History rebirth of M12 to PMX
Representatives of the company Beretta say that the new submachine gun is a further development of one of the most famous PP - Beretta Model 12, which with some modifications is in service with the army and police of Italy since 1961. However, if you look more closely, it becomes clear that the designers did not modernize, but actually created a new weapon. Let's try to build all the common versions of this submachine gun in one row to find out what remains in the new weapon from the old one.
Designation Model 12 in itself implies that there were previous samples and they really were. In the 1956 year, then not so well-known designer Domenico Salza took the post of chief designer of the Italian arms company Beretta, replacing, retired, outstanding gunsmith Tulio Marengoni. Even before his appointment, Domenico Salza worked on his own project of a submachine gun, which would be not only reliable but also cheap to manufacture.
By the time he received the position of chief designer, Saltsa had some groundwork for the 6 version of his weapon, which was still far from ideal. Realizing that the development is progressing slowly and being bound by the contract, the new chief designer demonstrated to the management the fruits of his work.
The new submachine gun, or rather its design, was considered promising and the work began to boil. In order to get the desired result, it took the designers more 3 years, but their work was justified immediately after completion.
In 1959, the Italian Army was in dire need of a light and rapid-fire submachine gun at a reasonable cost. That’s what the new submachine gun of Beretta was. After the elimination of certain features of the weapon design, to bring it under the rather stringent requirements of the army, the submachine gun was put into service in the 1961 year.
Submachine gun Beretta Model 12
Considering the M12 submachine gun, it is impossible not to notice that Domenico Salza and the Italian designers very successfully adopted the experience of their foreign colleagues, which was abundant during the Second World War. However, in the submachine gun there were also new solutions, which, together with more advanced production, gave a positive result.
The main feature of the new submachine gun was the fact that the bolt group rolls on the breech when firing. This made it possible to install a barrel of sufficient length on the weapon, without increasing the dimensions of the submachine gun itself. This also had a positive effect on the bolt group, since its mass ensured high reliability in adverse conditions and optimal firing rate in 600 rounds per minute, again without increasing the size of the weapon itself.
Many will immediately recall that a similar solution was applied to the Israeli Uzi submachine gun, but we remember the work of the Czechoslovak designers, namely their Sa vz submachine gun. 23.
The basis of the new submachine gun became automatic with a free gate. To ensure the durability of the design and stability of the weapon, the fire was fired from the open bolt. Given the relatively large mass of the bolt group, this had a negative effect both on the accuracy with single shots and when shooting in automatic mode.
The negative aspects were partially smoothed out by the fact that the designers did not follow the path of least resistance and introduced a full-fledged firing mechanism into the design. Nakol primer occurs a little earlier than the bolt reaches its front position, resting on the breech.
However, the weapon still didn’t show the most satisfactory accuracy results when firing by the “line”, which it lost to its foreign classmates. Even the weight in 3 kilogram did not solve this problem completely. The obvious solution to this problem was the processing of the entire design of the submachine gun, but there was a simpler, and as time showed, a good solution. Considering that the shooter will use both hands to hold the aimed automatic fire from a submachine gun, the designers added an additional handle on the very edge of the receiver. Its good location made it possible to completely control the weapon during shooting, leaving the bolt handle in place. The solution is certainly not the most technologically advanced, but cheap and with an acceptable result.
If we talk about the characteristics of the new submachine gun, then it is quite a heavy weapon by modern standards. His weight is 3 kilogram with a folding metal butt and 3,4 kilogram with a fixed wooden. For the folding butt version, the length is 645 millimeters and 418 millimeters. Folded butt does not interfere with the use of weapons. Submachine gun Beretta M12 with a fixed wooden butt has a length of 660 millimeters. In both cases, the barrel length is 200 millimeters. It feeds weapons from detachable magazines with a capacity of 20, 32 and 40 9x19 cartridges.
Submachine gun Beretta M12s
In 1978, the Italian submachine gun was upgraded. Usually, the main feature of the new version of weapons is the changes in the firing mechanism, in which the safety platoon appeared, and a little later the firing mode with a cut-off of three rounds. However, the main change was that the weapon was able to use additional devices. In particular, a silent-firing device appeared, a fairly perfect design, the possibility of installing a halogen flashlight, which was combined with an additional handle to hold, and a little later, LCC. The changes also affected aiming devices that became dioptric, which is rather a minus for such weapons.
The modern version of the submachine gun has the designation M12-S2 in fact, except for cosmetic changes, everything in it has remained the same since 1978. The materials, the coating of parts, the individual controls and the receiver were changed, but the design remained the same.
At the moment, the Beretta M12 pistol is not only in service with the army and law enforcement agencies of Italy, it can be found in more than twenty countries of the world. In Brazil, Taurus is producing a licensed copy of this weapon, and this submachine gun is also made in Indonesia and Sudan. But the most interesting is that the production of this PP is established by FN in Belgium.
A certain popularity of this machine pistol brought and its distribution among the militants of the “Red Brigades”, in particular, with the use of these weapons the abduction of Aldo Moro was committed.
After a brief acquaintance with the machine gun M12, you can proceed to a detailed examination of the new weapon, and you need to start with ergonomics.
Ergonomics Beretta PMX Submachine Gun
The appearance of the new Beretta submachine gun makes it clear that it has little in common with previous models of Italian PP. First of all, attention is attracted by the cocking handle, which is now moved back and is located above the magazine, which indicates changes in the design of the automatic weapon. This is hinted at and shortened the course of this handle, and hence the reduced stroke of the shutter, but touch on the automation just below.
On the left and right sides of the weapon, very large fuse switches are located above the pistol grip, they are also translators of fire modes. It should be noted that not many manufacturers make this element of a large size, although this is only a plus, especially when the weapon is smeared with dirt or when the shooter is wearing gloves.
It should also be noted that the safety bracket is large enough, for which, back, those who will use weapons at negative air temperatures will say.
The new submachine gun has a folding stock, and it does not interfere with the use of weapons in the folded position. The only negative point may be that cocking is difficult, but access to the cocking handle remains. The ability to adjust the butt length of the weapon is not.
From open sighting devices rigidly mounted on the arms of the designers refused. You can install a removable rear sight and front sight of any convenient design. Standard rear sight and front sight are folded and in the folded position do not prevent the use of collimator or optical sights of low multiplicity.
In the front of the receiver, under the barrel there is a guide on which an additional handle can be mounted for holding, a small-sized flashlight or a laser designator. Since the cocking handle was shifted back, the urgent need for an additional handle to hold was no longer necessary, and the submachine gun can now be held in a way that is familiar to most people. It is worth noting that the length of the seat under the barrel is enough to simultaneously install additional devices with the handle to hold.
Interest is a rather long receiver of the store, which for some reason was made without expansion, which could facilitate the change of the store in a stressful situation. No less interesting is the weapons shop itself, which was presented completely plastic and transparent. How such a store will be resistant to external influences and whether this is the only option is not yet known. Although it is a rather strange decision to make the store completely transparent, to control the amount of ammunition, and at the same time close it almost half the opaque receiver of the store.
The barrel of the weapon has a thread at its cut for the installation of silent firing devices. Without PBS thread is closed sleeve. Many famous weapon brands are now trying to push through the idea of quick-detachable “silencers” that are not related to the barrel of a weapon. The idea is good, but not yet proven, apparently because the designers of Beretta have decided so far not to make a novelty the only possible option for installing PBS on a submachine gun.
The design of the submachine gun Beretta PMX
The most important difference between the Beretta PMX submachine gun and its predecessors lies in the fact that now the fire is fired from a closed bolt, which means that the weapon has been completely reworked and it has very little in common with the M12. It is possible that the drawing of parallels between a fairly well-known model and a new one is needed only for a warmer reception of a PMX submachine gun, but the facts suggest that this is another submachine gun.
Returning to the similarities of the M12 and PMX, it should be noted that some sources indicate the relationship of the new submachine gun with the P26 Swiss carbine of the B + T company. This weapon is intended for the civilian market, as well as for those who are not allowed to have a weapon with the possibility of automatic fire. Both specimens have a very large external similarity, so it is likely that it was the Р26 that served as the basis for the new Italian submachine gun.
Characteristics of a PMX submachine gun
The mass of the new weapon, despite the use of plastic and light alloys, is 2,4 kilogram. It feeds a new submachine gun from stores with a capacity of 30 xNNXX ammunition 9. On the possibility of issuing weapons options for other common ammunition is still unknown. In comparison with the M19, the barrel of the submachine gun became shorter - 12 millimeters. At the same time, the total length remained approximately the same - 170 and 640 millimeters with the butt folded and folded.
Pros and cons of the Beretta PMX submachine gun
Talking about the positive and negative sides of a new weapon is quite difficult, since in order to evaluate it you need to compare it with something. Compare with the new M12 submachine gun is not worth it for obvious reasons.
The obvious positive qualities of the new weapon are guaranteed to be ergonomics and the possibility of using additional devices. Some doubts arise about the angle of the pistol grip in combination with a relatively short butt, but as practice shows, this is rather a matter of habit.
A strange decision was to close the transparent store with an opaque store receiver; the meaning of such a cunning move remains unclear.
In general, the weapon makes a pleasant impression, but it is unlikely to surpass similar models from other manufacturers in performance. Already, a small amount of these submachine guns was sent to Italian law enforcement agencies. If the transition to a new weapon deemed appropriate, the company Beretta can expect a large order. Since now in operation is about 50 thousands of units of submachine guns M12 in various versions.