Military Review

Polish hero Tadeusz Kosciuszko

84
200 years ago, 15 October 1817, Polish hero Tadeusz Kosciuszko passed away. He became a symbol of the Polish uprising of the year 1794, aimed at restoring the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth "from sea to sea." However, the Polish elite to the extent decomposed their own state, that the collapse of Poland at that time was inevitable, despite the heroism and courage of individual Polish leaders.


Tadeush Kosciuszko belonged to an old noble family. His ancestors were Russian (white Russians), they professed the Orthodox faith, and their native language was Russian. They were descended from the Kamenetz boyar and clerk Kostyushko Fedorovich, who lived in the beginning of the XVI century. For two centuries, representatives of the clan changed language and religion, so that it was commonplace in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. By the beginning of the XVIII century, it was already a poor noble family.

Tadeush's father, Ludwig Kosciusko, bore the title of Brest swordsman. He reached the rank of colonel, but never commanded anything, because he could not pay a certain amount for a patent for the right to command. Ludwig Kosciusko was so impoverished, during the course of his life he was more involved in putting households in order and accumulating funds than in military service. He died, leaving a young widow Teklyu (Thekla Ratomskaya, a Russian by birth and Orthodox) and four children. After the sudden death of his father, the family’s condition deteriorated significantly.

About childhood Kosciusko almost no information. It is believed that he was born 4 or 12 in February 1746 of the year in the estate of Merechovschina near the town of Kossovo in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (modern Ivatsevichy district, Brest region, Belarus). He had two sisters, Anna and Catherine, and brother Joseph (Jozef). At the age of ten years, Tadeusz was sent with his brother Joseph to the school of the monastic order of piarists (PR). In addition to vows of purity and obedience, the members of this order also took a vow of free Christian education for children. At the Piarist school, Tadeusz studied for five years.

In December, 1765, at 18, Kostyushko was enrolled in the privileged knight school established in Stanislav Poniatowski in Warsaw (in a different way, the cadet corps), where the children of the "Yelno-motivated" gentlemen studied. Tadeusz got into this newly established aristocratic corps thanks to his mother, who asked for the transfer of her son to the chief of staff of the Lithuanian army, Jozef Sosnowski, their neighbor. Even then, Kosciuszko surprised others with his asceticism, will and determination, reminiscent of his comrades of Charles XII, for which he received the nickname "Swede."

After graduating from school, among the best students, Kosciusko was sent to a government account in France to improve in military sciences, where he attended lectures at the Paris military school for five years and at the same time was engaged in an artillery and engineering school in Mezieres. In 1774, Kosciuszko returned to his homeland as a captain. But being a poor man, he had no connections for career development. One of the most talented young people in Poland was not needed at home. This fact very well shows the then Polish realities. A small handful of lords and their hangers-on burned their lives in luxury and entertainment, and provided them with claps (slaves). Read more about the decomposition of the Polish state in a series of articles: Decomposition of Polish statehood; Part 2; Part 3; Part 4.

Two years later, Kosciusko again went to France, and from there to America, which at that time was waging a war of independence. After coming to Franklin, Kosciusko was appointed to head engineering work in the Northern Army. The system of fortifications built by him turned out to be impregnable for the British troops. The same excellent facilities were made by Kosciuszko while strengthening his position in North Carolina. In the 1783 year after the end of the war for independence, the American congress, as proposed by Washington, decided to express special gratitude to Kosciuszko on behalf of the republic. He received a patent for the rank of brigadier general and the Order of Zincinata.

The following year, Kosciuszko returned to Poland. For unauthorized departure abroad, he was excluded from the lists of the Polish army and was deprived of an officer's rank, and upon returning to his homeland could only be a private person. Only in 1789, after long troubles of his friends in Warsaw, Kosciusko was again enlisted in the ranks of the royal army with the rank of general and was appointed commander of a brigade located near the Prussian border. Having taken the brigade, he began training troops, trying to use his combat experience. Kostyushko was the first to introduce maneuvers in the regiments, joint tactical exercises of all types of troops, combat practical shooting and long marches.

Often in Warsaw, Kostyushko met there with Ignatiy Pototsky, Hugo Kolontay, Nemtsevich and other Polish politicians who dreamed of restoring Rzecz Pospolita to its former borders. It was a time when the Polish elite brought their state to an extreme degree of decay. The Pans undermined all the foundations of statehood and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, formerly one of the most powerful powers in Europe, became the victim of other great powers. St. Petersburg needed a buffer separating Russia and Prussia, but the Polish elite, relying on Russian enemies - Turkey and France, led the country to the partition itself. In 1772, the first division of the Commonwealth took place between Russia, Prussia and Austria. At the same time, Russia returned its Western Russian lands to the modern territory of Belarus, and part of the Baltic states, which had long been a part of the Russian sphere of influence.

After this section, the Polish elite did not learn the “lesson” and again went the way of intrigue and conspiracy, wanting to restore Greater Poland to the old borders. Rich pans arranged balls, masquerades, hunting and at the same time moaned about the "troubles of the fatherland." Moreover, almost all of the hatred was directed against Russia, although the Russians did not take a single city or village that belonged to ethnic Poles.

The Polish elite split: the “patriotic” party (Malakhovsky, Potocki, Adam Chartorizhsky and others) wanted a break with Russia, although Petersburg, unlike Berlin and Vienna, was interested in preserving a weakened Polish state; she was opposed by the “royal” and “hetman” parties, which were set up to union with Russia. In the “four-year seym” (1788-1792) the “patriotic” party prevailed. At this time, the Russian Empire entered the war with the Ottoman Empire and Prussia provoked the Sejm to break with Russia. The Poles hoped that Russia would be occupied by a war with Turkey and Prussia would support them. In reality, Prussia was not going to really help Poland, but hoped in the new confusion to snatch a new piece of Polish territory. The adoption of the May Constitution entailed interference from the Russian Empire, which feared the restoration of the Commonwealth within the boundaries of 1772. The pro-Russian "hetman" party created the Targowitz Confederation, gained the support of Austria and opposed the Polish "patriotic" party that supported the Constitution. As a result, Poland was embraced by a new distemper, predictably ending in the next section.

Kosciuszko drew the attention of the “patriotic” party and he himself easily made contact with her, as he dreamed of reviving the Great Poland. In 1792, Kosciusko joined the army of Joseph Poniatowski. In the summer of 1792, General Kakhovsky, who commanded Russian troops, launched an offensive. A decisive battle took place 17 June 1792 near the village of Dubenki. The entire force of the strike of the Russian troops was brought down against the rear guard Kosciuszko, since the commander of the Polish forces Poniatowski located the rest of the Polish regiments far from the battlefield, and they could not take part in this battle. Despite the desperate resistance, the Kosciusko detachment was surrounded and defeated, losing almost all the guns. Kosciusko with the remnants of the troops retreated. This fight decided the outcome of the entire campaign. Poniatowski took the Polish army west, not daring to continue fighting. Prussia did not support the party of the Constitution, and the Polish rebels fled the country.

In January, 1793, Prussia and Russia signed a convention on the second division of the Commonwealth. Russia received a part of the Baltic states, West Russian lands - the eastern part of Polesie, the Podolia and Volyn regions. Prussia captured the indigenous Polish lands - Danzig, Thorn, Great Poland, Kuyavia and Mazovia.

This fight, though ended in defeat, but glorified the name of Kosciusko among the Polish people. In the absence of other capable Polish generals, Kosciuszko became a national hero as early as 1792. In October 1792, Kostyushko went abroad. Arriving in Paris, he asked for help from the Minister of War Lebrun. Lebrun promised money and support for Turkey in the event of a Polish uprising. Warsaw conspirators preparing a new uprising found Kosciusko in December 1793 of the year in Rome. He was offered to lead the uprising and he agreed. His first order was the drafting of a proclamation in which the Polish people called for armed struggle for freedom.

Earlier in the Grodno Diet, it was decided to disband part of the Polish crown troops. Some shelves were completely disbanded, others were subject to reduction. The officers and soldiers who remained outside the service became the main participants in the uprising. A signal to an open uprising was given by the brigade of General Madalinsky, stationed in Ostrolenka and subject to disbandment. General Madalinsky, having received an order about it, did not obey and started a revolt. He made a brigade from Ostroleka, crossed the border, and seized the Prussian military treasury in Soldau, fled to Poland, to Krakow.

Kostyushko, who was at that time in Italy, having learned about the actions of Madalinsky and the arrests of the conspirators in Warsaw, decided to start an uprising, although he considered him to be unprepared, and hurried to Krakow. Arriving in the city, Kosciuszko and other leaders of the uprising gathered in the church and in front of the audience solemnly consecrated their sabers. An “Act of the uprising of citizens” was drawn up, then Kostyushko was proclaimed “the highest commander of all the forces of national defense” with unlimited powers of the dictator. Becoming openly at the head of the uprising, he published a manifesto to the Polish people, urging everyone to stand up under the Polish banner and donate money, supplies, horses and other property for the common good.

Polish hero Tadeusz Kosciuszko

Francis Smuglevich. Tadeusz Kosciusko's oath on the Krakow market (1797)

After that, Kosciusko hurried to the aid of General Madalinsky, against whom 5-th. Was sent. detachment of General Tormasov. Kosciusko joined with the rebel general. The Poles have chosen a strong position and entrenched in it. Kosciusko had up to 4 thousand people with 12 guns. 4 April 1794, Tormasov attacked the enemy. The Poles fought off all the attacks of the Russians, and then Kosciusko counterattacked and forced the Russian squad to retreat, capturing the 18 guns. This victory caused universal rejoicing in Poland. Polish patriotic youth began to flock under the banner of the general. Inspired by the success, Kosciusko decided to go to Warsaw.

Meanwhile, Warsaw has risen. Conspirators handed out money and weapon urban "bottom". Began Russian beating. At the same time, the uprising began in Vilna. Russian garrison was defeated. In Warsaw, Polish nobles, who were known for pro-Russian sentiments, were executed. By order of Kosciuszko, the Supreme Government Council was formed.

At the end of April, Kosciuszko declared “Commonwealth destruction”, according to which the entire male population of Poland for fifteen to fifty years was called upon to join the ranks of the Polish army. All the arsenals were opened for the backgammon weapons. May 7 was released manifesto ("Polanetsky wagon"), which called on all Poles to unite to fight a common enemy. This manifesto, despite its space and the promise of various rights to the common people, was not a success. The landowners saw in him a violation of their centuries-old privileges, the peasants also treated him with suspicion, since the manifesto stated that the promised benefits and freedoms are subject to revision in the future Sejm. The rebel treasury was empty, taxes were not paid, donations to the army received little. An attempt to form an army of volunteers also failed. The Poles did not hurry to fight and die for freedom. It was possible to form only one unit in 2 thousand people. In order to attract slaves to the uprising, of which Kostyushko wanted to form detachments of "trainers" (armed with braids), he began to wear a peasant sermyag and himself traveled through the villages, trying to imitate the appearance and lifestyle of the flaps (slaves), promised them freedom and land. However, this campaign was not noticeable success. By the beginning of autumn instead of the planned uprising 400-thousand. Kosciusko's troops managed to gather only 40 thousand people.

Soon the Prussian army led by King Frederick William himself invaded Poland. The Prussians were in a hurry not so much to smash the Polish insurgents as to seize as much territory as possible. After the suppression of the uprising, the Prussians wanted to get a good piece of the rest of Poland. Kosciusko tried to break up the Russian detachments separately, so that they did not join. The Polish generalissimo attacked Denisov’s detachment near the village of Schekovichi. But Denisov, supported by the Prussians, himself attacked and defeated the Poles.

15 Jun Cracow surrendered to the Prussians. Prussian army went to Warsaw. Kostiushko pulled together considerable forces to the capital, and the Prussians, having stood for a couple of months near Warsaw, retreated. Kostiushko, trying to improve financial affairs, ordered to take to the treasury for the needs of the army all the valuables in silver and gold kept in official and public places, in monasteries, churches and from private individuals. These values ​​were to be the security of the securities issued by the provisional government. From the collapse, the “Commonwealth's destruction” was declared dissolved, and instead it was reinforced by the recruitment set. Among the subordinates of Kosciusko's generals, there were constant quarrels, which adversely affected the entire course of military operations. The enthusiasm that gripped many at the beginning of the uprising gradually began to fade. Not enough money, weapons, experienced personnel. Discipline in the army fell.

Meanwhile, the Russian troops acted more successfully than the Prussians. At the end of August 1794, the Russian army took Vilna. Catherine the Second handed P.A. Rumyantsev-Zadunajsky, the senior general officer of the elderly and sick. Rumyantsev immediately made his first and last decision — summoned A. Suvorov to Poland without the permission of the tsarina (Cheers, field marshal!). The Polish uprising was doomed. Suvorov immediately marched from the Dniester to the Bug and began to beat the Polish rebels. September 4 Suvorov defeated General Ruzic's detachment near Kobrin. September 6 at the monastery at Krupchitsu Suvorov broke the selective corps of General Serakovsky. September 8 Brest miracle heroes Suvorov finished off Serakovsky corps.

The impression in the troops of Suvorov’s victory was so strong that panic began. Things reached the point that the Polish commander-in-chief created fencing detachments. Kostyushko issued an order in which he declared: “If anyone says that they cannot hold out against the Muscovites, or during the battle they will shout that the Muscovites have gone to the rear, he will be shot. I order the infantry units to keep behind the line with the cannons from which they will shoot at the runners. Let everyone know that, going forward, he receives victory and glory, and leaving the battlefield, he meets shame and death. ” But such harsh measures did not lead to success.

Intending not to let Suvorov unite with other Russian forces, Kosciuszko secretly left Warsaw for the camp of Polish troops in Korytnitsa. Here he intended to give a general battle to the detachment of General I. Ferzen, although all the forces of the Poles did not exceed 9 thousands, while the enemy had at least 18 thousands. Kosciusko chose a position near the village of Matsejowice. On the morning of September 29, the Poles went on the attack, but were repulsed by artillery fire. Then the Russians went to the counter and surrounded the Poles. Directly the defeat of the Poles led by Major Fyodor Denisov. Kosciusko himself, badly wounded in the head and leg, was captured. In October, Suvorov took Prague - a suburb of Warsaw, the Polish capital fell. The uprising was crushed. Russia, Prussia and Austria held the third section of the Commonwealth. Polish statehood was eliminated.

Koscius was also taken to the Russian capital, where he was kept until the death of the queen. Paul the First personally returned freedom to the Polish general. At his request, they received their freedom and the remaining 12 thousand Poles. All of them were sworn allegiance to Russia and Emperor Paul. A month later, Kosciusko traveled through Finland and Sweden to London, receiving generous gifts from the Russian emperor: a village, a carriage, a sable fur coat and a hat, 12 thousand rubles and silver.

Then Kosciusko traveled to Europe and even visited America. His journey represented a solid triumph and was accompanied by solemn meetings and the presentation of memorable gifts to him. In America, Kosciusko learned that Congress decided to vest him, as a former officer of the American army, with land and give him about 20 thousand dollars, which were due to him from 1788 year. In the summer of 1798, Kosciuszko learns that General Dombrowski is gathering Polish legions, hoping with the help of Napoleon Bonaparte to achieve the restoration of the Polish state. Arriving in Paris in August, Kostyushko returned to Pavel the money given to him, and in a letter in rather sharp expressions, declared his refusal of gifts received. Pavel Petrovich ordered to send the money back and declare that "he does not want to accept them from the traitors."

In emigration, the Polish generalissimo clearly exaggerated its value, expecting big concessions from interested parties. In 1807, he told Minister Fouche that if Napoleon needed his support, he was ready to provide it, but on condition that Bonaparte made a written promise (published in the newspapers) that the form of government in Poland would be the same as in England. That the peasants will be liberated from the land, and the borders of Poland will be from Riga to Odessa and from Gdansk to Hungary, including Galicia. Napoleon wrote to Fouche: “I don’t attach any importance to Kosciusko. He does not use in his country the influence in which he believes. However, all his behavior convinces him that he is just a fool. It is necessary to provide him with what he wants, without paying any attention to him. ”

Kosciuszko stepped back from political activities and lived in complete seclusion near Paris. Kosciusko realized that Napoleon would not restore the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and was only flirting with the Polish elite in order to use it. Therefore, he decided not to appear in the Duchy of Warsaw and refused to join the army of the new Polish state, which fought on the side of Napoleon. It was only after the capture of Paris by the Allied forces in 1813, that Kostyushko’s hopes somewhat revived. Emperor Alexander I, arriving in Paris, spoke with Kosciusko about the future structure of Poland. He assured Kosciuszko that he firmly decided to give Poland a constitution, and asked him to help in the work on the device of Poland. However, soon Kosciuszko again had to endure disappointment. When he came to Vienna during the Congress of Vienna and resumed talking about the Polish question there, Alexander I made him understand that he was tired of everything. Russia, Prussia and Austria - the winners of Napoleon’s empire, were not interested in the restoration of Poland.

Offended, Kosciuszko went to Switzerland, where 15 died on October 1817. However, despite the defeat of the uprising and the failure of Kosciusko's further activities, he remained a hero of Poland.


Tadeush Kosciuszko. Portrait of the work of Karl Gottlieb Schweickart, near 1802
Author:
84 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Same lech
    Same lech 16 October 2017 06: 51 New
    13
    Because of Polish Russophobia ... because of the abuse of monuments to soldiers and officers of our army in the Great Patriotic War, I now have a bad attitude to Polish history and POLAND ... correctly suvorov gave them ... sorry that is not enough ... too tolerant we belonged to the Polish elite ... it is thoroughly saturated with Russophobia and this is treated only with a whip.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 16 October 2017 07: 27 New
      +2
      The whip does not treat anything, the whip only embitters ...
      1. Same lech
        Same lech 16 October 2017 07: 31 New
        +9
        The whip does not treat anything, the whip only embitters ...

        You are mistaken ... Hitler's GERMANY had to be treated with a whip ... it helped a lot.
        NATO Poland, dreaming of a resurgence from Mozh to Mozh, can also undergo the same course of treatment if it decides to go the way of SCHIKLGRUBER.
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 16 October 2017 07: 38 New
          +2
          And who is Schicklgruber?
          1. Same lech
            Same lech 16 October 2017 07: 39 New
            +6
            And who is Schicklgruber?


            smile Adolf Hitler ... a lover of conquering the eastern lands.
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 16 October 2017 09: 47 New
              +8
              You see, Hitler NEVER wore this surname. No need to duplicate the opus. His father Alois, being illegitimate, until 1876 really bore the name of his mother Maria Anna Schiklgruber (German: Schicklgruber). But five years after the birth of Alois, Maria Schiklgruber married the miller Johann Georg Giedler (Hiedler), who spent his whole life in poverty and did not have his own home. In 1876, three witnesses certified that Gidler, who died in 1857, was the father of Alois, which allowed the latter to change his name. The change in the spelling of the surname to “Hitler” was allegedly caused by a clerical slip when recording in the “Birth Registration Book”. Modern researchers believe that Alois’s probable father is not Gidler, but his brother Johann Nepomuk Guettler, who took Alois to his house and raised him.
              Adolf Hitler himself, contrary to the distribution of the candidate of historical sciences, associate professor and senior researcher at the Institute of General History of the USSR Academy of Sciences V. D. Kulbakin from the 1920s, even in the 3rd edition of TSB, states never bore the name Shiklgruber. And - yes, he is, of course, a bastard. But why write something that does not really exist.
              1. Same lech
                Same lech 16 October 2017 10: 38 New
                +3
                Thanks for clarifying hi

                I will add that ALOIS SCHIKLGRUBER died of hemorrhage in the lungs when ADOLF was 12 years old, that is, he could not have other fathers by definition ... unless you mean the adoptive father.
          2. Rey_ka
            Rey_ka 16 October 2017 07: 59 New
            +2
            Adolf Alloizovich
          3. ALEA IACTA EST
            ALEA IACTA EST 16 October 2017 11: 18 New
            +9
            Austrian artist brought to suicide by Stalinist tyranny.
            1. captain
              captain 17 October 2017 16: 36 New
              0
              For humor excellent with pleasure.
      2. WapentakeLokki
        WapentakeLokki 16 October 2017 19: 14 New
        +3
        Where a whip does not help, a pity for enemies means to produce new ones substituting their fellow tribesmen. There have never been any `` universal values. ''
      3. zoolu350
        zoolu350 18 October 2017 11: 12 New
        0
        Just Lyakhov's whip heals at once for the people of the masochists, but a good attitude is just not welcome.
    2. venaya
      venaya 16 October 2017 11: 55 New
      +2
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      ... SUVOROV correctly gave them on. I submitted ... it’s a pity that it’s not enough ... we were too tolerant Polish elite ... it is thoroughly saturated with Russophobia ..

      Pay attention to the curly hair of Kosciuszko himself. What did he do? It seems to me that some part of this same "Polish" elite actually has nothing to do with the people who are now populating Poland, hence their transcendent hatred of all Russians and Russians, for some reason called "Russophobia," although phobia "- there is nothing more than just" fear ". By the way, more often than not, this Polish "elite" was not very flattering to its own lackeys, it is also useful to know about this.
    3. 73bor
      73bor 17 October 2017 07: 35 New
      0
      That's right, Alexander made it clear that they are tired of everyone, and the street must be renamed in St. Petersburg!
  2. Nehist
    Nehist 16 October 2017 06: 56 New
    +6
    For Poland, perhaps he is a hero, but not for Russia ...
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 16 October 2017 09: 10 New
      +9
      Quote: Nehist
      For Poland, perhaps he is a hero, but not for Russia ...

      How to say: with his clumsy, stupid actions, he gave a legitimate reason to the neighbors to destroy Poland completely.
      Enthusiastic stupid "hero."
      1. polpot
        polpot 16 October 2017 22: 32 New
        +1
        The character of a good word completely agrees with you. It’s not worth the gigantic ambition and self-conceit of the Ganar lyakh in the worst sense of these words is no match for the great Suvorov
  3. inkass_98
    inkass_98 16 October 2017 06: 59 New
    11
    For Poland, he is, of course, a hero, and for the Russian Empire, a separatist and an enemy. Moreover, according to the original Polish tradition, he sought help from opponents of the empire, each time betting on the wrong ones. So it was with the Prussians, with the French, then with the Austrians.
    And the flirting of Paul, and then Alexander with the Poles, led only to new hatred from the population and leaders of the Kingdom of Poland and to subsequent uprisings. Typically, no other part of divided Poland behaved so aggressively towards its invaders. Here we just need to recall the peculiarities of Russia's colonial policy, in this case it was unreasonably soft, which was perceived as weakness. The Germans and Austrians could not afford such luxury, therefore they kept their part of Poland in tight rein, which affected the rather sluggish national liberation movement of the local Poles.
    1. Proxima
      Proxima 16 October 2017 11: 17 New
      +6
      Quote: inkass_98
      And the flirting of Paul, and then Alexander with the Poles, led only to new hatred from the population and leaders of the Kingdom of Poland and to subsequent uprisings.

      Gold words! Stalin also flirted with the Poles, how much land he gave them - Silesia, Pomerania, part of East Prussia ...
      The dark green color shows a gorgeous Stalinist gift. I will not clarify how the "grateful" Poles "appreciated" this gift.
      1. polpot
        polpot 16 October 2017 22: 35 New
        +2
        Life is a difficult thing, both given and you can pick up the borders people are laying
      2. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 17 October 2017 02: 36 New
        0
        How did the "" Stalin's gift "" Poles appreciate? I think they know very well that they did not deserve it. Therefore, they are afraid and yapping. They are afraid of losing this gift.
    2. polpot
      polpot 16 October 2017 22: 33 New
      +1
      What kind of power are such and heroes
  4. Basil50
    Basil50 16 October 2017 07: 02 New
    +5
    What the Poles are united in is Russophobia. An interesting pattern. And the author noticed this, the Austrians and Germans Germanized the Poles and crushed any discontent, and still, despite the colossal efforts in Poland, there are no anti-German sentiments. The Germans are afraid, fear, but do not rush at them with foam at the mouth.
    But anti-Russian sentiments are constant and, as soon as possible, try not only to rush at RUSSIA and RUSSIANS, but also bring an ideological justification under it.
    It turns out personal security for all of these .... the basis of political activity. Now, if they would have felt threatened by RUSSIA, they would have shut up at once, and if the Poles and * muzzle in shit *, following the example of the Anglo-Saxons, love and loyalty would have arisen.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 16 October 2017 07: 29 New
      +6
      I will tell you why so. And they - that is, the Germans and the British - are rich, and if the rich, then you can tolerate from them. And endure from poor Russians? Let them learn to live well first, and then point out - this is how the Poles reasoned and reason! Such is the philosophy. By the way, ordinary Poles treat Russians well. Willingly recall the Soviet times (old), they speak Russian. And every time they try to explain that these are politicians, they don’t speak badly about Russia. But "politics is a dirty business, you get there and you don’t want to, but you get dirty."
      1. burigaz2010
        burigaz2010 16 October 2017 08: 57 New
        +4
        Oh, if an anti-Russian article appears, Shpakovsky will certainly come out! The historian is shitty, but he never answered my question!
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 16 October 2017 09: 49 New
          +3
          Is this an anti-Russian article? In my opinion, quite the opposite. And I answered as I see fit on the basis of personal experience. When was the last time you were in Poland and talked with the people there? And where is the question I have not answered here?
          1. Reptiloid
            Reptiloid 16 October 2017 10: 49 New
            +5
            I don’t want Kosciuszko street to be in St. Petersburg. It appeared in 1964 during Khrushchev. Unfortunately, the Communist Party, like the Bolshevik Party, saw in Kosciuszko a fighter against tsarism, and not a Russophobe.
            I am reading the 8-volume edition of 19th Century History, edited by Tarle. 1937–38. Very dissatisfied with how Kosciuszko and the Poles are praised there.
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 16 October 2017 11: 08 New
              +2
              In the early 90s, Dzerzhinsky Street, Shchersa Avenue and many other names that I regret disappeared from the city map. And why are Kosciuszko and Gdansk streets?
            2. kalibr
              kalibr 16 October 2017 11: 27 New
              +2
              "Have there been any hesitation in relation to the party line ?!" "No, hesitated along with the party line!"
              1. Reptiloid
                Reptiloid 16 October 2017 12: 06 New
                0
                The funny thing is that I do not understand many old films, some situations. Or about old newspapers. From the word at all. Also some kind of hesitation there. After all, these are your party meetings, Vyacheslav. I was not even in the project, probably. In the years after the destruction of the USSR, a generation grew up distant from socialism. And this gap is very difficult and often impossible to fill.
                1. kalibr
                  kalibr 16 October 2017 12: 35 New
                  +2
                  Yes, you are right, Dmitry! It’s very smart of you that you noticed this! When you read my novel LAW OF PARETO, the first book, pay attention to the surroundings. Criticism noted that it’s just as if it was written off from life through the eyes of an eyewitness. But the problem is that back in 1961 I found what was in 1918. The people who lived among these things and everyone remembered. Now the situation is repeating itself. You need to at least live among those things and communicate with "those" people ...
                  Especially for you. A few years ago, my granddaughter (10 years old ...), hearing that I was a member of the CPSU, made terrible eyes and asked: "Does grandma know that you were a member of the party ?!" Can you imagine ?! And the grandmother heard, laughed and began to explain to her. It turned out our gap in education: we did not talk about it with her !!! Well, it happened! And she, on the basis of INFORMATION OUTSIDE, came to the conclusion "does grandma know?" She had to explain everything in detail. She was silent for a long time and then said: “Even so ...” And what is in her head now at age 14, even I don’t know for sure.
                  1. San Sanych
                    San Sanych 16 October 2017 13: 25 New
                    +3
                    why did you join the party? if now you expose the Soviet past, calling it a scoop, and if tomorrow the Communists suddenly return again, you will probably join the party again wink
                    1. kalibr
                      kalibr 16 October 2017 17: 58 New
                      +3
                      Then, they kept repeating to me: the best in the game! I was not the best student, but one of the best. Also during work at school ... and if you are among the best, then your place in the party is unequivocal. But I did not join the Communist Party ... and they did not return.
                      1. San Sanych
                        San Sanych 16 October 2017 18: 07 New
                        +1
                        Well then, excuse me, it turns out that you are an opportunist and turn
                  2. Reptiloid
                    Reptiloid 16 October 2017 20: 25 New
                    0
                    Words about the fluctuations of the party were repeatedly here in VO, probably a joke of the time, which is already far away. It is also incomprehensible about Brezhnev a lot of things.
                2. Alexey RA
                  Alexey RA 16 October 2017 13: 14 New
                  +3
                  Quote: Reptiloid
                  The funny thing is that I do not understand many old films, some situations. Or about old newspapers. From the word at all.

                  The era is leaving. smile
                  The same "Diamond Hand" without the context of that time is often simply incomprehensible - for example, what a house is and why they were so afraid of it:
                  1. Reptiloid
                    Reptiloid 16 October 2017 14: 24 New
                    0
                    Hello Alexey from Olgino. Often I pass by bus. The houses are understandable. They just exist, but they are called differently. "". I love the diamond hand "" since childhood. But when I grew up, I did not understand why you can’t buy a fur coat at home. And about the taxi it was not clear. Yes, and you can’t rush in wherever you want.
                    But I like Soviet songs and poems. YES not only to me All the time they rehash. Very different content of the songs, but what now? Truth happens author song
            3. polpot
              polpot 16 October 2017 22: 38 New
              0
              Tarle was a typical historian of the Marxist flood for him all Russian was hateful and Napoleon was a deity in general
      2. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 16 October 2017 21: 23 New
        +2
        kalibr "I will tell you why so. And they - that is, the Germans and the British - are rich, and if the rich can be tolerated from them. And endure from the poor Russians? Let them learn to live well first, and then point out - this is how the Poles reasoned and reasoning! "
        It's not about the rich and the poor. Let us say not only in this Our nobility was not poor.))) Tolley endured from enlightened Europeans, or from Russian Asians, some of whom (Little Russians and Belarusians) were Polish slaves. Here's the thing. And they should the great Polish noblemen submit to some kind of Muscovites?))) Something was torn from them simply from the realization of such things. And now they are jarred at the mere thought that they - the Poles were subordinate to us under the tsar and under Stalin.)))
  5. Molot1979
    Molot1979 16 October 2017 07: 30 New
    +5
    Good freedom fighters. While you could just rob, kill and execute, then all the heroes. And as I had to harness myself with hard work, everyone ran away. Well, and, of course, the sheer stupidity of the lords, where without her. Instead of taking a little, we decided to grab everything at once. And the borders of 1772. Right up to Odessa. Here the crib and cracked, did not pass the bitten piece. And the hero may be a hero, but of the mind - as with the whole pannage. With passerine beak. Therefore, he died offended at all.
  6. svp67
    svp67 16 October 2017 07: 34 New
    +5
    His ancestors were Russians (white Russians), professed the Orthodox faith, and their native language was Russian.
    How sad it is .... I’m afraid that in Ukraine today this story repeats itself ...
  7. parusnik
    parusnik 16 October 2017 07: 35 New
    +3
    His ancestors were Russians (white Russians), professed the Orthodox faith, and their native language was Russian. They came from the Kamenets boyar and the clerk Kostyushko Fedorovich, who lived at the beginning of the XNUMXth century. For two centuries, representatives of the clan changed their language and religion, so that it was commonplace
    ... Do you want to be a Pole, be it, you don’t need much for this ...
  8. Rey_ka
    Rey_ka 16 October 2017 07: 58 New
    +6
    I propose Tsereteli to sculpt a statue of Suvorov A.V. no less than from Peter the Great and give Poland a souvenir!
  9. midshipman
    midshipman 16 October 2017 08: 11 New
    11
    I was subordinate to the Grodno Car Radio Plant (6 GU MCI of the USSR). I had to lead its creation from scratch and bring it to its design capacity with the release of and airborne weapons. Therefore, I visited this region often. Often had to be in Poland. It was necessary to create research institutes and factories for the production of radio electronics, aviation and rockets for aircraft. But nothing happened in Poland, the Poles did not want to work. In his free time he was interested in history, especially since local leaders gave me excursions and gave me literature. I wrote an article in “VO” in 2014, “Singer of the joys of life,” there will be time to read, this is an excerpt from my story. It concerns Poland too.
    I regard Kosciuszko as an adventurer, although we were taught at the school that this was a Hero. Think about how many troubles Poland has brought to us in Russia since 1612 (false Dmitry).
    I respect one politician in Poland (this is apart from scientists) V. Jaruzelski. Valuable was a man and respected in military circles. That’s why they don’t write about him, but in vain. He revived Poland. I have the honor.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 16 October 2017 08: 45 New
      +3
      Well, if you do not count scientists, then in my opinion K. Rokossovsky and F. Dzerzhinsky are worthy of respect
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 16 October 2017 14: 43 New
        +2
        That's it! There was no Rokosovsky street, both in Leningrad and in St. Petersburg. Although, it was during the mass building that a district of the city appeared where the streets are named after the Heroes of the Second World War. Both adults and pioneers. However, under Khrushchev, the names of Blucher and Tukhachevsky also appeared on the map of the city. It should be noted that they are far from the streets mentioned above.
  10. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 16 October 2017 09: 59 New
    +5
    Poles - a large monolithic nation with compact living
    and homogeneous national composition. You can scold them or
    to praise (there is reason for both)
    they have (and had) every reason to have their own state.
    1. Andrey VOV
      Andrey VOV 16 October 2017 10: 25 New
      +3
      Yes, for God's sake, who is opposed to having a state ... but still an adequate state, represented by adequate politicians. And, in my opinion, Poland needs to forget its imperial ways and somehow overcome that inferiority complex and end its dreams of "Greater Poland with borders from sea to sea."
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 16 October 2017 10: 27 New
        +2
        With this I completely agree. Empires have passed
        finally.
      2. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 16 October 2017 10: 39 New
        +1
        Quote: Andrey VOV
        For heaven’s sake, Poland needs to forget its imperial ways and somehow overcome that inferiority complex and end its dreams of "Greater Poland with borders from sea to sea."

        From sea to sea, and even at the expense of other countries !!!
    2. Edvagan
      Edvagan 16 October 2017 10: 25 New
      +2
      generally agree. When they took away Ukrainian, Belarusian and Lithuanian lands, then yes
    3. Basil50
      Basil50 16 October 2017 11: 58 New
      +1
      Warrior
      For the sake of * mono-ethnicity *, the Poles did not hesitate to destroy the Jews who were not finished by the Germans and, of course, the Germans themselves, in the territories that had ceded to Poland. According to the studies of Polish historians themselves, the Poles killed Jews more than the Nazis. However, Jews in Israel also did not hesitate to create a * mono-ethnic * state. But only in percentage terms the Arabs in Israel are still larger than in Poland the Jews.
    4. Proxima
      Proxima 16 October 2017 12: 11 New
      +4
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Poles - a large monolithic nation with compact living
      and homogeneous national composition. You can scold them or
      to praise (there is reason for both)
      they have (and had) every reason to have their own state.

      Only you did not specify thanks to whom she became so. Stalin turned a blind eye when Poland did not quite delicately solve the German, Jewish and Ukrainian issues. It is enough to recall how German families were "evicted" (and this is at best) from the German lands donated by Stalin to Poland, and Poles from Western Ukraine and Lithuania settled in their place. And so it happened: one state, one nation, one religion.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 16 October 2017 12: 13 New
        +1
        Now - that is, that is. Like the Japanese.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 16 October 2017 13: 49 New
        +2
        Quote: Proxima
        And so it happened: one state, one nation, one religion.

        What familiar principles ... Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer in the Polish way.
        1. Proxima
          Proxima 16 October 2017 14: 27 New
          +2
          Quote: Alexey RA
          Quote: Proxima
          And so it happened: one state, one nation, one religion.

          What familiar principles ... Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer in the Polish way.

          Most importantly, while remaining unhappy victims of Nazism and Stalinism crying
        2. Weyland
          Weyland 18 October 2017 00: 48 New
          +1
          Quote: Alexey RA
          Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer in Polish.

          It would not be the other way around - another question is who borrowed from whom! In any case, Hitler’s racial "Nuremberg Laws" are almost entirely attributed to synchronous them Polish anti-Semitic laws!
    5. San Sanych
      San Sanych 16 October 2017 13: 43 New
      +3
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Poles - a large monolithic nation with compact living
      and homogeneous national composition. You can scold them or
      to praise (there is reason for both)
      they have (and had) every reason to have their own state.

      and the Palestinians? do they have such reasons?)
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 16 October 2017 13: 48 New
        +1
        Palestinians can proclaim their state any day. For many years.
        Nobody bothers them. Israel is definitely not.
        But they prefer to hang (financially) around the UN, Arab sponsors and Israel.
        Very comfortably. Without any effort, support relatively
        high quality of life. Higher than most Arab countries.
        1. San Sanych
          San Sanych 16 October 2017 14: 04 New
          +2
          Well, if so, then the current Poles hang even more on the neck of famous sponsors, the main thing is to blame Russia for all the deadly sins, this is their main "capital", only sponsors are already tired of keeping these proud gentry, and now we are witnessing all this hysteria and demands for reparations from Russia and laughing from Germany
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 16 October 2017 16: 52 New
            +1
            "Well, if so, then the current Poles hang even more on the neck of famous sponsors" ////

            The Poles refused the next tranche of the IMF at 9 billion. They say: "there is money, thanks, no need." The economy has improved more or less.
            1. San Sanych
              San Sanych 16 October 2017 17: 21 New
              +1
              once the Poles were written off about $ 30 billion of those loans that they grabbed in the 70s of the last century, only because they went west, but now it's different times, and if they take a loan, they’ll have to give in full, because Russophobia is currently quoted much cheaper than in Soviet times
    6. iouris
      iouris 16 October 2017 20: 45 New
      0
      Nobody argues with that. It’s another matter that the Polish “elite” is stepping on a rake all the time, as it strives to turn the country into an empire “from mozh to mozh”, and this always ends badly: there are no resources of its own.
    7. Weyland
      Weyland 18 October 2017 01: 00 New
      +1
      Quote: voyaka uh
      large monolithic nation with compact living
      and homogeneous national composition. You can scold them or
      to praise (there is reason for both)
      they have (and had) every reason to have their own state.

      The same applies to the Kurds, and to the Basques, and to the Walloons, and to the Catalans, and to many others. By the way, a "large nation" - what is the criterion of number? It is quite sovereign Monegasques and 40 thousand will not be typed. but the Basque without their own state - about 2,5 million only in places compact stay! And the Catalans - those almost 8 million! Uigurs - 10 million! And all of them in the past - quite serious statehood!
  11. Edvagan
    Edvagan 16 October 2017 10: 24 New
    +5
    my parents come from Ivatsevichi in the Brest region, and Kossovo is only 10 km away. A year ago he visited his historical homeland, visited Kossovo, Kostyushko’s estate was restored there, now there is a museum. Kosciuszko is advancing as a national hero, on the Day of Ivatsevichi's city, Kosciuszko (actor, of course) is almost the main character. I didn’t really like it (as well as the monument to Olgerd in Vitebsk), but then I cooled down a bit and thought that this was all a reflection of the difficult fate of Belarus. It’s right to remember a story as it is (rather than inventing a convenient story for yourself). At least, the memory of the Great Patriotic War in Belarus is not weaker than in Russia.
  12. ALEA IACTA EST
    ALEA IACTA EST 16 October 2017 10: 48 New
    +1
    One person cannot fix the mistakes of thousands.
  13. Warrior with machine gun
    Warrior with machine gun 16 October 2017 12: 05 New
    +4
    everything is completely in Polish, a lot of ambition and show-offs, and as a result only zilch (or zilch))))
  14. kalibr
    kalibr 16 October 2017 12: 39 New
    0
    Quote: Vasily50
    According to the studies of Polish historians themselves, the Poles killed Jews more than the Nazis.

    Sources of information? Or is it from the series that everyone knows that Hitler was called Schicklgruber?
  15. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 16 October 2017 13: 02 New
    0
    If someone says that you can’t resist against the Muscovites, or during the battle they start shouting that the Muscovites have gone behind, he will be shot. I order the infantry units to keep behind the line with the guns, from which they will shoot at the running ones.

    Bgggg ... all that remains is to form fines and fines. smile
    1. Weyland
      Weyland 18 October 2017 00: 52 New
      0
      Quote: Alexey RA
      only penal battles and penalties left to form

      Everything is new - well-forgotten old! laughing Penalties were invented in ancient Egypt (with the same principle - the ability to "atone for blood", but the Egyptians did not count as a serious wound, but only a real feat!), And javidan ("immortal", the guard of Cyrus the Great) - if necessary performed, inter alia, the functions of detachments.
  16. Pissarro
    Pissarro 16 October 2017 15: 43 New
    +2
    What a mediocre and meaningless life. A man wanted the best, but in reality contributed to the destruction of his country
  17. Monarchist
    Monarchist 16 October 2017 18: 32 New
    +2
    Quote: Reptiloid
    I don’t want Kosciuszko street to be in St. Petersburg. It appeared in 1964 during Khrushchev. Unfortunately, the Communist Party, like the Bolshevik Party, saw in Kosciuszko a fighter against tsarism, and not a Russophobe.
    I am reading the 8-volume edition of 19th Century History, edited by Tarle. 1937–38. Very dissatisfied with how Kosciuszko and the Poles are praised there.

    Tarle was a smart historian, but if you take into account the years when he wrote, then you can forgive him, but you also need to carefully read it. About the Crimean War, he inserted a quote from Lenin that tsarist Russia lost the war and that’s all, and if you think about it, Russia almost didn’t lose: Crimea remained, there are no large ships at the World Cup, but you can look like watchmen and a lot more.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 16 October 2017 20: 17 New
      0
      I will not forgive in any case. It is just that this example shows that books also have their own term. Well, well, I'm an adult, but what if I’d be 17 years earlier? It was then that I decided to read it, well, I did not hurry.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 17 October 2017 10: 11 New
      0
      Quote: Monarchist
      About the Crimean War, he inserted a quote from Lenin that tsarist Russia lost the war and that’s all, and if you think about it, Russia almost didn’t lose: Crimea remained, there are no large ships at the World Cup, but you can look like watchmen and a lot more.

      Russia lost the war. Because at the World Cup we lost not only ships, but the ability to build a normal fleet. And the loss in the Crimean came to us in 1878, when we had to fight with boats and armed steamboats against armadillos. No, in the reports and reports it looked great - but in reality ...
      Baranov left, my duty is fulfilled, but heavy thoughts oppress and crush me. Really and always they always glorified those who shamelessly knew how to praise themselves, could this famous case of the brig Mercury was just as false a swindle as the case of Vesta, which cannot withstand even weak criticism, from which one can learn only that it’s important not to do, but to be able to tell.
      © S.O. Makarov
      I'm not talking about the Hornby squadron that entered the Straits unhindered ...
  18. kalibr
    kalibr 16 October 2017 20: 03 New
    +1
    San Sanych,
    Well then it turns out that you have foam in your head instead of the brain. What does the Bible say? There is no power except from God! So if he broke something - such is his will! Are you against God's will? Is it not arrogant of you? Beliefs must be changed like clothes according to the weather. You don’t walk in winter in shorts, and in summer in a fur coat? You can earn on building an empire. You can - on its destruction. The main thing is to earn, not steal! Do not break the 10 commandments and you will be rewarded - and everything else - pah and grind!
    1. San Sanych
      San Sanych 16 October 2017 21: 22 New
      +4
      Quote: kalibr
      San Sanych,
      Well then it turns out that you have foam in your head instead of the brain. What does the Bible say? There is no power except from God! So if he broke something - such is his will! Are you against God's will? Is it not arrogant of you? Beliefs must be changed like clothes according to the weather. You don’t walk in winter in shorts, and in summer in a fur coat? You can earn on building an empire. You can - on its destruction. The main thing is to earn, not steal! Do not break the 10 commandments and you will be rewarded - and everything else - pah and grind!

      girls with low social responsibility also earn money, the main thing for them is to pay, and how do you differ from them then? oh you and quote the bible
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 17 October 2017 02: 23 New
        0
        RZHUNIMAGU !!!!! Here Vyacheslav taunts the USSR and the Communists, always taunted turners-bakers, workers from the height of his knowledge. But he does very bad things, interprets the Bible without having a special education. Recently, Vyacheslav was mistaken, and I pointed out. And there can be many mistakes, I just haven’t met anyone who knows and wants to fix it. Not everyone wants to point out errors, some just giggle.
        Just as my generation may not understand about socialism, the older generations do not understand anything about religion, unless they went to special courses. Since religious traditions and religious education were interrupted in 1917. The Bible is a very important book and you cannot understand it yourself. Just by reading. There are Biblical Explanatory Dictionaries ----- and what is their volume? That's it
  19. iouris
    iouris 16 October 2017 20: 49 New
    +3
    It is rather strange for the hero to first take gifts, and then unsuccessfully return them back. Many Polish gentry easily betrayed the Russians, their oaths of allegiance, considering the Muscovites subhuman. However, there are other examples.
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro 16 October 2017 21: 39 New
      +2
      Here are just about other examples no one has heard, although many refer to them. The Poles were heroes when they slaughtered Russian women and children in Warsaw. And as Suvorov came and could not (or did not want to) restrain his soldiers from fair revenge, they immediately became victims
  20. Alex7
    Alex7 17 October 2017 02: 12 New
    +1
    the article is full of mistakes and its general tone suggests that the level of nationalism and chauvinism is growing in Russia. Kosciuszko was not a white Rus, but a Rusyn, or as he called himself Litvin, which at that time was identical to the word Belarusian, did not change religion, but faith, his native language was not Russian, but rather Belarusian. Commonwealth is translated as a republic and was a confederation of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Studying in France, Ko Костciuszko was inspired by the ideas of the revolution, he wanted the reformation of the Commonwealth and the constitution. The neighboring powers were afraid of the growth of the revolutionary movement and therefore dismembered the country, although internal feuds, as later more than a century later, led to the Siout and in Russia.
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro 17 October 2017 09: 15 New
      +1
      Neighboring countries witnessed with their own eyes the bloody bacchanalia taking place at the same time in France, the daily guillotine and aggressive wars of a handful of adventurers, who chopped off the head of the rightful king. It is strange if they were not afraid of a rabid dog in the neighborhood. And Ko Костciuszko was 100% Pole and believed in the Polish idea. There was no confederation in Poland, the confederation assumed equality, and the Orthodox Belarusian or Ukrainian had the status of slave and cattle (draft cattle). And rubbing about the paradise life of Belarusians under the Polish whip can be done only by suckers, the pan-propaganda about rebellion against the Russians did not act on the Belarusians for all the Polish uprisings in the empire. Moreover, the peasants themselves were handed over to the authorities by the peasants
      1. Weyland
        Weyland 18 October 2017 01: 10 New
        +1
        Quote: Pissarro
        the confederation implies equal rights, and the Orthodox Belarusian or Ukrainian had the status of serf and cattle (draft cattle).

        The Orthodox nobleman was quite equal with the noble Catholic. But the Catholic priest had the right to “elect and be elected”, but the Orthodox priest did not! And the Polish peasant just had the status of by-dla. Orthodox peasants were considered not even for cattle (cattle), but for wild animals ...
  21. captain
    captain 17 October 2017 16: 44 New
    0
    In the USSR, during the Great Patriotic War, the Polish infantry division named after Kosciuszko was formed .. General Burling commanded it.
  22. Anchonsha
    Anchonsha 1 February 2018 13: 11 New
    +1
    And why did this loser become, however, like the entire Pshek elite from his snobbery, still become a hero? Yes, because in Poland no real heroes appeared, since the Poles always had a frantic desire to create Poland from “Mozha to Mozha”, from the Baltic to the Black Sea, as well as the constant bitterness in Russians who had just been taken back their land. On the real invaders of their lands: - Prussians, Austro-Hungarians, they were afraid to raise their Pshekovo stink. By the way, what is happening now.