Military Review

How is Finland separated from Russia

32
In August, 1914, the war began, which in Europe was called great or world war. Finland during the war retained its special status. And the Finnish nationalists turned their eyes on Germany, hoping with the help of it to achieve their goals.


In Finland, the Russian government did not mobilize. However, several hundred Finns volunteered for the Russian army. There was a fundraising fund for the Red Cross, with funds raised by the Finns, a field hospital was opened. In the hospitals of the principality were treated the wounded.

True, Finnish nationalists launched a more active activity. The “allies” of Russia in the Entente, England and France, planned in case of their victory to dismember the Russian Empire weakened in the war, to separate the Baltic States, Finland, the Kingdom of Poland, Ukraine and the Caucasus from it. The same aims were pursued by the German Empire. It is clear that the governments of the "Western democracies" did not advertise their intentions, Petersburg until the last moment had to regularly supply Russian "cannon fodder" to fight the Germans. Germany did not hide its goals. Therefore, the Finnish separatists began to focus on the Second Reich. They organized secret collection and departure points for the Finnish volunteers in the German army. This case was facilitated by the fact that the land and sea borders between Finland and Sweden were transparent. Russian gendarmes checked passengers and baggage on trains going to and from Sweden. But to go through the forests or cross the Gulf of Bothnia on a ship was not particularly difficult.

Part of the Finnish volunteers who joined the Russian army, did it to get military training and experience. Then such volunteers fled the Russian army, and entered the service to the Germans. In January, 1915, Germany announced its readiness to train Finns in military affairs. In groups, in secret, almost 200 young people moved first to Sweden and then to Germany. Finns have been trained at the Lokstedt camp in Schleswig-Holstein since February 1915. In September 1915, the Germans decided to increase the number of students to the size of the battalion in 1900 people. Finland begins secret recruitment across the country. In the spring of 1916, the Prussian Royal Huntsman's Battalion No. 27 was formed under the command of Major M. Bayer. Prussian Royal Chasseurs battalion took part in hostilities against Russia on the side of Germany in the Baltic States. Finnish rangers were transferred to the Riga region, where they participated in battles against Russian troops.

The war itself for the Grand Duchy, given the fact that the fighting did not touch the Finnish land, that the Finns themselves did not fight, did not shed blood and did not rot in the trenches, was extremely profitable. Plants received large military orders, and capitalists big profits. Peasantry and merchants engaged in speculation. Then the Finnish Governor-General F. A. Zayn set price limits for products and basic necessities. As a result, speculators lost super profits in the domestic market. But there was another way to enrich. The countries of the Entente blocked Germany and its allies, depriving them of the opportunity to receive goods and raw materials from neutral countries and colonies. Here Finnish businessmen got a unique opportunity to significantly increase their capital.

Before the war, the principality supplied butter, cheese and other products to European Russia and exported a significant amount of grain. With the beginning of the war, the supply of agricultural products to Russia was significantly reduced, and the supply of bread from Russia to Finland, on the contrary, increased significantly. And it is not surprising that Russian grain, Finnish butter and other products went to Germany with the help of the “Swedish transit”. Sweden still dreamed of revenge for the previous defeats from the Russians, but during World War II, the Swedes quickly realized that with the help of neutrality and through cynical speculation you can get just fabulous profits.

Interestingly, this behavior of the Swedes turned out to be beneficial to all participants in the war, and therefore no one began to catch their hand. As a result, Sweden turned out to be one of the main beneficiaries of the world slaughter, becoming the champion in terms of the wealth earned from it, even among other European countries that also held a neutral position - Denmark, Holland, Switzerland, Norway, etc.

In the autumn of 1915, London and Paris demanded that St. Petersburg stop supplying food and other goods to Germany through Sweden. Foreign Minister S. D. Sazonov informed Tsar Nicholas the Second that the blockade would affect the national interests of Sweden and could lead to its military alliance with Germany, which would worsen Russia's strategic position. Back in 1914, the commander-in-chief of the Russian army, Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich, stated bluntly that Sweden’s entry into the war would be a “catastrophe” and it was necessary “to avoid all that could aggravate Russian-Swedish relations. However, the crisis of the outbreak of war has long passed, and in 1915, Sweden no longer wanted to fight, and sought to earn as much as possible at the bloodbath. Thus, because of the lack of will of the tsarist government, “Swedish transit” flourished and brought fabulous profits to Swedish and Finnish businessmen.

In the course of such trade, very interesting things were happening. In October, 1915 was imported from Russia to Sweden by a large batch of grain as payment for the production of 150 thousand gun barrels - the Russian army then experienced an acute shortage of rifles. Production weapons for a belligerent country it was a direct violation of neutrality, but for the sake of gain, Sweden easily compromised with the principles, and the Russian grain was immediately sold to Germany. The Russian authorities for the sake of additional rifles, and the Germans for the sake of additional bread together closed their eyes to such a brazen violation.

Finland could easily have remained part of Russia after the socialist revolution as one of the republics, if not for external intervention. In 1916, the Finnish Social Democratic Party (SDPF), founded back in 1899 at the convention in Turku, won the majority of the elections to the Seym. The left wing of the party, headed by O. Kuusinen, K. Manner and Y. Sirola, maintained close ties with the Bolshevik party and personally with V. Lenin. After the February Revolution in Russia in the industrial centers of Finland formed the working Diet, the Working order of the Guard and the Red Guard. The prototype was the militant workers' squads that were created during the 1905 Revolution of the year. They were staffed mainly from the workers and partly the rural poor under the leadership of political activists and the socialist intelligentsia. Many among the Red Guards were women and teenagers.

The leading revolutionary bodies were the Helsingfors Diet of Workers 'Organizations (created in March 1917) and the left wing of the SDPF, which collaborated with the Russian Soviets of Soldiers' Deputies and the sailor committees of the Baltic fleet and Soviets of workers' deputies. Guided by the Regional Committee of the Army, Navy and Workers of Finland, with the Helsingfors Committee of the RSDLP (b), with the Finnish National District of the Petrograd Organization of the RSDLP (b).

The interim government in March 1917 reestablished the autonomy of Finland, but came against its complete independence. At the request of the Social Democratic Party, the Finnish Diet passed in July 1917 of the year (taking advantage of the unrest in Petrograd) the “Law on Power”, which limits the competence of the Provisional Government in Finland to military and foreign policy. The Provisional Government, restoring order to Petrograd and using the support of the Finnish bourgeoisie and nationalists, broke up the Sejm. In the meantime, the Finnish bourgeoisie and the nationalists actively formed their troops — guard detachments, sückcor (the word originated from the Swede. Skyddskår - “guard corps”). They were also called the White Guard, the White Finns. They were based on the sports association "Union of Strength", created in 1906 year. The main exercises of the members of the "sports society" were sniper shooting and increasing physical endurance.

How is Finland separated from Russia

Emblem of the General Staff of the Security Corps of Finland

In October, 1917 was held a new election to the Seimas, which took place with numerous violations by the nationalists. As a result, the bourgeoisie and the nationalists received a majority in the Diet. The SDPP Board and the Finnish Trade Union Executive Committee 26 of October (8 of November) welcomed the victory of the October armed uprising in Petrograd. October 31 - November November 6 (November 13 – 19) there was a general strike in Finland for the implementation of the economic and political demands of the workers. The Red Guard disarmed the bourgeois detachments, occupied administrative buildings, railway stations, telegraph and telephone exchanges, and took over the protection of public order. In many cities, power has actually passed to the workers. However, the Central Revolutionary Council (formed in November), after the Saeima approved resolutions on taking over the supreme authority and laws on the 8-hour day and democratizing the system of communal elections, urged the workers to stop the strike. 13 (26) November, the Sejm approved the Senate, headed by Per Evind Swinhouvud.

December 4 Senate Swinhuvuda signed the Declaration of Independence of Finland. 6 December 1917, the Seimas unilaterally proclaimed Finland an independent state. 18 (31) December 1917 The Soviet government headed by Vladimir Lenin recognized the independence of Finland. Officially, the ratification took place on 4 on January 1918. Apparently, initially the Soviet government was confident in the victory of the “Reds” in Finland, after which it had to return to the sphere of influence of Russia.

The Soviet government did not yet know that in December 1917, Svinhovud entered into negotiations with Germany and sent all the gold from a Finnish bank from Helsingfors to the north of the country. Also, the Finnish bourgeois government conducted a secret operation to buy grain from the peasants at extremely inflated prices. Purchased grain was also stored in the north of the country. Having learned about the large purchases of grain at high prices, the peasants practically ceased supplying cities. The country was threatened with hunger. Especially strongly shortage of bread affected the city, although it was felt everywhere.

All this was done during the preparation of the war in order to bring the entire country under the control of the bourgeoisie and nationalists. 9 January 1918, the government of Swinhuvud authorized the White Guard command (sützkor) to restore public order in the country. On the night of January 10, the White Finns clashed with the Red Guard. On January 12, the parliament passed laws granting emergency authority to the government of Svinhovud and taking over the government. On January 16, the Senate, which received extraordinary powers from the Sejm, appointed former Tsarist General Carl Gustav Mannerheim to be the commander-in-chief of the White Guard. The political and military center of counter-revolution was created in the city of Vasa (Nikolaistadt). On January 25, the Senate proclaimed all the formations of the lawyer to be the legal forces of the Finnish government. In February, Mannerheim introduces a universal military duty, guaranteeing the army the necessary number. At the same time, the main part of the Finnish rangers' battalion that fought on the German side returned from the Baltic states. They became part of the "white" Finnish army.

At the same time, the moderates and the radicals of the Social Democratic Party 23 in January created the Workers' Executive Committee, the highest revolutionary body that prepared the coup plan. On January 26, the committee ordered the Working Guard to prepare for the seizure of all government agencies and strategic locations. On January 27, the committee issued a “Revolutionary Appeal to the Finnish People.” The working guard of the order and the Red guard united to adopt the name of the latter. The signal for the beginning of the revolution was a red flag, raised in Helsingfors on the evening of January 27 on the tower of the People’s House. Folk houses in Finland were similar to similar institutions in other Scandinavian countries — they were controlled by social democrats and exercised educational, educational, and cultural functions among workers.

On the night of 27 on 28 in January, Red Guard units in Helsingfors, in response to the sabotage attacks of the white forces, occupied the Council building and other central institutions. The bourgeois government fled from Helsingfors. On January 28 a revolutionary government was formed - the Council of People's Commissioners (SNU) consisting of Social Democrat Manner (chairman), Sirola, Kuusinen and others. The supreme authority is the Chief Workers Council of the 35 people (10 - from the SDPF Party Council, 10 - from the trade unions, 10 - from the Red Guard, 5 - from the Helsingfors Workers' Sejm). Its chairman was Valfrid Perttila. The workers of Abo, Tammerfors, Pori, Kotka, Lahti, Vyborg and other cities of the south rose up to the struggle. Under the control of the "red" government was the most developed territory, where lived around 2 / 3 population of the country. Under the control of the former "white" government remained, although large in territory, but far less populated north and much of central Finland.

On January 29, the Council published the Declaration, which contained the program of the bourgeois-democratic revolution. At the initiative of the workers, the old state apparatus was scrapped, workers were controlled at enterprises, railways, etc. The revolutionary upsurge forced the SNU to move to a more decisive policy. Control was established over private banks, counter-revolutionary newspapers were closed, the Supreme Revolutionary Court was established, and the Sejm of workers' organizations actually became the organs of the dictatorship of the proletariat. February 23 published a draft democratic constitution. Finland was proclaimed a republic. However, large industrial enterprises and private banks were not nationalized, land and forests were not confiscated from large landowners and timber companies, the issue of allotment of land to small farmers was not resolved, etc. The Council did not take the necessary decisive measures to ensure state security and liquidate counterrevolutionary underground.


The battalion of Finnish rangers at the parade in Liepaja, summer 1917

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
How the Finns were freed from the "prison of nations"
How Russia donated Finland’s statehood
Finland as a "strong pillow Petersburg"
32 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Finches
    Finches 19 December 2017 05: 57 New
    +4
    In sufficient detail N. Starikov analyzed some interesting and little-known aspects of this issue in the book. "Geopolitics. How is it done?", where an assessment is given, including the role of Britain in this matter ...
  2. kalibr
    kalibr 19 December 2017 07: 45 New
    +4
    Very good material in itself and as an addition to the article about Finnish rifles.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 19 December 2017 07: 52 New
    +7
    The “allies” of Russia in the Entente, England and France, in the event of their victory, planned to divide the Russian empire, weakened in the war, and separate from it the Baltic states, Finland, the Kingdom of Poland, Ukraine and the Caucasus

    Documents about it - DO NOT exist. There is no evidence of this.
    Until the last moment Petersburg had to regularly supply Russian cannon fodder to fight the Germans.

    The British-speaking fanciful meat was made, figures confirm this.
    On December 4, the Finnish Independence Declaration was signed by the Svinhuvud Senate. On December 6, 1917, the Sejm unilaterally declared Finland an independent state. .

    This happened AFTER the overthrow of the legitimate Provisional Government, recognized by ALL, including and Finland.
    But the so-called Finland’s “People’s Commissar” (and no one else) did not recognize and considered herself free in the absence of legal authority in Russia. The result is a declaration of independence.
    On December 18 (31), 1917, the Soviet government led by Vladimir Lenin recognized the independence of Finland.

    No one even asked Lenin about this, no one! He did it himself! fool .
    Judging by allu, initially the Soviet government was confident in the victory of the “Reds” in Finland, after which it was supposed to return to the sphere of influence of Russia.

    No groundless statement:
    1. Lenin recognized precisely the bourgeois government, and not the "reds." And then he helped in red. And what is it called?
    2. "The Reds in July 1917 tried to declare independence of Finland.
    3. The Red Finns never declared their desire to live as part of Russia.
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 19 December 2017 08: 44 New
      +3
      Judge them according to their deeds.
      Quote: Olgovich
      Documents about it - DO NOT exist. There is no evidence of this.

      There is no evidence, but the case - there is, and this is the best evidence.
      Quote: Olgovich
      No one even asked Lenin about this, no one! He did it himself!

      Maybe you think that there was no Harvard project to dismember the USSR? And the USSR "collapsed" by itself. Maybe you think that there is no Houston project to dismember Russia?
      If everything happens for you by itself, it means that you do not have all the information about what is happening. Each event has a name, surname and patronymic of the one who plans it and the one who performs it.
      1. Nikitin
        Nikitin 19 December 2017 10: 34 New
        +1
        Quote: Boris55
        There is no evidence, but the case - there is, and this is the best evidence.

        What were the “things” before the overthrow of the Provisional Government? Bring them.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 19 December 2017 11: 15 New
          +3
          On May 26, 1919, England, France, the United States, and Italy informed Kolchak in a special note that they were ready to recognize him. The Entente abstained from official recognition of the counter-revolutionary governments for a year and a half.
          Kolchak was required, however, to fulfill certain conditions. These conditions were as follows: convocation of the Constituent Assembly after the occupation of Moscow; recognition of the independence of Poland and Finland; if it is impossible to resolve the issue of independence of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Caucasian and Trans-Caspian entities with their governments, refer this issue to the League of Nations; before that - recognition of these areas as autonomous.
          Kolchak had an affair with Denikin, advancing in the south, with Miller in the north, and answered the Entente’s conditions very evasively. He agreed to recognize the de facto government of Finland, postponed the final decision until the Constituent Assembly. As for Estonia, Latvia and others, Kolchak promised only to prepare a “solution to the question of these national groups,” as he put it in his note.
          On June 12, 1919, England, France, the United States, and Italy recognized Kolchak's answer as satisfactory and promised him help.
          1. Gopnik
            Gopnik 19 December 2017 12: 18 New
            +3
            That is, it turns out, confirm the words of Olgovich: the allies demanded the independence of Poland and Finland only in 1919, when these countries were already de facto independent and recognized de jure, incl. and the Bolsheviks.
            1. Nikitin
              Nikitin 19 December 2017 12: 58 New
              +1
              Quote: Gopnik
              That is, it turns out, confirm the words of Olgovich: the allies demanded the independence of Poland and Finland only in 1919, when these countries were already de facto independent and recognized de jure, incl. and the Bolsheviks.

              That's right: it was.
              The allies could not be more Russian than the "Russian" so-called government "" people's commissar ", recognizing ALL.
          2. Nikitin
            Nikitin 19 December 2017 12: 56 New
            +1
            Quote: hohol95
            On June 12, 1919, England, France, the United States, and Italy recognized Kolchak's answer as satisfactory and promised him help.

            What did you want to say?
            Kolchak well done: he did not recognize anything, unlike the Bolsheviks, who recognized Finland, which did not see them point blank.
    2. MrK
      MrK 19 December 2017 11: 43 New
      +3
      Quote: Olgovich
      Documents about it - DO NOT exist. There is no evidence of this.

      23 December 1917 the French and the British entered into a secret convention on the division of spheres of influence in Russia. The Caucasus and the Cossack territories of the Kuban and Don rivers left the British, the French - Bessarabia, Ukraine, Crimea. Russia was shredded like Africa, puppet governments were supposed to be created in the designated territories. A little later, the British ambassador to France wrote in a diary regarding Russia: “If only we manage to achieve the independence of the buffer states bordering Germany in the east, that is, Finland, Poland, Estonia, Ukraine, etc., and no matter how much they can be fabricated, then, in my opinion, the rest can go to hell and boil in your own juice».
      I read about it in three books. The authors are far from communists.

      Quote: Olgovich
      "The Reds in July 1917 tried to declare independence of Finland.

      But there are definitely no documents about this.
      1. Gopnik
        Gopnik 19 December 2017 12: 15 New
        +4
        Well, i.e. Olgovich is right. The only "document" dated December 23, 1917, i.e. after the Bolshevik coup and the conclusion by the Bolsheviks of a truce with Germany, and there was no discussion of the dismemberment of Russia.
    3. Pancir026
      Pancir026 19 December 2017 11: 51 New
      +3
      Quote: Olgovich
      The “allies” of Russia in the Entente, England and France, in the event of their victory, planned to divide the Russian empire, weakened in the war, and separate from it the Baltic states, Finland, the Kingdom of Poland, Ukraine and the Caucasus
      Documents about it - DO NOT exist. There is no evidence of this.

      Yes, yes, Olga, once again, on a grand scale, but in a puddle ... According to historian Kirmel, in an appendix to the map of New Russia compiled by the US State Department, it was said: “All of Russia should be divided into large natural areas, each with its own special economic life. Moreover, no region should be independent enough to form a strong state. ”

      Source: Intervention: how the “allies” divided Russia
      http://russian7.ru/post/27790/
      This happened AFTER the overthrow of the legitimate Provisional Government, recognized by ALL, including and Finland.
      What legitimacy of the "interim government" do you want to talk about if it hatched from STATE CHANGE and coup d'etat as a result of the abdication of Nicholas 2?
      Quote: Olgovich
      No one even asked Lenin about this, no one! He did it himself!

      It would be strange if V. Lenin asked you for advice to such figures.
      Quote: Olgovich
      No groundless statement:

      You have everything, as always, inventions, speculations, rumors and outright lies.
      1. Hantengri
        Hantengri 19 December 2017 20: 06 New
        +2
        Quote: Olgovich
        Documents about it - DO NOT exist. There is no evidence of this.

        Quote: Pancir026
        Yes, yes, Olga, once again, on a grand scale, but in a puddle ... According to historian Kirmel, in an appendix to the map of New Russia compiled by the US State Department, it was said: “All of Russia should be divided into large natural areas, each with its own special economic life. Moreover, no region should be independent enough to form a strong state. ”
        Source: Intervention: how the “allies” divided Russia
        http://russian7.ru/post/27790/

        Here you need to clearly set the time period. In the period before VOSR - Olgovich is right. (I feel like "Devil's advocate" laughing ) In the period after VOSR - you are right.
        1. Pancir026
          Pancir026 19 December 2017 21: 26 New
          +2
          Quote: HanTengri
          In the period before VOSR - Olgovich is right. (I feel like "Devil's advocate") In the period after VOSR - you are right.

          He talked about the period before VOSR, as it is uncomfortable and inconsequential to speak, blabbed out of frustration, not otherwise.
          However, the more often this "expert" scribbles his scribbles here, the better people realize that a lie, if not hidden in colorful clothes, will always give way to the TRUTH, even if it is dressed in gray and inconspicuous clothes.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 20 December 2017 09: 14 New
        +3
        Quote: Pancir026
        Yes, yes, Olga, once again, on a grand scale, but in a puddle ... According to historian Kirmel, in an appendix to the map of New Russia compiled by the US State Department, it was said: “All of Russia should be divided into large natural areas, each with its own special economic life. Moreover, no region should be independent enough to form a strong state. ”

        NUMBER indicate that your rubbish is visible!
        Quote: Pancir026
        What legitimacy of the "interim government" do you want to talk about if it hatched from STATE CHANGE and coup d'etat as a result of the abdication of Nicholas 2?

        It was RECOGNIZED by absolutely EVERYTHING, incl. Councils and all countries and regions of Russia. Did not know? lol
    4. Gopnik
      Gopnik 19 December 2017 12: 20 New
      +4
      Quote: Olgovich
      3. The Red Finns never declared their desire to live as part of Russia.


      Moreover, they presented territorial claims of Soviet Russia and Lenin agreed with them, such as “since it is so important to the Finnish comrades, they should receive it,” but they did not agree to reciprocal concessions (Fort Ino).
      I recommend, by the way, on this issue, the new book "The Soviet-Finnish border. 1918-1938. Essays on history." Very curious
    5. Hantengri
      Hantengri 19 December 2017 20: 40 New
      +3
      Apparently, initially the Soviet government was confident in the victory of the “Reds” in Finland, after which it was supposed to return to the sphere of influence of Russia.

      Quote: Olgovich
      No groundless statement:

      Reasonable, Olgovich, theoretically: V.I. Lenin "State and revolution." Erroneous, as practice has shown ... But, nevertheless: the one who does not do anything is not mistaken! Do you agree, Olgovich?
      Quote: Olgovich
      1. Lenin recognized precisely the bourgeois government, and not the "reds." And then he helped in red. And what is it called?

      This is called class solidarity. Do you have something against?
  4. venaya
    venaya 19 December 2017 08: 59 New
    +5
    .. Swinhuvud in December 1917 entered into negotiations with Germany and sent all the gold The Finnish bank from Helsingfors to the north of the country. Also the bourgeois government of Finland conducted a secret operation to buy grain among peasants by extremely overpriced. Purchased grain was also stored in the north of the country. .. peasants almost stopped supplying cities. The country was threatened by hunger.

    In all, absolutely in all countries, the same pattern of seizing power by financial structures is manifested. A true patriot of any country is more likely to cede power to an opponent, but inside the country, than to agree to outside help. I’m talking about the actions of the white whales at that time and in that situation and about their amazing "patriotism".
  5. RUSS
    RUSS 19 December 2017 09: 04 New
    +6
    Another fantasy from Samsonov laughing
  6. Seal
    Seal 19 December 2017 09: 25 New
    +2
    Quote: Boris55
    There is no evidence, but the case - there is, and this is the best evidence.

    There are cases. But in a completely different situation.
  7. Seal
    Seal 19 December 2017 09: 27 New
    +4
    Quote: Olgovich
    Documents about it - DO NOT exist. There is no evidence of this.

    So in the traditional version of history that is familiar to us from school, 99,9% is the same. And for some reason, a huge number of its admirers do not bother with this fact.
  8. hohol95
    hohol95 19 December 2017 11: 19 New
    0
    23 February 1918 of the year at the station of Antrea (now Kamennogorsk) Mannerheim utters the "Oath of the sword" in which he mentions:
    "I will not put my sword into the scabbard ... until the last warrior and hooligan of Lenin is expelled both from Finland and from East Karelia"
  9. Gopnik
    Gopnik 19 December 2017 12: 24 New
    +2
    "Some of the Finnish volunteers who joined the Russian army did this to receive military training and experience. Then, such volunteers fled the Russian army and entered the service of the Germans."

    Can I get any confirmation of this nonsense?
    1. Moscow landing
      Moscow landing 19 December 2017 15: 59 New
      +6
      The facts confirming this nonsense do not exist. Only the Finnish Swedes served as officers in the RIA, served voluntarily and did not run to the Germans. Attempts to call up Finnish soldiers were in early 1900, but quickly stopped. In 1915 The Finnish Sejm declared neutrality (!) in the First World War, Finnish volunteers did leave for Schleswig, where the Finnish battalion of rangers who fought in the territory of modern Latvia was formed. A monument to the dead Finns was erected there, which was destroyed after the annexation of Latvia in 1940.
      1. Gopnik
        Gopnik 19 December 2017 17: 34 New
        +3
        There were volunteers in the Russian army and ethnic Finns. For example, the first Finnish pilots: “In the Russian army, Finnish citizens served exclusively on a voluntary basis. Such a volunteer was the young non-commissioned officer Vyaino Mikkola who entered the Russian army in 1915. In the spring of 1916, Mikkola graduated from a flying school in Baku and was enrolled to the Baltic Fleet aviation, where he soon embarked on reconnaissance flights over the Gulf of Finland ... Another Finnish officer, Valfrid Nyukyanen, joined the Russian army in 1914 and managed to take part in the battles near Riga, after which he was transferred to aviation. Walfried graduated from an aviation school in Sevastopol and even managed to take part in air battles in Galicia, so these two became the first Finnish aviators, since there were no other Finnish citizens who could fly by December 1917. In addition to Nyukyanen and Mikkola, another Finn he served in the Russian aviation. It was Arvi Payunen, who learned to be an observer, but did not know how to pilot airplanes. "
        And on the other side: "Finally, one cannot fail to mention another Finnish citizen, Berti Martensson, who was trained as a pilot in Germany in 1916-17." Notice this is an ethnic Swede character. Actually, that was the case - the Swedish-speaking elite of the society were scorched by the separatists (Bobrikova killed one of them), and the Finnish-speaking were more loyal to the imperial power, although, of course, they were not alien to separatism and "rusaphobia." In the civil war, the Swedish speakers were for the whites, and the reds were from the Finnish speakers.
  10. Curious
    Curious 19 December 2017 15: 20 New
    +6
    The article is the next transfusion of Finland’s themes from empty to empty. Level - for the olgovichi. None of the authors mentioned in any article the main reason for the separation of Finland - the desire of the Finns to have their own state.
    The Finns believed that their country was an autonomous national state in union with Russia and all Russian emperors of the XNUMXth century, from Alexander I to Alexander III, supported this confidence, gaining a loyal attitude of Finnish autonomy.
    As soon as Nicholas II headed for the winding up of Finnish privileges at the end of the 1898th century, the Russian Empire immediately gained Finnish separatism. It is enough to recall the year XNUMX.
    General Bobrikov, chief of staff of the St. Petersburg Military District, was appointed Governor-General of Finland in 1898, tasked with disbanding the separatist forces. Legislative power on issues of national importance in 1899 was transferred from the Finnish four-state Diet to St. Petersburg. The Finns considered this a coup d'etat, and subsequent police measures to pacify their country - political violence. Some of the radical Finns believed that since the emperor violated the constitution, Finland and Russia were at war: in 1904-1905, these people sympathized with the Russian Socialist Revolutionaries and the Japanese. Bobrikov and several other people were killed, weapons and forbidden revolutionary literature began to arrive across the border.
    So Finland was separated from Russia, first of all, by the narrow-minded politics of Nicholas II.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 19 December 2017 16: 15 New
      +2
      The policy of Nicholas II of course was a "narrow-minded"! But his predecessors are “good” - they spoiled the Poles and Finns, but crushed their indigenous subjects! So same "spoiled" and Central Asian bais!
      But they were not able to get off the “red train project”!
      And now we are bad for everyone - even an American blogger takes into account the Tlingits killed and raped by the Russians:
      In the U.S., how many Indians were killed by Russians in Alaska on December 15, 2017

      Officially, this war lasted 200 years and ended only in 2004.
      A very interesting post about the Russian presence in America was written in the FB by blogger Ulfhednar Zhayvir.
      "When they tell me that the Americans killed the Indians and seized their lands, I ask the counter question:" How many Indians killed the Russians? "....
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 19 December 2017 16: 21 New
      +2
      In my opinion, the policy of Nicholas II, characterized by "feverish plugging of holes", was a consequence of the Romanov’s incorrect national policy for 100 years.
  11. Moscow landing
    Moscow landing 19 December 2017 16: 35 New
    +4
    Quote: Curious

    So Finland was separated from Russia, first of all, by the narrow-minded politics of Nicholas II.

    First of all, the miserable Russian life separated, and the intellectually limited H2 threw logs into this fire. I think that in any situation, Finland would separate, but the Vyborg province attached to F. Alexander 1 could be returned without Stalin's bloody aggression in 1940.
    1. Gopnik
      Gopnik 19 December 2017 17: 20 New
      +2
      She was going to return, before the WWII, but then the war broke out and decided that "not the time." And then the Finns deftly jumped off. In a normal situation, without the Bolshevik Maidan, Finland would sooner or later fall, but they would not be released with Vyborg. Like the British did not give the Irish Ulster.
  12. Pancir026
    Pancir026 19 December 2017 16: 39 New
    +1
    Цитата: московский десант
    The Vyborg province could be returned without the bloody aggression of Stalin in 1940.

    What kind of twist is this? Where did you get this nonsense from?
  13. VladGashek
    VladGashek 20 December 2017 01: 20 New
    0
    A very interesting article, but a few points were overlooked. Firstly, the Kingdom of Poland was abolished by Alexander 2 after the Warsaw Uprising and transformed into the Warsaw Governor General. Secondly, no such procedure was carried out with Finland. Finland remained as a Grand Duchy in a personal union with the Russian Empire. When the February Revolution demolished the monarchy in Russia, the legal incident “how to be in Finland” arose. And here the nationalists, the Swedish and German barons on the one hand, and the Social Democrats on the other, began to decide the political fate of their land. For Lenin and the Bolsheviks, the problem of Finland was of third importance. Recognizing the independence of Finland, they moved away from the inconsistent policies of the Provisional Government. And most importantly, to some extent they secured a "window to Europe", gained time and saved their strength to strengthen their power.