Military Review

Experienced armored personnel carriers "Object 1015" and "Object 1015B"

44
In 1959, the newest BTR-60 armored personnel carrier was adopted by the Soviet army, which determined the main ways of developing such vehicles for the next few decades. Together with a prototype from the Gorky plant, which was eventually recommended for adoption and mass production, several other experimental machines were tested. Among them were the armored personnel carriers “Object 1015” and “Object 1015Б”, which resulted in the joint work of specialists from the military department and the automotive industry.


The work on promising armored personnel carriers started in the early fifties, and soon they were joined by members of the Military Academy of Armored Forces. In 1954, a group of engineers led by G.V. Zimelev has begun to work on the look of the new armored personnel carrier. This car was supposed to have a chassis with an 8x8 wheel formula and independent suspension, as well as a sealed hull that allows you to swim. The engine was proposed to be placed in the aft compartment and connected to the transmission of the H-shaped scheme.


Experienced armored vehicle "Object 1015". Photo "Domestic armored vehicles. XX century"


The Academy independently worked on this design until the end of 1958. Then the Council of Ministers of the USSR ordered the unification of efforts with another organization. The second participant of the project was the Special Design Bureau of Kutaisi Automobile Plant. During the joint development of an armored personnel carrier, these special design bureaus were consistently led by MA. Ryzhik, D.L. Kartvelishvili and S.M. Batiashvili. They all made a significant contribution to the common cause.

After attracting the KAZ enterprise, the project, now considered from a practical point of view, received a working designation. The armored carrier was called the "1015 Object". At a certain point, the development of the project led to the appearance of an improved modification, which was proposed to be distinguished by the “1015B” index. Since these vehicles were not put into service, no other names were assigned to them.

The new project proposed the use of bearing welded armored corps with anti-bullet protection. For a definite increase in the basic characteristics, a significant number of curved parts was envisaged while reducing the total length of the welds. Considering the main threats, the hull was equipped with a flat roof from the very beginning. The bottom got a curved shape, which increased the performance of the machine afloat. From the point of view of layout, the 1015 Object was similar to other experienced BTRs. The front of the hull accommodated the control compartment, behind it was the troop compartment, combined with the combat one. The engine and part of the transmission units was in the stern.

Like some other experienced armored personnel carriers, the “1015 Object” received a frontal hull with a characteristic shape formed by several major details. The lower frontal part was an inclined panel with curved side portions. On top there was a unit of two inclined sheets, one of which had openings for inspection hatches. The sides of the hull differed quite complex shape. Their lower part was located vertically. Above it were developed shelves formed by wheel arches and sloping sides. Between the second and third pairs of wheels, rather large polygonal covers were provided. T-shaped stern collected from several flat sheets installed with a slope back.


The layout of the troop compartment, envisaged by the project "1015". Drawing "Domestic armored vehicles. XX century"


In the stern of the hull there was a petrol engine ZIL-E129 with 180 horsepower. The engine was connected to a five-speed manual transmission, followed by a central inter-sided differential. From the transfer case, torque was delivered to the onboard gearboxes. The latter, together with the brakes, were located inside the armored hull. The onboard gearboxes of the two front axles differed slightly from the aggregates of the two rear axles, which was due to the presence of the turning mechanism.

The applied transmission led to very interesting results. Cardan shafts and gearboxes were placed directly at the sides of the case, and their covers did not differ in large sizes. Due to this, there was enough space inside the hull to accommodate a large number of paratroopers. In addition, this supply of free volume even allowed to reduce to a certain extent the overall dimensions of the hull without losing the basic qualities.

Two front bridges were made manageable. They received a special suspension arm. The loads were taken over by the coil spring and the hydropneumatic shock absorber inside it. On the two rear axles used a combination of torsion and spring suspension. High throughput should have provided large diameter wheels. All wheels were connected to a centralized pressure control system.

For movement on water, "Object 1015" received a water-jet propulsion, built on floating units tank PT-76. In the rear of the hull, on the sides of the power plant, there were two water conduits. Intake holes were placed on the bottom, nozzles - on the aft sheet. The drive of the water cannons was organized using the secondary shaft of the gearbox. Thanks to this, the control of the water cannon and the wheel propulsion was carried out independently and without mutual influence. The thrust of the water jet was controlled by changing the speed of the impeller, as well as by moving the damper on the aft nozzle. With the shutter closed, the water flow was redirected downward and forward through the corresponding slot in the bottom. Due to the use of special ejection nozzles, the water cannons also served as pumps for pumping water from the housing. On the water, a wave-reflecting shield on the frontal sheet should also be used.


One of the experienced "1015B Objects". Photo Denisovets.ru


In case of a jam, an armored personnel carrier was equipped with its own winch driven by a transfer case. This device could choose a cable, creating a force up to 4,5 TC. For towing damaged equipment there was a standard drawbar.

In accordance with the requirements of the army, the armored personnel carrier had to carry regular machine-gun armament. The project envisaged the use of a machine gun turret, placed on the roof of the hull. Such a combat module had a device for mounting a machine gun rifle caliber. Managing aiming and shooting was carried out manually. Circular shelling was provided with the possibility of attacking air targets. Machine-gun fire could be complemented by shooting from a personal weapons. The sides of the habitable compartment received a large number of embrasures with movable covers. If necessary, it was possible to shoot through open hatches.

On-board power distribution based on compact units, allowed to increase the available volumes inside the case. In front of the car, in the control room, there was a crew of two. Over their places were their own hatches. It was suggested to follow the road with the help of two large windshields, in a combat situation, covered with armor shields. With closed shields, the observation was carried out through periscopic devices on the hatches.

Directly on the transmission housings at the sides of the hull it was proposed to install benches for the landing. Optimal use of the available volumes allowed to place 18 seats in the troop compartment. Together with other paratroopers in the main compartment of the body was the shooter who controlled the machine-gun installation. Thus, the 1015 Object armored personnel carrier could take the 21 right away on board. However, in the initial version of the project, the troop compartment was not particularly convenient, and the 19 fighters had to sit as tight as possible.


View of the stern and port side. Photo Denisovets.ru


For landing and disembarking from the troop compartment, it was necessary to use a large sunroof, equipped with four movable covers. Cover the top hatch could recline to the sides and go to the side, to a certain extent, increasing the level of protection of the hull. Access to the car was facilitated by a set of steps. The simplest devices of metal rods were above the gaps between the wheels.

Favorably differing from competitors by the design capabilities, the new BTR had similar dimensions. The length of the machine was 6,8 m, width - 2,5 m. With 450 mm clearance, the machine had a total height of just over 1,8 m, which was obtained through the optimal use of internal volumes. The combat weight was set at the level of 9,8 t. On the highway, the car had to reach speeds of up to 90 km / h, on the water - more than 10 km / h.

Developing a full-fledged project, launched in 1958, did not take long. By the end of the year, the Kutaisi Automobile Plant built a new type of experimental car. It almost completely corresponded to the existing project, but so far did not have turrets with weapons. The equipment passed the factory tests, during which it showed its advantages and disadvantages. It was found that the original layout of the body, combined with the special architecture of the transmission, provides the desired results. At the same time, the reliability of individual components and assemblies was insufficient. It also revealed the inconvenience of the troop compartment. The project needed the most serious improvements affecting the design of almost all systems and components.

The complexity of the required improvements led to the fact that in the process of refining the original project has become a new one. From a certain time, the promising BTR was designated as “1015B Object”. The new letter indicated a significant change in the original construction. In addition, the difference of projects in the most noticeable way manifested itself in the exterior of machines.


Updated layout habitable compartments. Drawing "Domestic armored vehicles. XX century"


According to the results of the first tests, it was decided to retain the main features of the case, but the shape of the individual parts and layout had to be revised. In particular, the contours of the frontal part of the hull and sides have changed. So, instead of curved wheel arches, a long, common shelf of the same height was now used. The angles of inclination of the side plates have also changed. The use of new sheets has increased the manufacturability of production, as well as improved the level of protection against some threats. The maximum armor thickness still reached 10 mm.

The internal compartments of the hull were recycled, and their equipment has seriously changed. Now in the rear of the hull there was an engine ZIL-375 with power 180 hp Through a mechanical gearbox, torque was delivered to the transfer case, which was used to drive an H-shaped transmission with onboard power distribution, water cannons and a winch. With the help of side driveshafts, eight side gears connected to the wheels were driven.

The existing suspension did not pay off, and therefore it was radically reworked. The levers remained in place, but now they were supplemented by hydropneumatic shock absorbers that used nitrogen and oil AMG-10. Such a revision increased the smoothness of the course, and also allowed the suspension to be equipped with a clearance change system.

Transmission processing has led to the emergence of opportunities to increase the volume of the troop compartment. The capacity of the car remained the same, but the conditions for the fighters were now not so constrained. In the front and rear parts of the roof there are two pairs of hatches with single flaps. Another two smaller hatches were located in the center of the side plates.


"1015B object", side view. Photo "Domestic armored vehicles. XX century"


To improve the protection of the assault force, a new design of roof hatches was proposed. As before, their covers could fit on the sides of the hull, forming a kind of multilayer armor. Also appeared locking mechanism of the covers in an upright position. Fixed caps could protect fighters when rushing through the roof. In addition, they could be used as shelters when firing from personal weapons.

The shoulder strap of the tower was finalized, but remained in the center of the roof. According to the idea of ​​the authors of the project, the new design of the shoulder strap allowed in the future to use a new combat module with reinforced weapons. However, during the tests, experienced "Objects 1015B" carried conical turret with machine guns TKB-521T. Other systems were not tested. How could look promising tower with more powerful weapons - is unknown.

In the same 1960, two experienced 1015B Objects were tested. Since the new armored personnel carriers were very different from the basic “1015 Object”, they had to be built from scratch. For several months, an experienced model of the new model passed all the necessary checks on land and on water, showing its capabilities. The design characteristics of the machine, in general, have been confirmed. There were some difficulties, but in general the experienced equipment met expectations.

It should be noted that already at the beginning of the testing of the “1015 Objects” of the basic version, the fate of the project could have been predetermined. Due to the relatively late start of development work, ready-made experimental equipment appeared only a few years after competing machines of a similar purpose. Moreover, shortly before the start of factory testing of the Kutaisi armored personnel carrier, the Ministry of Defense managed to choose a new vehicle for the army. In accordance with the decisions of 1958-59, the Soviet Army should have adopted the BTR-60 armored personnel carrier, developed by the Gorky Automobile Plant. The further fate of alternative development was questionable, but it did not inspire optimism.


The armored personnel carrier overcomes an obstacle. Photo "Domestic armored vehicles. XX century"


However, the specialists of the Military Academy of Armored Forces and SKB KAZ did not stop the work and continued to develop existing ideas. Based on the existing armored vehicle “Object 1015B” a similar-purpose vehicle was developed with the designation “1020”. Then came several other developments of technology for other purposes. In particular, one of the variants of a special wheeled chassis based on the “1015B Object” was intended for the installation of anti-aircraft missile systems.

However, due to various reasons, all the new developments of the Academy and SKB of the Kutaisi Automobile Plant could not advance further to the ground tests. None of these samples received recommendations for adoption and was not built in series. The main value of these projects for the domestic defense industry was to develop various ideas and solutions suitable for use on advanced armored vehicles. Some of the proposals subsequently found application in practice.

The work on the 1015B Object armored vehicle was completed in 1960-61, and soon the built prototypes ceased to exist. More unnecessary machines dismantled. Perhaps some of their units were used in the construction of prototypes of new models. Anyway, now the most interesting cars can be seen only in the few preserved photographs.

In the fifties of the last century, the Soviet defense industry developed several promising armored personnel carriers. For obvious reasons, all these machines could not simultaneously go into service, and therefore some projects were closed. Nevertheless, not even the most successful designs contributed to the development of domestic military equipment, but also could become the basis for new designs.

Based on:
http://denisovets.ru/
http://русская-сила.рф/
Stepanov A. History development of floating armored vehicles of the USSR and Russia. // Technique and weapons, 2000. No.8.
Solyankin A. G., Pavlov M. V., Pavlov I. V., Zheltov I. G. Domestic armored vehicles. XX century. - M .: Exprint, 2010. - T. 3. 1946 – 1965
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  1. Cat
    Cat April 22 2018 06: 35
    +6
    In general, thanks for the article.
    I will say the following about the armored personnel carrier. An armored personnel carrier is necessary for our troops, but such that the landing ride in the armor, and not on it. There must be a ramp or emergency exits at the rear of the machine. And the last one he should keep a bullet, yes keep a bullet of any small arms at point blank range.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 22 2018 08: 53
      +6
      Tady you nadot BTR-T with KAZ "Arena-M" and DZ "Relic" .... fellow For a start yes ... and then we get to the T-15 ... soldier
    2. Cannonball
      Cannonball April 22 2018 10: 04
      +8
      Quote: Kotischa
      An armored personnel carrier is necessary for our troops, but such that the landing ride in the armor, and not on it.
      Not everything is so simple. Armor, albeit theoretically, protects against small-caliber bullets and small fragments. However, when we hit an anti-tank mine, in this case, we get a mass grave. At the same time, the landing, located on the armor, with a mine explosion has a good chance of survival - it will most likely be thrown to the ground, the soldiers can get fractures, shell-shock, abrasions, but remain alive. Here everyone chooses where it seems safer for them, although officially the landing should always be behind the armor.

      Quote: Kotischa
      There must be a ramp or emergency exits at the rear of the machine.

      There is also no ambiguity. An attack on an armored personnel carrier can occur from anywhere, including from the stern, so there should be several exits-hatches.

      he must keep a bullet, yes keep a bullet of any small arms at point blank range.
      If this requirement is met, then:
      1) an armored personnel carrier will cease to be light and wheeled, and will become a caterpillar and tank-like;
      2) it will cease to be floating;
      3) its transportability by sea and aviation means will significantly decrease;
      4) increased due to thicker armor, the weight of the armored personnel carrier will adversely affect the passability on bridges of low carrying capacity, and therefore will limit the places of its use;
      5) require more powerful, more expensive engines;
      6) the total price of the armored personnel carrier will increase;
      7) in case of mobilization and transfer of industry to military tracks, the ability to build such armored personnel carriers not only at a serial plant.
      1. tchoni
        tchoni April 22 2018 13: 57
        +2
        Quote: Cannonball
        Quote: Kotischa
        An armored personnel carrier is necessary for our troops, but such that the landing ride in the armor, and not on it.
        Not everything is so simple. Armor, albeit theoretically, protects against small-caliber bullets and small fragments. However, when we hit an anti-tank mine, in this case, we get a mass grave. At the same time, the landing, located on the armor, with a mine explosion has a good chance of survival - it will most likely be thrown to the ground, the soldiers can get fractures, shell-shock, abrasions, but remain alive. Here everyone chooses where it seems safer for them, although officially the landing should always be behind the armor.

        Quote: Kotischa
        There must be a ramp or emergency exits at the rear of the machine.

        There is also no ambiguity. An attack on an armored personnel carrier can occur from anywhere, including from the stern, so there should be several exits-hatches.

        he must keep a bullet, yes keep a bullet of any small arms at point blank range.
        If this requirement is met, then:
        1) an armored personnel carrier will cease to be light and wheeled, and will become a caterpillar and tank-like;
        2) it will cease to be floating;
        3) its transportability by sea and aviation means will significantly decrease;
        4) increased due to thicker armor, the weight of the armored personnel carrier will adversely affect the passability on bridges of low carrying capacity, and therefore will limit the places of its use;
        5) require more powerful, more expensive engines;
        6) the total price of the armored personnel carrier will increase;
        7) in case of mobilization and transfer of industry to military tracks, the ability to build such armored personnel carriers not only at a serial plant.

        Typical excuses of the Soviet era, invented in order not to build normal machines. Now there is a sea of ​​wheeled vehicles with a thirty-tone tone. A bridge that can’t withstand two forty-ton wagons traveling apart to meet each other — you still need to search, force the river in an unprepared place — even a battalion equipped with floating vehicles cannot. Yes, and now there are enough engineering troops
        1. Cannonball
          Cannonball April 22 2018 14: 22
          +9
          This is not an excuse, this is a personal experience.
          It is possible that a sea of ​​wheeled vehicles weighing under thirty tons does exist. However, not every bridge can withstand such weight, especially on minor and dirt roads.
          Why force the river in an unprepared place? When it is enough to have shores with more or less gentle shores.
          The value of a floating combat vehicle lies precisely in the absence of the need to use engineering troops. This allows for quick operations, marches, throws, which leads to a tactical advantage in battle, and ultimately to victory.
          1. tchoni
            tchoni April 22 2018 16: 58
            +5
            And I tell you that this is, for the most part, excuses.
            To get started, get a cab and drive around. If you find at least one bridge that can’t withstand a truck of 40 tons, I take off my hat. You have read the recollections of WWII tankers and think in terms of categories. But, have mercy, in those days the asphalt ended 70 km from Moscow (Stalin personally decided to check and take it to Tiflis by car. Exactly 70 km and drove off.)
            If you even traveled a little along our vast, you probably noticed that, thanks to the strength of Coriolis, we have one river bank always steep, the other low. To find such a combination of favorable circumstances so that both banks have the slope and soil density necessary for entry and exit - you need to try soooooooo hard. Therefore, indenter subdivisions always have water guns. They, in theory, have the pleasure of washing away steep shores and preparing an entry-exit. However, spending the same effort, if not less, can be done with a pontoon. One more circumstance. Technology itself does not fight. To do this, she needs gasoline, solarium, oils, spare parts, people - food, medicines, hygiene supplies, water. All of this is delivered by USUAL trucks. You know, they don’t swim. Well, a little personal experience. For 6 years of service, he participated in a number of major exercises and once watched "crossing the river immediately." So this is a "prepared" week. First they prepared the entrance with an ordinary bulldozer, then they drove the panton, transported the bulldozer to that shore, prepared the way out. Then came the boat-bugger, set the targets on. Techniques were being prepared in an emergency procedure at the time. (Usually, in the motorized infantry units they spit on such garbage as the airtightness of the case, because it is not needed in everyday service. As a result, there are no rubber bands on half the hatches. torn, stoptans, etc.) On day “h,” 12 cars famously entered the entrance one by one, only 9 left on the other side. They carried two downstream, one crawled downhill at the exit (it didn’t exactly set the car, as a result just moved to the side).
            Such is the oil painting from these “immediately”.
            And as for the "fleeting operations," I will tell you this: all of them are very slow-moving. And the speed of the operation depends on the reasonableness of the "upper" headquarters, and not on the availability of amphibious equipment.
            1. Usher
              Usher April 22 2018 18: 21
              +6
              Lol While you will breed couples on the shore. I've traveled from Kamchatka to St. Petersburg, and there are a lot of gentle beaches and weak bridges. Do not write nonsense here. The 30-ton APC is a bulky target. Armor will still not be enough, and mobility is not enough. In general, an armored personnel carrier is not used for combat. Only forced or in police operations. So the wheeled and floating armored personnel carrier is optimal, for better protection there is a BMP.
              1. Doliva63
                Doliva63 April 22 2018 19: 28
                +4
                I agree for the 30-ton armored personnel carrier, but here it is - “In general, an armored personnel carrier is not used for combat. Only forced or in police operations ..." laughing That is, the MSR on the APCs in the armed forces are not intended for combat? laughing And I’ll tell you a secret - the BUSV does not imply any difference between the armored personnel carrier and the infantry fighting vehicle in terms of combat use. laughing drinks However, you seem to pour too early laughing
                1. Cannonball
                  Cannonball April 22 2018 22: 25
                  +2
                  Armored personnel carrier - an armored fighting vehicle (conveyor) for transporting personnel (shooters and the like) of motorized rifle (motorized infantry, landing and so on) units and their materiel, to the place of the combat mission and the evacuation of the wounded and injured from the battlefield.

                  If the enemy does not have anti-tank weapons, an APC can support riflemen (infantry, MP, airborne forces) with on-board weapon fire.
                2. tchoni
                  tchoni April 23 2018 06: 44
                  0
                  Quote: Doliva63
                  And I’ll tell you a secret - the BUSV does not imply any difference between the armored personnel carrier and the infantry fighting vehicle in terms of combat use.

                  This is bad.
            2. Doliva63
              Doliva63 April 22 2018 19: 59
              +8
              Bridges that withstand a truck of 40 tons are on the tracks. Are you sure that you do not need to fight in the outback? In some places there were bridges of the 50s, when there were no more than 7 tons.
              For crossing immediately. With me, the TP crossed a shallow river (about a shelf approximately) "according to circumstances." The initial shore is gentle, opposite the higher. Nothing, 80s easily passed. No one was cooking anything. The commander is able to assess the state of the coast, no?
              As for the readiness of technology. All floating equipment is “soaked” at the beginning of the summer period and driven through the water. During the summer, usually (here, in any case), we chase a couple of times not only for swimming, but also for fishing from the water periodicallylaughing Until the end of autumn, everything is fine. For a while he himself served on an armored personnel carrier.
              As for the fleeting operations, I agree, they are prepared for a long and painstakingly. But to transport the MCP across the river (if it is not the Volga laughing ) the company must be able to do it on their own, they teach him this at the school.
              1. tchoni
                tchoni April 23 2018 07: 36
                0
                In the outback, the same people live and carry goods with wagons. Here, for example, I live by no means in the capital, but in the very outback (Voronezh region). I travel a lot around my work. The bridges on which the freeliner does not go into the cargo (and this is 40 tons) - did not meet, except for one pantone crossing across the Don - (there are 20 tons of restrictions). But after 30 km there is a bridge duplicating it.
                According to the readiness of the technique ... maybe you served in the blessed 70s or relatively prosperous 80s, when the technique was newer (after all, the ersatz btr-82 it didn’t come from scratch - it really was 20-30 in the two thousandths, basically)
                I served just in the two thousandth. behind the fence of our center, just the motorbike regiment lodged. So for them, entering the training ground with a battalion was an event that happens twice a year. (conscript serves year), and you say "melt"
            3. Servisinzhener
              Servisinzhener April 22 2018 21: 11
              +1
              They haven’t shot at you yet. And such preparation was made so that inadvertently no one would flood.
            4. Cannonball
              Cannonball April 22 2018 21: 24
              +3
              8 ton bridge


              The limit of 7 tons when repairing the Vostochny bridge, Tver


              Limit 18 tons


              Limit 20 tons



              Now let's deal with the rivers

              River Istra


              Volga


              Wisla


              Danube. Romania


              Elbe


              As can be seen from the photographs of any engineering work for boosting rivers, a floating armored personnel carrier is not required here.

              And finally, about the "Quick Operations."

              Raid of our paratroopers in Pristina


              And more recent - "polite people" in the Crimea


              As you know, these operations were unlikely to take long.
              1. tchoni
                tchoni April 22 2018 22: 16
                0
                Repeat the photo, pliz did not open.
                1. Cannonball
                  Cannonball April 22 2018 22: 47
                  +1
                  Reload the page, all photos open without problems.
                  1. Saxahorse
                    Saxahorse April 23 2018 01: 20
                    0
                    No, they don’t open.
                    1. Cannonball
                      Cannonball April 23 2018 21: 09
                      0
                      So you have something with a browser. Chrome perfectly opens everything.
                      1. Saxahorse
                        Saxahorse April 23 2018 21: 34
                        0
                        That's what chrome gives me when I try to open your pictures in a new window :)
                        "
                        404
                        “Not that I didn’t hit at all,” said Pooh, “but just didn’t hit the ball!”
                        "
            5. Saxahorse
              Saxahorse April 23 2018 01: 31
              +1
              It’s enough to leave the Don highway and you will see a bunch of bridges with a limit of 12-14 tons.

              And separately about riding on an armor - 1 kg of TNT during an air blast guarantees a "memento sea" in a radius of up to 3 meters, and severe concussions with a 30-50% chance of a negative outcome in a radius of 12-15 meters.
              1. Cannonball
                Cannonball April 23 2018 21: 29
                +2
                Undermining does not occur in the air, but under the wheels and the bottom of the APC.

                “When an armored personnel carrier was blown up, it most often cost a detached wheel and wounded / shell-shocked personnel and only when using anti-tank mines and massive 2-152 mm OFS bookmarks — a body break and death, most often of a driver, then a BMP most often hulls, detonation of BC, the collapse of the tower and the death of the entire crew. "



                http://forum.topwar.ru/topic/3679-kolyosnaya-bron
                etehnika-btr-perspektivyi-razvitiya /? page = 7

                “Inspection of BTT samples damaged in Afghanistan and analysis of reports from the combat damage parts showed that the explosion of mines and landmines in one place or another under the tank depends on how they were detonated. Mines and landmines with pressure-mounted fuses explode, as a rule, under the front rollers (with wheels). Under the front of the bottom, mines with a pin fuse explode, mines with a pneumatic system (TC-6,1) —between the 1st and 2nd support rollers (sometimes at a high speed of the tank or infantry fighting vehicle the explosion occurs under 3- with an ice rink). When an APC hits an anti-tank mine, an explosion occurs mainly under the 3rd or 4th wheel.

                Most often, guided mines and landmines were detonated under the center of the bottom in the area of ​​the fighting compartment. The enemy, knowing the features of the design of the bottom, missed well-protected equipment, such as BMP-1, and activated mines and landmines when hitting less protected vehicles on them. "

                http://btvt.narod.ru/raznoe/vbtt_1991_afgan.htm
    3. Filxnumx
      Filxnumx April 22 2018 10: 34
      +1
      You can try to protect the most important areas of the BTR using a spaced reservation like the IL-2: the outer layer is made of solid armor, breaking the core of the bullet and the inner layer is made of viscous armor in which the fragments get stuck. On IL-2, such armor even held 20-mm shells (if not at right angles).
      1. Cannonball
        Cannonball April 22 2018 11: 43
        +2
        In the IL-2, the protection was only for the pilot and the motor. In armored personnel carriers, almost everything needs to be protected. The mass of such armor is very large.
        1. Cat
          Cat April 22 2018 13: 00
          +5
          In a similar way, Brazilians protect their armored personnel carriers and BA.
          If you approach the protection of armored personnel carriers intelligently, you must admit that you need two types of armored vehicles, one for the troops of the other for the Russian Guard and the police.
          The first is needed to deliver infantry to the battlefield.
          The second is to save l / s from mines, ambushes during patrolling and special operations.
          In fact, the second one does not need an armored roof, mine protection is more important.
          And the first should support his infantry in battle.
          In addition, it begs the need for a third type of armored personnel carrier, on a gusl, heavy, pronounced and adapted for actions in the city.
          To be honest, our tradition of riding armor is not good, especially considering that armor is not suitable for this.
          1. Cannonball
            Cannonball April 22 2018 14: 14
            +3
            The main objective of the APC transport is to deliver troops to the battlefield. Support for infantry in battle for an armored personnel carrier is a necessary measure.
            For support in battle, BMP is more suitable.
            An armored roof is necessary, the experience of using armored vehicles in urban or mountainous conditions indicates the need for protection "from above." Plus, protection against helicopters and unmanned aircraft has become urgent.
            It’s difficult to judge about “riding on armor / for armor”. Here it is necessary to weigh the probability of risk to meet an ambush or a landmine on the route. Pure psychology
            Landing on the road is easier to lay and less noticeable.
            Well, the last, by placing troops on the armor, and behind the armor, you can carry more paratroopers. wink
            1. tchoni
              tchoni April 22 2018 17: 17
              +1
              Quote: Cannonball
              It’s difficult to judge about “riding on armor / for armor”. Here it is necessary to weigh the probability of risk to meet an ambush or a landmine on the route. Pure psychology

              There is nothing to weigh. However, for armor. What an ambush, that a land mine (as a rule, this is combined. First, the undermining of the head vehicle, and then the fire) lead to the loss of unprotected personnel. (Well, think for yourself, if from the explosion near the armored personnel carrier the bottom stuck to the roof, then, on the contrary, pulled more than one kilogram of TNT equivalent. And this is a GUARANTEED barotrauma with a fatal outcome) In general, the myth that riding on armor saves from a land mine is akin to the myth that riding with open foreheads reduces the armored effect of cumulative ammunition.

              Quote: Cannonball
              The main objective of the APC transport is to deliver troops to the battlefield. Support for infantry in battle for an armored personnel carrier is a necessary measure.
              For support in battle, BMP is more suitable.

              And here you are absolutely right. And all the more surprising is the fact that Soviet designers approached the design of armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles with the same tank requirements.
              1. Doliva63
                Doliva63 April 22 2018 20: 14
                +6
                Designers approach the design not as they want, but in accordance with the technical task of the customer. In theory, an APC from a BMP should differ only in the chassis, so that there is a choice depending on the prevailing terrain. Let me remind you that in the Union the infantry on armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles were about 50/50. That is, the difference in name did not give any difference in application - BUSV was the same for everyone. It’s another matter that they didn’t have time to bring the armored personnel carriers to the mind, they’re doing it right now, they finally put the gun laughing drinks
                1. Cannonball
                  Cannonball April 22 2018 21: 33
                  +2
                  The BTR weapons - exclusively for self-defense. At BMP - for fire support of the landing.
                  Modern cannon armored personnel carriers are often called wheeled infantry fighting vehicles, since their combat capabilities become quite comparable.
      2. tchoni
        tchoni April 22 2018 17: 23
        0
        Quote: Fil743
        You can try to protect the most important areas of the BTR using a spaced reservation like the IL-2: the outer layer is made of solid armor, breaking the core of the bullet and the inner layer is made of viscous armor in which the fragments get stuck. On IL-2, such armor even held 20-mm shells (if not at right angles).

        And in the new reincarnation of the BTR-80, called the BTR-82, they did just about that. They increased the thickness of the bottom and added an anti-splinter lining. All.
    4. Doliva63
      Doliva63 April 22 2018 20: 04
      +4
      Quote: Kotischa
      In general, thanks for the article.
      I will say the following about the armored personnel carrier. An armored personnel carrier is necessary for our troops, but such that the landing ride in the armor, and not on it. There must be a ramp or emergency exits at the rear of the machine. And the last one he should keep a bullet, yes keep a bullet of any small arms at point blank range.

      And what, the armored personnel carrier does not hold a bullet of small arms? I remember that I saw dents on all APCs - traces of the shooting of 7,62. It turns out holding?
      1. Cannonball
        Cannonball April 22 2018 22: 01
        +1
        Armor with a thickness of 7 mm at an angle of 90 ° is penetrated by an armor-piercing incendiary bullet B-32 (7,62 x 54 mm R. for PKM, PKT, Pecheneg) at a distance of 550 m.
        7 mm thick armor at a 90 ° meeting angle is penetrated by the B3 armor-piercing incendiary bullet (7,62 x 39 mm for AKM) at a distance of 330 m.

        The thickness of the armor BTR-60PB - 5-7 mm, the forehead - 7-11 mm;
        BTR-70 - 6 mm, forehead - 8-10 mm;
        BTR-80 - 7-9 mm, forehead - 10 mm;
    5. Servisinzhener
      Servisinzhener April 22 2018 20: 30
      +3
      I agree about small arms + fragments of mines and shells. But there’s no such “technique” to conditional circular impenetrability. The armored personnel carrier and our BMP-1/2 are more like an armed truck carrying assault forces, ammunition, etc., as well as weapons with which it can support the squad. Which has a greater cross-country ability than a truck and the ability to sail. Armed transport, for delivery to the front line no more. And you can fight inside it only in conditions of radioactive contamination of the area.
      1. Blackgrifon
        Blackgrifon April 23 2018 21: 59
        +1
        Quote: Servisinzhener
        Our BMP-1/2 is rather an armed truck

        It’s hard to agree with you.
        Still, BMPs went through a bunch of conflicts: Afghanistan, Chechnya, Georgia, Donbass, Syria. And, judging by the information that there is (for example, Valor.ru), the BMPs hold fire well, and due to 30 mm APs are able to keep the enemy at a safe distance.
        In Afghanistan, BMP-2 suffered small losses.
        In PFV, the bulk of the loss fell on the Maikop brigade and other units trapped in the forecourt (generally a strange story, but judging by what I saw in the open press, most of the equipment was parked without security and crews), and in the PFV the losses were relatively small.
        In Syria, out of 200 BMP-2s, about a dozen were lost, and in the Donbas (judging by the Lostarmor), the main percentage of losses of the couple thanks to artillery.
  2. Landscaping
    Landscaping April 22 2018 08: 15
    +5
    Huge refuge! This is our story and you need to know it!
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 22 2018 08: 45
      +3
      Quote: Landscaper
      This is our story and you need to know it!

      You're right ! After all, how many "unidentified" objects remain!
  3. Curious
    Curious April 22 2018 11: 35
    +9
    "Nevertheless, for one reason or another, all the new developments of the Academy and the Design Bureau of the Kutaisi Automobile Plant could not advance beyond the field tests. "
    It is probably for the better. Soviet drivers produced products of the Kutaisi Automobile Plant mostly unprintable. "There is no beast worse than a lynx and cars from Kutaisi." "The car was made to carry tea from the mountain, and not to pull bricks up the hill."
    This is such a folklore, completely offensive.
    1. Cat
      Cat April 22 2018 13: 56
      +3
      We had a proverb in the Urals about KAZ Kalkhida automobiles - the pride of Georgia, unfortunately the Urals!
      About (damn it) features of switching speeds, features of heating and lighting devices, reliability of the Colchis transmission, I heard from masters in the late nineties. By the way, the last time, in comparison with the Jaguar, whose automatic gearbox is dead for 5000 km. And not in favor of the latter. Dosnovno "At colchids boxes at least flew in 10, but then in a week the third 5 did not dokat"!
      1. Curious
        Curious April 22 2018 14: 08
        +2
        Do you have a new or used Jaguar? If you have before 2004 release - who is your doctor. If new is karma. We must go to church. In general, English cars are a separate category for people. willing to sacrifice money for the image. So either thirst. or image.
        1. Cat
          Cat April 22 2018 14: 52
          +1
          We are talking about new cars in the dealership on Cosmonauts Ave. I happened to be there accidentally changing the oil according to the "pull".
          1. Curious
            Curious April 22 2018 15: 31
            +1
            And what, now, in order to change the oil, do you need a blat? In the days of the first “Lada”, yes, it was really necessary to get through it, you had to have “connections”. But now, it seems, apart from money, nothing is needed. Or are you without money?
            1. Doliva63
              Doliva63 April 22 2018 21: 38
              +6
              I don’t know how it is with you, but to go through, for example, a scheduled maintenance at a dealer in Joburg is still a pleasure! And according to the thieves, yes, they will take the car on time, and they will immediately draw up the replacement. Capitalism, it is only in appearance better than Soviet stagnation laughing
            2. Cat
              Cat April 23 2018 05: 10
              +1
              Victor Nikolaevich - it was in '99. Changed the oil on the VAZ-2115. As it turned out in the dealership of Jaguar. It’s corny just the father of a colleague worked in the service, he invited me.
              So to paraphrase the old adage "money is nothing, people are everything."
              Apparently because of the “blat” I was left in the TO zone. So in the comments I was not shy with me, although I got the “handgrip” it was the most gentle statement addressed to me! laughing
  4. Cannonball
    Cannonball April 22 2018 21: 30
    +2
    Quote: tchoni
    There is nothing to weigh. However, for armor. What an ambush, that a land mine (as a rule, this is combined. First, the undermining of the head vehicle, and then the fire) lead to the loss of unprotected personnel. (Well, think for yourself, if from the explosion near the armored personnel carrier the bottom stuck to the roof, then, on the contrary, pulled more than one kilogram of TNT equivalent. And this is a GUARANTEED barotrauma with a fatal outcome) In general, the myth that riding on armor saves from a land mine is akin to the myth that riding with open foreheads reduces the armored effect of cumulative ammunition.
    I saw the guys with holes in their foreheads after sniper shots, before riding on armor, and, excuse me, lumps of burnt meat - all that remained of those who were sitting inside those who were blown up by a landmine and a burned-out armored car.
    And this is not a myth, it is the bitter truth of war.
  5. Cannonball
    Cannonball April 23 2018 22: 36
    0
    Saxahorse, and Find a picture (Google) does not work?