Military Review

Stories about weapons. Rifles of the First World War. Rifle "Lee-Enfield" model 1895 of the year

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The first Lee-Enfield model, or SMLE, appeared in 1895 g. It was created on the basis of a Lee-Metford rifle of the 1888 sample.

Stories about weapons. Rifles of the First World War. Rifle "Lee-Enfield" model 1895 of the year


The abbreviation SMLE is deciphered as follows: S - short (“short”), M - magazine (“store”), L - Lee (designer name James Lee) and E - Enfield (Enfield - the name of the city in which the Royal Infantry Factory was located weapons).

When adopting this model received the designation Lee ‑ Enfield Mk.I. This rifle received baptism during the Second Boer War, and showed a number of serious shortcomings in comparison with the “Mauser” of the 1888 model of the year used by the drills.

The British took into account the experience of combat use, and in 1903, the British Army adopted a new rifle SMLE Mk.II. Its main feature is an intermediate size between a short cavalry carbine and a full-fledged infantry rifle of that time.

In 1907, the SMLE Mk.III rifle was adopted, the main difference of which is the possibility of charging with a clip, that is, packs of 5 cartridges. Prior to this, the rifle magazine was charged one at a time.



Similarly, the earlier Lee-Enfield designs were modified. In the 1916 year, during the First World War, a simplified version of the rifle was adopted, in which such obviously redundant and obsolete parts as the magazine cut-off and the volley fire were abandoned.

The SMLE Mk.III rifle remained the main weapon of the British army, as well as the armies of the countries of the British Commonwealth (Australia, India, Canada, New Zealand) until the beginning of World War II.



Lee-Enfield rifles are store rifles with manual reloading and a longitudinally sliding butterfly valve.

The Lee design store is one of the special features of this rifle. This is a box-shaped detachable store, in which 10 cartridges are placed in a staggered manner.



In this case, the store can be equipped only being attached to the weapon, and is detached for cleaning, maintenance and repair. In the early Lee Enfilds, the shops were even chained to the bed.

Equipment stores - through the upper window in the receiver with the gate open, one cartridge each or with the help of two clips on 5 cartridges. Guides for the clips are made in the form of a special "bridge" in the back of the receiver.

Attached to the rifle bayonet with hewing blade, the handle is made of wood.



Blade length 430 mm. The bayonet is attached to the massive forearm tip (not to the barrel), worn separately from the rifle, weighs 510 g, the sheath for it is 205 g. In later versions, a needle bayonet could be used.



In total, more than 17 millions of rifles were produced, which spread throughout the world.

The rifle had good accuracy, but the main advantage was considered 10-ti charging shop. In many countries, the rifle was nicknamed "eleven charge", since the design allowed the magazine and the eleventh cartridge to be equipped by hand to reach the breech.

Talk about convenience and uhvatistosti can only a fan of British small arms. Having tried all the rifles from the collection of our expert, I want to say that “Lee-Enfield” is the most unique weapon of all the rifles that we have been talking about or will be telling.

Heavy, fat and all kind of uncomfortable, to be honest. And balancing is not very. But this is a private opinion, the whole world fought with this rifle, and the British even more so. The Lee-Enfield weapon was withdrawn only in the middle of the 50-s of the last century, when it was replaced by a semi-automatic rifle.



By the way, Lee-Enfield fought in our area.

The rifles went to the USSR from the British army after the Civil War in very large quantities from warehouses in the Murmansk and Arkhangelsk regions, as well as from the republics of Central Asia, where the British actively armed Basmachis.

Also, a large number of these rifles fell into the Red Army from the arsenals of the annexed Baltic states in 1940 year.





After the loss of 1941, the Lee-Enfield began to enter the operational units of the Red Army and the militia. It is known about the extradition of Li-Enfildov in September 1941 in Leningrad to units preparing for battles on the Nevsky Pyatachka.

Andrey Bondar from the military club will tell about the device of the rifle historical reconstruction "Infantheria".



Other articles in this series:

Mannicher rifle sample 1895 of the year
Rifle "Arisaka" model 1905 of the year
Russian "Winchester"
Mauser rifle model 1898 of the year
Commission rifle sample 1888 of the year
Mosin rifle
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  1. avt
    avt 19 December 2017 15: 54 New
    +6
    Great rifle! good
    In this case, the store can be equipped only being attached to the weapon, and is detached for cleaning, maintenance and repair. In the early Lee Enfilds, the shops were even chained to the bed.
    But sometimes the flight of the design thoughts of the English .... wassat .... sometimes leads to a stupor. It would seem - a variant of a removable store ... but no wassat
    1. MoJloT
      MoJloT 19 December 2017 15: 57 New
      +1
      A beautiful thing, not a Mauser of course, and yet ... Oddly enough, in Mexico an interesting version of the "Mondragon rifle" was developed (1887)
    2. Kibb
      Kibb 19 December 2017 17: 22 New
      +2
      Well, absolutely yes !!!, still a little .... but no !!! Although what for replaceable store "bolt" and in general, and Anfield in particular. What for he generally made removable
      1. figwam
        figwam 19 December 2017 19: 36 New
        +2
        Forgot to say that from this rifle you can conduct the fastest shooting of all boltovikov.
        1. beeper
          beeper 20 December 2017 02: 04 New
          +5
          Idles, what, shoots, even recoil does not hit in the shoulder? smile
          If the guy worked out reloading and descending to automatism, then he would shoot back much faster yes Although, if you shoot combat, you would have to restore the tip after each shot, and this time ...
          1. Kibb
            Kibb 20 December 2017 10: 41 New
            0
            It also seemed so, although her recoil is mild (like the Mosin’s carbines as well) - it’s not 98K for you, there you can literally feel the severity of shooting from a short rifle on yourself in the literal sense
      2. figwam
        figwam 19 December 2017 19: 49 New
        +2
        Quote: Kibb
        Well, absolutely yes !!!, still a little .... but no !!! Although what for replaceable store "bolt" and in general, and Anfield in particular. What for he generally made removable

        Well, you must understand that loading with the help of the store is faster than loading with clips.
        1. Kibb
          Kibb 19 December 2017 20: 49 New
          0
          Well, we live in the 21st century. At real Anfield, the store hasn't changed that way.
          And do not even persuade - the best army "bolt" for me personally
          1. figwam
            figwam 19 December 2017 21: 37 New
            +1
            Kibb

            As far as I understand, the rifle store had one in the kit and there was nothing to change it, so it was loaded with clips. But on the video, the gentleman shows that the rifle could be charged by the store, but in a sniper look it is a very good option. the scope interferes with the clip, but the store does not.
      3. Alf
        Alf 19 December 2017 19: 55 New
        0
        Quote: Kibb
        What for he generally made removable

        The British are generally a very peculiar people. It seems that they are doing everything on the principle of Spite to my mother frostbitten ears.
        1. Kibb
          Kibb 19 December 2017 21: 03 New
          0
          Well, 10 rounds, and excellent balance
      4. Vladimir 5
        Vladimir 5 30 July 2018 19: 05 New
        -1
        A removable magazine is the first significant step towards rate of fire - you don’t need to push the clips, without hurrying into the grooves, change the magazine and you're done. The shortened barrel, as the British realized, would have made the SVT-40 the best on WWII ... But the manlicher is the best in rate of fire, and this is the main thing in the WWII rifle. And lastly, pregnant men are well cured by marching for a dozen kilometers. yes horizontal bar and stuff, this is to the observer Andrei Bondar and the appearance of similar males .....
    3. Kot_Kuzya
      Kot_Kuzya 20 December 2017 09: 25 New
      +2
      At that time, a replacement store was considered unthinkable waste and luxury. There the generals even demanded the obligatory presence of a cutoff so that it was possible to equip cartridges one at a time and thus save on clips.
    4. Bormanxnumx
      Bormanxnumx 20 December 2017 16: 28 New
      0
      Quote: avt
      It would seem - a variant of a removable store ... but no

      Maybe they soberly assessed the difficulties of mass production of interchangeable interchangeable stores? Our shops with software for the order tormented after 30 years.
  2. hohol95
    hohol95 19 December 2017 16: 25 New
    +1

    I found this photo on the network.
  3. hohol95
    hohol95 19 December 2017 16: 40 New
    +4
    Photo is not the topic. But it shows the vicissitudes of the fate of weapons!

    “The Danish resistance fighter, armed with the Soviet SVT-40 rifle, recaptured from the Germans, watches how the Latvians from the auxiliary SS battalion surrender the American M1 carbines, recaptured from the Danish resistance. Denmark, 1945."
  4. Kibb
    Kibb 19 December 2017 17: 34 New
    +7
    Guys, well, you are not ashamed in the end - they already told you that in the picture with the militia the Ross rifle.
  5. Curious
    Curious 19 December 2017 17: 51 New
    +6
    Lee-Enfield rifle - “Rifle, Short, Magazine, Lee-Enfield, Mark I” (rifle, short, magazine, Lee-Enfield systems, sample I) or abbreviated “SMLE Mk I” (Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Mark I ) was adopted in 1904.
    In 1895, the Rifle, Magazine, Lee-Enfield Mark I rifle (magazine rifle, Lee-Enfield systems, model I) or abbreviated MLE Mk I (Magazine Lee-Enfield Mark I) was adopted. In 1899, minor changes were made to the design of the rifle and adopted a modification with the designation MLE Mk I *.
    It was the MLE Mk I / Mk I * rifle that was tested in battle in the hands of the British troops during the Boer Wars of 1899-1902 in South Africa, and showed a number of serious flaws, especially when compared to Mauser rifles. But the British quickly began to learn from their mistakes, and in January 1904 they adopted the new model of the rifle of the Lee-Enfield system - “Rifle, Short, Magazine, Lee-Enfield, Mark I” (rifle, short, magazine, Li systems -Enfield, sample I) or abbreviated "SMLE Mk I"
    (Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Mark I).
    "In 1907, the SMLE Mk.III rifle was adopted, the main difference between which is the ability to charge with a clip, that is, a pack of 5 rounds. Before that, the rifle magazine was charged one round each."
    The ammunition of all rifle models, starting with the "SMLE Mk I", was supplied from a detachable box-shaped double-row magazine with a capacity of 10 rounds arranged in a checkerboard pattern. Equipment store was carried out through the upper window in the receiver with the shutter open, one cartridge or from clips of 5 rounds. The device for filling the magazine with cartridges using clips was very peculiar - the left groove for installing the cartridge was on the wall of the receiver, and the right one was on a special part located on the shutter and brought to the left groove only when the shutter was opened.

    SMLE Mk I when charging. Store cutter open.
    Well, about the "smartness." Smiled. I recalled a type of ancient weapon such as a grip, which was used from ancient times by women in Russia to admonish husbands.
    In relation to firearms, the term "applicability" is used.
    1. Kibb
      Kibb 19 December 2017 18: 05 New
      +1
      If you weren’t, then you should have come up with - encyclopedia
    2. alex-cn
      alex-cn 19 December 2017 18: 14 New
      +2
      You know ... grasping also has a place to be ... Thumbness is more related to the convenience of the stock, the thickness of the neck of the bed, the ridge ridge, the total length, etc. But oversight is more towards the forearm. for example, with old English rifles the forend is rather small and narrow, so that the grip falls on the trunks, which, when fired frequently (at the stand), can lead to burns, which, by the way, led to the appearance of a “beaver tail”. At the same time, if you were dealing with TOZ-87, then you paid attention to its exorbitantly swollen fore-end, which cannot be reliably grabbed by hand and is rather inconvenient to hold.
      1. Curious
        Curious 19 December 2017 18: 43 New
        +3
        A weapon is called a weapon that, when manufactured, would immediately correctly lie on the shoulder and be aimed at the aiming point without any amendments. Thus, the applied weapon is aimed at the target as if automatically when it was thrown to the shoulder by the shooter, whose attention is completely riveted to the target.
        Naturally, the bed, the forend, and other elements of the weapon also affect this quality, and with an uncomfortable forend the weapon will not be applied.
        1. alex-cn
          alex-cn 19 December 2017 20: 24 New
          +1
          Then where did the concept of “grip weapons” come from, and how to characterize the applicability of a pistol?
          1. Curious
            Curious 19 December 2017 23: 24 New
            +1
            In relation to short-barreled weapons, the term "applicability" is not used.
            The term "grab" from the word "grab." It is more of a slang character and is used in the description of all kinds of “special techniques” for pistol shooting, which are now very numerous. In the manuals on small business, the term "grip" is not used, the term "retention of arms" is used.
            1. alex-cn
              alex-cn 20 December 2017 04: 17 New
              0
              This is now ... 40 years ago, when I started shooting at the stand, the old masters strongly persecuted me for "wrong foregrip." Yes, and in the books of the 50-60s they wrote a lot about front and rear grip of a gun and shooting.
              1. Curious
                Curious 20 December 2017 10: 36 New
                +1
                You know, old drivers used to call a freewheel "bendex". Professional slang.
                Buturlin specially perilized for 1926 and the Hunter's Handbook for 1955. He did not find a “grab”, and even more so, even more so. And about 50 years ago, when I started shooting at the shooting range, I don’t remember the “grab”.
  6. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 19 December 2017 18: 34 New
    16
    Tommy always impressed
    Liked their "shaving basins" and Li-enfields.
    I like this series about the weapons of WWI!
    Fine good
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 19 December 2017 20: 35 New
      +1
      Only for you -
  7. Wolka
    Wolka 19 December 2017 19: 13 New
    +4
    and our mosinka will be more comfortable with this shooting bolt
    1. Orang
      Orang 19 December 2017 20: 53 New
      +2
      shooting from a deadbolt is faster and more convenient. Try out the three-ruler without tearing the butt off the shoulder to distort the shutter.
  8. Alf
    Alf 19 December 2017 19: 50 New
    +1
    Lee-Anfield was removed from service only in the mid-50s of the last century, when it was replaced by a self-loading rifle.

    Which one ? The Britons seemed to never have self-loading.
    1. Curious
      Curious 19 December 2017 20: 06 New
      +3

      L1 SLR chambered for 7.62mm NATO (licensed Belgian FN FAL)
      1. Alf
        Alf 19 December 2017 20: 29 New
        +1
        Quote: Curious

        L1 SLR chambered for 7.62mm NATO (licensed Belgian FN FAL)

        Interestingly, I thought that after 2MB there was no longer self-charging, thanks for the information.
        1. Curious
          Curious 19 December 2017 20: 51 New
          +2
          Czech vz. 52, the Belgian Fusil Automatique, model 49, the French Fusil Mitrailleur, model 49 (MAS 49) - these are all post-war self-loading rifles.
  9. hohol95
    hohol95 19 December 2017 20: 34 New
    +2
    If you like photos of Leningrad militias with Canadian and British rifles so much, then add this photo -

    Girl-fighter standing on the background of the living room. On her head is an unusual kind of helmet, very rare in Soviet photos. But in English - as much as you like. This is the so-called Helmet MPVO, made in 1938 in a small batch for fighters of local air defense, modeled on the British army helmet - "basin". For the sake of completeness, the girl is armed with the British Anfield P 14 rifle, which must have come to Leningrad from the warehouses of the former Latvian or Lithuanian army.
    1. Alf
      Alf 19 December 2017 20: 40 New
      0
      I did not say that I like these photos. But anyway, thanks again!
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 19 December 2017 21: 52 New
        0
        Then why is it the second time you have a photo with Ross rifles?
        And Anfield R 14 - quite a BRITISH even though it was produced in the USA! After all, the British themselves could not allocate capacity for the production of Anfield R 14.
        That's just what is strange - this rifle was made by the same American firms that were outraged by the claims of the Russian representatives regarding the quality of their “three-rulers”! And the quality of Anfield R 14 suited everyone!
        1. Alf
          Alf 20 December 2017 20: 48 New
          0
          Quote: hohol95
          Then why is it the second time you have a photo with Ross rifles?

          Who ? I have ? I don’t have the first photo either.
    2. figwam
      figwam 19 December 2017 20: 50 New
      +1
      hohol95

      R-14 Anfield, this is a completely different Mauser-based rifle.
      1. Kibb
        Kibb 19 December 2017 21: 16 New
        +3
        Absolutely, just this series of articles is not at all ... I'm for Shpakovsky, at least you can criticize something
        1. figwam
          figwam 19 December 2017 21: 47 New
          0
          Well, in this case, I am glad that there are articles in principle) In our country, permission to such rarities is expected for five years, and then we still need to find it. And of course, I want more complete and detailed information.
          1. Kibb
            Kibb 19 December 2017 21: 59 New
            +3
            Here give him a mitt, and not a rifle, turn him in any battle, he will not have a price !!!
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 19 December 2017 21: 57 New
        0
        Yes you what?
        And I'm not in the office ... Thanks good
        So the Canadian Ross rifle is OTHER - and the photo with her has been installed for the second time!
        So I found a photo of a Leningrad girl with Anfield R 14 or Anfield M1917 on her shoulder and an MPVO helmet on her head!
  10. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx 19 December 2017 22: 42 New
    +5
    the ability to charge with a clip, that is, a pack of 5 rounds

    A clip and a pack are two different things. The loading of the pack was at the Garand M1, and at Enfield it was the cradle charge identical to the Mosinka.
    1. Kot_Kuzya
      Kot_Kuzya 20 December 2017 09: 47 New
      +1
      It also distorted that the author of the article does not see the difference between the bundle and the clip.
  11. Kot_Kuzya
    Kot_Kuzya 20 December 2017 09: 47 New
    +2
    In appearance, the freak is a freak because of an awkward namushnik and a thick forearm. But there are no complaints about the bolt group and the 10-shooter store. The British still well done, they managed to make a reliable working rifle with a magazine for 10 rounds of ammunition under a wound cartridge. I did not hold this rifle in my hands, but judging by the fact that it withstood the test of the First and Second World Wars in different climatic conditions from the winters of Germany to the humid hot jungle of Southeast Asia, this is a very good rifle. Although for me, the ideal will still be the Mauser carbine of the 1935 sample because of its predatory beautiful appearance, a successful fuse and cartridge without a hem.
    1. Kibb
      Kibb 20 December 2017 12: 00 New
      +1
      Well, if outwardly, then this Mauser is interesting to me. And in numerous "movie clips" he still hasn’t found out what kind of carbine it is.
      This is the "Turks" most likely, who will help?
      1. Alexey Lobanov
        Alexey Lobanov 20 December 2017 13: 23 New
        0
        Mauser carbine M1894
        1. Kibb
          Kibb 20 December 2017 14: 15 New
          0
          Here is that and it that is not - see for yourself
          1. Alexey Lobanov
            Alexey Lobanov 20 December 2017 15: 15 New
            +2
            The Bulgarian studio "Boyana" participated in the filming of the film, so Mauser from Bulgaria, most likely. And the butt, it is quite possible - a remake, in the photo above you can see a new-made joint (insert) in the middle of the fore-end.
            1. Kibb
              Kibb 20 December 2017 17: 43 New
              0
              Yes, I saw this version
      2. Bormanxnumx
        Bormanxnumx 20 December 2017 16: 29 New
        +1
        Quote: Kibb
        so still have not found out what kind of carbine.

        So this is a widely known in narrow circles carbine "Perdy-Moor and Dixon" laughing
      3. Alexey Lobanov
        Alexey Lobanov 20 December 2017 23: 06 New
        0
        Your truth, this is the Turkish Turk M38, only a shutter with a curved handle.
        1. Alexey Lobanov
          Alexey Lobanov 20 December 2017 23: 07 New
          +1
          Group photo.
  12. Kibb
    Kibb 20 December 2017 17: 41 New
    0
    Quote: BORMAN82
    Quote: Kibb
    so still have not found out what kind of carbine.

    So this is a widely known in narrow circles carbine "Perdy-Moor and Dixon" laughing

    Appreciated thanks laughing good
  13. John22
    John22 21 December 2017 12: 53 New
    +2
    1. The authors are mistaken in asserting that the First Lee Enfield model, or SMLE, appeared in 1895. In that year, the Lee Enfield MK rifle was adopted. 1. And the SMLE Li-Enfield rifle No. 1 MK.1 was adopted in December 1902 as a model of 1903 (as short as a result of the AB war). The article on the photo and video shows SMLE Lee-Enfield No. 1 Mk.3 arr. 1907
    3. For firing, a cartridge with a rim of the type Lee-Metford caliber .303 arr. Was used. 1889 with smokeless powder (since 1891). Since 1907, with a pointed bullet and the designation Mk.7 7,71x56R (I know how to insert a photo, sorry). The author combines pack and clip. Worried.
    4. There is a mistake in the statement that the store could only be equipped with a rifle fastened. This statement is contrary to common sense and mechanics. As shown in the 3rd video comments (sorry no translation). The meaning of a weaned store is to use pre-equipped stores. This is also indicated by A.B. Bug. In many photos of those years, soldiers with magazine pouches on their shoulder straps.
    5. And the most important thing. More Lee Metford rifles arr. In 1891, a magazine with 10 rounds was used with a staggered rim! And Mosin’s store has only 4 similar cartridges. And the joys are still full of pants.
    6. You need to be more careful, if the hardware is at hand.