Military Review

Easel machine gun "Shvartsloze" - a machine gun of Austria-Hungary in the First World War

Since Austria-Hungary could not achieve reliable operation of the Skoda machine guns, the army adopted a machine gun designed by German designer Andreas Wilhelm Schwarzlose (Swarzlose). His system had a different semi-free bolt design — probably the Austrian military was attracted to systems that had a fixed barrel and a relatively small number of parts. Austria-Hungary in 1906 acquired the rights to manufacture the Schwarzlose machine gun, which was organized at Osteraishe Wafenfabrik, Steyr (Steyr). The first Schwarzlose under the 8-millimeter cartridge of the "mannicher" in the army was adopted under the designation M / 05, a somewhat modernized machine gun which received the designation M / 07 was adopted in 1907 year.

Easel machine gun "Shvartsloze" - a machine gun of Austria-Hungary in the First World War

The skeleton of the machine gun was a receiver box (box) with a folding box cover and a barrel cover that is threaded to the box. The trunk was fastened to the box with the help of sector bosses of the breech and a latch. The barrel had a relatively short length - with this automation scheme, it was necessary to reduce the pressure in the barrel bore, and the bullet must leave the barrel before unlocking the barrel bore began. In the Schwarzlose system, unlocking was slowed down in two ways - by the resistance of two articulated levers, and also by redistributing the recoil energy between the parts of the gate. Two levers - the connecting rod, which is connected to the massive skeleton of the bolt, as well as the crank connected to the duct - were located near the dead center in the forward position. The percussion mechanism consisted of a drummer with a striker sliding in the channel of the skeleton of the bolt, a plate with a crest mounted on the tail of the drummer, and an ankle reinforced on the plate. After the shot, under the effect of recoil, the bolt moved back and carried the connecting rod with it. Between the axles of the crank pin in the vertical plane there was some shoulder that caused the crank to rotate and the crank rotated about its swing axis. When unfolding the levers, the slide retreat from the breech of the barrel slowed down. At the same time, the rear knee of the connecting rod pressed on the crest of the plate, taking the drummer and the massive plate back relative to the bolt body - this acceleration of the hammer took away some of the kinetic energy from the core. The ankle with the sear moved along with the plate — until the moment when the sear began to catch and the platoon of the upper crest of the bolt. After that, the plate could not move to the core. The mobile system in this form reached the rearmost point (with the stroke length of the shutter was 100 millimeters), after which it went forward under the action of a helical return-combat spring. Another cartridge was picked up by the skeleton of the bolt, was sent to the chamber, the levers folded, slowing the bolt, softening the blow at the front point, preventing the bolt from rebounding. Drummer after locking the barrel remained cocked, while the reciprocating-fighting spring remained preloaded.

The trigger mechanism consisted of a trigger thrust and a trigger lever located on the back plate. Manual fuse located in the release lever did not allow him to move forward. Trigger pull when you press the lever lifted the head of the ankle, turning the ankle. The shepherd and battle platoon disengaged. Drummer went ahead, smashing the cartridge primer. In the event that the lever was pressed, the triggering thrust remained in the rear position, and in the next cycle the shot was made by the automatics. The reloading handle, located on the right side of the box, was rigidly seated on the right neck of the crank.

The power was supplied by a canvas ribbon designed for 100 or 250 cartridges. To facilitate loading, the tape was supplied with a leather tip. A drum-type feed mechanism was assembled from the bottom of the box. The hub carried a ratchet wheel, a drum - a gear for sleeves and bullets. Moving back, the shutter with its front lower ridge pressed on the tooth of the ratchet wheel, turning it to the left. The drum captured another cartridge by pushing the tape to the left. The cartridge captured by the extractor of the skeleton of the bolt for the cap of the sleeve was moved back and removed from the tape. After that, the cartridge was transferred into the groove of the drum and turned up the nose of a bullet. During the further rotation of the drum, the cartridge climbed the dismounting line along the guide bevels of the box. In this case, the next cartridge stood on the rack. Rotation of the drum was made while moving back and forth. This system required three times to turn the reloading handle while loading the machine gun, so that the first cartridge appeared in the chamber. Removing the spent cartridges produced spring-loaded ejector of the skeleton of the bolt. The reflector, assembled in the groove of the core, slid along the groove of the box by a protrusion and, resting on the rear edge of the groove, protruding beyond the shutter mirror, pushed the cartridge case to the left.

In order to weaken the grip of the liner and the walls of the chamber, as well as to prevent rupture of the liner during extraction, a lubrication mechanism was introduced into the structure (“axle”) - before the cartridge was sent to the chamber, it was oiled. The mechanism was installed in the lid of the box and consisted of an oil can and a pump whose piston was actuated by the right cage of the bolt's body — during the forward movement the pump sucked a portion of oil into the piston rod and squeezed oil onto the cartridge during reverse movement. In 1912, the machine gun was upgraded: improved machine design, improved manufacturability and reliability of the system, put a roller on the right crank neck to reduce friction during rotation, the extractor was replaced with a removable one. The external differences of the M / 07 / 12 modification were in the upper edge of the box cover, which served as a continuation of the trunk casing line.

Machine gun "Schwarzlose", used by Austro-Hungarian units for air defense

A simple spool mechanism in the casing regulated the removal of steam. The adjustment depended on the angle of elevation of the trunk. Sector sight had a triangular slot of the rear sight, a drum, notched from 2 to 24 (200 - 2400 meters), and an input device for lateral corrections. The fly was attached to the casing. The aiming line was 686 millimeters. An excellent "find" was the horizontal control knobs located on the back plate.

The tripod had a rigidly welded to the base of the rear and hinged reinforced front legs, connected by stretch marks. By extending the legs, the height of the line of fire was adjusted. A conical swivel mounted on the Schwarzlose box was inserted into the upper base of the base. The mechanism of vertical pickup consisted of two toothed sectors and a gear reducer with a clamp and a handwheel. Horizontal guidance was carried out with a swivel and a slider, which moved along a horizontal arc with scattering restraints. The slider and ball heel of the machine gun were connected. Despite the rather large mass, the machine favorably differed from many of its peers in relatively small dimensions. A shield could be installed on the machine. Later, the machine was given the opportunity to conduct anti-aircraft fire. For firing anti-aircraft fire, lengthening pipes were attached to the legs, which allowed firing from the position of the knee, or the machine was tilted forward, and a special socket for a machine-gun swivel was installed on the back leg, like on an anti-aircraft stance.

The lightweight “manual” version of the Schwarzlose M / 07 / 12 / 16 machine gun was mounted on a light tripod or a bipod, had a removable shoulder rest, used a ribbon on 100 ammunition.

Like many other machine guns of the time, Schwarzlose was used in aviation. Modification M / 07/12 / R16 for aviation was air-cooled barrel. To increase the speed of fire, the machine gun was equipped with an additional buffer spring in the butt plate.

In addition to comparative simplicity, the advantages of the system were a small number of parts (166 units), their strength and large size. This machine gun had the first, successfully working in combat conditions, system with a semi-free gate. The disadvantages include the need for "osalki" cartridges and low ballistics. However, over time, the oiler was excluded from the M / 07 / 12 design, and the bolt was weighted for an additional delay in unlocking the barrel.

In Russia, part of the captured “Shvartsloze” in the workshops of the Petrograd and Kiev artillery depots was altered under the Russian patron - this work was facilitated by the fact that the Austrian-made machine guns were designed for the protruding rifle cartridges.

The Schwarzlose machine guns were supplied not only to the armies of the allied states - Turkey, Bulgaria and Italy (until it took the side of the Entente) - but also to Greece, Romania, Serbia, and Australia, they came as trophies. Under license, the machine gun was produced in Sweden and the Netherlands. After Austria-Hungary collapsed, the Schwarzlose machine guns were in service in Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Czechoslovakia even produced Schwarzlose chambered in 7,92 mm. In the early 1930s in Austria, the machine gun was converted to the 8x56 cartridge. The armies of Italy and Hungary had the Schwarzlose in service until 1945. In World War I, the German Reichswehr used the Schwarzlose chambered for 7,92 mm; in World War II, the Wehrmacht kept these machine guns to guard airfields, in rear units, and the like.

To unload the machine gun “Schwarzlose” it is necessary to do the following: Press the discharger flag down (behind the drum box, from the bottom of the machine gun), pull the cartridge belt to the right. Move the cocking handle back to remove the cartridge from the chamber. Push the trigger lever.

Incomplete disassembly of the heavy machine gun "Schwarzlose" was made in the following order:
1. Turn the cover latch to the left and open it, lifting up before the stopper rests against the protrusion on the cover.
2. Rotate the back plate stopper for the flag (located above the trigger lever), then turn the butt pad 1 / 6 left to the left for the control handle and pull it back overcoming the return spring pressure.
3. Remove the recoil spring from the box (with the rear stop ring).
4. Remove the front thrust ring, for which it is necessary to pull it back through the opening of the box and turn it to the desired angle.
5. Take out the drummer and ankle. To do this, it is necessary to lift the ankle behind the head with the left hand, and with the right hand pull the drummer back to the cut-outs of the box and separate it; remove the ankle from the drummer.
6. Take out parts of the slowdown mechanism. To do this, pull back the shutter with the handle and, supporting the inner opening of the shutter and the handle, bring the shutter until the slots on the box and its projections coincide, lift the shutter up to the vertical position of the handle, turn the crank and other links to the right. Disassemble all links.
7. Remove the trigger pull by pushing on its back end and pull the pull down to the right by the raised upper end.
8. Remove the drum box with drum and lid. To do this, turn back the latch of the drum cover until it stops (on the right side of the machine gun) and push it to the right, pressing from left to right on the rear end of the box.
9. Disassemble the drum box. Taking the cover back and turning it to the right to separate it; move the drum forward, lift the back end, disengage the front neck and the box nest, separate the drum.
10. Disassemble the drum, for which: remove the stop of the drum spring, turn it to the left with the key and move it back, overcoming the spring pressure; remove the drum spring; From the rear end of the drum sleeve, remove the sleeve.
11. Separating the barrel (if its replacement, correction and inspection is needed, the barrel mass is 1,35 kg) by unscrewing the barrel nut. Unscrew the gland, turn the barrel latch so that the barrel can be turned; Turn the barrel to the right by turning the 1 / 6 turn to the right with a special key or the skeleton, remove the barrel.

For assembly, all actions were performed in the reverse order.

Specifications machine gun M / 07 "Schwarzlose":

Patron - 8x51R Mannicher;
The mass of the “body” of the machine gun is 19,9 kg (without cartridges);
Machine gun weight - 42,0 kg (with water, on the machine);
The length of the "body" of the machine gun - 1066 mm;
Barrel length - 530 mm;
The grooves - 4 right;
The length of the stroke rifling - 240 mm;
Initial bullet speed - 625 m / s;
Sighting range - 2000 m;
The rate of fire - 500 shots per minute;
Combat rate - 250 shots per minute;
Tape capacity - 250 cartridges;
Type of machine - tripod;
Machine weight - kg 19,0;
The height of the line of fire - mm 250-600;
The angle of vertical guidance is from -35 to + 25 degrees;
Horizontal guidance angle - 35 degrees

Based on: S. Fedoseev - Machine Guns in the First World War

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  1. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych 22 May 2012 08: 55
    Some kind of wrong design! Original, of course, but also to lubricate each cartridge before a shot is generally nonsense ...
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 22 May 2012 11: 58
      I did not understand such a reaction in the form of cons!
      Do you know a lot of weapon designs where an oiler is built in to lubricate each cartridge before firing?
      And machine guns with such a short barrel?
      1. Kibb
        Kibb 22 May 2012 12: 17
        Quote: Brother Sarich
        you know a lot of weapon designs where the grease fitting is built

        A bit, for example BREDA M1930

        BREDA M1937
        1. Brother Sarych
          Brother Sarych 22 May 2012 13: 25
          Indeed, there, in general, they put an oiler in the handbrake - before that I did not know about that! No, we don’t need such sex ...
          1. Kibb
            Kibb 22 May 2012 13: 32
            There was another way - the Reveli grooves, but they did not provide absolutely safe extraction - for example, ShKAS
    2. Kibb
      Kibb 22 May 2012 12: 00
      What did they nominate? This machine gun is really not particularly successful
  2. Denis
    Denis 22 May 2012 11: 30
    I do not pretend to accuracy, but I heard that the fuligans used it in the 70s in Indochina
  3. borisst64
    borisst64 22 May 2012 13: 59
    And I liked the wheel from the cart))
  4. warrior
    warrior 22 May 2012 19: 14
    Gentlemen, have you even seen this machine gun in a museum?
    Since two generations of my seven have served with this weapon in two world wars. In the Bulgarian army, Schwartz entered the WWI and served until the 50s when he was replaced with Soviet equipment. The machine gun was under the same cartridge as the carbines and rifles of Manleher, that is, standardization was a fact. Then the machine gun was designed for transportation in disassembled form, together with spare parts and ammunition, in vyuchenny transport. The entire staff was also on horseback, which gave the calculation a very high mobility, especially in rugged and planin terrain.
    The calculation was led by feltwebel (personnel) or feltwebel-schoolchildren (draftees-podofficers) which gave good controllability. The machine gun worked confidently up to 1500 meters on all targets - infantry, cavalry, aviation. The aiming system was very simple and effective. At 2.5 they were shooting only at larger group targets - they were gathering troops, villages, dugouts, trenches, etc., maybe that's why the author had such impressions of "ballistic". Although show me a modern rifle-caliber machine gun, which at 2.5 km leads an aimed arrow to kill, even with optics.
    About the oil can. I don’t know how the author understands this, but this oiler supplies oil in the moving parts of the mechanism and, after the oil has been used up, extracts it along with the spent cartridge case. Machine guns of the first generation - before WWII, had a gap not only for heating the forearm, but also for heating the automatic mechanism. That is why the oil can is delivered. Without it, you can shoot for a long time, but sooner or later the friction mechanism raises the temperature, the adhesion of the parts (not the sleeves) hangs and begins to extract poorly and "bite" the sleeves. You can board with this by disassembling and lubricating. But disassembling and lubricating during a fight is a delicate matter. And if you attach the oil can, you can shoot calmly for a long time and have the weapon ready for subsequent shooting without the need for disassembly and lubrication during the battle. All these details are apparently incomprehensible to the author (Fesoseev), who sings the tales about the "oiled patron".
    The weapon was well thought out, designed for mass use - in the Bulgarian army about 1000 pikes were used almost flawlessly for more than 30 years.
    1. Kibb
      Kibb 22 May 2012 20: 11
      Quote: warrior
      Gentlemen, have you even seen this machine gun in a museum?

      Yes, I saw, by the way, Bulgarian
      Thank you for the interesting information, and do not react so sharply
      no one says that this is complete trash.
      Regarding the oiler, the oil was injected into the chamber, moreover, it was ordinary machine oil, not weapons, and this was done for normal extraction of cartridges. But if the mechanism needed constant lubrication during long-term shooting, then the machine gun would be really rubbish. Shooting with a closed shutter is also not good for a machine gun
      However, Popenker speaks of a machine gun as a completely reliable system
  5. warrior
    warrior 22 May 2012 21: 23
    Here is the expanded text of Fedoseyev with additional photos.

    What he paid little attention to was a modification of 1912. when they lifted the shutter weights and strengthened the spring and there was no need to supply oil. In Bulgaria, the early version did not arrive, the late one arrived, although Shrovetide is listed in the spare parts and accessories.
  6. Kibb
    Kibb 22 May 2012 21: 41
    "However, over time, the oiler was excluded from the design of the M / 07/12, and the bolt was weighted down for an additional delay in unlocking the bore." - written in black and white.
    As for the ballistics, if the initial speed is given for the cartridge sample 09, then really the ballistics is weak
    because for the infantry M95 she EMNIP about 800 -850 m / s
    1. warrior
      warrior 22 May 2012 22: 48
      What is true is true.
      At the expense of ballistics, you mix the characteristics of two cartridges - 8x50R (M-1895) and
      8x56R (M-1931)
      At 8x50R
      Infantry gun - barrel length 765mm - 670ms
      Carabiner - barrel length 545mm - 610 ms
      Machine gun with the same cartridge - 635 ms
      With the 8x56R cartridge (M-1931), the initial speed of the machine guns, after "fitting" under the new cartridge, is about 780-820ms
  7. Kibb
    Kibb 22 May 2012 23: 33
    So stop it. We are talking about the machine gun of the times of the PMV, so we will not touch 8x56
    An 8x50 cartridge with a 15.8 g blunt-ended shell bullet on black powder was adopted in 1988 with the M1888 rifle, and in 1890 it was transferred to nitropowder. The M1895 rifle was under the same cartridge-initial speed as indicated by you. In 1909, a cartridge with a pointed bullet weighing 10 g and an initial speed of 850 m / s was adopted. As I understand it, before the start of the war, they failed to switch to a new cartridge.
    Now we look at 7,6 x54 and 7,92x57 or at 8x50 Lebel with a pointed bullet and we see that the cartridge has an 8x50 Staer sample of 1890 (or if you want 1895), there is no ballistics for 1914
    1. Oleg Fudin
      Oleg Fudin 2 October 2018 20: 35
      A friend from Bulgaria, probably correctly drew attention to the cartridges. The machine gun had low ballistics due to a weak cartridge. That is, the machine gun itself has nothing to do with it.