Military Review

VSK-94: Russian weapons for Syrian snipers

22
Shortly after the outbreak of war in Syria, official Damascus agreed with Moscow on the supply of various weapons, equipment and other material parts. New messages regularly appeared on the supply of a military product. In addition, reviews from Russian were published from time to time. weapons or technique. Recent reports of this kind tell about the experience of operating the military sniper complex VSK-94.


According to available data accumulated during the years of the war in Syria, Damascus acquired from Russia a wide range of military products. The Syrian army passed a variety of small arms, armored combat vehicles, complexes for various purposes, etc. At the same time, both widely known and widespread samples were delivered, as well as not the most popular products. Despite this, all deliveries are of some interest.

VSK-94: Russian weapons for Syrian snipers
Republican Guard fighters with a VSK-94, 2012 rifle Frame from ANNA News report


By the middle of 2012, it became known that the Syrian armed forces had received several large batches of small arms of various classes and types from the Russian military. Among other things, a certain number of not very popular sniper rifles were delivered to Syria. In particular, the Syrian military had the opportunity to try out in combat the Russian military sniper complex VSK-94. In the summer of 2012, the first photos and videos appeared confirming the delivery of such products. VSK-94 rifles were seen in the hands of Republican Guard fighters.

Details of those shipments, for obvious reasons, were not disclosed. The volume of deliveries, the cost and even the timing of the transfer of arms remained unknown. Because of this, in particular, there was a version, according to which the Syrian military bought products VSK-94 in the recent past - a few years before the current war. Syria is a long-time and reliable partner of the Russian defense industry, and sniper complexes could well have been supplied to it under one of the past contracts.

Information about the supply of rifles VSK-94 to a friendly state interested the public. As is the case with some other similar the news, information about the transfer of sniper rifles has become the occasion for heated discussions, numerous assessments and disputes.

Over the next few years, "Syrian" rifles VSK-94 repeatedly hit the lens of cameras and camcorders, but, for some reason, did not cause the former excitement. The next time, a noticeable reaction from the public and the media took place only in the early spring of 2016. During this period, Syrian and foreign news agencies, as well as the interested public, distributed several interesting photographs.

These pictures captured fighters of the Syrian Republican Guard, resting between battles. Several guardsmen were seen samples of weapons with a characteristic silhouette, which immediately identified as a sniper complex VSK-94. As written by domestic publications, commenting on these photos, the rifle shows high performance and earned the respect of the fighters of special units who had to exploit this weapon.


Republican Guard fighters with a VSK-94, 2012 rifle Frame from ANNA News report


Just recently, there were new messages from Syria mentioning the Russian sniper rifle. The press, referring to sources in the Syrian armed forces, writes that the fighters recognized the FAC-94 best system in its class. Similar conclusions were drawn from the results of long-term weapon exploitation in a real local conflict. The complex showed good results during urban battles, in particular with the liberation of the Syrian capital.

It can be assumed that the Syrian army will use VSK-94 rifles in the foreseeable future. This weapon will help with a variety of operations that require accurate destruction of remote targets. It should also be expected that similar Russian-made weapons will in the future repeatedly become the hero of numerous publications in the press and a topic of controversy among the interested public.

***

The military sniper complex VSK-94 (index GRAU - 6В8) was developed in the early nineties of the last century. The project was developed by the Tula Instrument Design Bureau under the direction of V.P. Gryazev. The project was based on the idea of ​​creating a simpler and cheaper analogue of one of the existing rifles, which, however, has similar combat characteristics. To simplify the design and subsequent production, the existing 9-91 machine gun was used as a base for the rifle.

The main objective of the VSK-94 project was to create a relatively simple and cheap rifle capable of solving the same tasks as the Vintorez BCC system developed by the Central Research Institute Tochmash. The required level of basic characteristics was planned to be achieved by using the same line of cartridges. At the same time, the new complex had to be distinguished from its competitor by greater adaptability, lower cost, and other characteristic features.

As a base for the sniper complex was used small-sized machine 9A-91, created a little earlier. It is noteworthy that this machine was also the result of competition between the leading weapon design bureaus. The 9A-91 was supposed to be a simpler and more convenient analog of the CP-3 “Whirlwind” product. In the framework of the new VSK-94 project, the base machine lost its standard grip and butt, instead of which a new butt was installed. In addition, the rifle was equipped with a silent and flameless device, as well as an optical sight.


Soldiers on vacation, 2016. Photo Vestnik-rm.ru


The rifle, as well as the base machine, has a stamped steel receiver, characterized by simplicity of design. The box is divided into two parts, including a large flip cover. In the front of the receiver are fixed barrel and gas piston tube. The main volumes are given under the mobile bolt group and the trigger mechanism. At the bottom of the box there is a store receiver and a hole for pulling the trigger.

VSK-94 has automatics using the energy of powder gases. Through the gas outlet gas flows from the bore to the piston and move the bolt carrier. The rifle "inherited" from the base machine the principle of working with a long barrel stroke. The same butterfly valve is used with locking on four lugs. Inside the gate are placed a spring-loaded drummer and an extractor.

Being a slightly revised version of the machine gun, the VSK-94 rifle retains a trigger-type trigger mechanism with the possibility of firing single and bursts. The flag of the fuse-translator of fire is located on the right wall of the receiver, directly above the trigger. It was assumed that the preservation of the possibility of automatic fire will expand the combat capabilities of the rifle.

The 9A-91 and the VSK-94 rifle were developed for 9x39 mm cartridges. They can use SP-5 and SP-6 ammunition, originally developed at the Central Research Institute Tochmash for the BCC rifle, as well as products PUB-9. The last cartridge was created in Tula KBP especially for a promising small-sized machine gun and, as a result, for a military sniper complex. The cartridges of three types are equipped with a relatively heavy bullet flying at a subsonic speed. This, to a certain extent, increases the potential of a weapon in solving some specific tasks.

VSK-94 uses detachable box magazines with a capacity of 20 cartridges. The design of the store allows the use of three types of cartridges. The magazine is placed in the receiver of the receiver, which has a characteristic oblique shape, and is fixed with a simple latch.


Syrian sniper with a Russian rifle. Photo Defence.ru


The most important element of the sniper complex is a silent shooting device mounted on a regular barrel. This device is large in size and made not folding. Replaceable elements are missing, which significantly increases the resource. With the help of such a device the rifle does not unmask itself with a flash of a shot. Shot noise is noticeably reduced. At the same time, a bullet with a subsonic speed does not form a shock wave, but the moving parts of the rifle produce a certain noise.

The VSK-94 sniper complex retains the standard open sights of the base machine gun. At the same time, it can be equipped with a PSO-1-1 optical sight or a collimator PKS-07.

For more convenience, the shooter when solving sniper tasks rifle VSK-94 is equipped with a plastic butt skeleton type. There are swivels for mounting the belt. Disassembled sniper complex can be transported in a special case.

The VSK-94 rifle has a total length of 932 mm with a width of the order of 45 mm and a height of less than 20 cm (without sight). Own weight of the product - 2,8 kg. A magazine with 20 cartridges increases the weight by 700 g. Also, the weight increases due to the set sight. The target range is defined in 400 m. Technical rate of fire - 700 shots per minute.

According to known data, the VSK-94 complex has both advantages and disadvantages. It differs from similar systems by greater simplicity and reduced cost. The relatively heavy bullet cartridges SP-5, SP-6 or PUB-9 provides a high piercing and slaughter effect of the bullet. The correct choice of cartridge ensures the defeat of manpower using personal protective equipment. The presence of a single and automatic fire increases the flexibility of the rifle.


Syrian sniper, 2016 g. Photo Defence.ru


The presence of a silent shooting device allows you to fire with minimal noise, without attracting attention. Similar capabilities of VSK-94 have been tested for a long time in real armed conflicts. The concealment of the sniper’s work was shown both in urban settings and in open areas. At the same time, the shot noise is not completely eliminated due to the presence of moving parts.

***

The military sniper complex VSK-94 appeared in the mid-nineties, and was soon offered to potential customers. According to reports, the special forces of the Russian Ministry of the Interior immediately became interested in this system. Soon came the first contract for the supply of a certain number of rifles. In the future, according to various sources, such weapons came into service with various structures from the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The Armed Forces, as far as we know, became interested in VSK-94 much later. The first contract for the supply of complexes for the army appeared only in 2002 year.

Specialized weapons with characteristic features interested foreign customers. VSK-94 supplies special units of the Republic of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Mongolia. A few years ago, the first rifles of this type were sent to Syria. The total number of serial complexes can be estimated at several hundred.

VSK-94 rifles have been used in several armed conflicts in recent decades. According to reports, the debut of these weapons took place during the wars in Chechnya. Subsequently, the fighters, armed with such complexes, made a certain contribution to the conduct of certain operations to combat terrorism. Not later than 2012, Russian-made sniper rifles are used by Syrian troops. In all cases, this weapon confirms its characteristics and gives certain advantages over the enemy.

It is no secret that the Syrian war has become a real proving ground for combat tests of Russian weapons and equipment. It is important that not only new and promising systems, but also relatively old samples pass such checks by combat. The military sniper complex VSK-94 has long ceased to be a novelty of the Russian defense industry, but it should also be checked in a real conflict. As reported from Syria, these weapons are fully capable of showing high results and contribute to the solution of combat missions.


On the materials of the sites:
https://rg.ru/
http://vestnik-rm.ru/
https://defence.ru/
http://modernfirearms.net/
https://imp-navigator.livejournal.com/
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 28 November 2017 06: 42
    +4
    I would like one of the participants in the sniper war to write a book about the work of snipers in SYRIA ... to systematize the use and effectiveness of snipers in this war ... very useful in future wars for our army.
    1. Juborg
      Juborg 28 November 2017 11: 53
      +6
      As one specialist already wrote on the same site in 2012, “quick store replacement is a very complicated process, the silencer is not collapsible,
      can not be cleaned, the length of the butt is designed for short-armed
      dwarf, confident defeat of the head figure - at ranges up to 100
      meters, when shooting from VSK-94, it is a pity to use SP-5 and SP-6 (better than
      to give for BCC and AC). "

      Therefore, I would not have any special enthusiasm. They just did not see anything better. If anyone is not aware of the Syrians, it is considered to have special chic to have an AKSU, in Russia called "at the base" for well-known reasons.
      1. beeper
        beeper 30 November 2017 01: 29
        +1
        Thank you You, YUBORG, commented briefly and in essence, I am happy to support your post! Sincerely.
        hi
      2. AndreyS
        AndreyS 30 November 2017 16: 14
        +2
        Quote: juborg
        confident defeat of the head figure - at a range of up to 100
        meters, when shooting from VSK-94, it is a pity to use SP-5 and SP-6 (better than
        to give for BCC and AC). "

        Well, this is you, dear YUBORG, in vain, since normal snipers showed a confident defeat of the head figure from this rifle at a maximum distance (400 m). Of course, not a collapsible silencer is a problem, but I would not say that it is very serious (it is really impossible to clean it), but it does not affect the accuracy of shooting. A quick replacement of the store for a sniper, well ....))))) The store, by the way, has 20 rounds. There is one problem: ammunition, there are very few of them, they are special. Although there are still 7N9 and 7N12 (high penetration sniper and armor-piercing). One thing in this rifle upsets (as in 9A-91) because of bad iron it quickly rusts and the resource of shots is not enough for some parts. BCC is better in this regard. By the way, VSK-94 as a city battle rifle is practically indispensable. Unassembled fits in a backpack of 15 liters. I have been observing this rifle in work for many years. As a person who shot it, I can say that for me personally the difficulty was created by the ballistics of a bullet. Sincerely.
  2. Jedi
    Jedi 28 November 2017 08: 50
    +4
    Kirill! hi Thanks for the article, it is a great addition to yesterday's news about VSK-94 in Syria.
  3. would
    would 28 November 2017 09: 03
    +1
    VSK-94 has long ceased to be a novelty of the Russian defense industry, however, it should have been checked in a real conflict.


    What has long been done during the Chechen wars. Moreover, all parties to the conflict, on the Internet there are photos of Ichkeria field commanders with VSK-94.
  4. leonardo_1971
    leonardo_1971 28 November 2017 09: 12
    11
    I worked with VSK-94, I didn’t really like it. The silencer requires the same tightening, I put a scratch for this. Or shoot after each removal of the silencer. It is non-separable and intensely rusts. The store is not clearly fixed. It is necessary to make efforts to engage the shutter. The folding handle of the shutter fell off during shooting. Very rough processing of the parts. When I changed it to BCC, the difference was heaven and earth. Song and not a rifle. Although you sweat clean.
    1. Krasnyiy komissar
      Krasnyiy komissar 28 November 2017 09: 56
      +1
      BCC is also not very reliable and has a great resource, although it is made much better. I don’t understand why the designers did not immediately take the AK design as a basis, but began to sculpt 9A-91 and AS VAL. AK-9 looks much more reliable than these products from Tula, unified with AK-74M in many ways. Yes, VAL and VSS have a shock trigger system, which slightly increases accuracy when firing, but this weapon has an aiming range of only 400 m.
    2. Timeout
      Timeout 28 November 2017 10: 49
      +2
      Quote: leonardo_1971
      The silencer requires the same tightening, I put a scratch for this. Or shoot after each removal of the silencer. It is non-separable and intensely rusts. The store is not clearly fixed. It is necessary to make efforts to engage the shutter.

      Tales of the Vienna Woods? Even 50% of the truth is not ...
      Quote: leonardo_1971
      When shooting, the folding shutter handle fell off.

      To riveted a riveted pin? Hard to believe.
      PS In Pyatigorsk, they never trained snipers for the Ministry of Internal Affairs. There was always the 1st SN Service of the TsSN-2 FSB (counterintelligence).
      1. leonardo_1971
        leonardo_1971 28 November 2017 11: 29
        +2
        I always write what I understand a little bit, unlike you. The school in Pyatigorsk was closed in 2010 and there was a refresher course for sniper and climbers of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
        1. Glory1974
          Glory1974 28 November 2017 12: 23
          0
          school in Pyatigorsk was closed in 2010

          which school? There was a training center of the Ministry of Internal Affairs somewhere on Romashka. Are you talking about him?
          1. leonardo_1971
            leonardo_1971 28 November 2017 16: 19
            +1
            Yes. I was there 2008 and 2010. last release.
        2. Okolotochny
          Okolotochny 28 November 2017 23: 18
          +5
          The Ministry of Internal Affairs is studying mountaineering in conjunction with specialists of the Federal Penitentiary Service in the training center on Krasnaya Polyana.
    3. Arkady Gaidar
      Arkady Gaidar 28 November 2017 14: 30
      +4
      Actually - this is a weapon from the dashing nineties. And there, almost everything was done anyhow. What is hunting, what is fighting. The principle was one: "The main thing is to shoot towards the enemy!" In addition to what you mentioned, he also has a carrying bag like a gas mask (disassembled). Due to the lack of rigidity, you will fall with it, or you will be hit by an explosion, you will remain intact, but something will lead a little and goodbye well-aimed shooting.
      This is the Soviet approach to the problem - the main thing is to arm the soldier! And it’s convenient for him and how accurate his weapon is, it doesn’t matter. Soldiers do not live long, and good weapons are expensive!
  5. Butchcassidy
    Butchcassidy 28 November 2017 12: 08
    +2
    Quote: leonardo_1971
    I worked with VSK-94, I didn’t really like it. The silencer requires the same tightening, I put a scratch for this. Or shoot after each removal of the silencer. It is non-separable and intensely rusts. The store is not clearly fixed. It is necessary to make efforts to engage the shutter. The folding handle of the shutter fell off during shooting. Very rough processing of the parts. When I changed it to BCC, the difference was heaven and earth. Song and not a rifle. Although you sweat clean.

    And VSK-94 seems to be a cheap replacement for BCC. It seems to me that it is not worth wanting from a cheap substitute with a shunt-mounted receiver. There is a Soviet stamped bayonet shovel with a wooden handle, and there is Finnish Fiskars. It’s clear that Fiskars is better and more convenient, but their price is heaven and earth. Therefore, it is often more profitable to date a company of soldiers of a Soviet bayonet shovel than to equip Fiskars for the same money 10 people. A company will obviously dig a trench with shitty shovels faster)))
    1. Arkady Gaidar
      Arkady Gaidar 29 November 2017 00: 08
      +1
      But what about equipping the whole company with good shovels? This is a Sovdep approach, where higher-ranking bosses are the first Zhmods for the whole of Russia)) Save on your own people, in this case soldiers!
      Now it’s clear what needs to be pressed, in the development of the Russian army)))
  6. Archon
    Archon 28 November 2017 19: 10
    0
    Why do they have military men without helmets? Is the helmet really so uncomfortable in real combat?
  7. Inzhengr
    Inzhengr 28 November 2017 23: 32
    +3
    The rifle "inherited" from the basic machine the principle of operation with a long stroke of the barrel. - I hope the author had in mind the long stroke of the gas piston. Otherwise, there is no faith in the whole article.
    1. beeper
      beeper 30 November 2017 01: 48
      +1
      I thought that I would read the comments to the end and still write to the Author about this “cutting” smile me a "long barrel" in a well-known light gas exhaust system ... to be honest, after such a blatant "noticeable image", in addition to all other "watery water", it became completely clear to me that .... although, it’s possible and so formulate - "... no article of faith" smile!
      hi
  8. Graz
    Graz 29 November 2017 06: 35
    0
    it is clear that the best will not be sent to their army in Syria, but the advantage that was sent to have over the enemy’s weapons will be and this is important for us and for the Syrian leadership
  9. Butchcassidy
    Butchcassidy 29 November 2017 16: 51
    +1
    Quote: Arkady Gaidar
    But what about equipping the whole company with good shovels? This is a Sovdep approach, where higher-ranking bosses are the first Zhmods for the whole of Russia)) Save on your own people, in this case soldiers!
    Now it’s clear what needs to be pressed, in the development of the Russian army)))

    Of course, I would like it to be so. But the reality is what it is. Do not think that price is an unimportant element in arms matters. I am sure that the same Syrians who are not overjoyed at the VSK-94 would be even more pleased with the BCC, but they could afford them much less.
  10. Dzungar
    Dzungar 2 December 2017 07: 33
    +2
    In our first Chechen State Security Service we had one 9A91 without PBS and one with PBS with the same folding butt. We evaluated them as a “second barrel,” the one that we practically never used without PBS. The machine itself and its PBS were considered satisfactory. Workmanship too. Simple reliable, in any case, delays in firing, none of us remember. The plus was the ability to pull the trigger completely for cleaning, but for accuracy it was, as you yourself understand, a minus. In terms of accuracy, I can say that the whole store stacked in zinc from cartridges at 110 m. The butt design was also convenient - the pistol grip and the buttstock were on the same level and therefore it was very convenient to quickly raise and aim ... In the second half of the zero years in the Special Forces and Intelligence of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, all VSK were withdrawn with replacement for BCC and AC. This was due to aging and the fact that they began to simply break down. For example, we have in RSN OBON 46 OBRON just broke off the ledge of the combat support .... Therefore, now VSK-94, 9A91 is already in service with the Russian Guard, most likely, the Syrians have it that they’ve got all that remains