We are peaceful people, but our armored train ... Part of 1

In any museum, including the museums of military equipment, there is its "Gioconda". The appearance of such or such exhibits often occurs against the will of even the museum staff themselves. It just happens. Experts often focus on things that are of little interest to the average man, but power and greatness are interesting to the average man. weapons. And this is quite a normal phenomenon.


You can not imagine the tank T-34, near which there will be no visitors. Or lonely "Katyusha". No, it can be, but in one case - if the museum is not really a museum, but so ... Place of development of funds and budget.

Thank God, in our country this phenomenon is very rare, and it is not about unfortunate museums now.



Today we will talk about armored trains. That is, in the plural. Although we will focus on the object that was already produced during the war - the BP-43 armored train, but we will not ignore as much as the other models.

The question arises: why in the plural? The answer is simple. Each armored train is unique. This applies to any such armored vehicle. There are no two identical trains.

Very often, when considering an armored train, a quite reasonable question arises: “Why didn’t much attention paid to such powerful weapons in the USSR?” For the answer (which will be more than surprising) it is necessary to return to the time of civil war.

Understanding the significance of armored trains came a long time. That is why the lack of such compositions in the Red Army was not. The exact number of armored trains at the time of the end of the Civil War could not be established. But the figure of BP, which were in the combat units of the Red Army, is - 123 units!

It should be noted that the concept of “armored train” itself is rather vague. In the orders of the time often there are heavy and light armored trains, armored platforms, breakthrough power supplies, armored cars and so on.

For an example it is worth telling about one legend. It is a legend. About the Green Ghost. For almost a hundred and fifty trips, the “Green Ghost”, as the Germans called him for elusiveness, destroyed about a dozen enemy tanks and armored cars, two and a half dozen machine gun nests and bunkers, six bunkers, three aircraft, one heavy artillery battery and up to one and a half thousand soldiers and officers of the enemy. In June 42, he even entered into battle with a column of German tanks and emerged victorious from him, destroying three cars.

In fact, the "Green Ghost", as the Germans called it, is BP No. 5, the armored train Zheleznyakov, the Coast Defense of the Black Sea Main Base fleet in the Sevastopol. And the "Ghost" was created on November 4, 1941 (officially) at the Sevastopol Marine Plant.

We are peaceful people, but our armored train ... Part of 1


If you look at the composition of the BP, then except as a "hodgepodge", you can not call it. The armored train No.5 had five 100-mm guns, eight mortars and a half dozen machine guns. In addition, in addition to the main armored steam train as part of Zheleznyakova, there was an additional locomotive that significantly improved the driving characteristics. And both locomotive worked in battle.

Alas, in June 1942, the Green Ghost was blocked in one of the mountain tunnels and lost to the Red Army. The Germans destroyed the exits by air strikes and threw in an armored train. In August, the composition was excavated. He received the new name "Eugen" and served in the German army until May 1944. It was blown up by the Germans.

And what, ask, is the difference between a heavy and light armored train? And then for some reason, the smell of the sea and the sea classification. Take the cruiser. The main-caliber guns in the 203-mm made the cruiser heavy. 152-mm - easy.

The same was true for armored trains. The presence of a heavy cannon site in the BP automatically translated it into “heavy” ones. The presence of more conventional platforms with air defense systems (usually 4 and more) made the PSU object of air defense. And so on.



It is here that the BP is a train! Therefore, the composition can be formed from different cars and platforms. Depending on the tasks performed at a specific time. It is clear that the armored train that protects the station in the depths of the front from enemy raids aviation, no need for heavy weapons. Just as a breakout BP is simply obliged to increase its own firepower precisely for work on a ground enemy.

In addition to the Red Army, there were armored trains in parts of the NKVD. The first such train ("Felix Dzerzhinsky") was transferred to the NKVD in 1930 year. The task of these armored trains and were most often the task of protecting stations, objects of the structure of railways, patrolling of railways.

There is another nuance that you just need to tell. This is the composition of the train itself. Oddly enough, but most readers do not even have questions about basic things during the inspection of armored trains. It is elementary!

An armored train is a technically rather sophisticated type of weaponry, with a large crew and many components required to perform combat missions. For example, it is often the opinion that to destroy a BP, it is enough to bomb or undermine the paths ahead and (or) behind the train.

However, few people say that the train crew included not only transportation specialists who were able to repair destroyed roads in a short time, but also the materials necessary for this: rails, sleepers, crutches, and so on. Back in the days of the Civil War, a tactic was worked out to undermine the ways for stopping the BP. Well, and, accordingly, ways to deal with miners.

Why are there explosions. There are even simpler questions. The crew just has to eat! Moreover, every day and three times desirable. And who saw in the train kitchen? And the infirmary? And if the boilers on the armored steam engine are slagging somewhere far from the station?

What we often call the armored train is actually only a part of it! Fighting, but part! In fact, the armored train consists of a much larger number of components.

The classic scheme of an armored train looks like this:

1. Armored locomotive. What we used to call the armored steam train with an armored tender or armored tanker.



2. Unarmoured (black) locomotive. It is used as a backup and is not often involved in hostilities. With the redeployment of BP used as an additional locomotive. Located in the rear at the base station.



3. 2-4 armored car (armored platform) with artillery weapons (or, as in the case of the German BP, installed on the platform tanks).



4. 2-4 armored car (armored platform) with anti-aircraft weapons.



5. 2-4 control platforms. Another name is a cover platform. Used for the transport of materials for the repair of tracks.

6. Armored or armored (using sandbags to protect) platform or landing platform. This element is used as needed.

This is what we see in battle. Armament (armored cars and (or) armored platforms) is combined for various tasks. But there is more. What is in the rear. This is the base (official name) of an armored train.

Such a base, in fact, was another train. In motion in the rear, the base and base were one echelon. On the forward base remained at the nearest rear station.

As part of the base it was sometimes up to 20 and more cars. Starting from the kitchen and ammunition depots to the infirmary and weapon repair shops. In the event of a breakthrough of the enemy, the “black” locomotive was used as a locomotive to evacuate the base to a safe place.

But back to our heroes. 22 June 1941, the Red Army included 53 operating armored trains. As part of the NKVD - 23 BP. The figures are rather freely interpreted in various sources because of the very “blurring” of the BP concept.

Trains were actively used in the initial period of the war, 1941-1943 years. However, in subsequent years, their combat path continued.

The main task of the BP was to support rifle units operating in the railway line, defense or seizure of railway stations, protection from air raids, counter-battery struggle, and landing of assault forces to capture railway objects.



Today it sounds strange, but it was precisely in the first months of the war that the anti-aircraft armored trains proved to be very effective. Those trains that were equipped with armored cars (armored platforms) with 37 or 25-mm anti-aircraft guns and DShK anti-aircraft guns. By the way, the air defense system in the name of the train speaks not only about the composition of the BP’s weapons, but also about belonging to the air defense forces.

I would like to recall one document, which for some reason is not mentioned much today, but which shows the significance of the BP for the Red Army in the first months of the war. The People's Commissariat of Defense 29 of October 1941 of the year issued a directive numbered 022ss.

By the number you can see that the document is completely secret. In fact, this directive prescribed in a short time to create the 32 (!) Division of armored trains! True, in the division (in the new state) there were only two BP, but still, you see, the scale shows the values ​​of this weapon.

By the way, we speak a lot of common phrases about the feat of the people in the rear. In the situation with the implementation of this directive feat resulted in the "extra" 20 armored trains! Instead of the planned 65 BP in the USSR released 85! And this is the end of 1942 year!



Undeservedly forgotten and exploits of the crews of armored trains. Meanwhile, 5 BP (2 as part of the Red Army and 3 as part of the NKVD) were awarded the Order of the Red Banner. Ten separate divisions of armored trains received honorary titles.

According to official figures, during the period of the Great Patriotic War, 370 tanks, 344 guns and mortars, 840 machine guns, 712 vehicles, 160 motorcycles and two armored trains were destroyed! And for German pilots, an armored train was generally an inconvenient goal - 115 downed aircraft!



Not without loss. And the losses were huge. According to official data, during the period of the Patriotic War, we lost only in the Red Army 65 armored trains! Of these, 63 is in 1941-42's. In 1943, two trains were lost.

Probably worth telling about one episode of 1941 of the year. One of the many episodes, the story of which shows not only the heroism of Russian soldiers, but also the hardness and healthy "arrogance" of the red commanders.

In August 1941, the German landing force in Ukraine managed to seize the Zhuliany station. Unfortunately, at the station, among other goods, there were several cars in which equipment was available for the needs of the Red Army aviation. Engines and other spare parts for repair. By the time every working plane was worth its weight in gold - a very valuable cargo.

To protect themselves, the Germans at the entrance to the station dismantled the rails and blew up a small bridge. However, this did not stop the crew of the Liter A armored train. This armored train consisted of an armored steam locomotive (a typical armored steam locomotive of the OV series) and three armored platforms armed with 4 guns and 24 machine guns.



The commander of an armored train, A. S. Tikhokhod, at night sent a team of repairmen and a group of fighters to restore the railway track and bridge. After the railway and bridge were rebuilt, an armored train at full speed at 4 broke into the station at one o'clock in the morning and opened hurricane fire at the stunned enemy.

As a result of the actions of the armored train station was released from the German assault. More precisely, the Germans simply escaped in horror, unable to withstand the psychological burden. That, in fact, was part of the plan of the Soviet fighters and commanders. Taking advantage of the panic, the crew of the armored train hitched the wagons with valuable cargo and took them to Kiev.

It is logical to assume that the main losses of the Red Army had to be borne in 1941 year. However, in the case of BP this statistics does not work. In 1942, twice as many trains were lost as in 1941. 42 lost armored train for one year. And it says a lot.

1942 is considered the most difficult for the entire period of the war. The Germans had a total superiority in aircraft and tanks. And in these conditions, the commanders had no other options on how to use the armored train "in full". To simultaneously repel attacks on the ground and from the air.



Sometimes it is necessary to explain the destructiveness of such tactics even for the most well-armed and autonomous object. It is impossible to simultaneously perform multiple maneuvers. Especially limited. Armored trains in the 1941-42 years were forced to act that way. Soviet kamikaze? No, the heroes who went to their death understood that perfectly.

Today, it is not clear to those who stand at the museum's armored train how this train could have been at the forefront. Especially if you have at least some understanding of the composition of the enemy, his weaponry, the general military situation of the time.

A huge goal that is difficult to disguise, not only from the enemy aircraft, but also from ground reconnaissance. The smoke of the locomotive is visible far enough. The offensive-retreat path is visible to anyone. From the railway this monster will not go anywhere. Armor? 20-mm for the guns of the second world war no armor ...

Powerful weapons? Already for the middle of the war it is difficult to call him powerful. Armored trains tank tanks a priori no more powerful than the same tank towers. And the artillery guns and mortars from the field units are even more powerful.

Even aviation, with the advent of more advanced sights and more powerful weapons, became disastrous for the BP. Hit bombs and aircraft guns have become quite frequent ...

And the crews of these trains not only fought and died. They won! About one victory, known and described by many authors is not a sin to remember today. About how Ilya Muromets of Adolf Hitler destroyed! it historical fact.

Epic names, is not it? So we liked it. In the office language, this phrase sounds different. The Soviet armored train Ilya Muromets destroyed the German armored train Adolf Hitler in a battle.


Armored train "Ilya Muromets"


In the last days of May, 1944, the Soviet positions in the area of ​​the Ukrainian city of Kovel were subjected to a three-minute artillery bombardment. Intelligence roughly calculated the location of the enemy's battery, after which a plane was sent to the area in order to clarify the location of the enemy's guns. The flight did not give any result - there was nothing in the specified area.

However, ground reconnaissance continued to search for the battery and the next day, on 9 in the morning, the scouts noticed the smoke of a locomotive. What allowed them to conclude about the actions of the enemy armored train. The information was delivered to the command. Destroy the armored train was assigned to the commander of the 31-th separate division of armored trains.

The headquarters of the 31 division developed an operation to destroy the "German". Directly duel had to lead a new armored train "Ilya of Murom".

Knowing the punctuality of the Germans, the Soviet commanders used it to improve their own position. The Germans not only started shooting at the same time, but they did not change the place for firing. Worked on the landmarks.

In the morning 8 "Murom" took up a position to attack. The German appeared a few minutes before 9. There was no direct visibility between the trains, which is quite remarkable. Both BP were in closed positions. Therefore, "Ilya of Murom" was guided by the enemy volley.

After the volley of a German armored train, Soviet gunners fired a volley already at an enemy BP. However, to destroy the first German volley failed. The second volley sounded almost in sync. The Germans managed to turn the towers in the direction of the Soviet armored train.

And then, approximately in 15 minutes after the start of the duel, “Muromets” showed its strength. The fact is that this armored train was armed with rocket launchers. Here "Katyushami" and trampled on the German "Muromets". The result of the attack is impressive. "Ilya Muromets" without hits and losses, the German, ironically, it turned out to be "Adolf Hitler", received such damage that it was decided not to restore it.



After a brief historical excursion, it is time to proceed to the description of specific armored trains. The lesson is not less interesting and informative than the historical excursion. So - to be continued.
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  1. igordok 18 October 2018 08: 41 New
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    Thank you for the article. It is written somewhat messy, but interesting.
    I somehow did not like the location of the air defense armored car in the 7 and 9 photos. Yes, and on 12 photos such a configuration. I searched on Runet, the same situation. Why put air defense wagons at the ends of the PSU if they "obscure" the firing of guns in the direction of travel? I thought air defense wagons were set closer to the engine, and the train ended with platforms.

    The figure is 4 position.
    1. hohol95 18 October 2018 09: 08 New
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      Why put air defense wagons at the ends of the PSU if they "obscure" the firing of guns in the direction of travel?

      But what if planes attack from the front and from behind using artillery pads?
      How then to shoot?
      German pilots first tried to destroy the paths in front and behind the BP, and then deprived of the Moor, the BP became easy prey.
      1. igordok 18 October 2018 09: 18 New
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        On land, aircraft rarely attacked from the horizon, especially bombers. Mostly attacked from above, and there is nothing stopping the anti-aircraft guns.
        1. hohol95 18 October 2018 09: 28 New
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          For U-87 your statement is true!
          And for the Me-110, Me-109 or FV-190?
          Finns, for example, used the MS-406 to hunt trains!
          Thanks to the cannon weapons, the Morans were also used to attack ground targets, as well as hunting for locomotives that supplied the Soviet troops along the Kirov Railway.
        2. BAI
          BAI 18 October 2018 10: 30 New
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          Probably, they proceeded from the tasks and tactics of using an armored train.
          1. igordok 18 October 2018 10: 34 New
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            A separate armored train lacks artillery anti-aircraft weapons.
            1. BAI
              BAI 18 October 2018 13: 10 New
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              Something I did not understand the question. If anti-aircraft artillery SHOULD NOT BE, it doesn’t exist - there are anti-aircraft machine guns. Or is it a statement that she SHOULD BE?
    2. Alexey RA 18 October 2018 16: 05 New
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      Quote: igordok
      Why put air defense wagons at the ends of the PSU if they "obscure" the firing of guns in the direction of travel?

      Then, to provide maximum sectors of fire for. For an attack along the paths is most beneficial for the IBA - this reduces the likelihood of a miss (aiming at the course is easier, and an incorrectly taken lead in range - "higher-lower" - everything will make it hit), and you can storm the entire train from the nose in one go to the stern.
      In addition, anti-aircraft armored platforms close the shelling sectors of the main guns in the bow and stern sectors only at low AEDs.
      In general, the BEPO artillery, in the normal planning of the battle, fires in the airborne sectors and does not interfere with the AP. Firing in the bow or stern sectors is undesirable since it “turns off” half (or even more) of the BEPO artillery.
  2. igordok 18 October 2018 08: 46 New
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    I like articles that make you rummage around. I accidentally found it, almost modern. Counterguerrilla armored tires of South Vietnam.

    1. BAI
      BAI 18 October 2018 09: 37 New
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      There is a good book - “Armadillos of the Railways”. For instance. here -https: //www.litmir.me/br/? b = 242239 & p = 1
  3. hohol95 18 October 2018 08: 47 New
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    Mukhin Yuri Ignatievich. Ases and propaganda. Luftwaffe puffed wins
    So, a brief orientation to Rudel, which today is relished by all democratic historians, since they, by definition, are trembling with all the products of Dr. Goebbels's company.
    "Rudel Hans-Ulrich. Oberst. StG2. Total performed 2530 sorties. Destroyed 519 tanks, over 800 vehicles of various types, 50 positions of artillery batteries, 4 armored trains. He sank the battleship "Marat", the leader of "Minsk", the destroyer "Steregushchiy" and about 70 different landing ships. He shot down 9 Soviet aircraft - 7 fighters and 2 Il-2. Itself was shot down by anti-aircraft fire over 30 times, but not once by fighters, it was wounded five times. "Six times I landed behind the front line to take out the downed crews."
    For example, the word “armored train” is found in Rudel’s memoirs in a single episode:
    “The Soviet armored train launches heavy shells into our rare attacking chains. This armored train acts skillfully. Having made a fire raid, he, like a dragon, crawls into his lair. This lair is a mountain tunnel near Tuapse. When we fly out, it is carried away by an arrow into the tunnel, and we see only its tail. Once we almost covered him. Nearly. We crept up to him, but at the last moment he seemed to receive a warning. The armored train was covered, but the damage was not serious; after a few days, repaired, it appears again. But now this steel monster was very timid - we no longer see it. Then we came to the following decision: if we cannot catch this steel monster, we at least get even with his guardian angel - the tunnel! "We block the exits from the tunnel with the help of a special bomb, which prevents the armored train from escaping from the tunnel."
    But even in this case, Rudel, not mentioning destruction, but only about blocking our armored train, does not use the pronoun “I”, but the pronoun “we”. And in his "combat list" it appears that he personally destroyed 4 armored trains. If he really bombed 4 armored trains, would he have to remember how he didn’t succeed? Breshet! And who is shy? Not Zefirova ...

    From the above gap it follows that Rudel and his comrades had a hand in blocking the Green Ghost!
    The main losses of BP were from enemy aircraft and tanks.
    Regarding the NKVD armored trains -
    Armored train No. 73 of the NKVD troops for the protection of the railroads consisted of an armored locomotive and two D-2 armored cars, each armed with two 76-mm cannons. This BP was the last reserve of the commander of the 1st shock army, Lieutenant General V.I. Kuznetsova!
    After the capture of the bridge in Yakhroma BP was thrown into battle. The battle with the armored train lasted until night and cost the Germans 12 tanks, 24 vehicles and at least 700 soldiers and officers.
    On November 29, the counterattack of the 123rd and 133rd separate tank battalions, the 29th and 44th rifle brigades, with the support of artillery, the Germans were driven back to the west coast of the canal and on November 30, having exhausted their offensive potential, they went over to the defensive.
    1. Alexey RA 18 October 2018 16: 30 New
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      Quote: hohol95
      From the above gap it follows that Rudel and his comrades had a hand in blocking the Green Ghost!

      It does not follow. For the "Ghost" worked in Sevastopol. And Rudel mentions Tuapse.
      This armored train acts skillfully. Having made a fire raid, he, like a dragon, crawls into his lair. This lair is a mountain tunnel not far from Tuapse.
      1. hohol95 18 October 2018 16: 42 New
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        hi
        Yes Tuapse! But there was a 12th division in Tuapse and it was badly damaged by aviation on October 10, 1942 at the Goyth station.
        And on the front the 12th ODBP arrived on October 8, 1942!
        What armored train was hiding in the tunnel near Tuapse then?
  4. hohol95 18 October 2018 08: 53 New
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    Armored trains were also shot in feature films.
    1. igordok 18 October 2018 09: 42 New
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      Thank. I did not know about this film. Not without complaints, but still better than the recent film about the armored train.
    2. vladcub 18 October 2018 18: 16 New
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      Crest, thank you for remembering this film: I watched it at 10_12 and then played the armored train and drew in notebooks. And the teachers, apparently, did not watch the film or did not like it, but for drawing in a notebook, we had a thrashing.
  5. BAI
    BAI 18 October 2018 09: 31 New
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    Alas, in June 1942, the "Green Ghost" was blocked in one of the mountain tunnels and lost to the Red Army. The Germans destroyed the air strikes and blocked the armored train.

    As I understand it, Rudel tried it. He has this (or completely similar) case described.
  6. kitt409 18 October 2018 09: 36 New
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    Thank you for the article!
    Interestingly written. I look forward to continuing.
  7. BAI
    BAI 18 October 2018 09: 41 New
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    . On June 22, 1941, the Red Army included 53 active armored trains. As part of the NKVD - 23 BP. The figures are quite freely interpreted in various sources because of precisely the “fuzziness” of the concept of BP.

    On June 22, the Red Army was armed with 34 light armored trains, 13 heavy, 28 platforms with anti-aircraft weapons. The table shows the data on the deployment of armored trains and their composition.
    1. igordok 18 October 2018 10: 23 New
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      In the table only the Red Army or together with the NKVD?
      1. domokl 18 October 2018 11: 06 New
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        Quote: igordok
        In the table only the Red Army or together with the NKVD?

        The trains of the NKVD until the end of the war were not taken into account by the Red Army. These are independent combat units. By the way, even in the award lists for the assignment of the orders of the Red Banner and honorary titles, the BP is clearly indicated. Red Army or NKVD
      2. BAI
        BAI 18 October 2018 13: 12 New
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        As I understand it from the book, the link to which he gave - the Red Army.
  8. BAI
    BAI 18 October 2018 09: 51 New
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    The "green ghost", as the Germans called it, is BP No. 5, the Zheleznyakov armored train,

    What kind of photo did the author cite while leading the story of this armored train?

    Armored train "Zheleznyakov" on the outskirts of Sevastopol
    Commanders: Captain G.A. Sahakyan, after being wounded, he was replaced by captain-lieutenant M.F. Kharchenko.
    1. Curious 18 October 2018 12: 08 New
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      "What kind of photo did the author cite while leading the story of this armored train?"
      One of the guns ТМ-1-180, consisting of 16 waiting teams of the Coastal Defense of the Black Sea Fleet, who fought north-east of Tuapse.
    2. Alexey RA 18 October 2018 16: 53 New
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      Quote: BAI
      What kind of photo did the author cite while leading the story of this armored train?

      You still ask - where did the author get TTX BP№5 "Zheleznyakov":
      Armored train number 5 had five 100-mm guns, eight mortars and a half dozen machine guns.

      Because in all sources it is written about two Lender guns and three 34-K - all 76-mm caliber.
  9. faiver 18 October 2018 11: 12 New
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    everything seems to be good, only what relation to the armored trains does the second photo have in the article with the TM-1-180 railway gun ...? this is a completely different song ... hi
    1. Bormanxnumx 18 October 2018 14: 51 New
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      Quote: faiver
      everything seems to be good, only what relation to the armored trains does the second photo have in the article with the TM-1-180 railway gun ...? this is a completely different song ... hi

      The El-2500 steam locomotive is of the same type as the locomotive of the armored train, and the platform with the 180-mm gun went "trailer" The monument to the armored train was installed near the Sevastopol bus station.
      1. Crimea26 18 October 2018 16: 04 New
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        At our school (back in the USSR), the guide said that this steam locomotive has nothing to do with the Zheleznyakov BP / It’s just that SAME, like the one from the armored train of the same brand. Found somewhere already behind the Crimea .... I do not know, here you need to look at the numbers ....
        1. Bormanxnumx 18 October 2018 19: 38 New
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          Quote: Crimea26
          At our school (back in the USSR), the guide said that this steam locomotive has nothing to do with the Zheleznyakov BP / It’s just that SAME, like the one from the armored train of the same brand. Found somewhere already behind the Crimea .... I do not know, here you need to look at the numbers ....

          I kind of wrote in Russian in white: "the El-2500 steam train is the same type as the armored train steam locomotive"
          1. Cannonball 18 October 2018 19: 56 New
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            This is not the same type, but a real auxiliary “black” steam locomotive from the Zheleznyakov armored train.
            Restored after the war, this steam locomotive was assigned to the Dzhankoy depot and drove trains along the Crimean highways until 1967. On October 24, 1967, it was transferred as a relic of military glory to the Museum of Heroic Defense and Liberation of Sevastopol by the railroad depot Dzhankoy.
  10. Grits 18 October 2018 11: 43 New
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    I read the history of the civil war in the Far East, I came to the conclusion that the presence of an armored train on one side or another is the key to success. It was something like having an aircraft carrier at the time. In my native Primorye, the entire guerrilla war with the White Guards and interventionists was conducted mainly along the railways. And the armored train here is the most valuable loot, the most valuable target and at the same time the most difficult loot and target. Everything revolved around the taking of railway stations and the war of armored trains
    1. Crimea26 18 October 2018 16: 06 New
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      Well, if the railway line is the only real "artery" among steep mountains and dense forests for many tens of kilometers, then, as they say, God himself ordered!
      1. Grits 18 October 2018 16: 08 New
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        It’s just completely wrong .. In the territory of Primorye, the Trans-Siberian Railway goes mainly through the swamps along the Ussuri and Khankai Plains. That's why everything was shot through in the district with artillery of armored trains.
  11. Curious 18 October 2018 11: 47 New
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    “If you look at the composition of the BP, it’s impossible to call it a“ hodgepodge ”. Armored train No. 5 had five 100-mm guns, eight mortars and one and a half dozen machine guns. In addition to the main armored train, the Zheleznyakov had an additional locomotive which significantly improved driving performance. Moreover, both steam locomotives worked in battle. "
    A few clarifications.
    Armored train No. 5 or BP Zheleznyakov included one armored platform with two 76,2 mm 34K guns, one armored platform with 76,2 mm 34K gun, two 12,7 mm DShK and a rangefinder with a range finder of 1,5 DM, one armored pad with two 76,2 mm Lender guns and one with two 82 mm mortars.
    In addition, the armored train had 14 Maxim machine guns.
    Mobility was provided by the Ov type armored locomotive and the E type black steam locomotive.
    During the fighting, the weapons changed, but there is no reliable data.

    The Zheleznyakov armored train is ready to fire on airplanes. 34-K guns at maximum elevation.
    1. Curious 18 October 2018 11: 50 New
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      Calculation of the range finder DM-1,5 I. I. Reznichenko and A. F. Dymchenko, 1942
      1. Curious 18 October 2018 11: 52 New
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        The calculation of the armored platform with the 34-K gun fires on ground targets. May 1942 This armored platform with a 76-mm 34K gun and rangefinder.
        1. Curious 18 October 2018 11: 57 New
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          The calculation of the 76-mm Lender gun fires on ground targets.
          In August 1942, the Germans cleared the Trinity Tunnel. Using the reconstructed Zheleznyakov’s armored sites, they created the Eugen armored personnel carrier from them, arming it with 105 mm howitzers.
          1. Conductor 18 October 2018 13: 26 New
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            Lender’s gun wasn’t. was 76 mm on the Lender machine.
            1. Curious 18 October 2018 13: 44 New
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              Do not fool your head.
            2. hohol95 18 October 2018 14: 16 New
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              In Russia, at the beginning of the war, at the Putilov factory, on the initiative of the captain of the GAU Tarnavsky (who proposed a sight and a mechanism for dispersing shells) and the plant’s process engineer F. Lender (who designed the artillery unit), a 76,2-mm caliber gun was built that could fire at large angles elevations. The GAU commission recognized that the Tarnavsky-Lender gun is suitable for firing not only balloons, but also airships and airplanes. At the end of August 1914, the GAU ordered the plant 12 such cannons, which were supposed to be placed on four-wheeled cart-type trailers or in truck bodies to use to cover the most important defensive objects, in particular, high command rates.

              The gun was manufactured in 1934 at the artillery factory number 8. In 1928, the gun was modernized (in particular, the barrel length was increased to 55 calibers) and later produced under the name: 76 mm anti-aircraft gun mod. 1915/1928

              Internet to help you. Or books with magazines ...
  12. Curious 18 October 2018 12: 31 New
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    "What we often call an armored train is actually just a part of it! Combat, but part! Actually, an armored train consists of a lot more components."
    According to state No. 016/104, the armored train division was to consist of two armored trains, each of which included an armored train, two four-axle two-turret armored platforms and four biaxial, twenty-ton control platforms. The reconnaissance platoon had at its disposal two armored vehicles BA-20zhd on a railway track, in the absence of which BA-10zhd could be used. According to the state, the division of armored trains was armed with eight 76-mm guns, 32 machine guns (Maxim, DT or DS) and eight anti-aircraft machine guns or cannons (it was supposed to use 20-mm ShVAK guns or 12,7-mm DShK), as well as two cars GAZ-M-1, three GAZ-AA lorry and one all-terrain vehicle GAZ-64. The base of the division included a black (unarmored) steam locomotive, three four-axle and 22 two-axle wagons, four platforms for transporting equipment, as well as a four-axle wagon-workshop DM. The personnel consisted of 236 people, of which 14 were senior and middle command personnel, 15 commanding officers, 73 junior command personnel and 136 privates.

    Interior view of the workshop DM.
    1. vladcub 18 October 2018 17: 57 New
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      V. N, thanks for the addition
  13. Alexey RA 18 October 2018 17: 07 New
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    Unarmored (black) locomotive. It is used as a spare and is most often not involved in hostilities. When relocating, BP is used as an additional locomotive. Located in the rear at the base station.

    EMNIP, the black locomotive when transferring the PSU is used as the main one. Because as a combat armored locomotive eats coal and water as if in itself.
  14. vladcub 18 October 2018 17: 54 New
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    Quote: BAI
    There is a good book - “Armadillos of the Railways”. For instance. here -https: //www.litmir.me/br/? b = 242239 & p = 1

    I’ll look for it, but if it’s wide there, then I’m not “friends” with him: he loves money. And my salary is not "rubber", one communal apartment is how much it will "gobble up".
    1. Rusticolus 18 October 2018 21: 18 New
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      https://royallib.com/book/amirhanov_leonid/bronenostsi_geleznih_dorog.html
      If suddenly FB2, like me, is not happy. repeat
  15. vladcub 18 October 2018 19: 13 New
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    My relative fought in the Marine Corps near Sevastopol. As a child I heard about him about Zheleznyakov, it so happened that I heard about Zhelezyak earlier than I read about him about the story. He said that the armored train helped a lot with its guns, always flashed aviation, and then with air defense it was stressful
  16. Rusticolus 18 October 2018 21: 07 New
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    That would be one such ... Yes, and with ship’s guns, put it into a dead end near the Kerchinsky bridge. Well, like a museum. (just in case). The bridge with a movable artillery battery. And there is something in it what
  17. Reptiloid 19 October 2018 00: 12 New
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    Wonderful article. There has never been a lot of literature on armored trains.
  18. M. Michelson 21 October 2018 04: 59 New
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    Those. Kamikaze went to death without realizing this? Well, why so ...
  19. 97110 22 October 2018 20: 01 New
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    that the train crew included not only railway specialists
    I’m embarrassed to ask, "travelers" - is this what the author sees? Neologism, in a word. There are "travelers" to the railway, as well as in the river fleet. I have heard the name of the IF specialists from 70's. I admit that in the Red Army it was called "travelers", but I doubt it
  20. ser6119 23 October 2018 19: 40 New
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    Now on the "Star" talked about armored trains 23.10.2018/XNUMX/XNUMX
    "Ilya Muromets" did not receive any serious damage for all the time of the battles!
  21. LeonidL 25 October 2018 01: 53 New
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    "In 1942, twice as many trains were lost as in 1941. 42 lost armored trains in one year. And that says a lot." - in reality, this does not mean anything, except that the fierce fighting of 1941 and 1942 is approximately the same for the BP of the Red Army. The losses are absolutely equal, just in 1941 the war started on June 22nd and went on for about six months, and 1942 — the full military year — all 12 months.