Military Review

Japanese sword: deeper and deeper ... (part of 3)

54
How is it, friends?
Man looks at cherry blossoms

And on the belt is a long sword!
Mukai Koray (1651 - 1704). Translated by V. Markova


If we turn to the material “Samurai and Katanas: Truth and Fiction,” which was previously published on VO, we learn from it that “there are several types of Japanese swords. The most famous, of course, is the katana. ” This is a rather controversial statement, since “several” are more than three, and it is important here in which European or Japanese tradition we consider the typology of Japanese swords. To begin with, the no less famous Japanese sword is tati. And they just fought, while история Katana came mainly in the years of Edo-era peace. The second is the length of the sword. The material states that the katana had a satellite sword - a wakizashi from 30 to 60 in length. But if the length of the sword was less than 30, then such a “sword” was already considered a tanto dagger. That is, the same sword in principle could be considered both a sword and a dagger. That is, for Europeans, the blade doubled to katana is usually a dagger, even a long one, but the Japanese will understand what it is, depending on the length, although the mount of the blades themselves may be the same.

Japanese sword: deeper and deeper ... (part of 3)

You should always give captions under the photographs illustrating any article. Hope that everything is clear, should not be. Here, for example, in this photo we clearly see three types of Japanese swords at once: a tati sword - in a samurai’s hand (the rings for the pendant are visible on the sheath), a “field sword” of a nodati length of about 1,5 m and more, which, however, riders were not used, and used asigaru infantrymen. It was these very swords that were worn behind their backs, because it was simply uncomfortable in another way. Finally, the third sword in the belt of the seated owner Nodati is a katana.

But here it is necessary to return to the sword of tati and indicate that the custom of wearing two blades - a pair of daisyos, comes from antiquity. The sword-satellite Kosi-Gatana-Tati satellite was placed vertically on the left side of the body. And if the tati were hung up to the belt, then the ko-gatan was thrust behind him so that the sheath passed through the tsurumaki — a ring for a spare bowstring. And she, in turn, should be located between the rings asi, on the sheath of tati. It would seem that special in this arrangement? But the Japanese would not be Japanese if they had not invented a special name for this provision: tsurumaki-gotame-no-sita-ho. To say that the katana and the wakizashi were simply thrust over the belt is, of course, also possible. It was. But this is not entirely accurate. For their fastening, there were also various devices in the form of a piece of leather on cords, which was tied to the waist and already in its loops or in a leather tube, and not at all by a belt, a katana was inserted.


One of the options kosiat.

If this mount was for one sword, then it was called kata-kosiata, and if for vakizashi, then ryo-kosiata, and this is the simplest option, but there were also more complex ones. Naturally, under the belt they were not visible, but in fact the samurai were very clever and did not want to lose their precious swords, keeping them just behind the fabric belt.


Well, now let's take a rare opportunity and take a look at the photo files of the Tokyo National Museum, captured on a Kodak film and showing swords and armor from different eras. We begin, of course, with tati, since, starting from the Heian era, the samurai’s sword was he — the horseman’s sword. Before us is a S сdzoku-Tati sword (“court uniform sword”) - a richly decorated sword worn by emperors, shogun and notable daimyo.


And this is his grip!

Now we have a more or less unified and complete picture. That is, in the history of Japan, we also see two great epochs: the era of domination of the equestrian sword of the tati and the universal sword of the katana, the latter - we emphasize this - spread in Japan after the appearance of the fire weapons. After all, the first arrows from it were not peasants, but samurais. It was not fitting for them not to have daisё, but they were completely uncomfortable with carrying a horsetail sword on their side, which is why they switched to the rim of buke-zukuri. That is, in the era of wars that preceded the unification of Japan, it was the katana that first became the sword of Asigaru - the shooters from firearms, and only then, in the era of peace, this sword turned into a constant samurai satellite!


Another sword tati era Kamakura. This sword was held with one hand. In the other there were reins. The handle is trimmed with shark skin and decorated with small figures of birds. The suspensions are made of copper wire and are called hyogo-kusari. (Tokyo National Museum)


These are details of the guard of the tsuba of this sword, adorned with all the same figures of birds. In the center, in fact, tsuba. Along the edges in the front and upturned position are shown seppa washers, with the help of which the tsuba was fixed on the blade. As you can see, there are two - two seppas of small and two o-sepps - large. The presence of o-seppa was characteristic precisely for tati swords.


Another court sword decorated with turquoise. (Tokyo National Museum)

In Japan, a newly polished sword was taken to be tested and mark the result on the shank. To do this, they invited special masters of the sword, who both lived and experienced them. And this was not a simple matter, because, having broken the sword, the tester had to pay for it. Usually chopped raw twisted straw mats. But sometimes they also cut the corpses of those executed, hanging by their arms to the crossbar or laid on each other and on a thick straw mat. The easiest was clipping the brush. Cutting across the hips, with a cut of strong hip bones was considered the pinnacle of skill. In this case, the blows were of such strength that they could be cut and a wooden block dodan, put under the body. It is known that once so seven bodies were laid at once, laid on each other! It is clear that such masters, along with blacksmiths and blade appraisers, were highly respected people in the samurai society. There is written evidence dating back to the 17th century that some famous masters chopped down their swords with rifle barrels. The question, however, is not what they are, but how much they can be trusted.


A pair of dysho sonae swords - katana and wakizashi, allegedly belonging to Toyotomi Hideyoshi. (Tokyo National Museum)

Since it was believed that a samurai could not kill "just like that," but he was obliged to kill if he was insulted, some samurai, having bought a new sword, went to test it at crossroads, where they trapped some peasant traveler and announced to him, that he had committed an act that was clearly offensive to him — not so bowed, for example. After that, to stay alive, the peasant had only two ways: either to escape, which was not easy at all, or ... to kill a samurai, which was even harder. If he didn’t do this, he risked being chipped from shoulder to hip!


Uti-gatana, with a scabbard painted with aoi roses - the emblem of the Tokugawa clan. (Tokyo National Museum)

As for the purely journalistic statements that "samurai swords can cut European pieces into pieces!" Or that "their blades are made of 1000 metal layers!", We will leave that on their conscience.


Hikihad sword case. Do you know what is under it? Tiger skin! The peculiarity of the Japanese was to cover it all. This is truly "people with a case"! (Tokyo National Museum)

Although such judgments are not surprising. Come to any museum where there are samples of old cold weapons and what will you see there? Some rusty pieces of iron with signatures, like swords and daggers very remotely. The swords of the European Middle Ages in very good condition remained very small. But Japanese swords in any of the museums, wherever you come, amaze with their beautiful appearance and you can not even doubt whose opinion will be decided by non-professionals.


Kasira handle (right) and coupling (futi).


On this handle, the tsuba, two parts of the seppa are clearly visible, on the handle there is a decoration - manuki and at the end of the handle - the head of Kasir. (Tokyo National Museum)

Even the best Japanese katana is only steel, although of high quality, which means it may well break. Both European swords and Japanese were made by repeatedly forging steels of different quality, even the tips of spears made of Damascus forged steel found in the Baltic States are known.


Perhaps, perhaps the most concise and beautiful tsuba - "Crab". (Tokyo National Museum)


Kogay with a spoon for cleaning the ears. (Tokyo National Museum)

As for the technology of differentiated hardening, then, as already noted, it was used not only by the Japanese, but as the German historian Thomas Libible writes about it, and the gunsmiths of the European Middle Ages, but in his opinion, the exact characteristics of this process are unknown. Finally - sharpening. But here everything depends solely on the angle at which the blade is sharpened. However, it is not written anywhere that the European swords were blunt and could not be cut. Already in our days trial cutting of straw mats was carried out using replicas of medieval swords and the results were approximately the same as when cutting them with a Japanese sword.

There is one more important circumstance. In Europe, swords, and even armor, were often forged, as the metal was expensive. In Japan, too, but who would come up with kami dwelling?


Short and simple tantто. (Tokyo National Museum)


There must be protection against any sword. Before us is the “new armor” - the “torso of the Buddha” (neo-do), which allegedly belonged to Kato Kiyomas, one of Hideyoshi's military leaders during the Korean War in 1592.


The same armor is a rear view.

That is why there are so many Japanese swords. It is known that in the XIII century the blacksmith took 18 days for one sword of a tachi, and for the masters it took nine frames. Six days were required to coat the sheath with varnish, two to tanners and another 18 days for everything else. In any case, it could take more than 20 days to forge the sword strip itself, that is, in general, roughly it can be considered that - one month - one sword.

There is an estimate that before the Meiji Revolution, 13000 swordsmen lived and worked in Japan. It is clear that besides them there were those who were not known, but for someone it was just a hobby. That is, it is permissible to round this figure to 20000. And if each of them has made at least 100 swords in his entire life, it turns out that by the year 1868 in Japan there were about ... two million of them made! It is not surprising that there are still so many of them.


European-style Namban-Gusoku armor, allegedly belonging to Sakakibar Yasumas. The helmet and breastplate are made in Europe, and all other parts of the armor are made in Japan. (Tokyo National Museum)

The next difference between Japanese and European swords is the presence of crosses and tops on the last arms. The European "cross" served to protect the hand from strikes against the shield, while the Japanese tsuba was intended for a completely different purpose. With the crosshair of the European sword, it was possible to strike the face in the same way as with the top of the handle. But no Japanese would have thought of taking his sword by the blade and hitting it with the handle in the face of the enemy. In the European practice of fencing with swords such a technique, however, is found. That is, in general, the sword for the European is more “universal”, in the sense of the methods of owning it, weapons, but for the Japanese it is more traditional.


Detail of ivory era sheath. (George Walter Vincent Smith Museum of Art. Springfield, Massachusetts, USA)

To be continued ...
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  1. andrewkor
    andrewkor 10 December 2017 06: 49 New
    +3
    In all historical films I peer with great interest at the original fencing techniques: Alexander Nevsky, Troy, The Last Samurai, various Musketeers. Of course staged fights, but still interesting! In my opinion, the Japanese have the most traditional technique, after all, they have Kendo!
    1. kalibr
      10 December 2017 08: 21 New
      +4
      In my opinion, the fights in the Kurosawa film "Seven Samurai" are well shown.
    2. groks
      groks 10 December 2017 09: 47 New
      +4
      There are historical fencing clubs. Even the pusher are trying to learn something.
      because they have Kendo!

      In general, the fencing among the Europeans was formalized so that the Japanese draggers simply nervously smoke, with their kata. Not that every stance and strike, but in general every position of the body. Germans have always been especially sensitive to this - they were cut almost until the middle of the 20th century.
      1. kalibr
        10 December 2017 09: 50 New
        +4

        The book was posted on scribd.com in February 2013. I think that it is also useful to mention and take note. The original handwritten text was studied and translated from Italian into English, with detailed explanations by the author. This is an indispensable book for the study of martial arts, can take its rightful place among the collection of books for the practical study of European Historical Fencing. ” The volume of the book is 193 pages, with illustrations. The cost of the book is 14.99 USD.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 10 December 2017 15: 26 New
          +1
          Inexpensive, by the way ...
          1. kalibr
            10 December 2017 16: 33 New
            +3
            Yes, and the book is very interesting. Although not very for me. My topic is different - glands.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 10 December 2017 18: 11 New
              +1
              Is this the price of "paper" or "numbers"?
              1. kalibr
                10 December 2017 21: 27 New
                +2
                Papers, of course.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 10 December 2017 22: 47 New
                  +1
                  Generally gorgeous !!! In this sense, I am touched by the price policy of domestic rightholders: that “paper”, that “figure” - the price is the same.
                  1. andrewkor
                    andrewkor 11 December 2017 09: 37 New
                    0
                    I’m lying on the couch with a tablet, and it has a whole library, downloaded from the Internet for free, and I can find a book that I liked as a child. Recently, when discussing green berets, they advised me to read Fenigan’s “Worms,” a minute later I already had it. Of course, copyright holders sometimes insert sticks, but there is Online! There is also a book library, but the tablet has incomparably greater possibilities, the paper will soon die out. Recently, a British newspaper, with the name, has completely turned into a "digit".
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 11 December 2017 11: 03 New
                      0
                      Sorry for the indiscreet question, but are you territorially in Russia?
                      1. andrewkor
                        andrewkor 11 December 2017 18: 56 New
                        0
                        In Tashkent, on Lisunova.
          2. Curious
            Curious 10 December 2017 16: 42 New
            +8
            "In my opinion, the Japanese have the most traditional technique, they have Kendo!"
            And in Europe there is HEMA (sometimes Western Martial Arts (WMA) - Historical European Martial Arts - Historical Martial Arts of Europe.
            The appearance of HEMA in Europe, in a form close to the present, refers to Victorian England, “when several members of the London Rifle Brigade began under the guidance of an enthusiastic researcher of ancient weapons and how to use them to study the ancient methods of working with swords found in old Italian and French and sometimes English books. ” Let me remind you that Victorian England originates in 1837.
            The contemporary Historical European Martial Arts (HEMA), also often referred to as Western Martial Arts (WMA), has existed for about 20 years. The acronym HEMA is used mainly by clubs and schools in Europe and in a number of other countries. The acronym WMA is mainly used in the USA.
            Currently, the interests of HEMA and WMA cover more than a 2000-year period of development of fencing art, starting from the era of Roman gladiators. If we talk about the literary heritage, then this is almost a 700-year period, starting from the first works of the Middle Ages of the beginning of the XIV century and ending with the XX century, until the Second World War.
            In the late 80s, Professor Hans-Peter Hils wrote a dissertation on the important scientific significance of fencing treatises in the study of the history of German literature. Subsequently, based on his work, Professor Rainer Welle wrote about masters in ancient hand-to-hand combat, taught in German schools. Both works have become fundamental to the movement, which today is called HEMA. The theses, in addition to the mass of useful information, contained information about manuscripts, their location in libraries and even codes by which they could be found there.
            And briefly about fencing treatises.
            The modern historical reconstruction of European martial arts is based on the study of so-called fencing guides. In terms of creating fencing guides, Europe is unrivaled.
            To date, more than 150 manuscripts and hundreds of prints from the Middle Ages and Renaissance have been preserved. Here you can write an article, and not one.
            Hausbuch, Fechtbuch, Turnierbuch, Kriegsbücher, Ringbuch - these are all genres, let us call them so, the ancient literature on the art of depriving yourself of such a life in a qualified manner, with the help of stabbing, cutting, chopping, crushing tools and just bare hands.
            For example, the Talhoffer Fechtbuch, a German fencing guide created by Hans Talhoffer in 1459.
            The original is currently in stock at the Det Kongelige Bibliotek in Copenhagen, Denmark.
            This manuscript was most likely a reference book created for Talhoffer's personal use. In addition to his own records, this manuscript also includes excerpts from the books of Johannes Lichtenauer (Zettel) and Bellifortis Conrad Kuser (“The Battle”). On the last ten pages, the text is mirrored, and the opening of the book from the end reveals a brief treatise on magic

            Illustration from the specified treatise, demonstrating fencing techniques against two opponents.
            A series of articles is possible, no less interesting than Japanese.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 10 December 2017 17: 42 New
              +2
              It seemed to me that Vyacheslav Olegovich was going to continue the theme with European swords (well, like, "sakura and oak")?
              1. Curious
                Curious 10 December 2017 17: 43 New
                +4
                I hope that his commentary on his creative plans did not destroy.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 10 December 2017 18: 06 New
                  +3
                  Are you laughing? Are you kidding me? Are you kidding me? laughing If you yourself undertook to write a cycle .... then, yes! But you confessed, the courage is dumb! And I try - just make people laugh. I won’t be "epidemic" in any way, all in fragments and sketches.
                2. kalibr
                  10 December 2017 21: 26 New
                  +1
                  No, it’s just that my problem is not knowing the German language. I don’t even know Middle English, but at least there are translations into modern. And here I am completely helpless.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 10 December 2017 23: 12 New
                    +1
                    I don’t understand, you said that the practical use of “iron” is not very interesting for you. Why then German?
              2. kalibr
                10 December 2017 21: 24 New
                +2
                He is preparing, but I am against the "cavalry raids on capital."
                1. Curious
                  Curious 10 December 2017 21: 30 New
                  +4
                  I also know German in the volume of books about the Great Patriotic War.
                  1. kalibr
                    10 December 2017 23: 01 New
                    0
                    At least you are. I - no way!
    3. Shtroffrus
      Shtroffrus 11 December 2017 00: 11 New
      0
      the European fencer and the samurai have nothing in common. There's a stupid type of weapon different. Especially among the children from the Commonwealth, things were cool. The Poles owned a noble carabel. And the steel of the Japs will not withstand our blows and climate. As for cutting, I’m chopping a bottle with a saber and chopping the vine better than the people with katanas
    4. Engineer
      Engineer 11 December 2017 08: 55 New
      0
      Quote: andrewkor
      the Japanese have the traditional technique, they have Kendo!

      Yes, but no. The Meiji revolution led to the fact that the Japanese sword (or rather a saber according to the design of the blade) ceased to be a combat weapon as such: they were shortened, then cheapened and elevated to the rank of accessory. Recall the case of our Nikolashka in Japan. If the guard had a real sword, then we would simply not have such a shameful king. And Kendo’s universal passion led to the fact that in the army no one could already treat the WWII with a battle sword precisely as a weapon. I had to urgently change the eminent, but absolutely stupid in the war, Kendo instructors to those few masters who preserved the sword and the tradition of the forefathers.
      1. Sargas
        Sargas 15 December 2017 17: 02 New
        +1
        And before Meiji they went into battle with the tati, and the katana was an overgrown knife for slaughtering taverns and wearing it constantly. And in Europe there is a full semantic analogue: a combat sword-blade with a 3,5 cm blade near the handle, a dueling sword with a 110-120cm long blade and a weight of 1100g., And a "court" sword, for continuous use, which had the same 76 cm click (800gr.), As well as katana en-mass.
  2. alex-cn
    alex-cn 10 December 2017 08: 02 New
    +1
    Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    "The European" cross "served to protect the hands from hitting the shield,"
    This is an "annoying grab," or really ... how it worked.
    But I still read the article with pleasure.
    1. kalibr
      10 December 2017 08: 18 New
      +4
      There are books by John Clements, a professional fencer and arms historian, and Thomas Layble (the latter in Russian), which are written about this in sufficient detail. Finally, back in 1960, Ewart Oakeshott published the book Archeology of Weapons. From the Bronze Age to the Renaissance ”The work touches upon a considerable chronological period and gives a description of different types of knives. Published in the Russian publishing house "Centerpolygraph". Layble and Clements have drawings, "how it worked." There is also a book by David Nicolas "Weapons and Armor of the Crusader Era 1050 - 1355", but it is not available. There is also about it. So you can take Russian translation books and check everything yourself.
      1. groks
        groks 10 December 2017 11: 53 New
        0
        John Clements

        Is that the one who worked in Chicago before 94?
        1. kalibr
          10 December 2017 12: 42 New
          +1
          I don’t know where he worked. Not familiar with him.
          1. groks
            groks 10 December 2017 14: 22 New
            0
            Yah. How can you not know him. He succeeded William Birkin after 94.
            1. kalibr
              10 December 2017 16: 31 New
              +1
              I have enough of what I know of Stephen Terbull and David Nicolas. You won’t get to know everyone ...
  3. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 10 December 2017 09: 48 New
    +1
    Blows with an apple is of course a terrible thing, you can’t chop an opponent, break his bones.
    1. kalibr
      10 December 2017 11: 26 New
      +3
      Moreover, monk warriors were not allowed to shed blood. You could fight for the church, but "without shedding blood." And then you’ll have enough weight on the chain ... and there is no blood, but not a tenant!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 10 December 2017 19: 07 New
        +3
        Moreover, the "non-tenant" is delayed, doomed to painful death. Because closed injuries of internal organs are now treated surgically, and internal bleeding is still red and black. Humanists, damn it ...
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 10 December 2017 21: 46 New
          +2
          And "not a tenant"

          and to "not the tenant" - "vegetable" what
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 10 December 2017 22: 50 New
            +1
            No, Nikolai, worse. This creature howling in pain ... I saw. Creepy.
    2. Sargas
      Sargas 15 December 2017 17: 05 New
      +1
      Straight sword attacks cannot inflict deep, penetrating wounds. The sword wounds are brazen. Deep wounds and chopping off of arms and legs are to curved blades: a katana, a saber, a saber.
      1. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 16 March 2018 19: 25 New
        0
        Xs, an ordinary bastard cuts a pork carcass
  4. Fedorov
    Fedorov 10 December 2017 14: 23 New
    +7
    My father had a rating of "fencing" - 4. He studied at the Ordzhonikidze Higher Combined Arms Command School, in a sports school. But I didn’t have time to unfortunately ask - what did they study there in this discipline ... sad But the knives of the house were sharpened to madness, always. A set of stones of different colors and grit still remain.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 10 December 2017 19: 38 New
      +1
      And when did your father study there?
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 10 December 2017 15: 32 New
    +3
    Well, I thought it would be a party with viskar and cigars, as last time, but you are talking about iron things here. laughing
    Good article, thanks!
    1. kalibr
      10 December 2017 16: 35 New
      +4
      Glad you liked it. Now I’m thinking - I need to translate the book of D.Nikol, draw up color photos and give with my comments. If it succeeds, it will be an exhaustive work.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 10 December 2017 17: 27 New
        +2
        To do this, you need to interest the publisher, right?
        1. kalibr
          10 December 2017 21: 21 New
          +1
          Of course! And sometimes it takes years. Or you start to write by order, the plan is approved. And they tell you - to expand the topic, add ... Add, change the name, and they tell you - the manager that gave you this task is dismissed, his decision was found to be erroneous. Go back to the old. It is not that simple...
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 10 December 2017 22: 40 New
            0
            I assumed ... And also, if this is a translation, it’s probably a clarification of relations with the author’s lithagent, or of the right-wingers.
            1. kalibr
              10 December 2017 23: 00 New
              +1
              It all depends on ... how you imagine it. If as EXACT TRANSFER, then this is one. But ... you can translate ... inaccurate word for word, change the name ... and the book will be yours! Here it’s worth considering, especially since copyright laws allow this. But it must be serious work with a high level of novelty. Or you can put two authors ... So to speak, "work based." There are many options.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 10 December 2017 23: 09 New
                0
                Well, with science, everything is clear, but if it is fiction, much less poetry?
                1. kalibr
                  11 December 2017 08: 06 New
                  +1
                  It’s more complicated ... According to the law on copyright, you can translate other people's poems AS PLEASANT (well, almost), but at the same time indicate the author. That is, in the translation of poems you can be a rival to the author, but no more. You look, for example, how much Kipling's “White Man's Burden” is, and each is good in its own way ...
                  And from the art ... You can write that your hero reads Harry Potter and drinks pumpkin juice, but you can’t write a sequel, where is the hero Harry Potter. You can write a continuation of our novel if 70 years have passed since the first edition, but no more.
  6. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 10 December 2017 17: 29 New
    +1
    (Quite a controversial statement, since “several” is more than three ...)
    “Several is more than three” is a rather controversial statement! wink
    (That is, the same sword in principle could be considered both a sword and a dagger.)
    “Repeat, please, slower ...” / Shurik. “Prisoner of the Caucasus” / Otherwise, it’s impossible! How is it ... the same SWORD and SWORD and DAGGER ?! belay Miles sorry! Blade length up to 1 shaku-tanto ... from 1 shaku to 2's ... wakizashi; from 2 to 2,5 ... katana; to 3 shaku-tachi; over 3-x-odati ... What is there to confuse? Carry a school ruler (a tailor’s meter, tape measure) with you — just business! wink
    Although ... perhaps I should apologize to the author .. repeat .include, indeed, the "same" sword could be both a sword and a dagger! Because the pieces of iron in the era of the Japanese cold steel were expensive ... and when the sword broke, a shorter blade was made of it ... Thus, the very good hands of Japanese swordsmen, the katana "turned" into wakizashi ali in tanto (that is, the sword, having been a sword, became a dagger) hi
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 10 December 2017 17: 33 New
      +5
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      .and when the sword broke, a shorter blade was made of it ..

      In this case, in Russia, and the braid was a razor. laughing
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 10 December 2017 17: 45 New
        +1
        Quote: mordvin xnumx
        In this case, in Russia, and the braid was a razor

        Duc .... Do not waste good! wink Everything can be! yes
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 10 December 2017 18: 08 New
          +5
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          Everything can be!

          Gogol forgot ... crying
          “So, godfather, haven’t the clerk been in the new house yet?” - said the Cossack Chub to a peasant with an overgrown beard, showing that for more than two weeks she had not been touched by a piece of braid, which men usually shave their beard for lack of a razor ...
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 10 December 2017 18: 42 New
            +1
            Quote: mordvin xnumx
            Gogol forgot.

            M-d-ah! Really ..... messy! repeat Well then ...? what3 days without gin and tonic stop and: Learn, study and study! fool
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 10 December 2017 18: 08 New
      +2
      It seemed to me that Europeans were repairing blades ...
  7. marline
    marline 11 December 2017 11: 35 New
    0
    Thank you for the article. As always, the photo is beyond praise. We look forward to continuing.