Military Review

Decomposition of Polish statehood. Rise of Kosciuszko. Part of 4

Polish uprising 1794 of the year. The beginning of the uprising

The Russian government was satisfied with the second section of the Commonwealth. Catherine II hoped that the rest of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth would establish calm and stability. And the thing was not in a special relationship with Poland, but in a military-political situation.

As already noted, Russia was not interested in the complete liquidation of Polish statehood. The Russian Empire was advantageous to maintain a relatively weak and loyal Polish state, which was ensured by the domination of the “pro-Russian party” in Poland. Such a state could not bring trouble and at the same time served as a buffer between Russia, Prussia and Austria. The strengthening of Austria and Prussia at the expense of the most populous and economically developed western regions of Poland did not suit Russia.

Russia at that time had a more serious goal — Constantinople and the Straits. Back in December 1791, Ekaterina told her secretary Khrapovitsky that St. Petersburg needed “free hands”. In 1792, Russia received such freedom: in the summer, Prussian and Austrian armies invaded France. Western Europe has entered a period of "revolutionary wars." At that time, all the attention, forces and resources of the leading powers were attracted by revolutionary France. Russia could safely pursue their goals. Unfortunately, under Alexander Pavlovich, Russia will plunge into Western European problems, instead of solving national problems ...

In late 1792 - early 1793 Russia begins preparations for the Bosphorus operation. From the Baltic fleet More than 2 thousand officers and sailors are being transferred to the Black Sea. In Kherson and Nikolaev lay 50 gunboats and 72 rowing vessels. At the beginning of 1793, the new commander-in-chief Alexander Suvorov arrives in Kherson. Petersburg publicly develops activities to combat the Jacobins, but in fact concentrates the best forces in the south. The opening of navigation was to be the beginning of the operation to capture the straits. Ushakov and Suvorov await the order. Russia was close to the mastery of Constantinople, St. Sofia.

However, these plans did not come true. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the world could not be by definition. Rich pans arranged balls, masquerades, hunts, and at the same time moaned about the "calamities of the fatherland", which they robbed twice. Moreover, almost all of the hatred was directed against Russia, although the Russians did not take a single city or village that belonged to ethnic Poles.

Part of the Polish gentry began to secretly prepare a rebellion, hoping for the help of France. Among these gentlemen was General Dzalylynsky, Brigadier General Madalinsky, Yelsky, and others. They were joined by rather dark personalities like the merchant Kopotas, who, with a Jew, Mazing, owned a large banking office and bought “nobility”. Another of these dark personalities was the "shoemaker" Kilinsky, who enjoyed great success with the Warsaw ladies.

The "banner" of the uprising was General Tadeusz Kosciuszko. He was born 4 February 1746 of the year and belonged to a poor old noble family. Kosciusko studied at the Knight School in Warsaw (like a military academy), where officers were trained. Kostiushko stood out among his peers with asceticism, will and purposefulness and reminded him of the Swedish king Charles XII (for which the nickname Swede stuck to him). For his excellent studies, he received a royal scholarship and was sent to Paris to study at the military academy. There he was more influenced by the ideas of the French Enlightenment. However, a talented young man did not find a place in his homeland: at that time, the officer’s position could only be bought for a large amount, and Kostyushko did not have the money. This fact perfectly characterizes Polish reality. One of the most talented young people in Poland was not needed by the motherland.

In 1776, Tadeusz traveled to America, where he joined the US Army, was engaged in the fortification of cities and military camps. He was widely known for the defense of Ticonderoga and the battle of Saratoga. Tadeusz did an excellent job with building fortifications to protect Philadelphia and became the chief engineer of the Northern Army, which defended operational directions from Canada and New York. Then transferred to the Southern Army, where he also distinguished himself in several battles. In recognition of Kostyushko’s merit, the US Congress in October 1783 of the year awarded him the rank of Brigadier General of the American Army.

During the 1792 war, Kostyushko became the commander of one of the three divisions that made up the army of the Commonwealth under the command of Y. Ponyatovsky. General Kosciusko showed himself well in a series of battles. After the victory of the Targowitz Confederation and the Russian Army, Kosciusko fled to Saxony and then to France, where he unsuccessfully tried to involve the French in the war with Prussia and Russia. The French could only promise money and assistance to Turkey in the event of an uprising. For lack of other capable Polish generals, Kosciuszko became a national hero. Returning from France to Saxony and moving to Galicia, he joined in the preparation of the uprising. He was appointed "dictator".

The position of the rebels eased the weakness of the Russian command in Poland. At the beginning of 1794, Russian troops in Warsaw were led by Lieutenant-General Baron Osip Igelstrom. A native of the German nobility, Igelstrom was a good servant, but did not have the ability to act independently and did not understand Polish affairs. In addition, the elderly baron fell in love with Countess Zalussky, one of the first beauties of Warsaw, and became a toy in the hands of a Polish noblewoman. True, the countess did not suffer from an excess of patriotism and used the Russian general to solve only her tasks. She even warned him about the plot, rumors about which were in the community.

But the general did not believe in the conspiracy, decided that it was woman’s gossip. But just in case, doubled the guards and ordered the arrest of the most suspicious Poles. However, most successfully escaped. In addition, the general, just in case, asked St. Petersburg for reinforcements. Catherine felt that rumors about the danger of exaggerated and the troops enough.

Decomposition of Polish statehood. Rise of Kosciuszko. Part of 4

Polish artist Francis Smuglevich. The oath of Tadeusz Kosciuszko in the Krakow market

The course of the uprising

The Grodno Seym dissolved a large part of the Polish army. Some shelves completely disbanded, others significantly reduced in number. Officers and soldiers became a source of outrage on the ground. General Madalinsky refused to submit to the decision of the Grodno Seym and disband his I Velikopolskoy National Cavalry Brigade.

12 March Madalinsky moved to the head of the brigade from Ostrolenka, crossed the Prussian border and seized the city of Soldau. The salary of the Prussian army was kept there (“Prussian military cauldron”). Having seized the money, Madalinsky again moved to Poland and decided to seize Krakow. On the way, Anthony Madalinsky seized city and public ticket offices.

When he learned about the arrests of the conspirators and the statement of the Madalinsky brigade, Kostyushko decided to start the uprising, although he considered that it was not yet ready, and hurried to Krakow. Colonel Lykoshin, who commanded the Russian garrison in Krakow, decided that it was pointless to take the battle in hostile surroundings and led his detachment out of the city. In the Krakow church, the leaders of the uprising solemnly consecrated their sabers. 16 March 1794, the inhabitants of Krakow proclaimed Kosciusko dictator of the republic. In Krakow, the Act of Rebellion was announced. Kosciusko urged people to “hurry with weapons under the banner of the motherland "and donate money, horses, supplies and other property.

The chief of the Russian troops in Warsaw, General Igelstrom, sent to suppress the insurrection 5-thousand. detachment under the command of Alexander Tormasov. Kosciuszko had about the same number of people, almost half of whom were cosineers (peasants armed with redone braids). Kosciuszko, who gained rich experience in the American war of independence, took a strong position near the village of Raczawica Malopolska. Polish soldiers are well entrenched.

On the morning of April 4, 1794, General Tormasov attacked the Poles. While the Russian soldiers unsuccessfully stormed the Polish positions, detachments of the mascine operators under the personal guidance of Kosciuszko secretly walked around the Russian detachment and penetrated to its rear. As a result of this attack, the Poles seized all the 18 guns (according to other sources, 12) of the Tormasov unit. Detachment Tormasov, who was between two fires, retreated. Kosciusko had no power to pursue, so his victory had more moral significance than the military (both squads lost approximately 500 people). After the defeat, the Russian troops quietly continued operations in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship. The victory raised the morale of the uprising and became a signal for the whole of Poland. Young people began to flock to Kosciuszko. Most Polish lands rebelled. A riot swept Lithuania and Kurland, and the Warsaw uprising began. There was an uprising in Vilna.

Fight at Raczlawitz. Figure by Michal Stakhovich

Warsaw matins. The uprising in Warsaw was appointed on 6 (17) April. On the night of April 5 on 6, the conspirators handed out money to the “mob” (urban base). The priests secretly preached bloodshed. To the parts of the coronary (Polish) troops, the officers announced that the Russians were planning to seize the Polish arsenal and powder stores. Warsaw matins (Polish. Insurekcja warszawska - Warsaw Uprising) began early in the morning. A detachment of the royal horse guards suddenly flew out of the barracks and attacked the Russian picket, which stood between the barracks and the gates of the Saxon garden. The picket was forced to retreat. Then the whole horse guards left: two squadrons headed for the arsenal, two - to the powder stores. In the arsenal, the rebels began to distribute rifles and broadswords to everyone.

The ringing of the bells calling for matins became familiar to the performance. The Russians were taken by surprise. Armed mobile under the leadership of the gentry gathered in the crowd and everywhere attacked and killed the Russians. Some were killed at a gathering for the holiday, others on the road to churches, others in beds when they could not defend themselves. Only the officers were left alive, and not all of them. Only a few managed to barricade themselves, shot back fiercely and were able to get out of the city. Thousands of Russians died.

The Polish king made attempts to reassure people, but to no avail. Most of the Russian garrison, having lost contact with the command, on the day of April 6 left the Polish capital. Igelstrom with several hundred soldiers was surrounded in his mansion. According to some data, on April 7, he was able to make his way out of the city, on the other, Countess Zalussky saved him, taking him disguised from Warsaw. The generals will be hidden in one of the estates where Prussian troops will rescue him. Later, the empress will send the hapless general to resign. The Russian commander found important documents that did not have time to burn (including secret correspondence with noble grandees). The enraged rebels, despite the protests of the leaders, lynched several notable gentlemen who belonged to the "pro-Russian party." One of the consequences of this massacre was the hatred of Russian soldiers for the Poles. When storming Warsaw, Russian troops will act very tough.

Polish battle artist Yuliush Kossak. Warsaw Uprising

Simultaneously with the uprising in Warsaw, a mutiny began in Vilna. The city was located 3-th. Russian garrison under the command of General Arsenyev. Polish-Lithuanian troops suddenly attacked the Russian garrison at night. The commander of the garrison was immediately killed, according to other sources, he was first captured and then killed. 50 officers were captured and up to 600 lower ranks.

The remaining Russian military in disarray, in separate groups or one by one, fled from the city. The hero of this difficult day was Major N. A Tuchkov (the future hero of the Patriotic War 1812 of the year). He managed in an orderly way out of the city to 700 soldiers and artillery park - 12 guns. And with this small detachment the brave commander nearly fought off the city back. He turned back, set fire to the suburb and, setting the guns at one of the heights, opened fire in the center of Vilna. 1-thousand was sent against Tuchkov. Polish squad with 4 guns. Major applied military trick. The Cossacks lured the Poles to disguised guns, and they almost point-blank, they simply dared to grapple with the canister. The surviving Poles fled in panic. By noon 6, April, Tuchkov had already assembled more than 2 thousand soldiers. However, having received information about the approach of the large enemy forces to Vilna, Tuchkov led a detachment to Grodno. On April 11, the Tuchkov detachment was attacked by 6 by thousands of Poles, but the major repulsed the blow and went out to Grodno.

In Warsaw, began the execution of figures of the "pro-Russian party." Despite the protection of the king, who was under house arrest, the hetman coroner Ozharovsky, the hetman of Lithuania Zabello, the Vilno bishop Masalsky and others were captured and then executed. Kostyushko received the title of generalissimo and announced general mobilization. The Polish army had grown to 70 thousand people, but for the most part it was a poorly armed and undisciplined libertine, unable to resist the Russian army. For arming the militia opened all the arsenals, forges reworked spit in spikes. In Warsaw, work began on the construction of fortifications.

7 May Kosciusko issued Polonets wagon, in which the peasants were promised personal exemption and reduction of duties. 28 May was established by the Supreme Government Council. It includes: Sulistrovsky, Vavrzhetsky, Myshkovsky, Kollontai, Zakrzhevsky, Velovesky, Ignatiy Pototsky and Yaskevich.

However, all the activities stumbled upon the Polish reality. A single capable general could not instantly change the age-old habits of the nobility and the whole country. Landowners met with a decree from 7 in May, where claps were promised various rights, with discontent, seeing in the document a violation of their age-old rights. The claps were also attributed to him with distrust - the promised freedoms should have been approved by the future Seym, where feudal lords and clergy dominated. There was no money in the treasury, the situation with taxes was critical, they just stopped paying. Donations were few, although many tycoons and lords had huge fortunes, but they preferred to roll up rich feasts and please their mistresses. Their “patriotism” was more in words than in deeds.

The idea of ​​“having pospolitogo destruction” (general mobilization) also failed. There were few recruits, the army suffered a lack in everything. It was supposed to raise thousands of people for the 400 war, but only a few tens of thousands were recruited. Kostiushko, hoping to raise the flakes, of which he wanted to form detachments of the company operators, began to wear peasant clothes, travel through the villages, imitate the peasants' way of life, promise freedom and land. But the result was minimal. The peasants did not want to fight for the gentry, their life practically did not depend on the authorities sitting above - Polish, Russian or Prussian. The uprising was doomed. The Polish “elite” in its overwhelming majority was disintegrated and incapable, and the common people for the most part did not see the goal of the uprising, the meaning for which it was necessary to lay down their lives.

54-ths entered the Polish state Prussian army under the personal leadership of the king. The Prussians did not want to fight the Poles, they left this mission to the Russians, but wanted to capture as much territory as possible in order to have a trump card in the new partition of Poland. Kostiushko attempted to prevent the unification of separate Russian detachments under Denisov, Khrushchev and Rakhmanov with the Prussian army. But Denisov's detachment joined the Prussians and, having gone on the offensive, Szczekocin defeated Kosciusko.

Fyodor Denisov was an experienced commander and came from the Don Cossacks. He distinguished himself in the Russian-Turkish war 1768-1774. In the battle of Larga, he slaughtered seven Turkish soldiers and was promoted to officer. There were legends about his courage, and the nickname “Denis Pasha” terrified the Turks. Denisov distinguished himself during the suppression of the uprising of the Crimean Tatars, as well as during the 2 of the Turkish war. Denisov covered himself with glory and in the war with Sweden. In a series of battles, he received numerous wounds, personally attacking the enemy. He told the Empress: "Courage opens the wide gates to victory." He had the experience of the war in Poland, during the Bar Confederation.

Fedor Petrovich Denisov (1738 — 1803)

15 June Prussian troops occupied Krakow. The Prussian army moved to Warsaw. But Kosciusko pulled off large forces to the capital, and the Germans, having stood for a couple of months in Warsaw, left without deciding to storm. In addition, a partisan war began in their rear. In Wielkopolska a revolt broke out, partisans captured several cities and villages.

Austria also sent troops to Poland. The Austrian army occupied Krakow, Sandomierz and Chelm. At this the Austrians stopped. Viennese court did not want to wage war. The Austrian government was going to secure strong positions in the future section of the Commonwealth, and not to fight.

Kosciusko continued to try to save Poland. On September 10, he ordered the confiscation in favor of the treasury of all valuables in silver and gold, not only state and public, but monastic, church and private. Gold and silver were supposed to provide 5-percent securities issued by the interim government. September 18, in view of the complete failure of the "pospolitomi rushenie", the militia disbanded, reinforcing the recruitment.

Russian troops acted more successfully than the Prussian. In July, Vilna was besieged by a detachment of Major General Knoring. The city at this point was well fortified and strengthened by artillery. Therefore, the Polish garrison under the command of Joseph Zayoncek repulsed the assault, losing only part of the external fortifications. At the end of August, another Russian detachment led by Major General Herman approached Vilna. At dawn 31 August Vilna took by storm.

I must say that Zayonchek had a very interesting biography. After the defeat of the uprising, he will go to the French army and become a participant in all the campaigns of Napoleon. During the Russian campaign 1812, he will lose his leg and be captured. In 1815, the emperor Alexander Pavlovich will appoint him viceroy in the Kingdom of Poland.

Joseph Zayonchek (1752 — 1826)

The Empress appointed Count Peter Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky, the commander-in-chief of the Russian army. For the aged and sick field marshal, this was an honorary position rather than a valid one. Rumyantsev immediately made the first and most important decision; he summoned Suvorov. And without the sanction of Catherine Alekseevny. With 10-thousand corpus Alexander Suvorov passed from the Dniester to the Bug, making 560 versts in 20 days. Initially, the Poles did not even believe that Suvorov appeared. When Kosciusko was informed about the arrival of Suvorov, he considered that this was another Suvorov (Cossack chieftain).

September 4 Suvorov attacked and defeated the Polish detachment of Major-General Ruzic at Kobrin. September 6 at Krupchine, 15 versts from Kobrin, Suvorov ran into the best 16-thousand. Polish Corps under the command of General Serakovsky. Serakovsky's corps consisted of part of the crown guard and other regular units, had 28 guns. The battle was stubborn - it began at 10 in the morning and ended only at 6 in the evening. The decisive role was played by Russian bayonet attacks. Polish troops suffered heavy losses and retreated in the direction of Brest. Suvorov pursued the enemy, and on September 8 destroyed the Polish corps in a battle near Brest. Corps Serakovsky desperately resisted, but could not resist the forces of Suvorov.

The defeat of Serakovsky had a hard effect on the Polish army. Kosciusko was forced to issue an order to shoot alarmists and create barrage detachments that were supposed to shoot at the runners. Trying to raise the morale of the army at any cost, Kosciusko secretly left the capital. He decided to defeat a separate Russian detachment under the command of Ivan Ferzen and prevent him from connecting with the troops of Suvorov. In total, under Kosciusko, there were 11 thousand soldiers: 7 thousand in the Serakovsky division and 4 thousand in the Polonsky division. Ferzen had about 14 thousand people. Despite the advantage of the Russian detachment in the number and quality of training of soldiers, Kosciuszko decided to attack. September 28 (October 9), he stepped out of Zelehov in the direction of Matseevits. In the morning the Polish cavalry went on the offensive, but was rejected by artillery fire. From the Russian side, the battle was led by Denisov, Ferzen arrived only at the end of the battle.

Russian troops broke the left flank. Simultaneously, the detachment of General Rakhmanov bypassed the right flank of the enemy. The Poles ran. Kosciusko tried to stop the runners. During the battle, two horses were killed under him. In the chaos of the battle, Kosciusko collided with the cornets Lysenko and Smorodsky, who were accompanied by two Cossacks. Cossacks struck Kosciuszko with spades Horse Kosciusko stumbled, the dictator fell. Lysenko wanted to finish off a Polish officer. But Smorodsky recognized Kosciusko and stopped his comrade. So, seriously wounded in the leg and head, in an unconscious state, the Polish Generalissimo was captured. The battle of the Maceiowies ended in a terrible defeat for the Polish forces. Only about 2 of thousands of soldiers could reach Warsaw, the rest were killed, taken prisoner or fled.

Kosciusko was taken to Petersburg, where he lived under house arrest, before the death of the empress. Emperor Paul I freed the rebel. At the same time, at the request of Kosciuszko, the emperor-knight pardoned 12 thousand Poles. All those who were released took the loyal oath. Kosciusko left for London through Scandinavia, receiving Paul's generous gifts. Then Kostyushko traveled to Europe and America. In 1798, arrived in Paris. In France, the “Generalissimo” offered help to Napoleon, demanding guarantees of restoring the Commonwealth to its former borders. Napoleon refused, believing that the value of Kosciusko exaggerated.

Prague assault

October 6 1794, the year Suvorov held a military council, which decided to go to Warsaw. In this case, Suvorov ordered the corps of Fersen and Derfelden to go to the Polish capital. October 14 Suvorov received the news that the Polish detachment is located near the town of Mare and Okunevo. He sent Ferzen to Okunev, and he went to the Mare. Brigadier Isaev walked in the forefront with several hundred Cossacks and 10 squadrons of Pereyaslav horse rangers (total 1,5 thousand people). Isayev’s squad made a night march through swamp forests and in the morning on October 15 clashed with the Poles. It was the 4,5 ths. Squad of Mayen. The Polish commander put infantry in the center with several guns, and there were cavalry on the flanks.

Isaev went on the attack, but she was repelled by rifle and artillery fire. Suvorov arrived. In the words of one of the officers that the detachment has no guns, he said that they should be beaten off from the enemy. Meanwhile, the main forces of the Russian corps began to approach. The Polish flanks were overturned. Mayen began to withdraw troops in two columns. One of them was surrounded in the forest and laid down arms. About 1 thous. People surrendered. The second column was moving along the main road to Warsaw. Suvorov threw almost all the cavalry and two Cossack regiments around it, which came from Fersen. Polish squad was surrounded. The Poles tried to break through, but the Mariupol Horse-Light Regiment and two squadrons of the Glukhovsky Carabinieri, because of the terrain, dismounted and attacked with swords and broadswords along with the rangers. Violent battle lasted more than an hour. Polish column was destroyed. More than 1 thousand people took prisoners alone. Russian troops lost 153 man. 9 guns, banner and wagon train were captured.

For several days the troops rested. October 19 arrived Corps Dörfelden. As a result, Suvorov's forces grew to 25 thousand people (including 4 thousand cavalry and 3 thousand Cossacks) with 86 guns. October 22 Suvorov left Kobylka and moved to Prague - a suburb of Warsaw, located on the right bank of the Vistula.

The suburb was defended by an earthen fence; it consisted of three lines of fortifications: abutments and wolf pits; an earthen rampart with a palisade and a moat; here were separate bastions; internal redoubt for artillery batteries. The northern part of the fortification was based in the Vistula, the south-eastern part - in the swampy, impassable tributary of the Vistula. In addition, there was bridgehead. The garrison of Warsaw was approximately equal to the Russian army - about 20-32 thousand people with 104 guns (according to other data - 200). Artillery batteries from the opposite bank of the Vistula could provide additional support to the troops in Prague. The shortcoming of the defense of Prague was the great length of the defensive line, as well as the weak military training of a significant part of the garrison. The commanders of the Polish troops were the new commander-in-chief, Tomash Vavzhetsky and General Zayonchek.

23 (November 3) October 1794, there was an artillery fire exchange. Alexander Suvorov divided the troops into seven columns. Four columns — Lassi, Lobanov, Isleneva, and Buxgevden (two from the 1 Division of Derfelden and two from the 2 Division of Potemkin) were to storm the northern part of the fortification. After breaking through the outer ring of defense, the first column of Lassi was to cut the Poles off the bridge, and clean up the rest of the inner ring of the Polish defense. Tormasov's 5th column and Rakhmanov's 6th column from the Ferzen corps attacked the eastern line of fortifications. Denisov’s 7 th column was given the task of making a long round of the right flank of the Poles along the marshy coast of the Vistula, seize the batteries and advance towards the bridge. In front of each column were soldiers with entrenching tools and means of overcoming fortifications (wickers for closing wolf pits, fascines, assault ladders, etc.), they were covered by arrows. They were followed by an infantry reserve, which, upon breaking through the forward line of fortifications, was to create a passage for cavalry. All field guns were in the first line and were supposed to fire at the enemy fortifications at the beginning of the battle.

On 5 in the morning of 24 (November 4), a rocket leaped up, and the first four columns silently moved to the assault. Approaching the fortifications, the soldiers shouted "Hurray!" And went on the attack. The pits were covered with watchers and ladders, the ditches were piled with fascines, they were climbed onto the shaft with the help of ladders or hammered bayonets. Poles were hit on the shaft with a bayonet, they fought with rifle butts, sabers and knives. Suvorov demanded without the need not to shoot, not to waste time, “to beat and drive the enemy with a bayonet; to work quickly, quickly and bravely, in Russian! ”The Poles fought fiercely. According to the Russian participant in the assault on Warsaw von Kluge (Klugina), the Poles "have little to say that they fought with bitterness, no - they fought with frenzy and without mercy ... In my life I was twice in hell - at the storming of Ishmael and at the storming of Prague ... It is terrible to remember! .. ”

Battle-painter A. Orlovsky. Sturm Prague, 1797

However, they could not stop the Suvorov "miracle heroes." One of the instigators of the Polish defense, General Zayonchek, was shot in the stomach and at the very beginning of the battle was taken to the other side of the Vistula. General Vavzhetsky tried to organize a defense, but realizing that the matter was lost, he fled across the bridge before the column of Lassi took the Prague garrison into the ring of encirclement. In some places the Poles counterattacked, but their strikes were repulsed. Polish defense collapsed. But the Poles continued to fight in separate bastions, fortifications and houses. Only an insignificant part of the Polish garrison was able to escape in boats or by swimming (about 1 thousand people). Many drowned. The rest were interrupted or taken prisoner. The Russian soldiers, enraged by the stubborn resistance of the Poles and the memories of the Warsaw morning service, tried not to take prisoners. Civilians were also affected. According to Von Kluge, when the houses were shot, our soldiers, rushing into them, did not spare anyone. Suvorov did not continue the battle and ordered to burn the bridge to the other side.

The fierce battle ended in 9 hours. In just a few hours, the Polish garrison of Prague was almost completely destroyed. Everywhere there were piles of corpses. Suvorov ordered to leave them before the arrival of the Warsaw delegation, in order to have a psychological impact on her. In a report from Suvorov on November 7, it was reported that they had counted the killed Poles of 13340, the prisoners of 12860, sank more than 2 thousand people. Among the prisoners were three generals (Mayen, Gesler and Krupsinsky) and 442 officers, and among the dead were four generals (Yasinsky, Korsak, Kvasnevsky and Grabovsky). The Russian army lost 1,5 thousand people.

I must say that in the wars of the time it was a common practice. The same Poles, or Ottomans and French, often acted even tougher than the Russian army. Suvorov has always been cruel to a resisting enemy and merciful to those who laid down their arms. During the storming of Ishmael, the Russian army acted in a similar way.

Following his usual practice to an already defeated enemy, Suvorov ordered the release of thousands of prisoners of militia to 6. Then, at the request of the Polish king, Suvorov released the captured officers. This gesture of goodwill greatly elevated the Russian commander in the eyes of the Poles. About 4 thousand people from regular troops sent to Kiev. In addition, Suvorov took the responsibility and announced an amnesty in the name of the empress. Those who laid down their arms were promised "liberty and oblivion of everything that happened." By November 30, 1794 was pardoned by more than 25 thousand Poles. The Russian general allowed the Polish king to have 1 thousand guardsmen. They even complained to the empress that Suvorov let go of the rioters, including the main ones.

Officer’s Cross and Soldier’s Medal for the capture of Prague in 1794

The end of the uprising

Shocked by the simultaneous death of the entire garrison of Prague, the inhabitants of Warsaw demanded that the command surrender the capital. October 25 Suvorov dictated the terms of the surrender to the delegates and gave time for reflection before October 28. Several desperate Polish officers wanted to take the king and Russian prisoners from Warsaw to continue the war, but were stopped by the townspeople. October 28 Russian Army solemnly entered the Polish capital on the restored bridge. Part of the rebels, having learned about the surrender of Warsaw and the amnesty, laid down their arms. Several units attempted to continue the resistance, but were quickly defeated. Prussia also suppressed the uprising on its territory.

Suvorov for the exploits in the Polish campaign was awarded the highest military rank of Field Marshal, strewn with gifts. The Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm sent the Russian commander the orders of the Red Eagle and the great Black Eagle. Austrian emperor Franz granted Suvorov his portrait, studded with diamonds. In 1795, Catherine the Great greeted the officers with gold crosses "For Toil and Bravery", and silver medals were distributed to the soldiers.

Alexander Suvorov

The third section of the Commonwealth

In November 1795 Polish King Stanislav Augustus Ponyatovsky was sent under escort to Grodno, where he signed an act of abdication of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The last years of his life spent in the Russian capital. 12 February 1798 died suddenly at his residence in the Marble Palace and was buried with royal honors.

Immediately after the fall of Warsaw, negotiations began on a new partition of Poland. 13 (24) October 1795, in the Russian capital, was signed the trilateral Russian-Prussian-Austrian Convention on the third section of the Commonwealth. Petersburg, Berlin and Vienna mutually guaranteed each other new possessions. They were supposed to provide military assistance in the event of the attempt on the land of any third parties or attempts to return them to Poland.

Prussia ceded land to the west of the Pilica, Vistula, Bug and Neman rivers together with Warsaw. These territories are called South Prussia. Berlin also received land in Western Lithuania (Samogitia). In total, Prussia received a territory with a total area of ​​55 thousand square meters. km with a population of 1 million. Most of these lands were inhabited by ethnic Poles, it was the indigenous Polish territory. In addition, Prussia received part of the West Russian lands - a district with the city of Bialystok.

Under Austrian rule, Krakow and part of Lesser Poland between Pilica, Vistula and Bug, as well as part of Podlasie and Mazovia, were ceded. The total area of ​​the Austrian share was 47 thousand square meters. km, with a population of 1,2 million. The structure of Austria included both the indigenous Polish lands and Western Russian regions. The Russian Empire gained land east of the Bug and the Nemirov-Grodno line. These were the Western Russian and Baltic regions. Their total area was 120 thousand square meters. km, with a population of 1,2 million. Kurland, Vilna and Grodno gubernias were established on these lands.

Thus, Rzeczpospolita "came to success." A long series of worthless wars, rebellions, stupidity and mistakes led to the death of Polish statehood. Catherine the Great said in a letter to the Polish king: “The fate of Poland ... is a consequence of the beginnings, destructive for any order and society, drawn in the example of a people who has become the prey of all possible extremes and delusions. It was not in my power to prevent the disastrous consequences and to fall asleep under the feet of the Polish people the abyss, dug out by its corrupters, and into which it was finally carried away. All my worries ... were paid by ingratitude, hatred and treachery. "

Three sections of the Commonwealth
Articles from this series:
Decomposition of Polish statehood. Kosciuszko Uprising
Decomposition of Polish statehood. Rise of Kosciuszko. Part of 2
Decomposition of Polish statehood. Rise of Kosciuszko. Part of 3
Decomposition of Polish statehood. Rise of Kosciuszko. Part of 4
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  1. parus2nik
    parus2nik 28 March 2014 08: 12
    Civilians also suffered..It should be noted that proud, warlike Polish gentlemen invited the public to see how they would deal with Russian troops ...
    Subsequently, the inhabitants of Warsaw presented A.V. Suvorov with a snuffbox with the inscription "The people of Warsaw are their deliverer" .. This speaks volumes ....
  2. predator.3
    predator.3 28 March 2014 10: 07
    Three powers divided Poland, the lands went to Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania, while Russia was accused and blamed, but they didn’t remember about Prussia and Austria! fool
    1. SVA
      SVA 28 March 2014 12: 38
      The author of the article, to my deep disappointment, draws parallels only by looking at the story from its presentation in the Russian version. Therefore, you do not understand the accusations of other countries in the collapse of their countries. How can Belarus tell you that the one who was from Belarus as part of Lithuania called themselves Litvin and not Belarus, since Belarus is an artificially created name that appeared from the filing of your Tsarina. Warsaw County was a puppet state and was created as a buffer between Austria and Prussia at the request of their authorities in order to avoid a conflict with Russia directly. With the partition of Poland on a national basis, Lithuania lost its original lands irretrievably. since there has never been any Belarus. I want to remind you that the first capital of Lithuania was Novogrudok, which is located in the south of Belarus, and Vilno was built much later and became the capital only after the transfer of Novogrudok from the Crimean Tatars, etc., due to the endless assad. not buddies. Now, about the Zhamoitovs of the current Lithuanians, they were then a minority in Lithuania and were a separate subject and would remain them, but due to the correct policy of the Queen of Lithuania, the destruction or annexation of Lithuania were united in Lithuania, I explain that many centuries after the victory over the crusaders in Grunwald the battle of Jemoitia became part of the ON. And it became the state of three countries, then the name appeared - the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Russian and Zhamoit. In short, to summarize, this article is fascinating, but it is one-sided and 4 parts cannot explain everything that happened in those days and why they accuse you now, and they accuse you only because they express your view in such a way that propaganda of greatness is so clear courtiers of your great country. And do not forget that Lithuania-Tartaria and Russia have been the Russian world for many years, and if you do not understand this because you were not taught this, but taught to be ashamed of your own history, presenting countries such as Belarus as under-countries without their heroes like Kostyushko, Kalinovsky idr, as it is always and now afraid to quarrel with you over history. For my own Lithuania, I can say that it was sold and drank in the majority of Shlyakhta, which, instead of defending not only its own interests and those of ordinary people (then it was land), stupidly looked for benefits for its families without caring for ordinary people. And in the future, this story should become a lesson for officials and our rich people that there will be no state if they do not have the support and support of the common people.
      1. xan
        xan 28 March 2014 14: 52
        Quote: SVA
        And do not forget that Lithuania-Tartaria and Russia have been the Russian world for many years, and if you do not understand this because you weren’t taught this, but taught to be ashamed of your own history, presenting countries such as Belarus as under-countries without their heroes like Kostyushko, Kalinovsky Hydr

        Kociuszko and Kalinowski considered Poland their country, and it doesn’t matter that once the land that these guys considered theirs was part of Kievan Rus. Apparently, you consider the Commonwealth to be your homeland, since your heroes considered it their country. All the power of the Slavic world in Russia, and Russia grew on the way Kievan Rus - Vladimir-Suzdal principality - Moscow state - Russian Empire. So it turns out that you and I are different nations.
      2. smile
        smile 28 March 2014 15: 17
        1. Yes. Of course, Belarus is an artificial state, and Belarusians as a nation were formed only at the beginning of the 20th century. Before that, they were just Russian.
        2. The part of the Russian population that lived on the territory of the GDL was indeed considered Litvins - geographically - in the same way all the inhabitants of the USSR were called Russians.
        3. ON was created by Lithuanians. The entire aristocracy was originally entirely Lithuanians. It later. capturing or annexing Russian lands inhabited by Russian people. they began to be diluted with aristocracy with Russian roots. Politically justified marriages with the Russian aristocracy also played their role.
        4. The fairy tales that arose during the perestroika (and by no means earlier) period. that Belarusians are Litvinians, invented only in order to delimit Russians and Belarusians, to try to pretend that Belarusians are not part of the Russian people. There is no scientific basis under these tales - only pseudoscientists, like ravings about ancient Ukrainians.
        In principle, such statements cause contempt ... oddly enough, even the Lithuanians who actively plant similar tales among Belarusians at seminars, rallies and similar events laugh at it.
        5. Your statement that the quote:
        "... I explain that many centuries after the victory over the crusaders in the Battle of Grunwald, Zhemoitia became a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. And it became a state of three countries, then the name appeared - the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Russian and Zhamoit."
        It is bewildering and doubtful in your knowledge - so how many centuries after 1410 (the Battle of Grunwald - is it the battle of альalgiris (lit.)) did ON arise? :))))
        6. I’ll add - for your information, you obviously don’t know anything about it - zhamayts are only a part of Lithuanians. The bulk of them are descendants of the aukshtites. Of course, at present, the difference has largely been erased. but nonetheless. to man. who knows Lithuanian literary language, it is visible. The Zhamaiti dialect is more crude. Lithuanians, by the way, tell jokes about them. where they are shown rude, narrow-minded, greedy and aggressive. :)))
        7. You also forgot that in fact ON was absorbed by Poland. The entire aristocracy was completely polonized in the 16th century.
        8. As for that. that supposedly ON as a result of our actions lost the original lands - this is a direct attempt to mislead - we simply returned the Russian lands previously captured by the Lithuanians and Poles with the Russian population, albeit partially assimilated.

        To summarize, I want to inform you that your attempts to distort the situation are of little value due to absolute groundlessness. You are the victim of propaganda that is hostile to Russia, and quite primitive. Your pearl that the Russian world is Lithuania-Tartaria and I will not even comment on Russia is ridiculous ... :)))
        As for your Lithuania, I can tell you the following - your Lithuania - was not. It was a fairly aggressive state, founded by the Lithuanians and seized significant Russian lands with the Russian population. Subsequently, crushed by Poland. And Poland overcame in attempts to enslave Russia. All. A curtain. :)))
        1. Corsair
          Corsair 28 March 2014 15: 58
          Quote: smile
          Yes. Of course, Belarus is an artificial state, and Belarusians as a nation were formed only at the beginning of the 20 century.

          IMMEDIATELY go back to discuss the Ukrainian topic! laughing

          I understand, of course, that I am taking away your favorite bone, but we will decide the questions about Poland and around it later ...
          1. smile
            smile 28 March 2014 16: 30
            Yavol! :))) That's just on the Ukrainian topic and without me virtually everything is said. So, I’ll just read it .... and I’ll dig a bone in - then I’ll come back, gnawing. :)))
            1. Corsair
              Corsair 28 March 2014 16: 34
              Quote: smile
              That's just on the Ukrainian topic and without me virtually everything is said.
              Not at all ...
              sU rprYzy independents "throw" everything "weirder and weirder" ...
              1. smile
                smile 28 March 2014 17: 10
                I already greeted you there, but I repeat - Zdorozheny bula, piratische! :)))
                To be honest, for the month that I was not there, changes took place - I noticed that almost all the independents had gone somewhere, before there were a lot of them .... you see, they put me in the pose of a machine gun without me they are all on maternity ... :))) And in general, I like to read more - I start to twig only when I see that no one adequately answered the adversary or the patient is broken ... :))))
                1. Corsair
                  Corsair 29 March 2014 02: 23
                  Quote: smile
                  To be honest, during the month that I was not there, changes took place - I noticed that almost all the independents had gone somewhere, before there were a lot of them .... you see, they put me in the pose of a machine gun without me they are all maternity.

                  Yes, our mutual "friend" Kars has disappeared somewhere, and long-time opponent Akim also does not appear request .

                  But I assure you, no one has gone too far in relation to them (and even more so themselves) ...

                  The guys, by their absence from VO, either protest against the position of Russia, or they have full POPA ...
                  1. smile
                    smile 29 March 2014 04: 31
                    Well, protest, so protest:))) .... everyone is better than now they will all be pregnant ... come with the whole crowd, regardless of gender ... and they say, they say - genocide and harrasment :)))) ) Yoshtermet, we’ll pay them again, according to the Muschinsky habit, we will pay ..... sorry for the live-bearing, and even weaned .... albeit bandarlogs :))) And it’s very good if they, substantiating their claims, confirm that ... a stick with respect to them ... :))) nobody was too much .... :))) They had a direct stick, not violating any norms of international law ..... well, with inextricable - for sure. ...:)))) .... :))))
                    Damn, to be honest, it’s disgusting to even discuss them ... well, they are in bins in Allah, huh? :))))
        2. jasorgho
          jasorgho 28 March 2014 18: 33
          ON was created by Lithuanians. The entire aristocracy was originally entirely Lithuanians. It later. capturing or annexing Russian lands inhabited by Russian people. they began to be diluted with aristocracy with Russian roots. Politically justified marriages with the Russian aristocracy also played their role.

          You look at the names and religion of these princes, they had a middle name, they were glorious, Western Russian (Old Belarussian) was immediately state language. Of course, the population considered themselves Russian, but in the old sense of the word, they considered the inhabitants of the Moscow principality to be fake Russians (unlawful Russians). So at that time, the Russians found themselves in two different states, but to attribute statehood to Lithuanians (to the jams) is stupid, they did not even have written language. We walked with clubs. It is foolish to deny the Baltic blood in the nobility, but they (Lithuanian) were already assimilated by the Slavs at that time. Do not forget that the Principality of Lithuania was created on the basis of Polotsk, which was not related to the Balts at all
          1. smile
            smile 28 March 2014 20: 06
            Yeah, the original Russian names -
            Kjastas (keystut),
            Algirdas (olgerd),
            Mindaugas (Mindovg) - original Belarusian names, right? :))) Do you know who they are? :))) Continue next?
            But it is precisely these names that are still actively used by Lithuanians. or the evil Lithuanians brazenly stole names from Belarusians? :)) At the same time with the language ... :))) Yes, so that Belarusians immediately forgot the stolen goods ... :))) Or maybe Jagello (Jagiello) is a Belarusian name? :))) Mdya ... the whole Jagiellonian dynasty is now crowding around the exit from hell with the requirement for the devils to release them for a minute in order to avenge their honor and dignity ... :)))
            Russian patronymics appeared when the Lithuanian ruling elite began to enter into dynastic marriages with the Russians to consolidate the lands occupied by the Lithuanians, for their peaceful annexation or for other political and military purposes.

            I warn you in advance, I know Lithuanian no worse than Lithuanians. He studied Lithuanian history even at school from elementary grades. So, do not try to invent something on this subject ...
            Since you used the term "stupid", I will return it to you - I hope you will not be offended in such a situation. :))) Just in case, I apologize in advance.

            The fact is that to consider zhamait (self-name) and Lithuanians as synonyms is not just silly, it is a recognition of total ignorance of the topic of discussion.
            The leading role among the Lithuanians was played by the Aukstai branch of the Lithuanian people, which was at a completely normal level of development.
            And you could see wild Lithuanians only in Polish films and comrade Sienkiewicz's books. :))) By the 13th century they were not much "wilder than us, the Poles or the French".
            I repeat for those who are especially knowledgeable - zhamaites are only a part of the Lithuanian people, which the Auchstein majority has done so ... moreover, basically, by not very peaceful methods.
            But you, you see, are not aware of the very fact of the existence of the aukshtites .... :)))

            As for writing, the comrades "Tatar-Mongols" acquired their writing during the time of Genghis Khan, and it became more or less common after his death. So what? Did the lack of writing prevent the Mongols? :))) They treated the stranger perfectly. creating the greatest empire.

            In general, forgive me, but it's ridiculous to argue with you - your ignorance of the existence of the aukshtites is just as illiterate as if you were talking about Russian statehood, you didn’t know that Kievan Rus existed, or you forgot that you lived in Russia in the 18th century such a Russian people. :))) And this is without any stretch.
            1. jasorgho
              jasorgho 31 March 2014 17: 16
              you wrote so much
              Lithuanian names, I agree, but do not add them c) In the annals they are not.
              And I have not heard about the seizure by the Lithuanians of the (white) Russian principalities, how do you explain the inclusion of the Polotsk and Turov principalities into the composition on? Even in terms of the number of population and territory, it turns out that the Lithuanians were either excellent warriors or they had great cultural influence. About the riots against the invaders from the north, I did not hear in those days. Therefore, the pagans simply suppressed Christians by their civilization) and then abruptly discarded their culture and adopted the culture of the conquered peoples)

              When I cited the example of Lithuanians in hides and clubs, forgive me, but they are described like that at the battle of Grumwald))) I just wanted to emphasize that there were no Lithuanians as such then. You only confirm my words: it turns out that not all Protolitans are)) and a small part in the person of the Aukstait conquered powerful principalities to the south of themselves) and immediately transferred the capital to the new city, to the south, simply because it is warmer there))

              As for akshtites, zhemutes, zemgals, latgals and all other minor Lithuanian tribes, I know only as much as a significant trace they left about themselves in history)) But if in truth, then of course they are studied in the history of Belarus.
              By the way, all these tribes are indicated in the linen annals as tributaries of the Principality of Polotsk.

              Lithuanian history is like the story of Ukrainians and mythological princes warriors.
              In fact, I think the usual assimilation by the Slavs of the Lithuanians took place, during which more militant and tough feudal lords from present-day Lithuania came to the fore. This can explain both the patronymic of the princes and their religion and how calmly they married Russians (Rusyns) and generally joined the ON. But not as uber-development of the aukshtaytov.
          2. parus2nik
            parus2nik 28 March 2014 21: 29
            Tell me, but besides the Old Belorussian, Old Ukrainian, was the Old Russian language? And how does it differ from those listed above? ...
            1. jasorgho
              jasorgho 31 March 2014 17: 22
              Old Belarussian - as it is called in Belarus
              Western Russian - in Russian historiography
              Old Ukrainian - in Ukraine)

              those who wrote on it themselves wrote that it was "Russian mova". In this language, the records were written in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In Ukraine, he appeared after these lands became part of the ON. Therefore, it can be considered Old Ukrainian from the point of view of Ukrainians.
        3. SVA
          SVA 28 March 2014 19: 28
          ON-was created by the Lithuanians-Litvins-Now they are called Belarusians, but like it, you don’t like it, it’s your problem, take a Belarusian history textbook and you will find something that you don’t like. And about aukshtaytov and zhamoitov it is the same as a moxel or take Turkic with Mordvinian tribes. Now, about the fact that the allegedly poor Russians in Lithuania were commanded by the Aukstayty and Zhamoity. Lithuania was founded by Mindovg. Lithuania, in your opinion, is a squad, but it united the principalities into one state and it was called Lithuania when they knew only Kiev and Novgorod, by the way, Novgorod was protected for a long time and was a powerful free city until Lithuania began to fade away, including because of Muscovy. There is Baltic blood in the Belarusian blood; it was not without reason that they called us Balto-Krivia in the Livonian War. The truth is that now it is customary to divide Belarusians into palyaks and letuvises not because they belong to an ethnic group, but only because they are of the Catholic faith. Now not a single Belarusian calls the current Lithuanians Litvins, since they have never been there and they only have the name of the country they entered after 1410, and that’s all, that’s the truth of Belarus.
          And thank you very much to the komunyaks, we must say thank you for the fact that the original Vilinsky region was torn away from Belarus in a place with Bialystok.
          (As for your Lithuania, I can tell you the following - your Lithuania - was not there.) - Now I want to explain popularly about your perplexity - this is the same as Russia is now called Muscovy and say that it was not, for sure you want it to be but she was and you became Russian only because Catherine did not want to be a Rosami. And now you want to prove something to everyone and at the same time do not understand why the rest of the Slavic peoples do not understand you. Just do not carry nonsense and propaganda.
          1. smile
            smile 28 March 2014 20: 53
            Yes, I don’t like that, I don’t like it. :))) It's unpleasantly simple when any rubbish gets on a serious site. :))
            Yeah, and if you take the Ukrainian textbook, you can enjoy the millennia-old history of ancient ukrov. :))) And if you pick up a Turkish textbook (I read the translation), it turns out that the good civilized Ottomans brought wild Europeans and Russians civilization and humanism. It was especially difficult to defend the peoples of Central Asia and the Caucasus from the expansion of the Russian invaders (I exaggerate slightly, but only slightly).
            Who is to blame for the fact that you also have your own Svidomites, who during the perestroika period were raised by the same forces as the Ukrainian Svidomites?
            So we got to your school books, well, although Butska did not let history distort to such an extent as in Ukraine.

            A earnest request when studying history is not limited to school textbooks for elementary grades. :)))

            Yes, Mindaugas actually created strong Lithuania (this name has been used in Lithuania until now, about as often as we have Peter). But even before him, there were princes at the bottom, and they even raided German territory on raids.
            Lithuania - for your information, it does not translate from Lithuanian in any way. Generally. :)))
            Druzhina (detachment) - KarYauna, drill. Lithuania is a proper name. Like Russia.
            And the inventions of all sorts of self-styledists and their linguistic delights have a credibility similar to the works of Fomenko and Bushkov. Here you can clearly see Bushkov's fotifs. Confess! :))) Or in Russian "squad" - previously called Lithuania? Something I did not hear that the prophetic Oleg was going to Constantinople with his faithful Lithuania. :))) By the way, given the way of life of the Lithuanians - something like the Suzoputnyz of the Vikings. but smaller - I would not be surprised at such word formation ... but no. :)))
            Of course, there is an admixture of Baltic blood in the blood of Russian people living on captured or annexed ON lands - assimilationssss. :))) And then that. that someone called Balto-Krivichi someone - an argument from the category of dummies - all citizens of the USSR abroad were called Russians. :))) Chew, or do you understand? :)))

            For reference - the Lithuanian-Lithuanian - self-name. Russian Lithuanians in those days were called LITHUANIANS. And no other way.
            Hmm ... when you say that Belarusians created the state of Lithuania before Grunwald, there is doubt about your sanity, or there is a suspicion that you are a teenager ... :))) Admit how old you are and whether you graduated from high school ? :)) Well, there, maybe for health reasons it didn’t work out, huh? :)))
            Dear, do you know when the term "Belarusians" appeared? In the 19th century. And how, in your opinion, did the Lithuanians manage to steal the name Lithuania, Litvin from the ancient Belarusians, to steal the original Belarusian names, and even so that the Belarusians would forget them? :)) Yeah, have you forgotten that they are Belarusians for half a millennium? :)))

            Yeahhh, it still turns out that Belarusians are Poles with Lithuanians in one bottle? :)))) Tin !!!! :))) It's just enchanting !!!!

            I can’t imagine who I need to be in order to so persistently give up my identity. just to join the not very successful nations - Poles and Lithuanians ... :)))) Just to not recognize. that Belarusians are just part of the great Russian people.
            And do not slander the Belarusians - this is a smart people, there are no more ignorant and demented than ours. :)))

            Your pathetic semi-literate attempts to explain something, the more "popular" look funny. But you can stop exposing yourself to ridicule - this is not quite the topic - this is not Petrosyan's party, they don't come here to laugh.

            And the last thing - you personally should kiss the Communists' feet, because for the first time in history they created the Belarusian quasi-statehood in the form of the Belarusian SSR. If not for this step. no state Belarus would ever have arisen.

            Would you go to teach a primer, eh? Illiteracy hurts the eyes, excuse me.
            1. Rider
              Rider 28 March 2014 21: 13
              Quote: smile
              Would you go to teach a primer, eh?

              killed, trampled, abused.
              (in that order)

              shake your hand.
              1. smile
                smile 28 March 2014 21: 35
                Yeah, now I kind of have to say thank you to you for your support ... but already, a bad person, a radish, it turns out, called me a necrophile of trodden oligophrenics !!!! :)))) :))) PSYO! I was offended and went to cry in the corner - the guests will come to me in fifteen minutes and if I don’t stuff the vodka in the freezer (I forgot) they will also kill me and trample me ... :)))
                And anyway - thanks. :)))
            2. yastr
              yastr April 2 2014 16: 00
              Well done :) Thank you from Belarus for such an answer! All right!
        4. yastr
          yastr April 2 2014 15: 47
          As Old Man says: "Belarusian is a Russian with a quality mark" :)
      3. Turkir
        Turkir 28 March 2014 22: 09
        "And do not forget that Lithuania-Tartary and Russia were the Russian world for many years" - interesting, but if you undertook to teach us, then do it in full, at least for this new discovery in historical science.
        You, as I understand it, Belarusian Lithuanian. The word gentry, which you have written with a capital letter, betrays your, if not its origin, then some worship of the gentry, well, let's say like thoroughbred horses.
        Although, according to your own words, the gentry "stupidly looked for benefits for their families without caring about the common people." So why, you give us, such as Kosciuszko, the gentry, for the heroes of the people? Is this not the noble logic: he is a fool, but this is our fool.
        Gentry, gentry thinking, this is first and foremost - contempt for own people (clap,), this contempt for the foundations of statehood (electivity of the atmans. kings) and a bet on strength and greed.
        All the signs of a modern gangster. No wonder. Henry III, escaped from the Polish royal throne.
        You didn’t ask yourself a question, why did Poland, Lithuania and Ukraine end up on the sidelines of history, and this hated Russia, you so much, rushed forward, leaving you far behind? And when you come out of the gentry thinking, which did not bring you anything good?
        Tartaria, on the maps of European geographers runs right up to eastern Siberia, but does not start from Lithuania, but from the borders of the Moscow state.
        I have these medieval maps, but I do not have medieval thinking.
        1. smile
          smile 28 March 2014 22: 51
          Sorry, can I explain a little - he is not a Belarusian Lithuanian - he is a supporter of the idea that Belarusians are not part of the Russian people, but it turns out - Litvinians. And Lithuanians have almost nothing to do with Lithuania ... unless the ancient Belarusians-Litvinians, creating the Grand Duchy of Lithuania several centuries after Grunwald !!!! :))))) simply annexed Lithuanian lands to its Belarusian principality ... :))) And the Lithuanians simply appropriated the ancient Belarusian-Lithuanian history. :)))

          Sorry that I have to explain this to you, I just understand that you, as an absolutely sane person, cannot believe that someone can reach such an extent ... unreasonable. :)))

          So, the comrade is an ordinary Belarusian, amazed by the theory that appeared in perestroika times, which is now actively promoted by Bushkov, for example, in the book "Russia, which did not exist-3". :)))

          By the way, you answered very well.
          1. Turkir
            Turkir 29 March 2014 08: 31
            Within the narrow framework of the commentary, you can't even mention everything. Yes, and "a good thought comes after."
            Gentry thinking, this is a mental illness, very contagious.
            I speak with good reason about mental illness: this is extreme egocentrism, the fourth sign of gentry thinking. The whole WORLD story revolves around YOUR country. And the most important thing now EVERYTHING is just talking about you - self importance (a veiled form of Pity for MYSELF).
            Why contagious: because of its simplicity, primitiveness. It is easily taken into service and it is difficult to part with it. But how easy it is to live with him, everything is so easy to explain!
            Once again, gentry thinking is the thinking of an ordinary gangster. Some people want to be smart among duracs, I prefer to be durack among smarts.
            Sorry, I couldn’t stop right away.
            Thank you, not for the plus, but for your attention.
            Bushkov is a scribbler, with deviations in egocentrism.
            1. Rider
              Rider 29 March 2014 10: 19
              Quote: Turkir
              Bushkov is a scribbler, with deviations in egocentrism.

              it's hard to disagree.
              there is something in his writing style, from the moralizing of the guru fed up with life.

              however, it is in this matter that you are wrong.
              the theory of "noble Rus" or "Russian Atlantis" is not at all preached by him.
              this "reading matter" was published in the book "Russia which did not exist 2"under co-authorship A. Bushkova, but the author is not at all.
              and subsequently Bushkov himself denied her in every possible way.
              the author of this creation, was looking for a place in modern Russia, with Europe or Asia.
              and from the first he took the best, and the second attributed the most terrible vices.
              thereby proving with foam at the mouth that we have a place there in a fresh and enlightened Europe, and not at all in the center of darkness and vice - Asia.
              clearly not realizing (or maybe realizing perfectly well, there is such a breed among the "Russian intelligentsia") that Russia's place in Europe will, at best, be on the doorstep (but rather much worse)

              just do not Bushkov this.
              in vain you roll a cart on it.
              he’s just (in my opinion) a Eurasianist like Gumilyov.
              as seen in his book "Unknown Asia"
              1. smile
                smile 29 March 2014 13: 35
                Not Bushkov? It's strange ... I still have his book "Russia. Which was not 3" lying around somewhere - namely "3" .... the cover says that the author Bushkov ... I don't know, I was not interested in who he had there co-author - just overlooked the book .... but I will definitely look how I find it.
            2. smile
              smile 29 March 2014 13: 36
              There’s nothing to add. I agree.
      4. yastr
        yastr April 2 2014 15: 45
        Well, what do you write then? :) Novogrudok is not in the south, but in the west, you are my Belarusian :) Kosciuszko is a Pole. What Lithuania are you writing about? Principality of Polotsk can Lithuania? Well, or Turovskoye? :) I've been teaching history in Belarus and Russia :) I don’t see any contradictions, and I don’t need to present everything in this light and engage in a substitution of concepts. Polish Kosciuszko was never a representative of Belarusians. Moreover, as a former resident of the Grodno region testify to the great dislike of the population for the Poles, there is a reason for this.
      5. Molot1979
        Molot1979 April 19 2020 15: 16
        My dear, so what's the matter? Surrender to Lithuania and historical justice will be restored. Once again, you will become slaves of the lords. Believe me, they will only be happy.
    2. michał
      michał 28 March 2014 13: 17
      On what basis do you say so? Of course, the Poles know the history and who participated in the partition of Poland. Russia always gets along with Germany over the heads of the Poles. During the Kosciuszko uprising and sections, but in 1939, getting along with Hitler.
      1. Vladimir1960
        Vladimir1960 28 March 2014 13: 45
        1938 Note, before the Molotov-Ribentrop Pact. Poland and Germany shared Czechoslovakia. Poland wrested the Teshin region from Czechoslovakia. Banned the passage of the Red Army through its territory to help Czechoslovakia. Churchill seems to have said: "Poland is the hyena of Europe."
        1. Turkir
          Turkir 28 March 2014 22: 15
          Everything is correct and even Poland offered Hitler an alliance against the USSR.
          And yet, the Polish government abandoned its people and escaped to London in full force. But of course, they were all thoroughbred gentry.
      2. smile
        smile 28 March 2014 15: 27
        Yes, the Poles know history ... but they are very shy to admit that since the 15th century their aggressive, expansionist state has tried to enslave the Russians. In the occupied territories, the good Poles carried out violent polonization, accompanied by such atrocities that Baty would be envious.
        As a result of a series of wars of conquest undertaken by Poland, she was defeated and. naturally, she was punished - dismembered in much the same way. how fascist Germany was dismembered. Polish cry about that. that we have torn away from the Poles akin to that. as if the Germans were yelling that the lands of the peaceful Reich had been torn away ... within the summer of 42 years.
        And in 39 - it was not necessary for Poland. having sniffed with Hitler to tear Czechoslovakia to pieces, and hatched little ideas captured our lands right up to the Black Sea. Eventually. it turned out. that it’s more pleasant for their ally Hitler to see the Poles as slaves. and not associates. And we just liberated our lands occupied by the Poles and freed part of our people enslaved by them.
        So, you, apparently, do not know what "history" is. My condolences. :)))
        1. Turkir
          Turkir 29 March 2014 08: 55
          Totally agree with you.
          I would like to draw your attention to one subtle point of the Polish "self-consciousness", it is Catholic-knightly, drang nach osten.
          The Poles inspired themselves, although no one asked for it and the indulgences did not betray that they "outpost of European civilization" in the East.
          Even the last World War taught them nothing. They do not see at close range that the "European civilization" still HATES and FEARS the SLAVS.
          That Europe sees in them the same Slavs and despises Poland, as well as Lithuania and Ukraine, and it is through these three Slavic countries with their nobility that they want to get to Russia. They do not understand that if there is no Russia, then there will be no themselves.
  3. DimYang
    DimYang 28 March 2014 12: 30
    Here "svidomye" in today's Belarus does not teach history. When I spoke to one and asked about the national hero of Belarus, they immediately called Kosciuszko. I can't laugh. He himself considered himself a Pole Catholic, and he was recorded as a hero of Belarus. He fought for Poland and for the stupid ideas of the French "enlighteners". If Francis Skaryna had been told that he was Belarusian, then most likely at least he would not have understood that idiot.
    1. jasorgho
      jasorgho 28 March 2014 18: 26
      the costume said that he was not a Pole but a Polish, i.e. Commonwealth speech. But he admitted that he is Litvin, although he was Catholic by religion and had his Polish language
      1. DimYang
        DimYang 29 March 2014 17: 20
        There is such a thing as - you are the one in what language you speak.
        1. jasorgho
          jasorgho 31 March 2014 16: 58
          “Who am I, if not Litvin, your fellow countryman, your chosen one?”
          Tadeusz Kosciuszko (s)
  4. michał
    michał 28 March 2014 13: 38
    The Russians call it the Storm of Prague. In Poland, the common name is "Reznya Prahy".

    After breaking the resistance of the defenders, the Russians destroyed the civilians of Prague.
    As a result of the wave of killings of several hours, about 20000 people died.
    This act terrorized the left-bank of Warsaw and bowed towards the capital to surrender.

    The rebel army moved south and on November 5 the whole city was occupied by the Russians.
    The then British ambassador in Warsaw, described the killing of civilians as disgusting, unnecessary barbarism. ("With the highest regret, we inform Your Lordship that the attack on the defense of Prague was accompanied by the most terrible and completely unnecessary barbarism ..." - The British Prime Minister informed his ambassador in Warsaw, Colonel William Gardiner).

    To celebrate the victory of Empress Catherine II instituted the Cross award for the victory of Prague.

    Russian historians are responsible for the defeat of the Kazakhs, Suvorov had to order the destruction of bridges to prevent left-bank Warsaw.

    However, a Russian military service officer during the slaughter of Prague indicates that the reason for issuing the order was to destroy the bridges in order to avoid a counterattack by the Polish troops from Warsaw to completely drunk Russian regiments. (

    At the same time, according to eyewitnesses, Suvorov not only did not take measures to prevent the massacre, did not punish the perpetrators, but suffered significant advantages when they said later to recreate a narrow pedestrian bridge and allowing right-bank Warsaw killed a family that laid the foundation for a psychosis of fear among the civilian population cities and accelerated surrender.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 28 March 2014 15: 18
      And why did the Warsaw people give Suvorov a snuffbox with the inscription "Warsaw people to their savior", for the massacre? .. About drunken Russian regiments .. tired of reading .. only Europeans, white and fluffy and only sober .. English cartoons .. there was an English caricature dedicated to the Battle of Poltava, where Tsar Peter escapes from the Swedish Karl, and there was an English press about how Karl surrounded the Russian Tsar near Poltava ..
      And finally, you otkel ..? Do not write that from Russia, Russians with such an accent do not write ..
    2. smile
      smile 28 March 2014 15: 37
      Well yes. Well, yes, you referred to the standard of reliability of information - the prime ministers of Britain and their all kinds of ambassadors ... :))) Isn't it funny to yourself?
      Apparently. you do not understand. that honestly referring to sources of information you convexly show all the falsehood of your own statements. Or convex. :)))

      Your ravings about completely drunk Russian regiments are quite remarkable - can you imagine that completely drunk soldiers stormed the fortifications defended by numerically superior opponents with quantitatively superior artillery? By the way, if the Russians did the atrocities with the Poles that the cute Poles did with the Russians, then there would probably be no Poles left. No matter how their language, faith and culture would be left.
      But where are you interested in history - you have to lie. :)))
      Admit. For a long time I did not come across such foolish opponents. :))) And, to be honest, I don’t want to anymore - you are even disgusted to read you.
      1. xan
        xan 28 March 2014 18: 58
        Quote: smile
        Admit. For a long time I did not come across such foolish opponents. :))) And, to be honest, I don’t want to anymore - you are even disgusted to read you.

        The gentleman spits on a training manual, but not a word about the Russian massacre in Warsaw! How is it in Polish and European!
        If Suvorov was a European, and not Russian, you would be wretched now recalling the massacre of Warsaw, not Prague.
        1. smile
          smile 28 March 2014 20: 54
          All right. Short and clear - right in the eye. :)))
    3. Turkir
      Turkir 29 March 2014 00: 09
      Judging by the poor translation, you simply took the article of the Polish "historian", made a translation from Polish into Russian and went away.
      There are two types of historians:
      Pseudo-historian - first sets himself a task, let me prove that the Poles are freedom-loving, and the Russian executioners. He collects facts taken out of context and publishes his "historical" fornication. Such historians are a dime a dozen.
      Historian collecting facts and subjecting them to a comprehensive analysis, and what the opposite side writes about this fact, and what the neutral side writes about the same fact and FACTS advance the historian to the TRUTH.
      I too can stand up for a moment pseudohistoric and write:
      In 1612, the Poles performed a CARRY in the Moscow Kremlin, planted a Polish bastard on the Holy Russian throne and desecrated the shrines of the Russian Church.
      They are many years, crap on the Russian land and now "vengeance is mine and I will repay", Prague.
      Like a fan of pseudo history?
  5. michał
    michał 28 March 2014 13: 43
    English caricature from 1795, dedicated to the massacre in Prague.

    and another picture of those years:
    Alexander Orlovsky, Prague Song, 1810
    1. smile
      smile 28 March 2014 15: 41
      Anglo-Saxon propaganda, both in those days and now is the standard of deceit and hypocrisy. Only twice in the entire history of the world did the Anglo-Saxons have a worthy adversary, Napoleonic propaganda and Goebbels.
      The rest of the time - they are out of competition. :)))
      Congratulations. you are the consumer of the most base lies. :)))
  6. xan
    xan 28 March 2014 14: 09
    Like it or not, judging by the map, our people took the largest territories, albeit not purely Polish, but which were part of the Polish state. And hatred of the Russians, and not of the Austrians and Prussians, is also understandable - ours were solving the main issues, and the Austrians and Prussians were at the helm because of their weaknesses - they could not take Warsaw, and ours without any siege by storm with a bloody river and wound in Polish subconscious for centuries - pissed so that they still whine.
    1. Turkir
      Turkir 29 March 2014 08: 12
      On the territory of the "Warsaw District", where the Russian monarchy dominated, and not the Russian people (do not forget this), the Polish language was not prohibited and teaching in schools was conducted in Polish, Polish newspapers were published, and on the territory occupied by Prussia and Austria, Poles they did not dare to think about it.
  7. wax
    wax 28 March 2014 16: 46
    In a letter to the Polish king, Catherine the Great noted: “The fate of Poland ... is a consequence of principles destructive for all order and society, gleaned from the example of a people that has become the prey of all possible extremes and errors. It was not in my power to prevent the disastrous consequences and to fall under the feet of the Polish people the abyss dug up by its perversions, and in which he was finally carried away. All my worries ... were paid by ingratitude, hatred and treachery. "

    Now in Ukraine we see the reincarnation of Polish events more than two centuries ago.
  8. AlexA
    AlexA April 1 2014 12: 02
    Quote: michał
    The Russians call it the Storm of Prague. In Poland, the common name "Reznya Prague

    Call it what you want. Just be consistent in your quotes. The author of the article described in full detail the circumstances of the "Warsaw Zatrenia" - in fact, the massacre of Russian servicemen and members of their families caught by surprise. From the point of view of both international law and conscience, this is an act of barbarism.
    And in Prague there was a battle: an advance prepared and declared attack by the fortifications occupied by Polish troops after artillery preparation. What is the massacre? if at the same time quite a lot of Polish soldiers died with weapons in their hands, then please submit complaints to your soldiers for the level of combat training and political and moral condition.
    Also, the Scripture says, "Treat others the way you would like to be treated."
    You started the massacre in Warsaw, she returned to you in Warsaw. It's cruel. But fair.
    Mihi vindicta, ego retribuam.
  9. Bobr luch
    Bobr luch April 3 2014 04: 40
    According to the discussion, Smiles and NEA were convinced of watered. bias and one-sidedness of this thread.
    [quote = smile] SVA
    "Who is to blame for the fact that you also have your own svidomites, who were raised by the same forces during the perestroika period as the Ukrainian svidomites?"
    So we got to your school textbooks, well, even though Batska didn't let the story be distorted to the same extent as in Ukraine. "
    I have never supported Svidomo tendencies; on these posts I begin to understand their motives. Anti-Russian rhetoric is one thing, but another is the attempt of smaller peoples to delve into their history and find historical trends that are significant for themselves and highlight their national characteristics. But no, for the observation of NEA, that Belarusians had at one time their statehood different from Great Russian. Some attacks and verbal gopnicism begin. This is the close embrace of love of a big brother from which, at your own request, you can’t get out.

    Litvin is not the name of the people but citizenship, belonging to the state.
    The influence of the Aukstaitian princes on the state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania included only in the ruling dynasty, which was not badly assimilated by the Russian princes. Ultimately, both the top of society and the bulk of the people were concentrated in modern Belarus, northern Ukraine and the western regions of Russia. Starting as the center of consolidation, the territory of present-day Lithuania rather quickly turned into a territorial appendage to the Russian (not Russian) Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
  10. ydjin
    ydjin 15 July 2020 15: 36
    The Poles always received more than they wanted, but not in their favor. It’s time for the pshek to understand and understand this. How much can hats hand foot to face receive? Can they squeeze the German lands that we drove them into reverse ?. Gentry