The Israeli missile defense system is characterized not only by multi-functionality and several levels of defense, but also by multi-vector, as well as a certain degree of duplication. Indeed, the country's leadership must take into account the likelihood of a simultaneous strike of all potential adversaries, and above all the armies of such states as Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq and Turkey. The creation of a coalition of Iran with Hamas and Hezbollah militants cannot be ruled out. Moreover, Jerusalem cannot be sure that in the event of a major Middle Eastern war, Cairo and Amman will remain committed to peace treaties.
According to the calculations of foreign military experts, Israeli missile defense systems in the event of joint rocket attacks by opposing states and terrorist groups will show their maximum effectiveness only within two weeks. Further, the defensive capabilities of the IDF antimissile shield, remaining powerful enough, can still decline. Therefore, strategic and tactical tasks in terms of the country's defense against Israeli missile defense are combined.
Jerusalem needs to build its missile defense in such a way that from the very first day of the war almost 100% of missiles aimed at the territory of the country are knocked down.
Nevertheless, until recently, in the multi-level Israeli missile defense system there was no “zero line” of defense. Theoretically, “zero” eliminates the threat of rocket and mortar attacks at a distance of 4 km. In the conditions of the tiny area of the state, it is especially difficult to ensure complete security of the border area from attacks from rocket launchers and mortars, which are located almost meters away from the border. And these difficulties were to some extent eliminated in the 2015 year, when the tactical Israeli missile defense system “Iron Ray” (“Keren Barzel,“ ZHL ”) was put on duty. It is designed to intercept and destroy ultra-short-range missiles at a range of 7 km. Military expert Amir Rapoport wrote in the local newspaper “Maariv”: “ZHL”, which shot down missiles with a high-energy laser, was answered by the Israeli concern Rafael at the request of the Israeli Defense Ministry to create a tactical system to protect zones in which the “Iron Dome” battery is powerless (“ Kipat barzel "," LCD ") - a missile defense system, also developed by the concern Rafael, perfectly proved itself to protect against unguided tactical missiles with a range from 4 to 70 kilometers."
The ZHL system, which uses a high-power laser beam for 4 – 5 seconds as a striking factor, is designed to destroy artillery shells, mines and short-range missiles that are too small to be effectively intercepted by the LCD. In addition, "ZHL" can destroy and drones belonging to the category of "small".
The main advantages of the laser "shot" before the interceptor missiles - lower cost and unlimited ammunition. The complex includes a radar, two laser systems mounted inside standard cargo containers, and a control point.
"IRON" BETTER "GOLD"
Better in the sense that "LCD", although not sparkling, but protects. The functions of the first level of national missile defense (and duplication to a certain extent zero) are performed by LCD batteries. Authoritative Israeli military expert David Sharp in the article “Israel’s missile shield”, published in the Russian-language newspaper “News weeks "26 January 2017 of the year, indicates:" ... in fact, "LCD" is able to effectively destroy targets released from distances of tens of kilometers larger than specified. "
Each battery "LCD" protects the area of more than 150 square. km Sharpe also notes that this complex is quite suitable for use as a near-line air defense. On combat duty, the first battery of the “LCD” was launched in March of the 2011 of the year, and by the end of the 2014 of the year, the complex had 1200 downed missiles. The Israelis managed to significantly reduce the operating costs of the “ZHK”: if earlier the complex “fired” two Tamir interceptor missiles worth 50 thousand dollars each, to meet every rocket launched by the terrorists, now only one missile is launched. The LCD batteries that showed their high efficiency were purchased by the United States, South Korea, Azerbaijan and, probably, Singapore.
Until recently, all the LCD batteries covering the territory of Israel were part of the 947 th division (battalion) of the air defense. In September of this year, the commander of the air defense and anti-missile defense forces, Brigadier General Zvika Haimovich, announced, firstly, an increase in the number of batteries in this division and, secondly, the formation of an additional 137 division "LCD". I note that Haimovich, who was appointed to a high army position in 2015, is considered one of the most educated Israeli military. He received a bachelor's degree in Middle Eastern studies from Hebrew (Hebrew) University in Jerusalem, a diploma from a graduate of the US Air Force School and a master's degree from the National College of Security in Jerusalem and from Haifa University.
The main task of the new 137 division is to defend the north of the country. In addition, according to his commander, Lieutenant Colonel Yoni Greenboim, it was his unit that was assigned to install the “LCD” on the Navy corvettes. In fact, within the framework of this division, an “ha-yamit plow” (“sea unit”) was created, which, if necessary, can become a floating battery “LCD” protecting the sea coast and offshore gas production platforms.
It is interesting that the design office of Mordechai (Moti) Schaefer, one of the country's leading specialists in missile ballistics, proposed as an alternative to the “LCD” the “Paamon” (“Bell”) missile defense system, which was not accepted for service. And this is despite the fact that Schaefer, who developed and improved the Hetz (Strela) missile, was awarded the Israel Prize for developing an air-to-air Python 3 missile targeting system. .
FROM THE “FALLER” BY ROCKETS AND ARMS
"And David put his hand into his bag and took out a stone, and threw it out of the sling and struck the Philistine ... so that the stone sank into his forehead, and he fell face down to the ground." Thanks to this particular victory over Goliath, the strongest warrior of the enemies of Israel, is told in the “First Book of the Kingdoms” of the Old Testament, David became the second king of the Israeli people, and later of the two kingdoms - Judea and Israel. But it is ancient история.
Nowadays, the IDF is equipped with the "David's sling" (in Hebrew, "Kela David", "PD"), also called the "Magic Wand" ("Sharvit ksamim"). This missile defense system represents the second level of the country's missile defense. It is designed to intercept short-range ballistic missiles and unguided large-caliber missiles with a launch range of 70 – 300 km and subsonic cruise missiles. “PD” is also being developed by the Israeli company Rafael together with the American company Raytheon, the developer of the Patriot air defense missile system. Raytheon also produces Tomahawks, a family of multi-purpose, high-precision subsonic long-range strategic and tactical cruise missiles. "PD" in contrast to the "LCD" intercepts from a considerable distance. Therefore, it can not be installed close to the protected objects.
It is assumed that the "PD" will be able to intercept airplanes and helicopters, as well as low-flying cruise missiles. The ability of the "PD" to perform air defense functions is very important, since airborne, ground-based and sea-based cruise missiles are widely used in modern armies. In the installation of the vertical launch "PD" 12 missiles are charged. Data on the price of one interceptor missile yet. Basically voiced figures ranging from 800 thousand to 1 million dollars for a rocket. For comparison: the “LCD” interceptor costs, according to most sources, about 50 thousand dollars. The high price is, of course, a serious problem: for example, to create a conditional reserve of a thousand interceptors (and there are thousands of missiles in the arsenal of the enemy) objectives for "PD") will be required if the specified figures are correct, about 1 billion dollars. And this is not to mention the time required for their production.
Undoubtedly, Israel will export "PD". But probably not anytime soon. The fact is that for Americans, and specifically for the same company Raytheon, as noted above, the manufacturer of the Patriot air defense missile system, in a special anti-missile version of PAC-3 (Рatriot Advanced Capability - 3), which forms the basis of the tactical defense of the US Army and its allies The new Israeli system is a serious competitor. At the same time, because of the direct participation of Americans in the project, they have something like a veto right. It is clear that the Israelis will still be wary of attacking their favorite overseas corns. Moreover, the PAC-3 is one of the latest options for upgrading the Patriot air defense missile system, designed to intercept airplanes, tactical ballistic and cruise missiles. We also note that the PAC-3, like the Russian C-400 complex, operating under conditions of active electronic countermeasures, is designed to solve the tasks of protecting military and civilian facilities from the air, as well as intercepting ballistic missile warheads. The variation for the American Patriot PAC-2 can be considered as the insurance for the second level system.
"ARROWS" WHICH ARE RELEASED WITH NUCLEUS
The Israeli "Hets" missile defense system can be considered universal and at the same time providing insurance. In 1988, the Israeli state-owned companyAviation Israeli industry ”(ha-Taassia ha-Avirit le Israel, TAI) received an order to create a prototype missile defense system capable of intercepting missiles launched from a distance of up to 3000 km and flying at a speed of up to 4,5 km / s. Initially, at the Technological Institute in Haifa, they created mock-ups - prototype missiles, called the “Hets-1". By 1994, the Khets-1 had successfully passed the tests and immediately began to modernize. The IDF has already received modified Khets-2 missiles. This system is capable of detecting and tracking up to 12 targets simultaneously, as well as pointing up to two missile defense systems on one of them. The first Hets-2 battery was deployed on March 14, 2000 at an air base in the Rishon Lezion city area, south of Tel Aviv. In October 2002, in the north of Israel, near the city of Hadera, a second Hets-2 battery was put on duty.
David Sharp writes in the aforementioned article: “In fact, Hetz-2”, even before adopting Prasch David, was able to intercept some of the targets belonging to the second echelon of defense. In this case, I am referring to the possibility of using Hetz-2 against the family of Iranian missiles Zilzal-2 (translated from Persian as Earthquake) and Fateh-110 (Conqueror) with a range of 20 – 300 km, which are equipped with the Syrian army and Hezbollah.
According to information from various sources, the Israeli military has already received anti-missiles "Hetz-3", intercepting at extra-atmospheric altitudes, actually in space. "Hetz-3" is significantly different from previous versions: they do not have a "warhead" ("CU") - explosives. This type of rocket is aimed at hitting an object with a direct hit. As for the "Hetz-2", then this model of anti-missile strikes the target with an explosion and shrapnel when flying close to it. The absence of the "CU" in the "Hetz-3" reduces the weight and accordingly increases the speed, range and altitude of this version of the rocket, capable of intercepting targets released in the 400 – 3000 range km, and for some sources, and more.
Currently, TAI is developing a version of the anti-missile Hetz-4. Technical information about this rocket is classified, but Moshe Patel, head of the development department weapons and the technological infrastructure in the Israeli Ministry of Defense in an interview with journalists said: “There is no doubt about the reliability of Israel’s missile defense system. However, we must always be one step ahead in relation to the enemy. "
"HERMETIC PROTECTION" DOES NOT EXIST
The above-mentioned military expert Amir Rapoport wrote on the NRG 12 July 2016 website: “Hezbollah most likely will start a war with a massive rocket attack on such a force that the Israeli rear did not know before. Hezbollah can send 1500 missiles per day (compared to 250 missiles during the hardest days of the second Lebanon war). At the same time, rear attacks will be carried out with the help of UAVs filled with explosives. ”
Rapoport highly appreciates the capabilities of the echeloned Israeli missile defense. But, in his opinion, the anti-missile defense system will primarily cover strategic facilities and “such systems will not be enough for every locality”. Nevertheless, Hezbollah should think hard before attacking Israel, because the power of the IDF’s retaliatory strike will be exceptional. “On the Lebanese side, real hell will be created,” continues Amir Rapoport. - For the ten years that have passed since the end of the second Lebanese war, the Israeli military industry has developed the latest systems for the IDF that are able to track everything that is happening in Lebanon with the utmost precision. Within a matter of seconds, a powerful fire strike will be inflicted on any object in the Lebanese territory, any part of the territory of the neighboring country will be taken into the ring of fire in a matter of seconds. The firepower of the Israeli army exceeds the capabilities of the enemy by thousands of percent - both from the ground and from the air. Mostly from the air. ”
For all that, it should be remembered that, despite the enormous scientific advances and military-technical capabilities, no army in the world can provide 100% protection in the event of a conflict against enemy missiles. Even the one that will surely be the winner in this conflict.