Reusable space: promising projects of US spacecraft

21 July 2011, the American spacecraft Atlantis made its last landing, which put an end to the long and interesting Space Transportation System program. For a variety of technical and economic reasons, it was decided to discontinue the operation of the Space Shuttle system. However, the idea of ​​a reusable spacecraft was not abandoned. Currently, several similar projects are being developed at once, and some of them have already managed to show their potential.


The Space Shuttle reusable spacecraft project pursued several main objectives. One of the main was the reduction of the cost of the flight and preparation for it. The possibility of multiple use of the same ship in theory gave certain advantages. In addition, the characteristic technical appearance of the entire complex has significantly increased the permissible dimensions and weight of the payload. A unique feature of the STS was the ability to return the spacecraft to Earth within its own cargo compartment.

Reusable space: promising projects of US spacecraft
The last launch of the ship Altantis, 8 July 2011 g. Photo by NASA


However, during the operation it was found that far from all the tasks were accomplished. So, in practice, the preparation of the ship for the flight was too long and expensive - according to these parameters, the project did not fit into the initial requirements. In a number of cases, the reusable ship couldn’t replace "conventional" launch vehicles. Finally, the gradual moral and physical obsolescence of technology led to the most serious risks for crews.

As a result, it was decided to terminate the operation of the Space Transportation System. The last 135 flight took place in the summer of 2011. Four available ships were written off and transferred to museums as useless. The most famous consequence of such decisions was the fact that the American space program for several years was left without its own manned spacecraft. Until now, astronauts have to fall into orbit with the help of Russian technology.

In addition, for an indefinite period, the entire planet was left without reusable systems in use. However, certain measures are already being taken. To date, American companies have developed several projects of reusable spacecraft of one kind or another. All new samples have, at a minimum, been put to the test. In the foreseeable future, they will also be able to enter full operation.

Boeing X-37

The main component of the STS complex was an orbital plane. This concept is currently used in Boeing’s X-37 project. Back in the late nineties, Boeing and NASA began to study the themes of reusable ships capable of being in orbit and flying in the atmosphere. At the beginning of the last decade, these works led to the launch of the X-37 project. In 2006, a prototype of a new type reached flight tests with discharge from an aircraft carrier.


The device Boeing X-37B in the rocket fairing. Photo of US Air Force


The program was of interest to the US Air Force, and since 2006 has already been implemented in their interests, although with some assistance from NASA. According to official data, the Air Force wants to get a promising orbital aircraft capable of taking various loads into space or performing various experiments. According to various estimates, the current X-37B project can be used in other missions, including those related to reconnaissance or carrying out full-fledged combat work.

The first space flight of the X-37B took place in the 2010 year. At the end of April, the Atlas V launch vehicle brought the device to a predetermined orbit, where he stayed 224 of the day. Landing "in an airplane" took place in early December of the same year. In March of the following year, the second flight began, which lasted until June of the 2012. In December, the next launch took place, and the third landing was carried out only in October 2014. From May 2015 to May 2017, the experienced X-37B made its fourth flight. 7 last September began the next test flight. When it is completed - not specified.

According to the few official data, the purpose of the flights is to study the operation of new technology in orbit, as well as conducting various experiments. Even if experienced X-37B and solve military problems, the customer and the contractor do not disclose such information.

In its current form, the Boeing X-37B product is a rocket plane with a characteristic appearance. It has a large fuselage and medium-sized planes. Used rocket engine; control is carried out by automation or by commands from the ground. According to known data, a cargo compartment is provided in the fuselage with a length of more than 2 m and a diameter of more than 1 m, which can accommodate up to 900 kg of payload.

Right now, an experienced X-37B is in orbit and solves problems. When he returns to Earth is unknown. Information on the future course of the pilot project is also not specified. Apparently, the new messages about the most interesting development will appear not earlier than the next landing of the prototype.

SpaceDev / Sierra Nevada Dream Chaser

Another version of the orbital plane is the SpaceDev Dream Chaser spacecraft. This project was developed from 2004 year to participate in the program NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS), but could not pass the first stage of selection. However, the development company soon agreed to cooperate with the United Launch Alliance, which was ready to offer its Atlas V launch vehicle. In 2008, SpaceDev became part of the Sierra Nevada corporation, and soon after received additional funding to create its orbital the aircraft. Later, an agreement with Lockheed Martin appeared on the joint construction of experimental equipment.


An experienced orbital plane Dream Chaser. NASA Photos


In October, the 2013, the flight prototype of the Dream Chaser, was dropped from a helicopter carrier, after which it switched to a flight planner and made a horizontal landing. Despite the failure during landing, the prototype confirmed the calculated characteristics. Later on, some other tests were performed on the stands. According to their results, the project was finalized, and in 2016, the construction of a prototype for space flights began. In the middle of last year, NASA, Sierra Nevada and ULA signed an agreement to conduct two orbital flights in 2020-21.

Not so long ago, the developers of the Dream Chaser machine received permission to launch at the end of 2020. Unlike a number of other modern developments, the first space mission of this ship will be carried out with a real load. The ship will have to deliver certain cargoes to the International Space Station.

In its current form, the Sierra Nevada / SpaceDev Dream Chaser reusable spacecraft is a plane of characteristic appearance that looks like some American and foreign designs. The machine has a total length of 9 m and is equipped with a delta wing spanning 7 m. For compatibility with existing launch vehicles, a folding wing will be developed in the future. The take-off mass is determined at the level of 11,34 tons. The Dream Chaser will be able to deliver 5,5 tons of cargo to the ISS and return to Earth before the 2 tons. and samples in separate experiments.

Spacex dragon

For a number of reasons, the idea of ​​an orbital plane is currently not very popular among developers of new space technology. A reusable spacecraft of a “traditional” appearance, which is launched into orbit with the help of a launch vehicle and returning to Earth without using wings, is now considered to be more convenient and advantageous. The most successful development of this kind is the Dragon product from SpaceX.


SpaceX Dragon cargo ship (mission CRS-1) near the ISS. NASA Photos


The Dragon project was launched in 2006 and performed as part of the COTS program. The aim of the project was to create a spacecraft with the possibility of repeated launches and returns. The first version of the project involved the creation of a transport ship, and later on its basis it was planned to develop a manned modification. To date, the Dragon in the version of the "truck" has shown certain results, while the expected success of the manned version of the ship is constantly shifted in time.

The first demonstration launch of the Dragon transport ship took place at the end of 2010. After all the required improvements, NASA ordered a full-fledged launch of such a device in order to deliver cargo to the International Space Station. 25 May 2012 of the Year "Dragon" successfully docked with the ISS. Later, several new launches were carried out with the delivery of goods into orbit. The most important stage of the program was the launch of 3 June 2017 of the year. First time in stories the program was restarted the repaired ship. In December, another spacecraft, already flying to the ISS, went into space. With all the tests so far, Dragon products have made 15 flights.

In 2014, SpaceX announced the promising manned spacecraft Dragon V2. It was argued that this device, which represents the development of an existing truck, would be able to deliver up to seven cosmonauts into orbit or return home. It was also reported that in the future the new ship could be used to fly around the moon, including with tourists on board.

As often happens with SpaceX projects, the timing of the implementation of the Dragon V2 project has shifted several times. So, due to delays with the supposed Falcon Heavy carrier, the date of the first tests moved to 2018 year, and the first manned flight gradually crawled to the 2019. Finally, a few weeks ago, the company-developer announced its intention to refuse certification of the new “Dragon” for manned flights. In the future, such tasks are supposed to be solved with the help of the reusable BFR system, which has not yet been created.

The Dragon transport ship has a full length of 7,2 m with a diameter of 3,66 m. Dry weight is 4,2 t. It is capable of delivering a payload of 3,3 tonnes to the ISS and returning to 2,5 tonnes of cargo. To accommodate certain cargoes, it is proposed to use a sealed compartment with a volume of 11 cubic meters and an unpressurized 14-cube volume. The compartment without sealing during descent is dumped and burned in the atmosphere, while the second cargo volume returns to Earth and lands on a parachute. For orbit correction, the device is equipped with 18 Draco type engines. The efficiency of the systems is provided by a pair of solar panels.

In developing the manned version of the Dragon, certain units of the base transport ship were used. At the same time, the hermetic compartment had to be considerably reworked to solve new problems. Also changed some other elements of the ship.

Lockheed martin orion

In 2006, NASA and Lockheed Martin agreed to create a promising reusable spacecraft. The project was named after one of the brightest constellations - Orion. At the turn of the decades, after the completion of part of the work, the leadership of the United States offered to abandon this project, but after long disputes it was saved. The work was continued and to date has led to certain results.


Promising ship Orion in the artist's view. NASA drawing


In accordance with the original concept, the Orion spacecraft was to be used in various missions. With it, it was supposed to deliver cargo and people to the International Space Station. Having received the appropriate equipment, he could go to the moon. The possibility of a flight to one of the asteroids or even to Mars was also studied. Nevertheless, the solution of such problems was attributed to the distant future.

According to the plans of the past decade, the Orion's first test launch was to take place in 2013. On 2014, they planned to launch with astronauts aboard. Flight to the moon could be carried out before the end of the decade. Subsequently, the schedule was adjusted. The first unmanned flight was transferred to the 2014 year, and the launch with the crew - to the 2017. Lunar missions moved to the twenties. By now, flights with the crew have been postponed for the next decade.

5 December 2014 of the year Orion’s first test launch took place. The ship with a payload simulator was launched into orbit by the Delta IV launch vehicle. A few hours after the start, he returned to Earth and splashed down in a given area. New launches have not yet been carried out. However, Lockheed-Martin and NASA specialists did not sit idle. Over the past few years, a number of prototypes have been built to carry out these or other tests in terrestrial conditions.

Just a few weeks ago, the construction of the first Orion ship for manned flight began. Its launch is scheduled for next year. The task of putting the ship into orbit will be assigned to the space launch vehicle Space Launch System. Completion of ongoing work will show the real prospects of the entire project.

The Orion project provides for the construction of a ship with a length of about 5 m and a diameter of about 3,3 m. A characteristic feature of this device is a large internal volume. Despite the installation of the necessary equipment and instruments, a little less than 9 cubic meters of free space remains inside the hermetic compartment, suitable for installing various devices, including the crew seats. The ship will be able to take on board up to six astronauts or a certain cargo. The total mass of the ship is determined at the level of 25,85 t.

Suborbital systems

Currently, there are several interesting programs that do not involve the removal of the payload on the Earth's orbit. Prospective samples of equipment from a number of US companies will be able to carry out only suborbital flights. This technique is supposed to be used for some research or in the development of space tourism. New projects of this kind are not considered in the context of the development of a full-fledged space program, but they are nonetheless of interest.


SpaceShipTwo suborbital spacecraft under the wing of a White Knight Two carrier aircraft. Photo Virgin Galactic / virgingalactic.com


The SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo projects from Scale Composites and Virgin Galactic offer the construction of a complex comprising an aircraft carrier and an orbital aircraft. Since 2003, two types of equipment have performed a significant number of test flights, during which various features of the design and methods of work were worked out. It is expected that a SpaceShipTwo-type ship will be able to take on board up to six passenger passengers and raise them to a height of at least 100-150 km, i.e. above the lower boundary of outer space. Takeoff and landing should be carried out from the "traditional" airport.

Since the middle of the last decade, Blue Origin has been working on another version of the suborbital space system. She proposes to carry out similar flights with the help of a ligament of a launch vehicle and a ship as used in other programs. At the same time, both the rocket and the ship must be reusable. The complex was named New Shepard. With 2011, rockets and ships of a new type regularly perform test flights. Already managed to send a spacecraft to a height of more than 110 km, as well as to ensure the safe return of both the ship and the launch vehicle. In the future, the New Shepard system will have to become one of the novelties in the field of space tourism.

Reusable future

For three decades, since the early eighties of the last century, the main means of delivering people and goods into orbit in the arsenal of NASA has been the Space Transportation System / Space Shuttle complex. Due to moral and physical obsolescence, as well as due to the impossibility of obtaining all the desired results, the operation of the Shuttles was discontinued. Since 2011, the United States does not have workable reusable ships. Moreover, as long as they do not have their own manned spacecraft, as a result, astronauts have to fly on foreign technology.

Despite the cessation of operation of the Space Transportation System, the American space program does not abandon the very idea of ​​reusable spacecraft. This technique is still of great interest and can be used in a variety of missions. At the moment, NASA and a number of commercial organizations are developing several promising spacecraft, both orbital planes and systems with capsules. At the moment, these projects are at different stages and show different successes. In the very near future, no later than the beginning of the twenties, most of the new developments will reach the stage of test or full-fledged flights, which will allow to re-examine the situation and draw new conclusions.


On the materials of the sites:
http://nasa.gov/
http://space.com/
http://globalsecurity.org/
https://washingtonpost.com/
http://boeing.com/
http://lockheedmartin.com/
http://spacex.com/
http://virgingalactic.com/
http://spacedev.com/
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  1. Sirocco 21 February 2018 06: 07 New
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    I think that we will never know about the real goals of the American space program, it’s top secret, and guessing on the coffee grounds is not a thankful task,
    My opinion is that in vain we supply them with engines, thereby untying their hands in solving problems in space in another direction, let them puzzle how they fly today.
    Well, and most importantly, it astonishes me, the persistence with which they push Mask and Co., is it not just SOI 2.))))) It's not a secret that all that is promising and profitable is a secret, a taboo, and here and private business has pulled itself up like a hell out of a snuffbox, not every country will take on a space program, but the genius Musk from scratch, mastered the space program, and popper in a couple of years, well, it’s not serious, and God forbid, we’ll decide to bring to this topic businessmen, then kerdyk to Roscosmos, and Russia as a space power. So, all this flood with Mask, as it annoys, is not so simple as it seems. You can compare this situation with a beautiful blonde, and the figure is beautiful, and the face, and dressed beautifully, but opening her mouth, carries ... ets)))))
    1. Mussasi 21 February 2018 06: 47 New
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      We already had businessmen who wanted to launch their own rockets. Roscosmos as a monopolist naturally did not allow this. Because all these enterprising people are not just gone, they left for the States and there they help people like Elon Musk.
      1. AUL
        AUL 21 February 2018 08: 29 New
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        Quote: Mussashi
        We already had businessmen who wanted to launch their own rockets. Roscosmos as a monopolist naturally did not allow this. Because all these enterprising people are not just gone, they left for the States and there they help people like Elon Musk.

        And can you elaborate on these our businessmen? Which link is the thread? And then something is a very dubious statement.
        1. Mussasi 21 February 2018 18: 46 New
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          Quote: AUL
          Quote: Mussashi
          We already had businessmen who wanted to launch their own rockets. Roscosmos as a monopolist naturally did not allow this. Because all these enterprising people are not just gone, they left for the States and there they help people like Elon Musk.

          And can you elaborate on these our businessmen? Which link is the thread? And then something is a very dubious statement.

          Give you a link for each question. Yes, there is none, it’s all going for the largest.
          And so you can, for example, drive in Google "Russian private space exploration" a lot of things to learn.
    2. Dead duck 21 February 2018 13: 02 New
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      Quote: Sirocco
      and the genius Musk from scratch, mastered the space program, for a couple of years and poper

      Yeah, only the naive believe in these tales ...
      magically, he suddenly found himself with the necessary specialists from closed "into the quiet" companies, as well as the necessary technologies and enterprises.
      But this is all by accident, he’s just a marketing genius and a showman. request
      1. voyaka uh 21 February 2018 14: 38 New
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        "magically, he suddenly turned out to be the right specialists" ////

        Why is there magic? He offered specialists breakthrough interesting topics,
        creative freedom. And high salaries in addition.
        Those who were fired by NASA, who are tired of Lockheed's established hierarchies and
        Boeing switched to an interesting high-paying job.
        1. Dead duck 21 February 2018 16: 45 New
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          Quote: voyaka uh
          He offered specialists breakthrough interesting topics,
          freedom of creativity.

          everything is much more interesting there ...
          even in western sources they notice it.
          he was simply connected to the project as a good showman and manager.
          and specialists who are needed by everyone and do not always get fired or shut down firms that are needed for the industry.
          Tales of garages and knees, on which everything is done no longer pass.
          "After all, if the stars are lit, then does anyone need this?"
    3. EnGenius 21 February 2018 14: 12 New
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      SpaceX is an attempt to influence the cartel of traditional American corporations in order to stimulate lower prices there, which the US government can already pay with difficulty. For this, the Mask was supplied with all the necessary accompanying information - technological, material science, medical and biological. Naturally, all this was “transferred” from the NASA state agency, the rest was taken from commercial patents, according to which the term of ownership of the copyright holders passed.
      1. voyaka uh 21 February 2018 14: 40 New
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        "Naturally, all this was" transmitted "from the NASA state agency" ///

        NASA has revealed all its secrets to EVERYONE. Old men from Roskosmos
        can also go to the NASA website and take secrets fellow (English only
        need to understand smile ).
    4. FIFA from Cardiff 24 February 2018 18: 34 New
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      How many groans, sobs, screaming around the super-supermask apparatus, which are reusable and super-super-load-lifting stuff, HOWEVER, demand determines supply, including in space, but demand is now tight
      1- there is no need to launch heavy missiles because there are no heavy loads
      2 - there is no need for reusable systems because there is no such massive demand for launches.
      We have already tested the concept of reusability on our own skin on shuttles, and the benefits from it are not at all obvious - well, the mask of 8 out of 10 engines was well lowered without breaking to the surface, and then what?
      1- it is necessary to return those engines to the base for revision and preparation for the next launch
      2- part of the components of those engines 100% will have hidden defects that will sooner or later emerge on the next Challenger




  2. andrewkor 21 February 2018 06: 58 New
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    And yet, you must admit that the Space Shuttle program has fulfilled its task, although not without costs, in addition, a breakthrough in technologies with the transfer of these to the ground has recaptured some of these costs.
  3. ares1988 21 February 2018 07: 14 New
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    As far as I remember, it was not the FH + Dragon v2 sheaf that was certified for manned flights, i.e. for flying around the moon. And certification of F9 + Dragon v2 for flights to the ISS remains in the plans.
    1. Blackmokona 21 February 2018 09: 33 New
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      That's right, certification for manned flights on the F-9, on the contrary, is called the highest priority for which all forces will be thrown.
  4. Letnab 21 February 2018 07: 47 New
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    Interestingly, it looks very similar to one of our, still Soviet developments. And taking into account the words of test pilot M.O. Tolboev that foreigners settled in the Gromov LII, it turns out that our development is now with the Americans ...
    1. Dead duck 21 February 2018 13: 10 New
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      Quote: Letnab
      looks very similar to one of our, still Soviet developments

      At the Bor ...
      http://www.buran.ru/htm/bors.htm
      And the program "Spiral" was.
      1. Simple 21 February 2018 23: 50 New
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        We got from the bottom of the ocean.
        The project was revived twice in the USA.
    2. prosto_rgb 23 February 2018 01: 03 New
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      Quote: Letnab
      it turns out our development is now with the Americans ...

      it if they bought a spiral in monino and would be taken away to the USA, it turned out
      Here is a purely American development.
      Work on flying vehicles with load-bearing enclosures in the USA was carried out in the 60s-70s. Even here on the site there was a series of articles about that thing.
      Naturally, the developers could not ignore the results on the launches of Bor-s, which is quite logical.
  5. Pacifist 21 February 2018 08: 22 New
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    Dream Chaser is an exact copy of the "Spiral" of Lozino-Lozinsky. Only the landing scheme was conceptually changed, the runners were changed to wheeled chassis, and so was a complete redundancy.
    1. AUL
      AUL 21 February 2018 08: 53 New
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      Yes, you can immediately see the great specialty! I looked at the photo - and immediately determined that it was an exact copy! He probably knows thoroughly the Spiral device and this device. According to this logic, the Buran is an exact copy of the Shuttle, the Tu-144 is an exact copy of the Concord, and Mercedes is an exact copy of the Volga (only the conceptual design of the radiator lining). laughing good
      1. Kir
        Kir 21 February 2018 09: 44 New
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        AUL with the Tu-144 Mahu Dali, since the 144th had previously taken off (which means the Concord is a “copy of the Tu-144), and even surpassed the British Frenchman in a number of decisions, regarding the rest, then considering how much time the people there stayed with us and how in fact, from scratch (if you believe the "true" history of the emergence of US private traders) they created flying patterns, then here Obviously Strongly that side does not agree on who and on the basis of which their patterns were made.
      2. Arikkhab 21 February 2018 12: 11 New
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        Why is this "Tu-144 - an exact copy of Concord"? There is an external resemblance, but the planes are quite different (a different arrangement of engines already eliminates the “exact copy”)
      3. Usher 21 February 2018 12: 29 New
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        Shuttle and Buran differ visually, and Concord with Tu-144 so there is no need to speak out. This is a lapped spiral. 1 in 1.
        1. AUL
          AUL 21 February 2018 13: 01 New
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          Yes of course. It just seems to me that when comparing two samples, first of all, understanding people do not look at the appearance, but at the filling, functionality and parameters. And appearance ... So the laws of aerodynamics are the same everywhere, that then in the USSR, now in the USA.
          1. Kir
            Kir 21 February 2018 14: 44 New
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            AUL, the filling It makes no sense to compare, especially since how much time has passed, so it makes sense to compare Aerodynamics, Maneuverability (the shuttle in this vein has given way to our Space) and Materials, at least how they could solve the problem of heat-protective tiles (in Buran they couldn’t be cool).
      4. Wims 21 February 2018 15: 00 New
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        Duck blizzard was created as a copy of the shuttle on the instructions of the party, despite the fact that our scientists immediately said that it was not promising and very expensive.
        1. arkadiyssk 21 February 2018 15: 19 New
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          Buran is not nearly a copy of the Shuttle, but a miserable attempt at cosplay. All that unites them is the appearance, although in fact the Shuttle had engines that pulled up the entire rocket, and the Buran had only maneuverable ones (well, we could not make compact marching engines that would fit into the blizzard.), Because the whole structure is up Energy raised. So Buran came out golden and unbearable even for the USSR.
          1. AUL
            AUL 21 February 2018 16: 25 New
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            Kir
            In addition, I wrote my first post. The man saw in the photo external the similarity (undoubtedly very large) with the Spiral and hastened to declare that it was an “exact copy” and a “complete redundancy”. For such a statement, you need to know thoroughly how the device and parameters of the Spiral, and the device and parameters of the staff apparatus. I don’t think that the author has sufficient knowledge of one and the other. And judging by the similarities in the photo is, as it were, softer to say, not too reasonable.
            PS And do not convince me of the difference between Buran and Shuttle, Concord and Tu. I wrote:
            By this logic, Buran is an exact copy of the Shuttle, Tu-144 is an exact copy of Concord, and Mercedes is an exact copy of the Volga
            1. Kir
              Kir 22 February 2018 00: 03 New
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              I’m talking about something else - that ours was, and in many respects, better than our foreign counterpart.
          2. Kir
            Kir 22 February 2018 00: 02 New
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            This "pathetic" attempt exceeded the United States in terms of thermal protection, and weak engines ensured greater maneuverability in space, plus it had a fully automatic landing, which the locals did not have.
            The shuttle, this is a single system, but with us, to some extent, the system was more reasonable - a super-heavy rocket + the ability to output any type of load.
            1. Evgeny Goncharov (smoogg) 23 February 2018 16: 10 New
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              the shuttles could land in automatic mode; moreover, almost all landings in the predominantly automatic one passed, and the astronauts only let out the landing gear. I’ll leave the rest of the Urya Tryndezh on your conscience.
    2. prosto_rgb 23 February 2018 01: 06 New
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      Quote: Pacifist
      Dream Chaser is an exact copy of the "Spiral" of Lozino-Lozinsky. Only the landing scheme was conceptually changed, the runners were changed to wheeled chassis, and so was a complete redundancy.

      far from accurate
      and even more
      absolutely not a copy
      but has similar aerodynamic contours
      something like sedan cars.
  6. donavi49 21 February 2018 09: 55 New
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    The article is not very complete.

    We forgot about the Boeing Starliner - which flies first (July-August and if the test flight is considered successful, in November 4 astronauts will arrive for the first time on the ISS not on the Union).


    We also forgot the Bezos system (which is now the richest person in the world and without PR is quietly financing its own space program) - the most progressive in terms of orbital flights and tourism.


  7. shinobi 21 February 2018 10: 18 New
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    Not that, all this is interesting, but not that! The dead-end branch has been developed. No one has removed the main cost of starting up in a vertical start, so two steps to the trash! And this is the main price of starting up. And we don’t have to stupidly chase behind them. There are wonderful designs by Myasishchev Design Bureau, from the last century, and the future lies behind them.
    1. AUL
      AUL 21 February 2018 16: 36 New
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      Quote: shinobi
      Not that, all this is interesting, but not that! The dead-end branch has been developed. No one has removed the main cost of launching in a vertical launch, so no one removed. Two steps to the trash! And this is the main price of starting.
      You explain it to the Mask, otherwise he, stupid, saves the first steps and drives him into a new space. Here you go!
      1. Setrac 21 February 2018 19: 34 New
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        Quote: AUL
        You explain it to the Mask, otherwise he, stupid, saves the first steps and drives him into a new space. Here you go!

        The salvation of steps is indeed a dead end branch of development. It is necessary to develop in the direction of reducing the number of steps, and in the future, to single-stage reusable devices.
  8. Falcon5555 21 February 2018 11: 27 New
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    Everything cosmic must be reusable - this is obvious.
  9. Arikkhab 21 February 2018 12: 07 New
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    And do not the Soyuz-series descent vehicles be used repeatedly?
    1. voyaka uh 21 February 2018 12: 46 New
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      Disposable - landed disposed of.
      And build a new one.
    2. prosto_rgb 23 February 2018 01: 11 New
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      Quote: ArikKhab
      And do not the Soyuz-series descent vehicles be used repeatedly?

      no!
      although the ship was designed and tested with the possibility of 10-fold use in the series did not go, because all the forces were thrown on Buran.
      Well, the current RF is not up to it.
  10. Old26 21 February 2018 13: 46 New
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    Quote: Sirocco
    I think that we will never know about the real goals of the American space program, it’s top secret, and guessing on the coffee grounds is not a thankful task,

    Well, part of the programs, of course, is "grooved." For the same X-37 minimum information. About missions generally almost complete zero

    Quote: Sirocco
    My opinion is that in vain we supply them with engines, thereby untying their hands in solving problems in space in another direction, let them puzzle how they fly today.

    I would agree with this thesis, but alas, the number of flights on RD-180 engines does not exceed 20%. In 2017 there were 5 Atlas-5 launches with this engine and one Antares-230 launch with the RD-181 engine. Total approximately 24% (7 out of 29)
    For 2018, Americans are planning to launch 42 carriers, of which 7 are Atlases and 2 are Antares. again the same 21%. that is one fifth. So they don’t have to rack their brains ...

    Quote: Sirocco

    Well, and most importantly, it astonishes me, the persistence with which they push Mask and Co., is it not just SOI 2.))))) It's not a secret that all that is promising and profitable is a secret, a taboo, and here and private business has pulled itself up like a hell out of a snuffbox, not every country will take on a space program, but the genius Musk from scratch, mastered the space program, and popper in a couple of years, well, it’s not serious, and God forbid, we’ll decide to bring to this topic businessmen, then kerdyk to Roscosmos, and Russia as a space power. So, all this flood with Mask, as it annoys, is not so simple as it seems.

    NASA went down the road when it stopped pulling a blanket over itself, raking under itself all the space programs. And it would not hurt our Roscosmos to launch private traders on the market while they are still there.

    Quote: Mussashi
    We already had businessmen who wanted to launch their own rockets. Roscosmos as a monopolist naturally did not allow this. Because all these enterprising people are not just gone, they left for the States and there they help people like Elon Musk.

    The LIN Industrial company still exists. As long as

    Quote: AUL
    Quote: Mussashi
    We already had businessmen who wanted to launch their own rockets. Roscosmos as a monopolist naturally did not allow this. Because all these enterprising people are not just gone, they left for the States and there they help people like Elon Musk.

    And can you elaborate on these our businessmen? Which link is the thread? And then something is a very dubious statement.

    http://spacelin.ru/proekty/sverkhlegkaya-raketa-t
    aymyr /
    It can be easier. Google the name "Ultralight Taimyr, Adler, Aldan" launch vehicle

    Quote: Pacifist
    Dream Chaser is an exact copy of the "Spiral" of Lozino-Lozinsky. Only the landing scheme was conceptually changed, the runners were changed to wheeled chassis, and so was a complete redundancy.

    Well, since it’s not skiing, but wheels, it’s not a complete redistribution. In addition, we are talking exclusively about the appearance. And what is inside is still unknown. Yes, they are similar to each other, but the same Buran in one of its variants was very similar to a shuttle, and the TU-144 was similar to Concorde. It looks like, but not a complete copy. so here


    Quote: shinobi
    Not that, all this is interesting, but not that! The dead-end branch has been developed. No one has removed the main cost of starting up in a vertical start, so two steps to the trash! And this is the main price of starting up. And we don’t have to stupidly chase behind them. There are wonderful designs by Myasishchev Design Bureau, from the last century, and the future lies behind them.

    And there is no other yet. There are no VKS, starting from the airfield, no reusable missiles, as they were painted talking about the future. use what is achievable so far ...

    Quote: ArikKhab
    And do not the Soyuz-series descent vehicles be used repeatedly?

    No. They are disposable. On the Chelomeevsky truck, we tried several times to use reentry vehicles, but there they were unmanned
    1. AUL
      AUL 21 February 2018 16: 47 New
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      Old26 , Thanks for the link. Somehow I was not aware of these matters.
    2. Mussasi 21 February 2018 16: 54 New
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      There is also Cosmocourse; they recently received a license for this activity from Roscosmos.
      [media = http: // http: //www.cosmocourse.com/]
      [media = http: // http: //fastsalttimes.com/sections/c
      ompany / 1161.html]
  11. evil partisan 21 February 2018 23: 58 New
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    +1
    Of course, I understand everything: reusable flights and all that. But who the pancake will take responsibility for the control of the same returned steps ?? And there, the work of flaw detectors taking into account the specifics of "products" - a wagon and a small cart. And it may not be Magadan looming to them, but something like that in the same States. Maybe all this (NK) is already reduced to the level of ordinary technological processes. God give it! But I doubt something very much ...
    1. prosto_rgb 23 February 2018 01: 16 New
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      +1
      Quote: wicked partisan
      But who the pancake will take responsibility for the control of the same returned steps ??

      who-who?
      obviously, the manufacturer
      or do you want to find out which cantor will be "Comrade Major" who is closely watching the work of defectologists from the private shop of charlatans?
  12. lazy 22 February 2018 16: 49 New
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    +1
    the biggest problem with reusable ships is that, say, company X produced 10 ships in 10 years for the state, which will then be used for 20 years, and company X what to do for 20 years and what to live on? when you can rivet disposable rockets for 30 years and have stable income
  13. Jo Swar Htet 14 June 2020 20: 36 New
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    How does reusable operation (launch vehicle) affect engine life and structural life?