Military Review

Kirsa in a nuclear war

A series of several articles on canvas boots and footcloths, as well as their comparative advantage over boots with socks, brings us to further consideration of how this tarpaulin can be useful and even vital for the army.
In my opinion, it is worth considering a situation that the army has not yet encountered, but the occurrence of which is quite probable - fighting in radioactively contaminated territories, later, for better clarity, on “dirty land”.

“Dirty land”: from nuclear war to total war

Of course, the widespread assertions that there would be nothing more after a nuclear war, have no basis other than enemy military propaganda. It will, and how it will be! Why I think so, it will be possible to set out in detail in another case, so as not to be distracted from the main topic now. Spots of radioactive contamination may well appear for a variety of reasons.
First, nuclear war, that is, radioactive contamination from nuclear explosions. Around the areas where nuclear weapon will be applied massively, there will be a large stain of radioactive contamination.
Secondly, the destruction or damage of nuclear power plants, storage of nuclear fuel and radioactive waste caused by hostilities. For example, a direct hit of the GBU-43 bombs equipped with 8,4 tons of powerful explosives in the power unit of the Leningrad NPP, is quite able to arrange a repetition of Chernobyl. The same RBMK-1000 reactors are installed at this NPP as at the Chernobyl NPP. The destruction of a reactor with a powerful explosion will undoubtedly cause about the same consequences, and then a significant part of the Leningrad Region may become “dirty land”.

RBMK-1000 at the Kursk NPP, the same as at the Chernobyl NPP and at the Leningrad NPP. Under the site, filled with steel "cubes" - biological protection, is the reactor itself. GBU-43 will easily pierce the ceilings of the reactor hall and the biological protection of the reactor.

Third, the destruction or damage of the same nuclear facilities due to technological reasons: weakening of control over them in wartime, inadequate repair and maintenance, difficulties with power supply, and so on. In wartime, a weakening of attention to atomic objects is quite likely, which can lead to serious accidents.
Fourthly, already existing zones, such as the Chernobyl “thirty”, the Semipalatinsk test site, the East Ural infection area, which also have some chances to be in a combat zone.

The radioactive river Techa, near Muslyumovo, Chelyabinsk region in the East-Ural zone of radioactive contamination. The dosimeter shows 1,3 μSv / h, at this point the dose of 100 X-rays can be collected in 320 days. Non-lethal, but a good example of how the most pastoral landscape can actually prove dangerous.

As you can see, the list of causes is quite voluminous, and most of them are not directly related to nuclear war. To them you can add another reason. In the last world war, the methods of “total war” were quite widely used, including the destruction of everything of a little bit valuable in the territory left to the enemy. This is not only evacuation, but also an explosion of factories and plants, burning houses, burning grain and crops, slaughtering livestock and similar measures of total economic war. In the new world war, their list may be supplemented with radioactive contamination of the territory being left. Technically, it is not so difficult to do this; it is enough to spray over a certain territory a powder of highly radioactive substance, an aqueous solution of radioactive salts, or simply use liquid radioactive waste that has accumulated tens of thousands of tons. To do this, it can be created special equipment (something like a fire truck with a lead cabin) or special ammunition, for example, bombs filled with cobalt powder with a source of neutron radiation. Infection of the territory will reliably block its economic use, since it will be impossible to live and be on the “dirty ground” for a long time so as not to grab a large dose and not die from radiation sickness.
So the fighting may well be associated with the need to fight on the "dirty land", and the likelihood of such a turn of events makes this topic be considered in terms of preparation for it.

The subtleties of grabbing the dose

In order to understand how to conduct combat operations on “dirty land” and what is needed for this, it is necessary to understand how radiation occurs in a radioactively contaminated area.
Radioactive substances usually fall into a certain territory in the form of the smallest radioactive dust or aerosols. The activity of the source is measured in Becquerel or Curie (the second unit is more convenient), reflecting the amount of radioactive decay in a certain period of time. If a radiation source (dust or aerosol) has covered a certain area and there are radiation sources everywhere on it, then the activity can be measured in curie / sq. km Activity over 0,1 curie / sq. km is dangerous and people should be resettled from this area. For comparison, Chernobyl gave pollution in many territories with 40 Curie / sq. Activity. km and above.
Radiation negatively affects a person not instantly, but for a certain time, until particles pierce his body and lead to cell damage. Accordingly, time plays a role. A person can take a highly radioactive object (for example, a piece of graphite from a reactor) for a second and not receive serious damage to health. But if you hold it for a few minutes in your hands or stand nearby, you can get a dose of radiation that will lead to radiation sickness or even death. The dose of radiation absorbed by a person is measured in X-rays or rem. We will use X-rays, as more familiar, assuming that we are talking about the radiation absorbed by the body.
In order to get a mild radiation sickness, from which the overwhelming majority of the patients recover, you need to grab the dose of 100 X-ray (or 1 rem). The main trouble is profuse vomiting. 150 X-rays give mortality in 5%, 350 X-rays - this is already a “half-lethal dose”, that is, 50% of patients die within 14 days. 700 X-ray and above - lethal dose of radiation.
Irradiation affects a person not only in relation to the time “under the beam”, but also in relation to distance. The farther from the source, the weaker the irradiation (since the molecules of oxygen and nitrogen in the air, as well as water vapor, are obstacles to particles). For example, a point source in 1 curie in the 1 meter gives a dose of 0,3 X-ray / hour, and in 10 meters - 0,003 X-ray / hour. But in radioactively contaminated areas, radiation sources are located everywhere, and a person on “dirty earth” is everywhere “under the beam”.
It is easy to calculate that on the "dirty land" with the activity in 1 Curie / sq. km, for a set of "half-deadly dose" will require 1166 hours or 48 days. Therefore, one can stay in this territory for a day or two without harm to health, but one cannot live. 40 Curie Activity / sq. km is gaining a “half-deadly dose” in just 9 hours. Staying safely on “dirty land” with such activity does not exceed 2 hours. You can stay longer if you protect yourself with appropriate protective clothing.

Linen jacket, headgear and boots

No, this is not “chemical protection”. A set of personal radiation protection is different, and first of all it protects the body from radiation. A person quite easily tolerates even large doses of radiation that came on his hands or feet. There is a known case at PO Mayak when an employee suffered from a spontaneous chain reaction that began right in his hands (he worked with a solution of plutonium). The worker received an X-ray of X-ray radiation on his hands and subsequently left them in the hospital, but he survived. The same training of the trunk and internal organs would lead to a guaranteed death. Therefore, first of all, the body is protected from direct irradiation, and respiratory organs are protected from radioactive dust entering the lungs, which will cause internal organ irradiation.

Kirsa in a nuclear war

Liquidators on the roof of the Chernobyl NPP unit. Their equipment is clearly visible. The bottom edge of the film is exposed to radiation, at which point it reached the 1500 X-ray per hour.

The liquidators, who worked on the roof of the power unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, used for this purpose rubber capes, worn over a dense jumpsuit and tightened on the sides. Sometimes they were combined with thin sheets of lead. Such a dense material as rubber is an excellent barrier to particles, completely blocking alpha and beta radiation, and significantly reducing penetrating gamma radiation.

Color frame from the video recording of the exit of the liquidators to the roof of the power unit. All three have rubber capes of different cut and different designs.

For “nuclear soldiers” who are conducting combat operations on “dirty land”, you will also need to make a special set of protective equipment, similar to the equipment of the Chernobyl liquidators. When contaminated with 4-5 activity, Curie / sq. km and above protective equipment is absolutely necessary, because in addition to radiation there is still the danger of severe radiation burns caused by beta radiation.

Just kersey, as rubberized fabric, is a very suitable material for this purpose. It is as dense as rubber (since rubber is a major component of the vulcanized impregnation), but it is also lighter and stronger than rubber. In addition, the kersey has a smooth surface, from which it is convenient to wash away radioactive dust. Kirzu can produce different varieties, from thin to very thick. Thin grades of kersey will look like a leatherette most of all. A thick kersey, especially folded in 3-4 fold and stitched, will create a fairly reliable wearable shield from radiation. So, the kit should include:

- a kersey jacket with floors approximately to the knees, the chest and back parts of which are reinforced with additional 3-4 layers of material (here you need to balance the protection and the wear of the jacket; it should still be possible to minimize movement constraints);
- kersey headband with fields on the shoulders;
- tarpaulin boots;
- thick cotton gloves, lined with kersey on the outside, and with kerchiefs;
- respirator and goggles (or a transparent mask).

By the way, a kersey jacket can be quite elegant. In the photo kersey jacket for ABWT model 1937 year.

Other items of equipment, such as belts, bags and ammunition bags, and weapon cases can also be made from a kersey. It is more expedient to keep the “nuclear soldiers” machines in covers with the aim of minimizing the ingress of radioactive dust into them, and to get them right before the battle. In case of sudden fire contacts, it is best to supply them with pistols or compact pistols-machine guns worn in kersey holsters. This is dictated by some features of the battlefield tactics on “dirty land”, which can be described separately.

The cheap kersey allows you to make from it disposable sets of equipment "nuclear soldiers". Contamination with radioactive dust can be quite large, especially in an area with high activity, and in conditions of summer and hot weather, when dust does not hold anything in place. Therefore, it is simpler to simply burn a heavily polluted set of equipment (the ash is then disposed of as radioactive waste), and instead of it, issue a new one. In addition, kersey equipment for combat on “dirty land” can be not only factory-made. Capes and caps of the simplest design can be made, if necessary, directly in the troops, for which it will only be necessary to bring rolls of kersey there.

Such a case that it took to fight in a radioactively contaminated area has not yet been in the practice of any army in the world. But this does not mean that such a situation can never happen in principle. Can. Having prepared in advance for this, still hypothetical situation, having developed and tested beforehand in field conditions (including within the infected zones, for example, in the Southern Urals), one can gain a significant tactical or even operational-tactical advantage over the enemy. Well, to protect your fighters from overexposure, of course.
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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. Aleks2048
    Aleks2048 April 18 2018 15: 24
    In general, the article is a plus. There is not enough data on the ability of the tarpaulin to screen radiation. Good-medium-bad too vague.
  3. Monarchist
    Monarchist April 18 2018 16: 14
    Urgent reprimand S. K: why he does not introduce tarpaulin boots and footcloths!
    But in fact, in all armies refuse tarpaulin shoes, apparently, specialists are also in their general headquarters and they must calculate the pros and cons of tarpaulin
    The author here so vividly tells about the benefits of kirsa, and whether he remembers how many guys in Chernobyl lethal doses were picked up. About 10 or 12 years ago I had to communicate with the “Chernobyl man” and he claimed that radiation passed through the tarpaulin as through paper.
    1. avt
      avt April 18 2018 16: 26
      Quote: Monarchist
      why not introduce tarpaulin boots and footcloths!

      I don’t know for the boots, and footcloths are in the list of prohibited substances in the OPCW.
      Quote: Monarchist
      About 10 or 12 years ago I had to communicate with the “Chernobyl man” and he claimed that radiation passed through the tarpaulin as through paper.

      wassat Like he saw? Or maybe he did experiments directly? Well, with paper and tarpaulin. It still draws on
      lying like an eyewitness
      1. Evdokim
        Evdokim April 18 2018 16: 58
        Quote: avt
        I don’t know for the boots, and footcloths are in the list of prohibited substances in the OPCW.

        If Skripal had been poisoned with a footcloth, I would not doubt for a minute that this was the work of Putin, but newcomers, hearty, and so on, that's about nothing. wassat And I have tarpaulin boots, after the urgent one, always at the ready. Yes, and footcloths too. hi
    2. wehr
      April 18 2018 20: 39
      On the roof of the reactor hall, it would also penetrate through the lead soles.
    3. avdkrd
      avdkrd April 18 2018 23: 00
      Quote: Monarchist
      But in fact, in all armies refuse tarpaulin shoes, apparently, specialists are also in their general headquarters and they must calculate the pros and cons of tarpaulin

      Abandon kirsa in non-warring armies. If you look at things realistically, a 2MB level war, even without the use of nuclear weapons, will force you to dress the army in what you have, not what you want. I really like boots, but they have already talked a lot about this: When people go to war as work - from 8:00 to 18:00, in short for conflicts of low intensity, where the rear is kept, and the clashes are focal in nature, the shoes will be just right . When the war of annihilation (especially total nuclear war), the army needs the most practical ammunition, and the boots are an order of magnitude superior to the boots in universality, price, manufacturability, and strange as to convenience and personal hygiene.
    4. 97110
      97110 April 23 2018 14: 05
      Quote: Monarchist
      I had to communicate with the "Chernobyl" and he argued that radiation passes through the tarpaulin as through paper.

      relying on the readings of a non-indicative dosimeter with an error of 30%? The set of protective equipment painted by the Author, similar to the equipment of the Chernobyl liquidators, which consisted of a black hb suit for other specialists, tarpaulin boots and 2 (two - one on the chest, the second on the back!) Rubber aprons of different cuts, mobilized from different X-ray rooms. You can also talk about the degree of protection of the fighter in the said kit from the point of view of a political scientist or psychoanalyst, everything else is written in Russian in white in the Manual on the conduct of hostilities in conditions of radioactive contamination: "DOSES OF THE RADIATION RECEIVED TO THE PERSONNEL DO NOT!"
  4. Sverdlov
    Sverdlov April 18 2018 18: 07
    The bridge over Techa - an enchanted place, as I drive, the car stalls
    1. avt
      avt April 18 2018 18: 29
      Quote: Sverdlov
      The bridge over Techa - an enchanted place, as I drive, the car stalls

      well, like this
      Feel with a partner: well, well!
      Legs are directly cottony, all in smoke.
      We feel - we need a rest,
      Something bad in the air. ...... Everything is now on the ball at random
      Pincushion, inverted,
      And what do we think day and night!
      And what do you think night is day!

      And chop the lapari dates
      And in the Sahara the snow is a great deal!
      These are physics bastards on a bet
      Spin the ball on the contrary.

      And where the pole was - there are tropics,
      And where is New York - Nakhichevan,
      And that we are people, not bobiks,
      They sneeze at it,
      They sneeze at it! ...... And with all the qualifications
      skew here is possible:
      It's all radiation
      And not just vitriol
      And not just vitriol!
      Further it will only get worse from such trips
      Fifth week I go sick
      I’m not sleeping with my wife for the fifth week.
      My partner also cries:
      Say he is completely poisoned.

      And I’m being treated by Stolichnaya personally,
      So I don’t get mad:
      The source said that "Metropolitan"
      Very good for strontium!
    2. Doliva63
      Doliva63 April 18 2018 19: 54
      Quote: Sverdlov
      The bridge over Techa - an enchanted place, as I drive, the car stalls

      And there still grandmas on the road were selling mushrooms. laughing
      And after all, a terrible sign hangs nearby, while others willingly bought it. My wife bought it, checked it at home with a dosimeter, threw it away. drinks
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. old_pferd
    old_pferd April 18 2018 20: 53
    - "you need to grab a dose of 100 x-rays (or 1 rem)" -
    Yah!? Doesn't the author confuse rem with sievert for an hour?
  7. mar4047083
    mar4047083 April 18 2018 23: 37
    "The cheapness of the tarp makes it possible to make disposable equipment sets of" nuclear soldiers "out of it." This is a false premise. It is economically feasible to use disposable soldiers in tarpaulin boots. But the boots will be reusable, because the disposable soldier will not have time to demolish them. The advantage of the boots is obvious. They are much easier to remove from waste material, as well as tarpaulin capes.
    1. Vladivostok1969
      Vladivostok1969 April 19 2018 01: 26
      You feel pragmatic. Yes, even what.
    2. Kot_Kuzya
      Kot_Kuzya April 20 2018 02: 00
      No damn cheaper. In order for a male person to grow up to at least 16 years old, he needs to spend tons of food, spend money on clothes, and children grow up and wear it out very quickly, you need to spend money on teachers who will teach him. It's minimum. Therefore, by the way, in ancient times, they sacrificed either prisoners who were donated, or babies who had not yet spent precious resources, or virgins. And virgins at that time were horror stories, which no one would have posed for nothing, and which, accordingly, were useless for the tribe. But no one will sacrifice an adult peasant, since it is economically inexpedient. Every healthy adult man is a warrior and hunter who will fight and bring prey from battles or from hunting.
      1. mar4047083
        mar4047083 April 20 2018 21: 58
        All your arguments are true for reusable soldiers. If the draftee is trained, then he will be aggressive towards those who are trying to put on his robes of the last century and send him to the zone of radioactive contamination. But a one-time soldier just does not need to be taught anything in order to avoid problems. And the problems in its cultivation are the problems of its producers, this has nothing to do with the state. Perhaps it makes sense to consider disposable warriors dressed up on the principle of "I blinded you from what was" and reusable. The author of the article obviously prefers one-time warriors.
        1. wehr
          April 20 2018 22: 14
          In general, it is even strange to remind in the "Military Review" that any recruit is trained laughing
        2. Kot_Kuzya
          Kot_Kuzya April 21 2018 02: 35
          No one in their right mind will squander human resources. Any normal commander, starting from the squad leader and ending with the front commanders, will protect his soldiers, since without them he will have no one to defend or attack. Well, the battalion commander himself or the general will not go on the attack with a machine gun. The same applies to the head of the country. Of course, if the war is local, not posing a danger to the leadership of the army and the country, then soldiers may not be protected, as is now done in the Armed Forces. But in a war of attrition, like World Wars, human reserves are the most valuable resource.
    3. 97110
      97110 April 23 2018 14: 14
      Quote: mar4047083
      They are much easier to remove from waste material, as well as tarpaulin capes.

      There was still that problem lurking. Uniforms with a disposable soldier also could not be worn according to the level of acquired radiation and could not be written off according to the norms of validity of clothing allowance. Maybe something has changed with the demise of the USSR? Have you entered the legally relevant term for a one-time soldier?
  8. Dr. Hub
    Dr. Hub April 19 2018 01: 38
    This is all speculation. Are there studies confirming the radioprotective effect of kirsa?
  9. M. Michelson
    M. Michelson April 19 2018 02: 40
    But tarpaulin shoe covers will probably be better than boots.
  10. AlNikolaich
    AlNikolaich April 19 2018 07: 11
    Damn, the twenty-first century in the yard! Many institutes are developing fabrics, non-woven, membrane materials with various properties and purposes. And many factories produce them, and their price is clearly cheaper than tarpaulin! Why kirsa, if protective equipment of the most modern type is constantly being developed for the RKhBZ troops, and put on supply?
  11. hohol95
    hohol95 April 19 2018 10: 10
    Grigory Medvedev
    Nuclear tan

    - Let's go measured! .. Everything on the "Crab"! - and it seemed like he was breathing again in the confusion, drove off the shaggy.

    "Oh, how I strangled!" - He was surprised, but then forgot about asphyxiation.

    - Ta-a-a-k! - registered Fomich. - Dimych is clean! You are a virgin, Dimych! Go get dressed ... The gathering is in my closet ... Let's get rid of it - and "for the road" ... Fedya! .. U bear! As soon as your mother gave birth to you ?!

    - And I was from a bitten ... - Fedya showed with his hands, like fishermen a fish.

    “You are pure, Fedyulya, a true god!” Go, do not sin! Put on your clothes - and in the closet ... Ta-a-k! Now you, Karas!

    Vasya Karasev stepped on the arch and as if pressed the electric howler.

    - Ah, to you! - cursed Fomich.

    A sign with the words “groin” blinked hysterically, and these nervous winks were accompanied by a powerful, annoying howler hum.

    - So that you groin! - again cursed Fomich. Dimych and Fedya did not leave.

    - Well, what are we going to rob him, lads? AND? Fomich asked worriedly. - Picked up long-living on his steelyard. And you won’t rub it, you won’t help it. A delicate thing. Although ... Wait! Come on, Fedyulya, give me that gang. Mold there from the tank of oxalic acid and divide it with hot water ... There is such a thing! .. Well, Vasyutka, raise syudy ... - Fomich kept a bowl of oxalic acid solution at the level of Vasya's groin. “Run your crucian crucian into the basin, but wait, there is no time here with you ...”

    Vasya launched a "crucian" in the basin.

    - This is fish! - all banged with a laugh.

    “You laugh well ...” squealed Vasily. “What do I feel?”

    - Deactivate, soak your crucian carp, do not shake over it ... Although, of course, good, it is good ...

    - Go Go go! - growled Dima. “Come home, Vasek, hang yourself hanging ...”

    - And you keep quiet! Fomich shouted at him. - Know the place and time! .. This is a serious matter ... You can’t go to your wife with a radioactive ... So-and-so! .. Now, Vasyatka, go wash, but three stronger! ..

    - You rub it here ...

    - Ha ha ha ha!

    Fifteen minutes later, Vasya climbed onto the Crab again. The “groin” sign caught fire, but this time without a howler.

    - Well, that's the thing! - said Fomich. - Okay, you go home - and in the closet. We will wait ...

    The three retired to the locker room.

    Vasya Karasev scooped a handful of powder “News” from the box and went on to deactivate further ...
  12. Wilderness
    Wilderness April 19 2018 10: 22
    Kersey and leatherette just are not completely smooth. There flat, round "pimples" remarkably collect dust. And there are also strings hanging from the seams (those are also dust collectors). I heard that materials from large molecules (such as polyethylene) are the best protection. Modern protective suits are made just from them. Yes, and they are cheap.
    1. wehr
      April 19 2018 13: 37
      The polyethylene spacesuit is very good until it is worn on the ground with bushes, mountains of bricks and concrete fragments, twisted iron.
      1. Wilderness
        Wilderness April 19 2018 13: 42
        I agree, but as an inner layer for absorption is suitable. In addition, there are reinforced varieties.
        1. wehr
          April 19 2018 13: 50
          If you are worried about absorption, then you can add lead dust to the rubber, or lay lead foil between the layers of the kersey.
          From gamma radiation any suit helps poorly, safety is achieved by reducing the time spent "under the beam", and protects from beta radiation and kersey well. This is very important, because beta radiation can be roasted, it causes severe skin burns.
          1. Wilderness
            Wilderness April 19 2018 13: 57
            Why such difficulties. After the battle, the jumpsuit (along with its carrier) buried deeper and that's all. For this reason, GLC was invented as a one-time variant of OZK.
            1. wehr
              April 20 2018 22: 19
              Almost all critics cannot understand that the profile of the UZK and GLC is a defense against chemical weapons. I specifically wrote that a radioprotection kit is not chemical protection, no, with a mutton stubbornness they push about the OZK.
  13. Glory1974
    Glory1974 April 19 2018 23: 24
    Such a case that it was required to conduct a battle in a radioactively contaminated territory has so far not been in the practice of any army in the world.

    The author is not aware that they have been preparing for such a war since 1945. They did a lot of things, and all the equipment and ammunition was accepted for supply through the prism of this task.
    Vobschem article for pioneers, readers of the magazine "Murzilka". By the way, in 70-80 of the year there were articles in magazines much more informative.
    1. wehr
      April 20 2018 01: 02
      Well, yes, Chernobyl immediately showed the full price of this “readiness”, when it was necessary to cut capes from rubber sheets.
      1. Glory1974
        Glory1974 April 20 2018 11: 09
        Chernobyl immediately showed the whole price of this “readiness” when it was necessary to cut capes from rubber sheets.

        don't you really understand the difference between a nuclear warhead explosion and a nuclear reactor explosion?
        1. wehr
          April 20 2018 14: 40
          Well, yes, well, yes, they were preparing directly for a nuclear explosion: lie down, seal the equipment, move out of the zone of infection perpendicular to the direction of the wind.
          And then what?
          That's just about the "next" was not a word. Whereas this is one of the most interesting questions.
      2. Alex koch
        Alex koch April 20 2018 11: 56
        As far as I know, these are not cut capes, but rather factory x-ray protective aprons that were used in X-ray rooms. And according to the recollections of Chernobyl victims, their effectiveness was zero
  14. 314404
    314404 April 22 2018 09: 11
    The farther from the source, the weaker the irradiation (since oxygen and nitrogen molecules of the air, as well as water vapor, are obstacles for particles). Let's say a point source of 1 curie in 1 meter gives a dose of 0,3 X-ray / hour, and at 10 meters - 0,003 X-ray / hour.

    Even a meter-long layer of lead does not attenuate gamma radiation by 100% - and the author’s gas molecules are capable of this? It will be correct this way: the radiation intensity of a point source decreases in proportion to the square of the radius
    1. wehr
      April 22 2018 14: 13
      Well, yes, air gas molecules are just an obstacle for all types of radiation, including radioactive.