Military Review

Old men still in the case. Steel veterans of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia. Part of 1

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As a man who grew up by the sea and went sailing and on a motor, I am sad to see how honored veteran ships are sent to cut. Either this kind of Soviet upbringing makes itself felt when there were no rat races in shopping centers, or just some kind of romantic animation of the steel fighters of the open sea ... Alas, now such attachment is becoming less common - modernity makes itself felt. This is especially evident in the merchant seamen. fleetwho are tied to their ships no more than passengers to the elevator, in which they go up. For warlords, things are different, but their battle comrades are scrapped over time.




So take a look at the old men, who, despite the vicissitudes of fate and by some miracle, are still listed as part of the Black Sea Fleet. In the first place, of course, will be the rescue ship-catamaran "Commune", the project of which was developed in an intolerably distant 1911 year. A very distant prototype of the future "Commune" was the German submarine rescuer "Vulcan", by the way, soon sank in 1919 during towing to England.


German submarine rescuer "Volcano"

30 December 1911 of the year The Putilov factory, which presented the best design of the ship, received an order for construction from the General Directorate of Shipbuilding, and already in 1912, the assembly of the hull on the stocks began. 17 November of next year, the rescue ship, originally named Volkhov, was launched, and 14 July 1915 of the Volkhov became part of the Baltic Fleet, more precisely, into the submarine division as a floating base.

Old men still in the case. Steel veterans of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia. Part of 1


The catamaran had a displacement of 3100 tons. The length is 96 meters, the width is 18,57 m, the draft reached 3,65 m. The two ship hulls were interconnected by four 18-meter arched trusses located at equal distances from each other and connected by longitudinal beams. Thus, the submarine lifted out of the water appeared between two hulls, placed on the 12 tilting transverse beams.

Two diesel engines of the Riga plant "Felzer" with 600 horsepower allowed to reach speeds up to 9 nodes. Later they were replaced by engines of the Kolomna Plant, similar in characteristics. The navigation range was 4000 miles with fuel on board. The crew size reached hundreds of sailors, not counting submariners, for which temporary accommodation there were additional premises.



History The glorious service of the Commune, which it became by decision of the assembly of the whole crew in 1922, deserves a separate book, and not one. The rescuer raised hundreds of warships and civilian ships, submarines and even airplanes, starting with 17, when the “Commune” was baptized, lifting the submarine AG-15.


Cut of Putilov steel "Commune", conducted by "Composite"

But the most important mystery of the "Commune", oddly enough, is its amazing resilience and safety. More precisely the safety of his steel body. Moreover, in 2015, scientists from the research and production organization of the rocket and space industry for the creation and use of Composite materials investigated Putilov steel Kommuny. Despite the fact that scientists were amazed by the absence of a trace of corrosion on the ship's hull, for a long time they could not give an answer. As a result, it was found out that corrosion is absent due to the presence on the metal surface of a hardly soluble dense oxide film that prevents aggressive media. However, the question of how and with the help of which technology Putilovtsy managed to do such a delicate and science-intensive work has not yet been answered.

However, the legendary “Commune”, which is still in the fleet and is actively involved in rescue work, is not so alone in its retirement age. Of course, the glory of the catamaran rescuer was not found by their peers, but they served our fleet with faith and truth, often completely imperceptible.



One of the most exploited auxiliary vessels of the Russian Black Sea Fleet is the small sea tanker Istra, which this year has made as many 77 years. The contract for the construction of the vessel was concluded between the shipyard and ... the German Navy. Yes! “Istra” is a trophy ship. In 1941, a tanker under the name “Else” left the stocks of the DW Kremer Sohn plant in Elmshorn.

Displacement was 1200 tons. Length - 61 meter, width - 9 m, draft - 2,75 m. Two diesel four-stroke engines allowed to go full speed 12 nodes. Sailing range was 1200 miles. Naturally, based on the tasks of wartime, the tanker was armed. He carried on his board two 20-mm anti-aircraft guns, which are ship modifications 2 cm FlaK 30, as well as two machine guns. The crew consisted of 6 officers and 20 sailors.



Since 1941, the tanker Elsa was based at Swinemünde, making flights with fuel to Oslo, Copenhagen, Trondheim, Narvik, etc. In 1945, British troops seized a tanker just in Norway in Trondheim and immediately incorporated it into the British Navy under the name Empire Tigina. However, later, according to the conditions of reparations, they were forced to transfer it as a trophy to the USSR. Immediately after receiving the tanker in 1946, he was transferred from the Baltic to the Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol. For some time the ship was transporting oil products under the furious name NT-3. Only in 1948, by the order of the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, did the tanker get its name “Istra”.


"Istra" fills the submarine "Novorossiysk"

This modest hard worker during his career has passed not just one hundred, but even millions, nautical miles. The tanker transported both gasoline and technical oil, and even aviation kerosene, when aircraft-carrying ships were introduced into the fleet. During the service "Istra" made trips in the Black, Azov and Mediterranean Seas, calling at the ports of Alexandria, Split, Varna, Durres and others. And from 57 to 58 years, the vessel provided the functioning of our ships and submarines in the Albanian Durres during the provision of international assistance to the NRA. In 1992, Istra participated in the evacuation of refugees from the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict zone.



Despite its more than venerable age - 77 years - Istra is still in operation and is actively operated, transporting fuel and oil for warships of the Black Sea Fleet every day. The mystery of his vitality and longevity is that Tanks vessels are enameled and practically not susceptible to rust. At the moment, Istra is part of the 205th detachment of supply vessels of the Russian Black Sea Fleet.



Former sea tug "SP-10" stands out an old-fashioned pipe, painted in the Russian tricolor

And now we will get acquainted with one of the oldest ships of the Black Sea Fleet, which is second only to Kommune. This is a sea tug "SP-10", and now "OT-463". The tug was laid at the Sevastopol Marine Plant named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze in 1939 year, and the following year was not only launched, but also put into operation as part of the Black Sea Fleet support vessels. Displacement was 680 tons. Length - 39 meters, width - 8,2 m, draft - 3,5 m. The power plant in 800 hp provided speed in 12 nodes. Sailing range reached 2600 miles. Crew - 31 man.



During the defense of Sevastopol in 1941-42, the tug was armed with two machine guns and one 45-mm gun and ensured the fleet's combat activities, as well as carried out combat raids. In 1942, after the Black Sea Fleet, it was transferred to the Caucasus, and in 43, it received the tail number of the Black Sea Fleet-4. October 19 1944, the tug's career could end. The vessel, while towing a water-filled barge along the seemingly protracted Inkerman site, nearly hit a mine when approaching the boom gate. Literally a hundred meters from the tug, a German maritime surprise exploded. The ship received minor damage and soon returned to service.


"OT-463" at work

Since 1949, the tug has received the MB-40 board number and continued its service in Sevastopol. In 1978, the ship, which was already archaic at that time, was excluded from the fleet. However, instead of a sad fate to go for scrap metal, the tug was retrained in the heating station under the name "OT-463". The vessel became docile at the pier and provided the factory premises with steam at the right time and some ships in winter. In 2008, the dock repair was even passed and returned to its rightful place - a pier in the territory of the repair and artillery plant in Sevastopol. True, it should be noted that the honored hard worker in 90-e wanted to put on the needles, but the crew defended the fleet veteran. For people who are not indifferent to the steel long-livers of the Black Sea, the author recommends to find the video of Independent Television of Sevastopol called “Floating boiler house” dedicated to “OT-463” on the web.


Old man "RBC-76"

A special fate befell the raid launch "RBC-76". Barkas is a German trophy raid boat, launched in the distant 1942 year. In 1944, the boat was captured by our troops, and literally a month later it became part of the Black Sea Fleet. The vessel has long served in its immediate role. At the moment, the old man is part of the 280-th shield station of the Black Sea Fleet, which consists of floating target shields for training shooting. Launched based on Streletskaya Bay of Sevastopol.

To be continued ...
Author:
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  1. Andrey Yuryevich
    Andrey Yuryevich 9 October 2018 05: 37
    +3
    mmm ... there is something to be proud of ...
    1. Bykov.
      Bykov. 9 October 2018 07: 22
      +23
      Quote: Andrew Y.
      mmm ... there is something to be proud of ...

      What's wrong ?!
      I hope they don’t saw it, but museums will do it. The catamaran is generally handsome.
      ATP author.
      1. Krot_zelen
        Krot_zelen 9 October 2018 14: 54
        -1
        I hope they don’t saw it, but museums will do it.
        The main thing is that they themselves would not part from old age
  2. Moore
    Moore 9 October 2018 06: 01
    +19
    Judging by the photo, "Communa" seems to be in perfect condition ...
    I respect the crew.
    1. Xnumx vis
      Xnumx vis 9 October 2018 07: 24
      +15
      Quote: Moore
      Judging by the photo, "Communa" seems to be in perfect condition ...
      I respect the crew.

      Now "Kommuna" is leaving the dock (cleaning the hull + scheduled repairs) and proceeding to its official duties!
      1. Bykov.
        Bykov. 9 October 2018 15: 10
        +1
        Quote: 30 vis
        Quote: Moore
        Judging by the photo, "Communa" seems to be in perfect condition ...
        I respect the crew.

        Now "Kommuna" is leaving the dock (cleaning the hull + scheduled repairs) and proceeding to its official duties!

        GOLD found a rivet?
        1. Xnumx vis
          Xnumx vis 9 October 2018 17: 15
          +3
          The search for the gold rivet continues.
    2. g1v2
      g1v2 10 October 2018 14: 24
      +7
      I will even say more. The commune was modernized with the installation of a robotic complex on it. That and it happens - robotics on a ship of imperial construction. belay
  3. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 9 October 2018 06: 12
    +10
    THANKS to the author !!!! AMAZING !!!!!!!
  4. Conductor
    Conductor 9 October 2018 06: 34
    +2
    Thanks so much for the article.
  5. Alex_59
    Alex_59 9 October 2018 07: 21
    +9
    From OT-463 one could already make a museum. Biography allows. Stop torturing the veteran. I saw him in 2013 year, the pipe has not been painted yet.
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 9 October 2018 10: 24
      +8
      hi Welcome Alex!
      Quote: Alex_59
      Biography allows

      Still would!!! SP-10 last witness of the defense of Sevastopol 1941-42 and left Sevastopol one of the last !!!
  6. Sailor
    Sailor 9 October 2018 08: 22
    +5
    The commune we had in Streletskaya was in the PSS brigade, it is still riveted!
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 9 October 2018 10: 29
      -1
      Quote: Sailor
      in the brigade of the PSS

      37-I BRSS UVF ASS
  7. Dimitrov_grad
    Dimitrov_grad 9 October 2018 09: 02
    +9
    Interesting article! I hope in the second part the author will tell you about the yacht donated by Adolf Aloizovich to Admiral Dönitz. It seemed to be on the Mine wall before. Unique ship. He has a captain’s cabin with movable hinges, and is always in a horizontal position when pitching.
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 9 October 2018 10: 33
      +2
      Quote: Dimitrov_grad
      It’s been on the Mine wall before

      Between Minka and Remprichal, where the head parade boats now stand!
    2. Eastern wind
      9 October 2018 15: 09
      +9
      If about "Angara", then, alas, it will not be in the next article. After all, we are talking about the courts operating in a particular status. And "Angara" now looks like this ... Although it is possible in the future I will write about it. The fate of "Hella" ("Angara") is entertaining ...

  8. Serg65
    Serg65 9 October 2018 10: 37
    +3
    MMT "Istra" because of its tanks, enjoyed success with all Soviet aircraft-carrying ships, starting with the anti-ship missile "Moskva" and ending with the TAVKR "Kuznetsov"!
  9. masterovoy
    masterovoy 9 October 2018 17: 47
    +10
    The secrets of the longevity of these vessels are well known: 1. Their hulls and inter-compartment bulkheads are riveted and forged steel sheets; 2. These ships had generators and DC machines, did not have demagnetizing windings, and were not exposed to electromagnetic fields: 3. they spent most of their service in fresh or desalinated environments. For these reasons, the primary protective layer of wrought iron due to diffusion not only strengthened by and slightly increased its thickness. This secret is known to all blacksmiths.
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 10 October 2018 08: 10
      +3
      Quote: masterovoy
      These vessels had generators and DC machines, had no demagnetization windings, and were not exposed to electromagnetic fields.

      You probably wanted to say that when using direct current, ships and vessels are not subject to the accumulation of static electricity?
      Quote: masterovoy
      they spent much of their service in a fresh or desalinated environment

      what Which of the above ships had a significant life in a fresh or desalinated environment ???
    2. Warrior Hamilton
      Warrior Hamilton 5 December 2018 13: 42
      0
      Quote: masterovoy
      did not have demagnetization windings and were not exposed to electromagnetic fields:

      I do not agree with you. All steel ships at the end-ends undergo a division (that same demagnetization), DC networks create magnetic fields "mamanegoryuy". You walk through the plant, and the welding electrodes stand upright on the sticks, you kick them, and they return to their original ...
  10. vladcub
    vladcub 9 October 2018 18: 14
    +2
    "Veterans do not grow old in soul" is such a song, but in relation to ships, one should probably say: "Ships not aging in soul"? In some book I read, probably by L. Sobol, the following words: "every ship has its own soul" and so it is.
  11. vladcub
    vladcub 9 October 2018 19: 15
    +3
    About the "commune". In my youth, I came across a note that: the project "Volkhov" - "Commune" was unique for its time and the Admiralty Directorate showed foresight by ordering it. And a truly unique vessel: "how did we, with the help of what technology, the" Putilovites "manage to do such a delicate and laborious work, there is NO answer YET". So tell me after that that the Russians are backward, and the Putilov plant is primitive, as one of Ford's engineers spoke of it. If after 100 they cannot solve the problem. And I wonder what engines are on it now?
    1. Severok
      Severok 9 October 2018 20: 38
      +3
      How putilovtsy rolled steel? Yes, it’s very simple - the hot sheet was rolled, without cleaning off the scale.
  12. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 9 October 2018 20: 20
    +4
    Very interesting stuff. It is a pity that not a single destroyer of the 7 project was left. I remember a long time ago, traveling by train past the Sevastopol Vtorchermet, I saw such a destroyer on the cutting. It was 1973 year.
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 10 October 2018 07: 28
      +3
      Quote: Aviator_
      It is a pity that not a single destroyer of the 7 project is left

      The last Seven stands in Lushunkou as a museum.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 10 October 2018 08: 45
        0
        Well, among the Chinese, even the licensed Tu-16 still fly. In fact, this is a sign of a great power - to protect its history and not spare money for this. The maintenance of the museum is a rather expensive undertaking, but the return from it covers everything. I believe that the museum of atomic weapons should not be located in the closed city of Sarov, but in Moscow and in the public domain, then it will carry out its functions.
        1. serg.shishkov2015
          serg.shishkov2015 12 October 2018 09: 29
          +1
          both in Moscow and here!
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 12 October 2018 19: 41
            +1
            Yours already know everything, but others need to show achievements.
            1. Cat
              Cat 13 October 2018 05: 37
              +1
              Sergey You are certainly right!
              The theme of museum accessibility is crucial for our Fatherland.
              Sometimes in my hearts I just want to say - "I have no regrets, having lost - we cry"!
              Sincerely, Kitty!
  13. Severok
    Severok 9 October 2018 20: 37
    +2
    Ermak was not saved, not a single Novik-class destroyer was saved for posterity, not wheeled river boats were left ...
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 10 October 2018 07: 30
      +2
      Quote: Severok
      +1
      "Ermak" was not saved

      Krasin-modernized Ermak
  14. Petrol cutter
    Petrol cutter 9 October 2018 21: 04
    +4
    The condition of steel in the context after so many years is certainly impressive. hi
  15. Sartorius
    Sartorius 10 October 2018 05: 32
    +4
    And our icebreaker "Angara"
    pah pah more or less in order. Also a historical ship, although it was operated on Lake Baikal.
  16. lazy
    lazy 10 October 2018 07: 16
    +4
    I hope when the time is right they will make a museum out of the Commune and not let it go on needles, all the same 100 years in service
    1. Waldemar
      Waldemar 11 October 2018 01: 36
      +3
      I'm afraid that the ship will not rust for another two hundred years. Russian barbarians made a stainless ship
  17. Don Cesar
    Don Cesar 10 October 2018 20: 19
    0
    Very interesting, we look forward to continuing
  18. NordUral
    NordUral 10 October 2018 21: 42
    +1
    Recently I watched a video about "Commune" on YouTube. And now here we go. More such publications. And it is imperative to make a museum out of a catamaran, both for sailors and techies.
  19. Waldemar
    Waldemar 11 October 2018 01: 35
    +2
    Well, these wild Russian barbarians, with the wild barbarian king on Putilovsky, made a nanocovering of the entire hull of the ship, which has been protecting it from corrosion for a hundred years, and we have the 21st century, and how it is done only scratch the turnip. oh yes well done
  20. Larum
    Larum 11 October 2018 11: 11
    +2
    There is no money, but you hold on.
    So hold on. Moreover, they need to work, not rubbing glasses in the parades
  21. bbss
    bbss 11 October 2018 22: 45
    +2
    I learned about the existence of the "Commune" forty years ago. Read something popular about ship lifting. Even then, the age of the ship evoked respect.
  22. Warrior Hamilton
    Warrior Hamilton 5 December 2018 13: 23
    0
    Very interesting article, happy! Breathlessly reading articles on this topic. I look forward to continuing, thanks to the author! good