Rome at that time was the main "command point" of the Western project and civilization, directing its development, that is, constant expansion, expansion in order to capture and absorb foreign territories and resources, turning previously free peoples into "two-legged tools" serving spiritual and secular feudal lords , "Gentlemen." Rome was the conceptual center of the Western world, shaping the unjust concept of the domination of a few “chosen” parasites over the masses. The ideology of enslavement was framed as a distorted Christianity - Catholicism, where only the form remained from the original teaching of Christ. It became the essence of social parasitism and slave creation of a global civilization.
Russia and the Russian people have always been the “bone in the throat” of Rome and the West, since they initially had their own concept of development - on the basis of social justice, conscience and truth. And such an alternative ruined the plans of world domination and could sooner or later lead to the collapse of the global slave-owning order, which is being built by Western "masons". Therefore, the masters of the West, Rome, for centuries waged an implacable and incessant struggle with Russia and the super-ethnos of the Rus. First, in the course of several centuries of stubborn struggle, they crushed the "Slavic Atlantis" in the center of Europe - the western core of the super-ethnos of the Rus - tribal unions known by the names of the Venets - the Venetian - vandals, lutus, obodrit-bodhrich, ruyan, raven-raven, prus-prus and t The Slavic Russian towns became Germanic castles-burgas, slavnorussy partly destroyed in the most severe wars, partly turned into slavery, partly assimilated, depriving faith, language and culture (in particular, many of the current Austrians and Germans are our own brothers, descendants Trat language and identity Rus), part of the subjugated and turned into people "second class" condemned to a heavy dependence and the gradual loss of their identity. Part of the Slavs were able to subordinate to the "Western matrix" - through the loss of faith, the adoption of Catholicism, the distortion of the language, the introduction of foreign traditions and dynasties, etc. In particular, this was the "recoding" of the Croats and Polyana-Poles, becoming the worst enemies of those Slavs-Rus who have retained their "I".
Rome did not stop there and continued the “onslaught towards the North and the East.” With the eastern core of the Rus, Rome broke off. The Falcon dynasty (Rurik) was able to unite scattered lands and tribal alliances into a powerful empire-power, which crushed the Khazar kaganate, challenged the Romean (Byzantine) empire and did not let Rome move further to the East. Rome did not reconcile and continued the struggle, trying in one way or another to destroy Russian civilization and Russian superethnos, which prevented the West from becoming the "king of the mountains" on the planet.
In particular, Scandinavian tribes were subordinated to Rome, although initially they brought a lot of harm to Christian missionaries. After that, Rome threw Sveev-Swedes into Finns, Karelians and Russians. Germanic, Danish and Swedish feudal lords, including spiritual ones, methodically advanced in the Baltic States and Finland. In 1240, Mr. Yaroslavich defeated the Swedes on the Neva River, temporarily halted the movement of the enemy. In the 1293 year on the shores of the Bay of Vyborg was founded Swedish fortress of Vyborg. Veliky Novgorod possessed a great deal of power, but its top preferred monetary and trade affairs, and therefore could not organize the proper repulse against the Swedish invaders. The Russian “base” princes have long been mired in their quarrels and quarrels, and also paid little attention to the northern outskirts of Russia.
Thus, the Swedes were able to capture the Finnish outskirts of Russia. Nevertheless, the Swedes managed to occupy only the southern and part of central Finland. This is indicated by the conditions of the Orekhovsky world (also the Orekhovetsky world, the Noteberg world), concluded on August 12 1323 in the Novgorod fortress Oreshek, after 30 years of hostilities. Under the Orekhov Peace Treaty, the western part of the Karelian Isthmus and the Savolax region adjacent to it were relegated to the Kingdom of Sweden, the eastern part of the isthmus with Korela (now Priozersk) remained part of the Novgorod land. For the first time, the state border between the Swedish Kingdom and the Novgorod Republic was officially established, which ran from the Gulf of Finland along the Sestra River, in the north to Lake Saimaa and then in the north-west to the Kayano Sea coast (Gulf of Bothnia).
After the Orekhovsky Peace, several more Russian-Swedish conflicts occurred, but in all cases in the new peace agreements the borders roughly corresponded to the Orekhovsky peace. Only at the conclusion of the Tyavzinsky peace treaty in 1595, the land of Kayan (Esterbotnia) withdrew to Sweden. Then, in the Time of Troubles, the Swedes were able to grab a significant portion of the northern lands of Russia. By the Stolbovo Peace Treaty of 1617, the Russian cities of Ivangorod, Yam, Koporye, Korela, the whole Neva and Oreshek with the county withdrew to the Swedish kingdom. Stolbovsky world completely cut off Russia from the Baltic Sea.
During the Northern War King Peter was able to return to Russia and the Baltic states Western Karelia. According to the Nishtadt peace treaty from 30 in August 1721 of Russia "for all time" moved part of Karelia (part of Kexholm District) located north of Lake Ladoga, with Vyborg, Ingermanland from Ladoga to Narva, part of Estland with Revel, part of Lifland with Riga. , Ezel and Dago islands, and islands of the Gulf of Finland. A new line of the Russian-Swedish border was set up, which started west of Vyborg and went from there in a northeast direction in a straight line to the old Russian-Swedish border that existed up to the Stolbovo world. In Lapland, the Russian-Swedish border remained unchanged.
Sweden twice, in 1741 - 1743 and 1788 - 1790, attacked Russia, trying to take revenge and throw off its shores of the Baltic. But the Swedes were both beaten. In 1743, Abossky peace was concluded. A part of Kümenigord and Neyshlot Lena with the Fortress of Nyslott and the cities of Vilmanstrand and Friedrichsgam withdrew to the Russian Empire. As a result, the border was moving away from St. Petersburg, and thus the danger of the enemy attacking the Russian capital was reduced. During the war 1788 - 1790. a significant part of the Finnish nobility wanted to separate from Sweden and go into Russian citizenship. However, Catherine the Great was too busy with the war with Turkey and did not take advantage of this opportunity. The Welsh Peace of 1790 only reaffirmed the inviolability of the establishment of the Nishtadt and Abos peace treaties, while maintaining the status quo and immutability of the pre-war borders.
The new Russian-Swedish war 1808 - 1809, in fact, caused England. In June 1807, Russia and France concluded the Peace of Tilsit. The agreement was extremely beneficial for St. Petersburg. Napoleon did not demand either territorial or monetary compensation for the stubbornness of St. Petersburg in anti-French policy. Russia received a 5-year respite from the war with France. Moreover, Napoleon even allowed Russia to expand its holdings in the west. In the future, Russia could get even more in the north and south-west. It is clear that this situation did not suit London, where they hoped to wage a big European war until the last French and Russian soldier, and then get all the benefits from this conflict.
The British government decided to punish Petersburg, which ceased to fight for the interests of England. They decided to strike Russia in the Baltic. To do this, it was necessary to take control of the Danish Straits. Not counting the neutrality of Denmark, the British armada with a landing corps in early August 1807 approached Denmark. On August 8, British Ambassador Jackson appeared to Crown Prince Regent Frederick and stated that London knew for certain Napoleon's intention to force Denmark into an alliance with France, which England could not allow. To ensure that Denmark does not enter into an alliance with France, the British demanded that they transfer the entire Danish fleet and allow them to occupy Zealand, the island where the capital of Denmark stood. The Danes refused. Then the British fleet attacked Copenhagen. During the shelling killed thousands of civilians, half of the city burned down. Meanwhile, a British landing party surrounded the Danish capital. On September 7, Danish General Peyman signed the act of surrender to Copenhagen. On September 21, the English fleet headed for their native shores, taking with them the confiscated remains of Danish fleet. At the end of October 1807, a Franco-Danish military alliance was concluded, and Denmark officially joined the continental blockade.
After that, London received "cannon fodder" in the fight against Russia. The British government concluded an alliance with Sweden in February 1808. England pledged to pay the Swedes 1 million pounds monthly during the war with Russia, no matter how long it lasted. Also, the British promised Sweden auxiliary 14-th. corps to protect the western borders of Sweden and its ports, while the Swedish army will fight on the eastern front with the Russians. In addition, the British promised support at sea, to send a large squadron to the Baltic. Formally, the Swedes themselves gave a reason to start the war. 1 (13) February 1808, the Swedish king Gustav IV, informed the Russian ambassador in Stockholm that reconciliation between Russia and Sweden is impossible as long as Russia holds Eastern Finland. A week later, the Russian Tsar Alexander answered the challenge of Sweden by declaring war.
Swedish real help in the war against Russia Englishmen have failed (or did not want). All their successes on the Baltic in 1808 year were reduced to the destruction of the ship "Vsevolod" and the seizure of the boat "Experience." The Russian armed forces successfully defeated the Swedes on land and at sea. Russian troops occupied all of Finland, in the spring of 1809, the Aland Islands occupied the ice on the ice and entered Swedish territory. In the meantime, a coup d'état took place in Stockholm. Guards overthrew King Gustav. The new king was elected uncle Gustav Duke of Sudermanladskogo, who came to the throne under the name of Charles XIII. 5 (17) September 1809, the Friedrichshagh Peace Treaty was concluded. All Finland, including the Aland Islands, departed to Russia. A new frontier lay on the Tornio River (and its tributary Muonio), dividing the Swedish province of Västerbotten. North of Västerbotten a new frontier passed through the province of Lappland. The border to the sea passed in the middle of the Gulf of Bothnia and the Aland Sea.
Map of Finland showing the borders of Russia and Sweden at different times under the treaties
After the conclusion of peace, the Grand Duchy of Finland was formed with its own constitution, which became part of Russia. More 12 February 1808 was published the appeal of the emperor Alexander Pavlovich to the Finns, compiled by F. F. Buksgevden. The appeal contained a promise to convene a Sejm and at the same time proclaimed the accession of Finland to the Russian Empire "along with the rest of the conquered provinces of the Russian state." March 16 Alexander I declared that Finland "is recognized as a region weapons conquered and joins forever the Russian Empire. " It was enshrined in the manifesto of 20 March 1808 of the year "On the conquest of Swedish Finland and on joining it forever to Russia." Finland joined Russia as an ordinary province. However, in the highest charter, signed by Alexander 15 in March 1809, it was said: “Having entered into possession of the Grand Duchy of Finland by the will of the Most High, we recognized for the benefit of again approving and certifying religion, fundamental laws, rights and advantages, by which each state of this principality ... according to constitutions they have been used up to now, promising to keep them in their unbreakable and immutable strength and action. ”
Thus, by the act of 15 in March 1809 of the year, the emperor of Russia actually proclaimed the restriction of monarchical power in Finland. The decision was quite conscious. In September, 1810, Alexander wrote: “My intention with Finland’s structure was to give this people a political existence, that it was considered not enslaved by Russia, but tied to it with its own benefits.” Emperor Alexander took the title of Grand Duke of Finland and included in the imperial title the name "Grand Duke of Finland." In the official documents said nothing about the formation of the Grand Duchy of Finland. The term “Grand Duchy of Finland” first appeared in the Code of Laws of the Empire, which was MM Speransky.
So Finland got into the “prison of nations”. This figurative expression of Lenin about Tsarist Russia became an axiom both for Soviet historiography and for Western liberals who fiercely hated the USSR. However, was Russia a “prison” for the Finns? If you compare the position of the imperial Russian people, who bore the brunt of the great power, its economy, communications, and shed blood defending the general building of the empire, and the Finns, it turns out that the Russians were enslaved, and not the Finns and other ethnic groups from the national suburbs empire.
Since the time of Peter the Great, the Russian monarchs began to preserve the old order in the national margins attached to the Russian Empire. This affected Estland and Kurland, where the privileges were kept by the German (Ostsee) nobility, the Kingdom of Poland - the Polish gentry still retained an advantage not only over the Polish peasantry, but the West Russian population (which eventually led to the uprisings), Turkestan and the Grand Duchy of Finland. Moreover, the population of these areas to receive benefits that could not dream of the inhabitants of the interior provinces of Russia. The relief was in taxes, customs control, military conscription, troop admission, and so on. The western outskirts of Russia were, in fact, "free economic zones."
Most often, this practice led to negative consequences, such as the preservation of the power of the Poles in the Western Russian regions in the sphere of management, culture, education, etc. But this was not enough for the Poles, and sooner or later they formed a conspiracy and revolted. In the late USSR, they also went on the same vicious path - giving priority to the development of national suburbs, at the time when the indigenous Russian regions stopped developing and lost the most active young part of the population who went to the “construction sites of communism”, mastered personnel education, culture, health care in the republics, etc. As a result, it turned out that the population in the national suburbs bore less imperial power, but benefited from the use of common goods, and the local population schivaemaya Ethnocracy took an active part in the collapse of the Russian and later Soviet empire.
A similar system has developed in Finland. Alexander gave Finland a royal gift - he conveyed the Vyborg province to the Grand Duchy, which was annexed to Russia under Peter I. At that time, it seemed like a purely formal gesture. In Soviet times, Khrushchev also presented Ukraine with a Crimea. After all, no one then could have thought that the powerful Russian empire would collapse, and Petrograd would be threatened by an enemy attack because of the loss of Vyborg and Finland as a whole. Later, the USSR also did not think that the Union would be destroyed. And Ukraine-Little Russia with the Crimea - the primordial Russian lands (Kiev is the ancient capital of Russia!) Will be “independent”, and that in Odessa, Kharkov, Kiev and Sevastopol can be provided by NATO troops.
Russian emperors naively believed that the population of the new territories would be infinitely grateful and forever remain loyal to the throne. In addition, the Romanovs deliberately headed for rapprochement with the Western monarchist houses and the aristocracy. The Baltic (German) and partly Finnish (that is, Swedish) nobility became part of the Russian elite stratum.
Thus, the Romanovs deliberately refused to conduct deep integration of connected national borderlands. Later, some attempts at Russification were made (for example, under Alexander III), but they were late, non-systemic, and did not lead to success. This policy gave several failures, for example, in the Crimea and the Kingdom of Poland, where, under the threat of losing these regions, the Russian government was forced to take the path of Russification. But in general, as already noted, these measures were clearly insufficient for their full integration with the rest of the empire.
Alexander I Declaration, March 1808
To be continued ...