The observed trend towards a global aggravation of the military-political situation right up to pre-escalation situations, caused by the reluctance of Western regimes to switch to a fundamentally new (multipolar) world order system, is increasingly pushing the defense departments, as well as private and state corporations of regional and world superpowers, to implement projects of promising types of military -sea armament, where far from last place are aircraft carriers. After all, this particular class of surface component fleet provides the most flexible opportunities for maintaining the combat stability of our own and friendly KUG in the far sea zone; It provides direct support to marine corps units on enemy territory through deck-mounted IAPs, and also allows you to quickly install an air “umbrella” of A2 / AD air defense (create a layered no-fly zone) on virtually any stretch of the World Ocean.
The most serious developments in the development of aircraft carriers and the development of deck multipurpose fighter jets of the transition generation “4 ++” to ensure superiority over American AUGs and “deckers” belong today to the People's Republic of China, in particular, the Chinese state shipbuilding corporation CSIC (China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation) with shipyard in Dalian, as well as the aircraft manufacturer Shenyang. The first developed and launched the second advanced aircraft carrier, the 001A Shandong, which has a great constructive resemblance to the Soviet heavy aircraft carrying missile cruisers, 1143.5 and 1143.6, but it is equipped with the latest radar equipment and the radar fill, as well as the promising combat information control system. by the system.
In particular, the first one is the multipurpose dual-band 4-sided on-board radar Type 346A (also installed on the Type 052D EM URO). Each of the four AFAR antenna canvases is divided into 2 groups of transceiver modules, one of which operates in decimeter S-band, the other - centimeter C-band, which determines the station’s highest noise immunity, the ability to work steadily on low-visible surface anti-ship missiles, as well as ensure simultaneous illumination of targets for rockets from PARGSN (the C-band array is responsible for this) and from ARGSN (both C and S-bands are used here). Recall that the domestic Mars-Passat radar complex developed for these TAKR projects, unfortunately, turned out to be not so successful and does not provide for the detection and tracking of targets on the 120 passage provided for by tactical and technical objectives of air targets. As for the combat information and control system of the aircraft carrier Type 001A "Shandong", it uses the HUSB H / ZBJ-1, which is a modification of the H / ZBJ-1 adapted for aircraft carriers (the latter is also the base for the Type 052D destroyers). It should be immediately noted that in view of the hardware similarity of the RLK and BIUS of the Liaonini and Shandong aircraft carriers to these Type 052C / D destroyers systems, the AUG of the Chinese fleet is distinguished by the same network-centric level as the American aircraft carrier strike groups, whose system linkage is based on base "Ajis".
Shenyang Support Deck aviation a component of the Navy of the PRC at the proper level, not inferior in capabilities to the fighter aviation regiments deployed on American nuclear aircraft carriers. For example, such a machine as the J-15S carrier-based multirole fighter, which was developed by this company with the support of the 601st Institute, draws much attention to itself. Despite the fact that the glider of the J-15S multi-functional fighter is a modified double copy of the prototype of the domestic T-10K (Su-33) sold by the Ukrainian side in 2001, its avionics are many times greater than the electronic equipment that they are equipped with today our Su-33, which are part of the 279th separate naval fighter regiment named after twice Hero of the Soviet Union Boris Safonov.
For example, if obsolete Cassegrain H001 airborne radars that do not differ in multi-mode (there is no possibility to work on surface targets), high noise immunity and range (125 km on aerial targets with 5m2 EPR) are still installed on our marine “Dryings”, then Chinese J-15S have long received AFAR-BRLS, allowing the pilot and operator of systems without third-party designation to perform anti-ship, anti-radar tasks both on the marine theater and on the ground. Moreover, the shock operations can be performed in parallel with the conquest of air supremacy due to the integration of the radar operating modes. Due to the high-speed electronic control of the X-band beam and the ability to distribute functions between separate AFAR arrays, both ground and air objects can be simultaneously accompanied. Energy qualities, bandwidth, target channel and other features of the J-15S radar remain under the veil of secrecy, but based on the parameters of modern active phased arrays, it is known that the synthetic aperture (SAR) and GMTI modes are present here at 100%. What additional technical options for "hardware" got our Su-33? That's right, only a special high-performance computing subsystem of the SVP-24-33 "Hephaestus".
Thanks to the use of modules such as the specialized SRNS-24 radio navigation system, the CB-24 on-board special calculator, and the information generation unit (BFI) in Hephaestus, the accuracy of bombing with conventional free-falling bombs is increased more than 3 times. At the same time, the pilot has the opportunity to reset the same OFAB-250 from a free maneuver and at an altitude of more than 5 km. This completely eliminates the need for the carrier to enter the zone of destruction of self-propelled air defense systems such as Roland, Avenger, etc. As for the opportunities to achieve superiority in the air, here SVP-24 “Hephaestus” is absolutely useless. Su-33 with radar H001 and weapons control system SUV-27K, not adapted to the use of URVB P-77 / RVV-SD, absolutely nothing to oppose to the staffing F / A-18E / F "Super Hornet" or French "Rafal", equipped with the latest ANA / APG-79 and RBE-2 AFAR radars (will find out “Drying” at a distance of 170 - 190 km), as well as long-range air-to-air missiles with active radar self-targeting AIM-120D and MBDA “Meteor” c integral rocket-ramjet engine. A further air battle will be lost with a probability of 80 - 90%.
The situation could be changed by the deep modernization of “Flanker-D”, which consists of installing the H011 Bars or HNNUMX Irbis-E radars on the vehicles, as well as the prospective C-035 radio station from NPP Polyot for exchanging telecode information with other units over secure radio channels of the decimeter band (108-0,96 GHz); A similar station is included in the Su-1,215С avionics. The maneuverability could be improved by installing the AL-35F41С TRDDF with an all-curving vector thrust system.
At the MFI of the Gefest system, the process of obtaining target designation from the Admiral Kuznetsov TAVKR
However, in the command of the Navy, apparently, it was decided to limit the installation of the Gefest to the Su-33, and then only on a part of the sides. The main focus is now on such carrier-based fighters as the MiG-29К / KUB. Firstly, these machines have much higher functionality and flexibility of application in a complex tactical environment, which is achieved thanks to the multi-mode Zhuk-ME on-board radar with a slit antenna array with a diameter of 624 mm. Target detection range with an effective dispersion surface of 3 sq. m is for this radar of the order of 95 km, and when working with surface targets, several modes can be used (from ordinary relief mapping to “focused synthesized aperture” modes and tracking GMTI moving land and sea objects).
In long-range and medium-range air combat, missiles RVV-AE and RVV-SD are used with simultaneous firing of the 6 VTs (Su-33 is capable of simultaneously intercepting only one target using P-27EP / EM and the H001 or 2-3 radar - with the use of missiles P-73 or P-27ET depending on the spatial position of the targets and the response of the pilot). Also "Falkruma" more compact and occupy a much smaller area on the deck and in the internal hangar of the aircraft carrier. As for updating the MiG-29K / KUB radio electronic “stuffing”, this procedure doesn’t “cost a pretty penny” neither RAC MiG nor the fleet, since the multiplexed data exchange channel MIL-STD-1553B, which has an open architecture, has been introduced for a long time. Consequently, the integration of the promising Zhuk-AME radar with AFAR (represented by receiving-transmitting modules based on substrates of low-temperature co-fired ceramics) will be carried out according to a simplified procedure.
The “Zhuka-AME” installation, integration of elements with radio-absorbing materials into the airframe design, as well as equipping with optical-electronic means such as VS-OAR and NS-OAR (the attack stations of the attacking SAM / URVB, as well as those launched by the enemy PRLR and OTBR of the upper and the lower hemispheres) and OLS-K for tracking and capturing targets on the surface (similar to the MiG-35 type), will allow the deck KUB to surpass F / A-18E / F, as well as deck radioelectronic fighters F / A-18G "Growler". But according to two important criteria, these machines will continue to give way to the 5 generation of the USSC F-35B.
We are talking about a radar signature, which can be reduced from 1 to 0,05-0,2 м2 only by changing the airframe design, where, in addition to radio-absorbing elements, angular airframes play a crucial role, X-ray camber of vertical stabilizers, "diverting" most of the electromagnetic radiation into the space (on F / A-18E / F and F-35B / C such a constructive option is already available), as well as a flashless lantern with a minimum image intensifier. We are also talking about today's extremely popular flight-technical features - shortened take-off and vertical landing (in English STOVL, Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing). It can complement any carrier strike grouping with unique operational tactical capabilities. In particular, in the shortest period of time from the deck of an aircraft carrier can 3, 4 or even more of a USVP / VTOL (with a normal take-off mass) rise immediately, which is absolutely unrealizable when using standard steam and electromagnetic catapults. This, in turn, greatly increases the saturation of the airspace near the carrier strike group with deck tactical aviation units, which makes it possible to respond to the enemy’s actions more quickly and efficiently: operations to gain air supremacy in the ocean of theater operations and intercept those approaching the AUG. noticeably more productive.
It is worth noting the fact that the development and promotion of the North-Eastern Aircraft Command / VTOL aircraft to update the deck fleet aviation can open up new horizons for shipbuilding enterprises and the Russian Defense Ministry in terms of mass production of medium-sized aircraft carriers designed to house 30 — 50 light decker fighter aircraft UHF / VTOL and operational their transfers to numerous parts of the oceans. And the prerequisites for such ambitious programs already exist.
In particular, November 2017 of the year was remembered for a significant information surge regarding the revival of the domestic aircraft carrier fleet in the 20s of the 21st century. For example, 11 in November, the resource “FlotProm”, citing a source at the Krylovsky State Scientific Center (KGNC), announces the start of the development of a promising multi-purpose aircraft carrier with a displacement of more than 40 thousand tons. At the same time, the new class of aircraft carriers will not be a substitute for the advanced heavy aircraft carrier of the 23000 "Storm" project, designed for more than 90 aircraft, but will be its supplement. The construction of the first ship of the new type should begin in the first half of the new decade "at the gates" into the Sea of Azov, - on the basis of the facilities of the Shipyard Zaliv (Kerch). More importantly, the implementation of the project of a new "low-tonnage" aircraft-carrying platform will take significantly less time than going down from the stocks of the Storm. Let us hope that our economy will draw such a number of new programs in parallel with the development of the frigates of the 22350М and MAPL Ave. 885M "Yasen-M" frigates.
Against the background of the above information, it is worth noting the growing interest of Russian news and analytical resources to the possibility of resuming work on the creation of a new multi-role vertical take-off and landing fighter, which should become the main enemy of the American F-35B STOVL. Moreover, the Deputy Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation Yuri Borisov also announced the transition to this type of deck aircraft on November 11 this year. The interlocutor of RIA Novosti and a specialist in the field of naval technology and aviation, Vadim Saranov, on December 15, 2017, said that the most difficult "critical" technology for the revival of a promising VTOL fighter could be a rotary nozzle, which requires the involvement of specialists from the Soyuz AMNTK, who developed at one time lift-sustainer engines R-27V-300 and R-28V-300 for VTOL Yak-36M / 38 / 38M, and are well acquainted with the smallest technical subtleties of these complex units.
As V. Saranov stated, “people with practical experience in creating these engines cannot be found; competence lost. " At the same time, it is worth noting that all is not so critical. First, the documentation, and hence the technological reserve for the VTs Yak-141, has been preserved almost in full. About the features of the lift-marching turbojet dual-circuit afterburner engine with OVT P-79 (thrust 15500 kgf) everything is known, exactly as about the twin turbojet lifting installation RD-41 with a total thrust 8520 kgf. These data may well serve as a basic element for the design of a power plant of the prospective VTOLS / AELS.
Nevertheless, the modern conditions of network-centric wars and the tactical capabilities of the F-35B will certainly force our manufacturers to change the old design of the Yak-141 powerplant. For example, two lifting TRDs RD-41 will have to be abandoned due to high fuel consumption, which limited the range of the 690 620 Freestyle X-NUMX km, while the current F-35B combat radius reaches 865 km. It is logical that the use of a lifting fan, driven by a main lift-marching TRDDF compressor through a powerful cardan drive, in economic terms will be more expedient (as demonstrated by the F-135B fighter F600-PW-35). For the manufacture of the transmission unit of the moment to the fan, the use of high-strength and light alloys will be required, as well as the development of a new technological base, which was not previously embodied "in iron". There may be some difficulties, but given the final phase of development and the first tests of the 2 Stage IHT “30 Product” onboard the T-50-2, it can be assumed that we will cope with the development of a new promising product.
As for the airframe of the new machine, the Yak-141 deep copying has absolutely no prospects, since it did not have the ability to conduct highly maneuverable melee due to the small wing area (31,7 м2), which with a normal take-off weight of 16 tons gave a specific load on wing in 504 kg / m2; The thrust-weight ratio at such a mass was only 0,96 kgf / kg. The wing of the new machine should have a significantly larger span and area, as well as nodules at the root. You don’t have to forget about maneuverability, because the naval F-35C for the Navy and the USMC is much more "fidgety" than the F-35B (their wing area is 36,5% more than in A / B versions).
All circuits must fully comply with the 5 generation: "4 ++" with EPR in 1 sq. M. m no longer fit. In other words, in comparison with the Yak-141, the airframe of a new product must be radically “reworked”. There is no point in thinking about the avionics of the short / vertical take-off and landing aircraft for the Russian fleet, since in the absence of a TTZ, the future deck tactical fighter can be equipped with almost any AFAR radar from the Beetle-AE / AME family and most of the cockpit information field configurations the pilot present in the fighter generation of transition.