctions) and armored trains were still under the responsibility of the NKVD.
      If there is logic with parts of the guard, then with armored trains, it’s more a question.
      ,
  11. smershxnumx
    smershxnumx 4 November 2018 18: 44
    +3
    Quote: domokl
    Quote: KVU-NSVD
    0
    But an interesting question - the train crews on the armored trains were from military or civilian

    The team of armored steam locomotives was not military personnel. These are railway workers. And even they wore their own uniform. So civilians ...

    Yes, civilians .... And the departmental received the awards (most often), and the military - undeservedly rare, IMHO ....
  12. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 4 November 2018 19: 06
    0
    With reliability, museum workers certainly have questions. But still, the material is interesting!
  13. vladcub
    vladcub 5 November 2018 08: 11
    0
    Friends, the authors are talking about the "Ovechka" peravoz, but I came across information that in the Second World War, on armored trains and on super heavy trains, they put paravoses of the series: "SO" - Sergo Ordzhonikidze or FD. And somewhere I met information that the transfers of the FD series (or a variation of the IS-Joseph Stalin) were only passenger. So I also have a question: which steam locomotives were intended for passenger, and which ones for freight trains? Perhaps someone in the "topic"
    1. domokl
      domokl 7 November 2018 05: 10
      0
      Quote: vladcub
      Friends, the authors talk about the "Sheep" train, but I came across information that in the Second World War, steam locomotives of the series "SO" -Sergo Ordzhonikidze or FD were installed on armored trains and on super heavy trains.

      Alas, but "Sheep" was chosen by several parameters at once. The main locomotive is low and, after booking, did not stand out against the general background of the bepo.
      Most likely, but the material that you say about the black steam locomotive. There really were options. The fact is that the assembled armored train was a really heavy train. So, it is quite possible to use more powerful steam locomotives.
  14. Red_Baron
    Red_Baron 5 November 2018 12: 26
    0
    Thank you for the article! I thought that armored trains are guns and machine guns in each hole, and that's all :)
    And the good old comments are almost without politics and "I know better how to govern a country."
  15. bolt
    bolt 5 November 2018 14: 39
    0
    It is curious that in the photo of the bookshelf to the right of Capital there are ... three volumes of the 1987 edition of the XNUMX edition of the Nuremberg Trials.

    Traces of the "hit"?
    1. skeptical
      skeptical 10 November 2018 08: 19
      0
      There on the shelf Julian Semenov
  16. RoTTor
    RoTTor 12 November 2018 00: 23
    0
    Why were the armored trains run by the NKVD?
    What were the states of the armored train?
    1. domokl
      domokl 13 November 2018 14: 03
      0
      It was the NKVD that was guarding important state facilities. 23 armored trains had to protect bridges, stations, hauls and other railway facilities