Muzzle brake compensator and its purpose

Muzzle brake compensator (DTK) is a special device designed to reduce the impact of firearms. weapons, using the kinetic energy of the powder gases that come out of the barrel after firing a bullet or projectile. In addition to reducing the recoil level when firing (at a level from 25 to 75 percent, depending on the design), the muzzle brake-compensator reduces the toss of the gun barrel, leaving it on the aiming line, which shortens the time required for the next shot. Today, such devices are widely used in artillery and small arms, mainly in automatic.

The muzzle brake was known before the beginning of the Second World War, but it was during the war years and after its completion that this device became the most widespread. Initially, DTCs were used in artillery, but with the development and widespread use of automatic small arms, they were also used on small caliber weapons. Today practically all modern machine guns and machine guns are equipped with a muzzle brake-compensator by default. DTC redirects the powder gases and really reduces the recoil and toss of the barrel when firing. They are in demand not only in models of military weapons, but also in civilian models used by arrows-athletes. At the same time, by changing the direction of movement of the powder gases, the DTC can amplify the sound of a shot heard by the gunner or artillery crew. In this case, the more efficient the device, the louder the sound of the shot. For athletes, this is not a particular problem, they usually use headphones, but in military units, individual hearing protection is more a luxury. Therefore, very often, designers of army small arms intentionally limit the effectiveness of the DTC.

Existing today muzzle brakes use the energy of a certain part of the powder gases that leave the barrel after the fired bullet. Muzzle gas devices are more beneficial in terms of energy, they do not degrade the ballistics of weapons, in addition, they are characterized by high reliability and simplicity of the device. The effectiveness of the use of such devices significantly depends on the speed, quantity and direction of movement of the powder gases drawn back. At the same time, an increase in the efficiency of their work is usually accompanied by a strong action of powder gases on the shooter or the installation, making it difficult for the aiming process, as well as on the ground, which provokes unmasking due to the formation of dust that rises from the powder gases. Through the use of various muzzle gas devices, designers can significantly reduce the energy of recoil of small arms or moving parts of its automation, reduce the fieryness of the shot, increase the accuracy of firing from automatic weapons, etc.

Muzzle brake compensator and its purpose

All muzzle brakes by their nature of the impact on the weapon can be divided into three main groups:

- muzzle brakes of axial action, they provide a reduction in the recoil energy of the weapon or barrel only in the longitudinal direction;

- muzzle brakes of transverse action, they provide the effect of transverse force directed perpendicular to the axis of the bore. Such muzzle brakes are often also called compensators, they are usually used in samples of handguns in which an overturning moment may occur that deflects the axis of the barrel in the lateral direction;

- The muzzle brakes of the combined action, they provide both a reduction in the recoil force in the longitudinal direction, and the creation of lateral force, which compensates for the overturning moment of the firearm. Such muzzle brakes are called brake-compensators. They are used primarily in modern models of small arms.

Different types of DTK for Kalashnikov assault rifle

By their principle of action, muzzle brakes are divided into models of active action, reactive action, and active-reactive action.

Muzzle brakes active action used in the strike of the gas jet coming out of the barrel on the surface, which is fixed on the barrel of the weapon. Such a blow generates an impulse of force directed against the action of recoil of a weapon, thereby ensuring a reduction in the recoil energy of the entire system.

In automatic models of small arms the most widespread are muzzle brakes of the reactive type, the action of which is based on the use of the reaction of the expiration of powder gases. Their main purpose is to reduce the recoil energy of the barrel or the entire weapon system by providing a symmetric removal of a part of the powder gases in the direction of recoil. At the time of the bullet's departure from the bore, a portion of the powder gases is retracted through special channels in the muzzle brake. Simultaneously, under the action of the reaction of the expiration of powder gases, all weapons receive a push forward, the recoil energy decreases. The greater the volume of gases will be retracted and the higher their speed of movement, the more effectively the muzzle brake will work.

In models of muzzle brakes of active-reactive type, both of the above principles are combined with each other. In such devices, the gas jet is struck in the forward direction (active action) and the jet is thrown backward (reactive action). A similar device was used, for example, on the Tokarev SVT-40 self-loading rifle of the 1940 model of the year.


Also muzzle brakes can be classified according to design features, which can significantly affect the efficiency of these devices. The main such design features include: the presence or vice versa of the absence of a diaphragm (front wall); the number of rows of side holes; number of cameras; shape of the side holes. The muzzle brake, which has no diaphragm and front wall, is called tubeless. At the same time, a muzzle brake equipped with a diaphragm provides greater efficiency in comparison with tubeless devices by creating an additional pulling force in the opposite direction to recoil, this is ensured by the impact of the expiring powder gas on the diaphragm. In modern weapons, one-camera and two-chamber models of muzzle brakes are most common, as a further increase in the number of cameras only slightly increases the efficiency of such devices (no more than 10 percent), while the weight and dimensions increase. The shape of the side holes can be different: rectangular or square windows, longitudinal or transverse slots, round holes. In these cases, muzzle brakes are called respectively - single, slotted or net. Within each of the chambers such openings can be located in one or several rows at once, both along the perimeter and along the length of the muzzle.

Along with the muzzle brakes in modern models of automatic small arms, compensators are very widely used - devices designed for asymmetric removal of powder gases to the side of the barrel bore axis, which is necessary to stabilize the weapon during firing. Muzzle brake-compensators work due to the impact of powder gases, which expire from the barrel in the direction opposite to the action of the overturning moment. Typical models of modern DTK can stabilize weapons when shooting in one or two planes.

Today muzzle brakes are very actively and massively used in small arms. One of the reasons for their widespread use by designers is the simplicity of the device, which is combined in them with high efficiency of action. In the automatic weapons of today, muzzle brakes are equipped with large-caliber machine guns and small-caliber guns in order to reduce the recoil effect on the machine, as well as self-loading and assault rifles, machine guns, submachine guns, high-precision large-caliber rifles for powerful cartridges.

DTK of the AK-74M automatic machine

Today, the famous Kalashnikov assault rifle, AK-74, can be attributed to one of the most well-known and widespread examples of the use of the muzzle brake-compensator. This model of automatic weapons, among other changes, was distinguished by the presence of a fundamentally new design of the DTC compared to the previously used device on the AKM machine gun.

The AK-74 machine gun had a noticeably more improved muzzle brake-compensator, which became a long and two-chamber device. The first chamber of the DTC of this automaton was a cylinder that was intended to exit the bullet; it also had three outlet openings for powder gases and two slots located near the diaphragm. The second chamber of the compensator had a slightly different device - two wide windows, and in front - the same diaphragm for the bullet exit. Such design changes allowed to increase the tactical and technical characteristics of the machine. In particular, they had a positive effect on the accuracy of shooting and balancing; at the same time, the shooter’s disguise improved, as the flashes of the flame at the moment of the shot became very difficult to notice. In one form or another, such a design, as well as its modifications (DTK 1-4), are used in Kalashnikov assault rifles and in our days.

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  1. -10
    26 August 2018 07: 35
    People call them "flame extinguisher" wink
    1. +13
      26 August 2018 07: 52
      The people say - flame Yes
      1. +3
        26 August 2018 11: 29
        Quote: thinker
        flame extinguisher

        There are also purely "flame arresters", for example, at the Degtyarev light machine gun, DP.
        1. +3
          28 August 2018 15: 54
          The SVD rifle and the PK and PKM machine guns, as well as the AK 74 assault rifles with conversion modifications, have exactly "slot type" flame arresters. The origin of these US flame arresters and it was from the American M 60 machine gun that they migrated to our weapon. On the first models of the Kalashnikov PK machine gun, there were bells flame arresters like those of Degtyarev's DP 27 machine guns. But when our gunsmiths fell into the hands of American M 60s, ours were amazed at the effectiveness of the muzzle devices of these machine guns and naturally they were copied and installed on the PC and other samples.
      2. 0
        28 August 2018 18: 29
        Hehehe, buggagaha!

        Lingua latina non verpa canina est!

    2. +14
      26 August 2018 08: 06
      Quote: Fedorov
      People call them "flame extinguisher" wink

      ... In vain ... PBS and DTK are different approaches hi

    3. +11
      26 August 2018 10: 04
      Quote: Fedorov
      People call them "flame extinguisher"

      This is only among those "people" who do not read the manual for the machine. And in article 11 of the manual, both the AK74 DTK and the RPK74 flame arrester are drawn and described. These are two devices that are different in design and purpose.
    4. +1
      26 August 2018 11: 41
      The flame arrester is another device, in the "people" we called it that way - "muzzle" or "compensator".
    5. +2
      27 August 2018 10: 12
      Quote: Fedorov
      People call them "flame extinguisher"

      Valery, do not confuse the people, the flame arrester and the DTK are devices with different tasks, but there are also combined devices, for example: the Tula "Night-2". Very effective, but cumbersome.
    6. 0
      29 August 2018 21: 34
      Quote: Fedorov
      People call them "flame extinguisher" wink

      September 1, these people will go to grade 1 laughing
  2. Cat
    26 August 2018 07: 44
    Dear Sergey, thank you very much for the article!
    There is a rational suggestion. Perhaps you should think about a series of similar articles in order to combat the technical illiteracy of our members of the forum. By the way, the systematization of knowledge has not prevented anyone, but here for the neophytes it’s the bullseye!
    Sincerely, Kitty!
    1. +7
      26 August 2018 09: 01
      The article is a big plus. I also support Kotische’s proposal, not every VO reader studied at military schools, and not everyone teaches there.
      Thanks to the author, keep it up!
      1. +3
        26 August 2018 17: 44
        rather, the article is a big minus, because nothing new, another version of the "fatal flaw" - "we didn't do it!"
        And in general, from an engineering point of view, come up with as many as three variants of the names of DTK types (active, reactive, active-reactive) this is insanity!, the principle of action is the same there! this is the pressure difference from two sides of the same plane. They differ only in the static and dynamic ratio of this difference and the area of ​​the plane, which leads to different compensation forces. For the same reason, even a flame arrester and sometimes PBS can act as a compensator, since the above-mentioned phenomenon can also occur.
        1. +2
          27 August 2018 16: 55
          PBS muffles the sound of a shot - a compensator reduces recoil - Flamegas reduces flash on the barrel neither PBS nor Flamegas compensates for recoil
          1. 0
            28 August 2018 14: 10
            Quote: Charik
            neither PBS nor flamegas compensates for the return

            Reread my comment more carefully, and especially look in the dictionary for what the word "may" means that you obviously missed ...
    2. +5
      26 August 2018 14: 50
      "Dear Sergey, thank you very much for the article!
      There is a rational suggestion. Perhaps you should think about a series of similar articles in order to combat the technical illiteracy of our members of the forum.
      Congeniously, fight technical illiteracy with technical illiteracy! Wedge a wedge.
      I have a counter offer. To create a group under the leadership of Shpakovsky to combat technical illiteracy.
      The proposal will not allow myself to argue, the audience can consider this at their discretion.
    3. 0
      27 August 2018 01: 57
      Effective offer. Considering that VOs are read mainly by civilians and those who served the term one hundred years ago. Only specialized specialists can understand well in military equipment. And so at least there will be popular science enlightenment.
  3. +8
    26 August 2018 07: 53
    DTK redirects powder gases and really reduces the recoil and toss of the barrel of the weapon when firing.

    1. +8
      26 August 2018 10: 04
      As rightly said in one joke: "Don't be smart! Show your hand!"
      Maybe instead of hammering terms into the minds of readers and dazzling eyes with bright pictures, just explain on the fingers: what happens to the gun (weapon) when fired, when the barrel: a) without a muzzle brake; b) with a muzzle brake ... . why, sometimes, the shooter is "not very good" when he shoots from a weapon with a reactive muzzle brake ... how the presence or absence of diesel fuel affects the rollback (of the weapon).
      1. +3
        26 August 2018 11: 46
        Quote: Nikolaevich I
        Don't be smart! Show me with your hand! "

        Whoever ever held the AK-74 in his hands understood. And who slept with him, he figured out the principle of withdrawal for a long time, there, in principle, nothing complicated (about the DTK AK74).
        1. +4
          26 August 2018 13: 53
          Actually, I'm terribly interested in DT art equipment! Somehow I came across a friend in a dispute about the principles of muzzle brakes (DT) in artillery ... expressed my point of view; but could not convince him! In general, I understand that we are talking about small arms, but on my mind -artillery... recourse
        2. +4
          27 August 2018 01: 29
          Quote: konstantin68
          Whoever once held the AK-74 in his hands, he understood

          I served with AKM ... but are you sure that all the "fighters" into whose hands the AK-74 got interested in how the muzzle brake-compensator works and how it works? what
          1. -4
            28 August 2018 09: 22
            I’ll tell you a secret. Most of the fighters are very violet on the principle of work. Hand in hand, taught to charge-discharge, direct the barrel towards the target, do incomplete disassembly, assembly and everything. Meet the domestic Rimbaud, with the confidence that he is invincible. this applies to conscripts and double basses. At one time I had a little acquaintance with the kmp program to study the mate of weapons, in particular the training of sergeants. Am the material is given in such a volume that the sergeant not only knows how to use any weapon of his unit, but knows and the device, and the principle of operation in such a volume that it is able to assemble any small arms of its unit from the spare parts box. The knowledge is enough to carry out minor repairs without resorting to the help of an art master (they have a specially trained master sergeant ). On the one hand, of course, a lot of redundant information, but on the other hand, knowledge is power.
          2. 0
            28 August 2018 12: 25
            Quote: Nikolaevich I
            , in whose hands the AK-74 fell, are interested in how the muzzle brake compensator is designed and the principle of its action?

            I was curious, even the holes in the first chamber were made asymmetrically and at different levels in order to minimize the effect of sidetracking (AK, in my opinion, led to the left, although I could be wrong, it was a long time ago).
  4. +6
    26 August 2018 09: 52
    Excellent article!
    The only remark to the photo
    Different types of DTK for Kalashnikov assault rifle

    The far right is not the DTK, but the AKM compensator. But in general, the photo is interesting, I have not seen such a variety of DTK for the Kalashnikovs yet. Are there any performance figures shown by DTC?
    1. +1
      27 August 2018 04: 08
      Quote: Svateev
      The far right is not the DTK, but the AKM compensator.

      That's just with the far right, and I served with AKM. I still remember the number.
  5. +3
    26 August 2018 10: 18
    It was always curious why now the designers of such systems do not use an ejection ring in the type of pipes once worn on the barrel of a Lewis machine gun It seems to me that it would be possible to significantly counter the expansion of powder gases to the sides, plus a significant improvement in the cooling of the barrel of an automatic weapon, and there can be progress in damping the sound of a shot.
    1. +5
      26 August 2018 11: 04
      Quote: Mikhail3
      tube type ejection ring

      This is the device used in the Pecheneg machine gun.
  6. +1
    26 August 2018 10: 52
    Beats on the ears with this thing much stronger than without it. If the efficiency of extinguishing the recoil can be raised to 75%, so can you shoot 7.62x54 with targeted bursts of hands?
    1. +2
      26 August 2018 11: 50
      Quote: bk0010
      Beats on the ears with this thing much stronger than without it. If the efficiency of extinguishing the recoil can be raised to 75%, so can you shoot 7.62x54 with targeted bursts of hands?

      The shooter's ears are much more affected by weather conditions, such as strong headwinds. Aiming can be shot hand-held and on the move after "long practical training". In our country, for example, a company commander screwed up the muzzle and at night did such a thing from his hand that it was very expensive. Yes, and we could do something.
  7. +4
    26 August 2018 11: 15
    I was personally convinced of the effective action of the DTK on the Mosin rifle, which, as you know, “kicks” pretty well, I got as much as abrasions near the collarbone.
    Due to the fact that the muzzle of the barrel of my "mosinka" was bored to a depth of several centimeters, probably as a result of bringing it to normal combat during one of the repairs, I decided, so that an inactive piece of the barrel would not be wasted, to turn it into a built-in muzzle brake, for which I drilled two through holes on the side, in front of the front sight and under it, in the rifle barrel. The recoil has sharply decreased, about 40 percent. I will not say anything about the increase in sound strength, I did not find it, as well as an increase in accuracy.

    Although I know that it is not recommended to stand on the side of the PPSh firing a submachine gun, you can temporarily deafen, or even get a rupture of the eardrum due to the direction of a strong sound wave. As you know, the holes of the effective PPSh muzzle brake are directed in both directions and up, because of which, when automatic, both the tossing of the barrel of the machine up and the recoil decreases.
  8. +5
    26 August 2018 21: 08
    In the DTK AK-74, the slots in the front diaphragm serve to create an acoustic curtain against the gases flowing from the second chamber. Therefore, not a single home-made DTC in acoustics can surpass it. All models of other DTKs, no matter how they are promoted, do not and do not have any significant advantages over the standard one.
    1. 0
      28 August 2018 16: 09
      Dear friend of the DTK, according to our gunsmiths, this is always a compromise between accuracy and efficiency. As for the AK 74, its "super effective" DTK was sentenced to the removal of early releases on the AK 74 since, as part of the conversion conversion of these assault rifles, in addition to new telescopic butts and new pistol handles and picattini strips began to be fitted with slotted flame arresters of the same type as on PC machine guns.
  9. +2
    27 August 2018 01: 04
    . Comments are significantly more informative. And those who offer the author to do an educational program, along the way, will not distinguish PM from AKM.
  10. 0
    27 August 2018 11: 12
    The author forgot to mention another possible purpose of the DTK: this is the ability of some samples (with special "peaks") to escort.

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