Many countries that still have old Soviet tanks in their arsenal have modernized them to meet the requirements of today.
To begin with, we will focus on the question - why is all this necessary? Isn't it easier to melt down an old tank and make a new, modern one? Maybe years ago, 15-25 would have done it, but now it will be top of the waste. The fact is that the bulk of the tank is armor, which, as you know, consists of armor steel. In the case of remelting the hull of the tank at the output of armor steel, you will no longer have, at best, just steel, and even in general - cast iron. Then you will need to get armor steel in a new way, but taking into account today's prices for energy and minerals (in the production of armor steel a huge amount of alloying elements - ferroalloys) is used, it will really be worth its weight in gold, and in its tank tens of tons.
In view of the above trends, there was an urgent, and most importantly, economically justified need to modernize existing obsolete models of tanks.
Tank TR-85M1 Bizonul (Bison). Romania
When you first look at the photo of this machine, it seems that this is an absolutely independent development. And the name and appearance all talked about it. However, this is just the deepest upgrade of our T-54 / 55.
This modernization project was launched in 1995 year. Under this project, as many 300 machines have been upgraded. This tank really has a lot of differences from the original.
It is a completely different engine - diesel 8VS-A2T2 XHUMX horsepower. With this motor, the car accelerates to 860 km / h. By the way, this engine was installed on the German tank Leopard 60. The car has completely redesigned suspension, taking into account the increased weight. By the way, the weight of the car became as much as 1 tons.
The gun in the car remained Soviet, but for it was installed stabilizer in all planes. Also, as can be seen from the photo, it is covered by a thermal casing. The tank is equipped with a warning system for laser irradiation with automatic shooting of smoke grenades. The tower, as can be seen from the photo, has the most serious modifications, and initially the NATO smoothbore 120-mm should have been installed in it. But something did not work out there, and they left our well-deserved cannon. Ammunition machine is 41 projectile. The gun is charged manually. Naturally, there are all the newest tank sights on the car. All this put the famous French company Matra. Machine gun armament is no different from the original - T-55, twin machine 7,62-mm machine gun and 12,7-mm anti-aircraft gun.
By the way, the modernization project was truly a multinational, it was attended by a huge number of companies from all over Europe. But the main contribution was made by the French from Matra.
Of the innovations in protection systems, it is necessary to note the active armor that has already become traditional for modernized machines. True, its area is not as large as, for example, on the Slovenian analogue.
Now a little about pricing. According to the Romanians, the modernization cost them about 1 million per car. This is 10-15% of the cost of the new, so there is a sense.
Slovenian version of the modernization of the tank T-55
Slovenia conducted the most profound modernization of the honored old man T-54 / 55. This modernization was carried out jointly by the Slovenian company STO RAVNE and the Israeli Elbit. In the course of this work, 30 machines were upgraded. The last updated T-55 was transferred to the Slovenian military in 1999.
During the upgrade, the following changes were made. A new 105-mm heat gun was installed. The tank was installed active armor, its elements are clearly visible on the hull and turret. The fire control system has been improved by installing a digital ballistic computer. The gun is stabilized in two planes. Installed new sight Fotona SGS-55 with a laser rangefinder. They also installed the sight of the commander of Fotona COMTOS-55 with an independent line of sight stabilization, which allows him to drive targets and even aim the gun independently of the gunner, if necessary. The LIRD-1A laser irradiation annunciator is associated with the IS-6 smoke grenade launcher, which can be automatically activated in case of an emergency.
Upgrading the V-12 diesel engine has resulted in an increase in power from the 520 HP. to 600 hp The possibility of replacing this engine with a German MAN with 850 hp power is currently being considered.
Rubber side skirts appeared in the chassis, and the tank was also equipped with new rubber-metal tracks.
An additional niche appeared in the back of the tower, but what is installed there is unknown.
Tank Jaguar (Jaguar)
Looking at this car you will never guess that this is not an independent development, but only an option to upgrade the T-54 / 55. If there was a competition for the most beautiful rework (even the definition of tuning is suitable for this car), then it would probably have won with a clear advantage.
But back, in fact, to the project. This project was jointly prepared by two US companies - Textron Marine and Land Systems. Cadillac Gage Textron was selected as the production contractor for this project. This project involved upgrading our T-54 / 55 and Chinese tanks Type 59. Which, that our, that the Chinese, managed to spread around the world. The project was announced back in 1997 year, but so far no one has wanted to order this tank. Total produced only two cars. Apparently, this is due to the price of such a modernization, which should cost about 2,8 million dollars.
So, what changes, except appearance, will be at T-55.
The first is the engine - diesel engines of the Detroit Diesel corporation with 750 hp power will be installed on the machine. With this motor, the tank develops speed 55 km / h.
This machine must have an Allison Transmission gearbox, which is part of the General Motors concern. PPC, as it is not difficult to guess, is automatic.
The car was supposed to install two versions of the suspension. A cheaper option is the usual torsion. If necessary, the machine can be installed hydropneumatic suspension Cadil lac Gage Textron.
The NATO 105-mm rifled gun should be used as a weapon on the machine. No changes are foreseen in the machine gun armament.
In the fire control system, everything is pretty standard. The gun is stabilized in all planes. Provides a laser rangefinder.
The mass of the machine will be within 42-46 tons, depending on the configuration.
PS Automobile standards were transferred to the tank. But from this, apparently, nothing good came of it.
Tank T-55AGM. Ukraine.
Kharkiv offered at once several options for modernization, which is called, in order to satisfy any desires of customers.
So, the tank had a deep modernization of the combat compartment, which will allow, at the request of customers, to install the 125-mm cannon KBM1 or 120-mm KBM2 (modernized KBM1 for NATO ammunition). This gun can fire both conventional shells and anti-tank guided missiles, which makes it possible to confidently hit modern MBTs at distances up to 5000 meters.
By car at the rear of the turret, an automatic loader was installed in the armored compartment. Due to this, the number of crew members in the tank was reduced to 3 people. Also, the automatic loader made it possible to increase the rate of fire of the car to 8 shots per minute. Machine gun armament standard - 7,62-mm twin machine gun and 12,7-mm - anti-aircraft, however, depending on the order of machine guns can be set our or production of NATO countries.
On the modernized T-55AGM tank, a modern fire control system is installed, which provides firing by the gunner and commander at fixed and moving targets from the spot and in motion with a high probability of hitting the first shot.
The fire control system consists of the gunner's 1K14 day sight, PTT-MI thermal imaging kit; infra-pattern with the SAGEM MATIS thermal imaging camera, commander PNK-4C sighting and observation complex, the ROM-7 anti-aircraft sight, the 1-EX-to-X air system; input information, weapon stabilizer 29E2 and other devices. The gunner's 42K1 day sight has a line of sight stabilized in two planes, an integrated laser range finder and a guided missile control channel. It implements an automated offsetting gyroscopes. The field of view of the sight has an increase in 14x.
The built-in laser rangefinder provides distance measurement to the target to 9990 meters and has an accuracy of up to 10 meters. The measured range is displayed along with the ready-to-fire signal and the type of ammunition in the lower part of the field of view of the gunner’s sight.
The PTT-M thermal sight includes a gunner optoelectronic device, a monitor and a commander’s remote control. The thermal sight allows the gunner and the commander to detect targets and fire (commander in the mode of duplicated fire control) at them in virtually any weather conditions at long range and with high accuracy, which is a great advantage when working in poor visibility conditions, as well as in dark time days. The thermal sight also makes it possible to ignore the presence of some common obstructions, such as smoke characteristic of the battlefield.
The sighting and observation complex of the commander PNK-4С consists of the combined day-night sight of the commander TKN-4С and the gun position sensor. The commander's combined sight TKN-4С has a vertical line of sight and three channels: a day single channel, a day multiple channel with magnification 7,6x and a night channel with a magnification 5,8х.
The anti-aircraft sight allows the commander to fire at aerial targets from an anti-aircraft machine gun, while being protected by the turret armor.
The digital ballistic computer LIO-V for the calculation of ballistic corrections automatically takes into account the signals from the following sensors:
๐ tank speed
๐ angular velocity of the target
๐ roll angle of gun axles
๐ transverse component of wind speed
๐ target range
๐ heading angle
Additionally, the following parameters are entered for manual calculation: ambient air temperature, charge temperature, barrel bore wear, ambient air pressure, etc.
The turret drive is electric, and the gun drive is hydraulic. In case of emergency, hand-operated guns and turret guidance drives are provided.
A feature of the tank is the presence of guided weapons, which allows firing from the gun with guided missiles with laser guidance and hitting targets with a probability of at least 0,8 at a distance of 5000 m. Guided weapons also provide the tank with the ability to hit helicopters hovering over the battlefield, firing from inaccessible for normal tank armament distance.
Shooting a rocket can be carried out in motion on a moving target. The missile has a tandem warhead, which allows it to hit targets equipped with dynamic protection, as well as modern multi-layered armor, which has improved protection characteristics against cumulative ammunition.
Shooting from a machine gun paired with a cannon can be fired from the gunner’s seat or commander at stationary targets, such as buildings and bunkers.
The power plant proposed for installation in modernized tanks was developed on the basis of the 5TDFM engine with the HP 850 power. This power plant is structurally and technologically made in the form of a separate module, welded instead of the aft part of the hull being cut off. The specified engine is a two-stroke multi-fuel diesel engine with a direct-flow purge, liquid cooling, with horizontally spaced cylinders and anti-moving pistons.
The engine runs on various types of fuel: diesel, gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel or a mixture of them in any proportion.
Removal of power is carried out from two sides of the crankshaft. The engine is mounted using two cylindrical supports (yoke), coaxially with the power shaft and located at the ends of the engine, and the front support located on the lower surface of the engine. This method of mounting the engine does not require adjustment and alignment operation when installing the engine in the logging system, unlike the standard version of the tank.
The main feature of a power plant with an 5TDFM engine is an ejection cooling system, a highly efficient system for cleaning the air entering the engine, the presence of a special air intake device to overcome the ford to a depth of 1,8 m and high tightness of the MTO.
Cooling system - liquid, closed, forced, ejection type. The cooling system ejector runs on the engine exhaust. The absence of a fan and a drive reducer significantly reduces the mass of the cooling system, provides a high level of reliability and self-regulation and ensures the operation of the tank without restrictions at high temperatures. Highly efficient cyclone cassette air cleaner provides air cleaning from dust by 99,8%.
After modernization, the following tank parameters are provided:
๐ increase in average speed along a dirt road by 22%;
๐ ensuring operation at ambient temperature up to + 55 ° С;
๐ ensuring the operation of tanks in dusty conditions before servicing 35 cassettes of engine hours or 1000 km;
๐ providing ford without preparation up to 1,8 m.
These differences ensured an increase in the mobility and controllability parameters of the T-55 AGM tank in comparison with the T-55:
๐ maximum forward speed on paved roads increased to 65 km / h instead of 50 km / h (by 30%)
๐ 5 reverse gears allowed to increase the rollback speed to more than 30 km / h instead of 6 km / h (5 times)
๐ Unlike the T-55 tank, which provides the minimum turning radius on the 1 transmission only around the braked track, the T-55-AGM tank motion control system allows turning both around the braked track and around the tank axis, depending on the amount of movement of the steering control .
Department of the driver of the upgraded tank T-55AGM. It is seen that instead of the control levers the steering wheel is installed.
The complex of additional protection of the T-55AGM (KDZ) tank is designed to increase the level of protection of the tank against cumulative and kinetic (armor-piercing sub-caliber shells - BPS) of damaging means with the smallest possible increase in tank mass. KDZ consists of passive armor protection and built-in dynamic protection (VDZ).
A removable module is installed on the nose of the tank hull. On the sides of the installed power screens and rubber cloths. Along the outer perimeter of the frontal and side portions of the tower are placed modular sections, as well as containers mounted on the roof of the tower. The elements of dynamic protection of the new generation of the “Knife” type are installed inside each VDZ section and each container.
The protective effect of the VDZ on the cumulative means is based on the destruction, crushing and change of the direction of the cumulative jet due to the impact of EDS parts and detonation products of the explosive inside the EDS and initiated by the cumulative jet.
The protective effect of the VDZ on the kinetic projectile is based on the destruction of its body and changing the direction of its introduction due to the impact of the detonation products of an explosive that is inside the Dynamic Protection Element (EHD) and is initiated by the kinetic energy of the projectile. The VDZ installation increases the level of protection of the T-55AGM tank:
๐ from cumulative damaging means - in 2,3 ... 2,6 times;
๐ from kinetic destructive agents - in 3,5 ... 4,3 times.
The elements of dynamic protection (EDS) that are included in EAD are not detonated when they are hit by bullets of small arms and automatic weapons of caliber 7,62 mm, 12,7 mm and projectiles of automatic guns of caliber up to 30 mm, as well as from the effects of incendiary mixtures like napalm and damaging factors of volume the blast.
In order to improve the protective characteristics of the T-55AGM tank, it is proposed to use an aerosol curtain formulation system (SPAZ) in its composition. The aerosol screening system is designed to suppress ATGM control systems using laser illumination of targets and heads with semi-active laser homing, as well as artillery systems with laser rangefinders, by detecting laser radiation, determining its direction and remotely deploying high-speed aerosol curtains.
Heavy infantry fighting vehicle BMPV-64. Ukraine.
The prototype of the heavy armored vehicle BMPV-64 was developed in Ukraine as a private initiative of the Kharkov BTRZ. The first prototype was completed in 2005 year. This machine is a deep modernization of the honored MBT T-64. The Ukrainian army has several thousand of these tanks. BMPV-64 is designed to transport and support infantry. The machine was created taking into account the experience of the action of infantry fighting vehicles in urban environments, or rather their unsuccessful actions due to a catastrophically insufficient booking. It was during the city battles that these shortcomings came to light, since the tactics of using BMPs in the course of normal military operations were to go behind the tanks, and their function was reduced only to the function of delivering infantry to the site of attack. But in urban battles, where, as such, the enemy's line of defense is blurred and attacks can be expected from any direction and from any home, the BMP often found themselves on the front line, where they suffered heavy losses.
BMPV-64 has a composite armor, which is supplemented with blocks of dynamic armor. The lower part of the hull was also strengthened in comparison with the T-64 tank to a level at which the BMPV-64 could survive the destruction of the 4 kg anti-personnel mine. In addition, a heavy BTR can be equipped with an active protection system - Barrier. It is alleged that this BTR has protection no worse than the protection of most tanks.
Engine BMVV-64 is in front. The designers actually made the front of the car behind the tank hull, so this heavy BTR, so to speak, goes backwards compared to the T-64. The front engine provides additional protection and provides ample space for the landing.
For landing and landing, the BTR is equipped with convenient doors in the aft hull. This distinguishes this development of Kharkov tank builders from competitors both in Ukraine and in Russia. In contrast to the KMDB specialists, the designers of the Kharkov Armored Repair Plant did not attempt to combine incompatible things — a tank and an armored troop-carrier, as a result of which they received a hardly applicable design that did not fully perform the functions of either one or the other. From the Russian heavy armored personnel carriers (BMO-T, DPM-72), the Ukrainian machine compares favorably with the greater capacity of the troop compartment and significantly better conditions for landing and boarding the car.
The prototype of this heavy armored personnel carrier is equipped with a remote-controlled combat module, which is armed with an 30-mm cannon and an 7,62-mm machine gun coupled with it. The machine also provides for the installation of one remote-controlled 12,7-mm machine gun.
As an engine, the BMPV-64 uses the proven multi-fuel diesel engine 5TDF, which develops horsepower in 700. The car is also offered with a Ukrainian 6TD diesel with horsepower 1000. With this motor, the car can reach speeds of up to 75 km / h.
Various versions of this BMP are offered, such as a command vehicle, an ACS for an 120-mm mortar, an evacuation vehicle, and others. Such large upgrade possibilities make it possible to install various combat modules weighing up to 22 tons on this machine. In the base case, the BMP weighs 32,5 tons. In the basic version, the car can easily accommodate up to 12 paratroopers and 3 crew members.
Adoption by the Ukrainian army of this machine is planned with the 2010 of the year, and in the future it should replace the existing BMP-1 and BMP-2. In connection with the full unification with the T-64 tank, this BMPV-64 will be much easier to introduce into the Ukrainian army and facilitate the process of creating a material and technical base and personnel training.
Brief TTX BMVV-64;
Crew: 3 pax
Landing party: 12 people
Weight: 32500 kg
Engine power: HP 1000
Maximum speed: 75 km / h
Cruising (highway): 800 km
Heavy infantry fighting vehicle BMPT-K-64. Ukraine.
The Kharkov Armored Repair Plant developed and manufactured, at the experimental level, a wheeled BMP, in which the hull and engine of the T-64 were used as the hull and engine. The choice of body made of medium-hard armor has other advantages. After a large amount of welding, such a body is not deformed and its thermal straightening, as is the case with the use of fragile armor of high hardness in modern BTR, is not technologically necessary. All this greatly simplifies and reduces the cost of the process of manufacturing the body of a heavy wheeled BMP, which received the name BMPT-K-64.
Feature - protection at the tank level, i.e. protection from automatic guns of caliber 30 mm and RPG (with remote sensing) in the board.
Despite the use of a wheeled chassis, the machine is controlled "on-tank". The design of the wheel drive, however, is unknown.
Brief TTX BMPT-K-64
Machine weight (without weapons) - 17.7 tons.
Dimensions - 6.0X3.1X1.9.
Board - 82 + 20
Feed - 40
Nose - 270-300
The height of the landing compartment - 1.3 m.
Landing - 8 (+ 2-3 crew)
Speed - 105 km / h.
Power reserve - 800 km.
How are such machines made?
As you can see, for the beginning take the old Soviet tank T-64 and fully prepare it. Technology is not god knows what modern, but the result ...
To obtain the BMPT-K-64, a similar procedure is performed with the T-55 tank.
Further on install a new engine. The engine is usually not new, but completely relocated old diesel 5TD. Please note that the cardinal processing of the structure is not done, the engine is installed in the same place where it was at the tank, only in the BMPV-64 it turns out to be in front, since this is essentially a tank that goes backwards. This, by the way, is the main feature of the Ukrainian car. Nobody could come to Kharkov citizens to such a simple and, not afraid of this word, ingenious engineering solution. Other heavy armored personnel carriers drive the same way as their ancestors, and hence the problem of the release of paratroopers from the combat compartment. Since the engine is located behind, they have to squeeze back, as in Achzarit, or even go out on top of the car, under the fire of the enemy, as on the BTR-T. The Ukrainian car does not have this lack. The doors for the exit of foot soldiers are wide and spacious, and the foot soldiers can quickly leave the APC.
But back to BMVV-64. As you can see, the troop compartment is welded behind the new engine compartment. By the way, armor plates from old tanks are also used for this.
Well, in the end there is, so to speak, finishing, equipment of the amphibious compartment, the installation of weapons, the installation of active armor and painting. And, voila, a heavy armored personnel carrier is ready.
It should be noted that the weapons on the BMPV-64 and BMPT-K-64 are not located in the turret, but, as is now fashionable, in an uninhabited combat module. For these machines, several variants of such modules have been developed, which will consist of both a small-caliber rapid-fire cannon and a large-caliber machine gun; all of these firearms have various combinations with various missiles, anti-tank and anti-aircraft, as they say, combat modules are designed for any taste.
It should be noted that initially the car focused exclusively on export. Kharkiv did not count on their purchase by the Ukrainian army.
But, in principle, there are no technical problems in the alteration of any tank. For example, Ukrainian engineers helped the Jordanians in reworking the English tank "Centurion" (meaning Temsach) in an armored troop-carrier.