The Russian government was satisfied with the second section of the Commonwealth. Catherine II hoped that the rest of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth would establish calm and stability. And the thing was not in a special relationship with Poland, but in a military-political situation.
As already noted, Russia was not interested in the complete liquidation of Polish statehood. The Russian Empire was advantageous to maintain a relatively weak and loyal Polish state, which was ensured by the domination of the “pro-Russian party” in Poland. Such a state could not bring trouble and at the same time served as a buffer between Russia, Prussia and Austria. The strengthening of Austria and Prussia at the expense of the most populous and economically developed western regions of Poland did not suit Russia.
Russia at that time had a more serious goal — Constantinople and the Straits. Back in December 1791, Ekaterina told her secretary Khrapovitsky that St. Petersburg needed “free hands”. In 1792, Russia received such freedom: in the summer, Prussian and Austrian armies invaded France. Western Europe has entered a period of "revolutionary wars." At that time, all the attention, forces and resources of the leading powers were attracted by revolutionary France. Russia could safely pursue their goals. Unfortunately, under Alexander Pavlovich, Russia will plunge into Western European problems, instead of solving national problems ...
In late 1792 - early 1793 Russia begins preparations for the Bosphorus operation. From the Baltic fleet More than 2 thousand officers and sailors are being transferred to the Black Sea. In Kherson and Nikolaev lay 50 gunboats and 72 rowing vessels. At the beginning of 1793, the new commander-in-chief Alexander Suvorov arrives in Kherson. Petersburg publicly develops activities to combat the Jacobins, but in fact concentrates the best forces in the south. The opening of navigation was to be the beginning of the operation to capture the straits. Ushakov and Suvorov await the order. Russia was close to the mastery of Constantinople, St. Sofia.
However, these plans did not come true. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the world could not be by definition. Rich pans arranged balls, masquerades, hunts, and at the same time moaned about the "calamities of the fatherland", which they robbed twice. Moreover, almost all of the hatred was directed against Russia, although the Russians did not take a single city or village that belonged to ethnic Poles.
Part of the Polish gentry began to secretly prepare a rebellion, hoping for the help of France. Among these gentlemen was General Dzalylynsky, Brigadier General Madalinsky, Yelsky, and others. They were joined by rather dark personalities like the merchant Kopotas, who, with a Jew, Mazing, owned a large banking office and bought “nobility”. Another of these dark personalities was the "shoemaker" Kilinsky, who enjoyed great success with the Warsaw ladies.
The "banner" of the uprising was General Tadeusz Kosciuszko. He was born 4 February 1746 of the year and belonged to a poor old noble family. Kosciusko studied at the Knight School in Warsaw (like a military academy), where officers were trained. Kostiushko stood out among his peers with asceticism, will and purposefulness and reminded him of the Swedish king Charles XII (for which the nickname Swede stuck to him). For his excellent studies, he received a royal scholarship and was sent to Paris to study at the military academy. There he was more influenced by the ideas of the French Enlightenment. However, a talented young man did not find a place in his homeland: at that time, the officer’s position could only be bought for a large amount, and Kostyushko did not have the money. This fact perfectly characterizes Polish reality. One of the most talented young people in Poland was not needed by the motherland.
In 1776, Tadeusz traveled to America, where he joined the US Army, was engaged in the fortification of cities and military camps. He was widely known for the defense of Ticonderoga and the battle of Saratoga. Tadeusz did an excellent job with building fortifications to protect Philadelphia and became the chief engineer of the Northern Army, which defended operational directions from Canada and New York. Then transferred to the Southern Army, where he also distinguished himself in several battles. In recognition of Kostyushko’s merit, the US Congress in October 1783 of the year awarded him the rank of Brigadier General of the American Army.
During the 1792 war, Kostyushko became the commander of one of the three divisions that made up the army of the Commonwealth under the command of Y. Ponyatovsky. General Kosciusko showed himself well in a series of battles. After the victory of the Targowitz Confederation and the Russian Army, Kosciusko fled to Saxony and then to France, where he unsuccessfully tried to involve the French in the war with Prussia and Russia. The French could only promise money and assistance to Turkey in the event of an uprising. For lack of other capable Polish generals, Kosciuszko became a national hero. Returning from France to Saxony and moving to Galicia, he joined in the preparation of the uprising. He was appointed "dictator".
The position of the rebels eased the weakness of the Russian command in Poland. At the beginning of 1794, Russian troops in Warsaw were led by Lieutenant-General Baron Osip Igelstrom. A native of the German nobility, Igelstrom was a good servant, but did not have the ability to act independently and did not understand Polish affairs. In addition, the elderly baron fell in love with Countess Zalussky, one of the first beauties of Warsaw, and became a toy in the hands of a Polish noblewoman. True, the countess did not suffer from an excess of patriotism and used the Russian general to solve only her tasks. She even warned him about the plot, rumors about which were in the community.
But the general did not believe in the conspiracy, decided that it was woman’s gossip. But just in case, doubled the guards and ordered the arrest of the most suspicious Poles. However, most successfully escaped. In addition, the general, just in case, asked St. Petersburg for reinforcements. Catherine felt that rumors about the danger of exaggerated and the troops enough.
Polish artist Francis Smuglevich. The oath of Tadeusz Kosciuszko in the Krakow market
The course of the uprising
The Grodno Seym dissolved a large part of the Polish army. Some shelves completely disbanded, others significantly reduced in number. Officers and soldiers became a source of outrage on the ground. General Madalinsky refused to submit to the decision of the Grodno Seym and disband his I Velikopolskoy National Cavalry Brigade.
12 March Madalinsky moved to the head of the brigade from Ostrolenka, crossed the Prussian border and seized the city of Soldau. The salary of the Prussian army was kept there (“Prussian military cauldron”). Having seized the money, Madalinsky again moved to Poland and decided to seize Krakow. On the way, Anthony Madalinsky seized city and public ticket offices.
When he learned about the arrests of the conspirators and the statement of the Madalinsky brigade, Kostyushko decided to start the uprising, although he considered that it was not yet ready, and hurried to Krakow. Colonel Lykoshin, who commanded the Russian garrison in Krakow, decided that it was pointless to take the battle in hostile surroundings and led his detachment out of the city. In the Krakow church, the leaders of the uprising solemnly consecrated their sabers. 16 March 1794, the inhabitants of Krakow proclaimed Kosciusko dictator of the republic. In Krakow, the Act of Rebellion was announced. Kosciusko urged people to “hurry with weapons under the banner of the motherland "and donate money, horses, supplies and other property.
The chief of the Russian troops in Warsaw, General Igelstrom, sent to suppress the insurrection 5-thousand. detachment under the command of Alexander Tormasov. Kosciuszko had about the same number of people, almost half of whom were cosineers (peasants armed with redone braids). Kosciuszko, who gained rich experience in the American war of independence, took a strong position near the village of Raczawica Malopolska. Polish soldiers are well entrenched.
On the morning of April 4, 1794, General Tormasov attacked the Poles. While the Russian soldiers unsuccessfully stormed the Polish positions, detachments of the mascine operators under the personal guidance of Kosciuszko secretly walked around the Russian detachment and penetrated to its rear. As a result of this attack, the Poles seized all the 18 guns (according to other sources, 12) of the Tormasov unit. Detachment Tormasov, who was between two fires, retreated. Kosciusko had no power to pursue, so his victory had more moral significance than the military (both squads lost approximately 500 people). After the defeat, the Russian troops quietly continued operations in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship. The victory raised the morale of the uprising and became a signal for the whole of Poland. Young people began to flock to Kosciuszko. Most Polish lands rebelled. A riot swept Lithuania and Kurland, and the Warsaw uprising began. There was an uprising in Vilna.
Fight at Raczlawitz. Figure by Michal Stakhovich
Warsaw matins. The uprising in Warsaw was appointed on 6 (17) April. On the night of April 5 on 6, the conspirators handed out money to the “mob” (urban base). The priests secretly preached bloodshed. To the parts of the coronary (Polish) troops, the officers announced that the Russians were planning to seize the Polish arsenal and powder stores. Warsaw matins (Polish. Insurekcja warszawska - Warsaw Uprising) began early in the morning. A detachment of the royal horse guards suddenly flew out of the barracks and attacked the Russian picket, which stood between the barracks and the gates of the Saxon garden. The picket was forced to retreat. Then the whole horse guards left: two squadrons headed for the arsenal, two - to the powder stores. In the arsenal, the rebels began to distribute rifles and broadswords to everyone.
The ringing of the bells calling for matins became familiar to the performance. The Russians were taken by surprise. Armed mobile under the leadership of the gentry gathered in the crowd and everywhere attacked and killed the Russians. Some were killed at a gathering for the holiday, others on the road to churches, others in beds when they could not defend themselves. Only the officers were left alive, and not all of them. Only a few managed to barricade themselves, shot back fiercely and were able to get out of the city. Thousands of Russians died.
The Polish king made attempts to reassure people, but to no avail. Most of the Russian garrison, having lost contact with the command, on the day of April 6 left the Polish capital. Igelstrom with several hundred soldiers was surrounded in his mansion. According to some data, on April 7, he was able to make his way out of the city, on the other, Countess Zalussky saved him, taking him disguised from Warsaw. The generals will be hidden in one of the estates where Prussian troops will rescue him. Later, the empress will send the hapless general to resign. The Russian commander found important documents that did not have time to burn (including secret correspondence with noble grandees). The enraged rebels, despite the protests of the leaders, lynched several notable gentlemen who belonged to the "pro-Russian party." One of the consequences of this massacre was the hatred of Russian soldiers for the Poles. When storming Warsaw, Russian troops will act very tough.
Polish battle artist Yuliush Kossak. Warsaw Uprising
Simultaneously with the uprising in Warsaw, a mutiny began in Vilna. The city was located 3-th. Russian garrison under the command of General Arsenyev. Polish-Lithuanian troops suddenly attacked the Russian garrison at night. The commander of the garrison was immediately killed, according to other sources, he was first captured and then killed. 50 officers were captured and up to 600 lower ranks.
The remaining Russian military in disarray, in separate groups or one by one, fled from the city. The hero of this difficult day was Major N. A Tuchkov (the future hero of the Patriotic War 1812 of the year). He managed in an orderly way out of the city to 700 soldiers and artillery park - 12 guns. And with this small detachment the brave commander nearly fought off the city back. He turned back, set fire to the suburb and, setting the guns at one of the heights, opened fire in the center of Vilna. 1-thousand was sent against Tuchkov. Polish squad with 4 guns. Major applied military trick. The Cossacks lured the Poles to disguised guns, and they almost point-blank, they simply dared to grapple with the canister. The surviving Poles fled in panic. By noon 6, April, Tuchkov had already assembled more than 2 thousand soldiers. However, having received information about the approach of the large enemy forces to Vilna, Tuchkov led a detachment to Grodno. On April 11, the Tuchkov detachment was attacked by 6 by thousands of Poles, but the major repulsed the blow and went out to Grodno.
In Warsaw, began the execution of figures of the "pro-Russian party." Despite the protection of the king, who was under house arrest, the hetman coroner Ozharovsky, the hetman of Lithuania Zabello, the Vilno bishop Masalsky and others were captured and then executed. Kostyushko received the title of generalissimo and announced general mobilization. The Polish army had grown to 70 thousand people, but for the most part it was a poorly armed and undisciplined libertine, unable to resist the Russian army. For arming the militia opened all the arsenals, forges reworked spit in spikes. In Warsaw, work began on the construction of fortifications.
7 May Kosciusko issued Polonets wagon, in which the peasants were promised personal exemption and reduction of duties. 28 May was established by the Supreme Government Council. It includes: Sulistrovsky, Vavrzhetsky, Myshkovsky, Kollontai, Zakrzhevsky, Velovesky, Ignatiy Pototsky and Yaskevich.
However, all the activities stumbled upon the Polish reality. A single capable general could not instantly change the age-old habits of the nobility and the whole country. Landowners met with a decree from 7 in May, where claps were promised various rights, with discontent, seeing in the document a violation of their age-old rights. The claps were also attributed to him with distrust - the promised freedoms should have been approved by the future Seym, where feudal lords and clergy dominated. There was no money in the treasury, the situation with taxes was critical, they just stopped paying. Donations were few, although many tycoons and lords had huge fortunes, but they preferred to roll up rich feasts and please their mistresses. Their “patriotism” was more in words than in deeds.
The idea of “having pospolitogo destruction” (general mobilization) also failed. There were few recruits, the army suffered a lack in everything. It was supposed to raise thousands of people for the 400 war, but only a few tens of thousands were recruited. Kostiushko, hoping to raise the flakes, of which he wanted to form detachments of the company operators, began to wear peasant clothes, travel through the villages, imitate the peasants' way of life, promise freedom and land. But the result was minimal. The peasants did not want to fight for the gentry, their life practically did not depend on the authorities sitting above - Polish, Russian or Prussian. The uprising was doomed. The Polish “elite” in its overwhelming majority was disintegrated and incapable, and the common people for the most part did not see the goal of the uprising, the meaning for which it was necessary to lay down their lives.
54-ths entered the Polish state Prussian army under the personal leadership of the king. The Prussians did not want to fight the Poles, they left this mission to the Russians, but wanted to capture as much territory as possible in order to have a trump card in the new partition of Poland. Kostiushko attempted to prevent the unification of separate Russian detachments under Denisov, Khrushchev and Rakhmanov with the Prussian army. But Denisov's detachment joined the Prussians and, having gone on the offensive, Szczekocin defeated Kosciusko.
Fyodor Denisov was an experienced commander and came from the Don Cossacks. He distinguished himself in the Russian-Turkish war 1768-1774. In the battle of Larga, he slaughtered seven Turkish soldiers and was promoted to officer. There were legends about his courage, and the nickname “Denis Pasha” terrified the Turks. Denisov distinguished himself during the suppression of the uprising of the Crimean Tatars, as well as during the 2 of the Turkish war. Denisov covered himself with glory and in the war with Sweden. In a series of battles, he received numerous wounds, personally attacking the enemy. He told the Empress: "Courage opens the wide gates to victory." He had the experience of the war in Poland, during the Bar Confederation.
Fedor Petrovich Denisov (1738 — 1803)
15 June Prussian troops occupied Krakow. The Prussian army moved to Warsaw. But Kosciusko pulled off large forces to the capital, and the Germans, having stood for a couple of months in Warsaw, left without deciding to storm. In addition, a partisan war began in their rear. In Wielkopolska a revolt broke out, partisans captured several cities and villages.
Austria also sent troops to Poland. The Austrian army occupied Krakow, Sandomierz and Chelm. At this the Austrians stopped. Viennese court did not want to wage war. The Austrian government was going to secure strong positions in the future section of the Commonwealth, and not to fight.
Kosciusko continued to try to save Poland. On September 10, he ordered the confiscation in favor of the treasury of all valuables in silver and gold, not only state and public, but monastic, church and private. Gold and silver were supposed to provide 5-percent securities issued by the interim government. September 18, in view of the complete failure of the "pospolitomi rushenie", the militia disbanded, reinforcing the recruitment.
Russian troops acted more successfully than the Prussian. In July, Vilna was besieged by a detachment of Major General Knoring. The city at this point was well fortified and strengthened by artillery. Therefore, the Polish garrison under the command of Joseph Zayoncek repulsed the assault, losing only part of the external fortifications. At the end of August, another Russian detachment led by Major General Herman approached Vilna. At dawn 31 August Vilna took by storm.
I must say that Zayonchek had a very interesting biography. After the defeat of the uprising, he will go to the French army and become a participant in all the campaigns of Napoleon. During the Russian campaign 1812, he will lose his leg and be captured. In 1815, the emperor Alexander Pavlovich will appoint him viceroy in the Kingdom of Poland.
Joseph Zayonchek (1752 — 1826)
The Empress appointed Count Peter Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky, the commander-in-chief of the Russian army. For the aged and sick field marshal, this was an honorary position rather than a valid one. Rumyantsev immediately made the first and most important decision; he summoned Suvorov. And without the sanction of Catherine Alekseevny. With 10-thousand corpus Alexander Suvorov passed from the Dniester to the Bug, making 560 versts in 20 days. Initially, the Poles did not even believe that Suvorov appeared. When Kosciusko was informed about the arrival of Suvorov, he considered that this was another Suvorov (Cossack chieftain).
September 4 Suvorov attacked and defeated the Polish detachment of Major-General Ruzic at Kobrin. September 6 at Krupchine, 15 versts from Kobrin, Suvorov ran into the best 16-thousand. Polish Corps under the command of General Serakovsky. Serakovsky's corps consisted of part of the crown guard and other regular units, had 28 guns. The battle was stubborn - it began at 10 in the morning and ended only at 6 in the evening. The decisive role was played by Russian bayonet attacks. Polish troops suffered heavy losses and retreated in the direction of Brest. Suvorov pursued the enemy, and on September 8 destroyed the Polish corps in a battle near Brest. Corps Serakovsky desperately resisted, but could not resist the forces of Suvorov.
The defeat of Serakovsky had a hard effect on the Polish army. Kosciusko was forced to issue an order to shoot alarmists and create barrage detachments that were supposed to shoot at the runners. Trying to raise the morale of the army at any cost, Kosciusko secretly left the capital. He decided to defeat a separate Russian detachment under the command of Ivan Ferzen and prevent him from connecting with the troops of Suvorov. In total, under Kosciusko, there were 11 thousand soldiers: 7 thousand in the Serakovsky division and 4 thousand in the Polonsky division. Ferzen had about 14 thousand people. Despite the advantage of the Russian detachment in the number and quality of training of soldiers, Kosciuszko decided to attack. September 28 (October 9), he stepped out of Zelehov in the direction of Matseevits. In the morning the Polish cavalry went on the offensive, but was rejected by artillery fire. From the Russian side, the battle was led by Denisov, Ferzen arrived only at the end of the battle.
Russian troops broke the left flank. Simultaneously, the detachment of General Rakhmanov bypassed the right flank of the enemy. The Poles ran. Kosciusko tried to stop the runners. During the battle, two horses were killed under him. In the chaos of the battle, Kosciusko collided with the cornets Lysenko and Smorodsky, who were accompanied by two Cossacks. Cossacks struck Kosciuszko with spades Horse Kosciusko stumbled, the dictator fell. Lysenko wanted to finish off a Polish officer. But Smorodsky recognized Kosciusko and stopped his comrade. So, seriously wounded in the leg and head, in an unconscious state, the Polish Generalissimo was captured. The battle of the Maceiowies ended in a terrible defeat for the Polish forces. Only about 2 of thousands of soldiers could reach Warsaw, the rest were killed, taken prisoner or fled.
Kosciusko was taken to Petersburg, where he lived under house arrest, before the death of the empress. Emperor Paul I freed the rebel. At the same time, at the request of Kosciuszko, the emperor-knight pardoned 12 thousand Poles. All those who were released took the loyal oath. Kosciusko left for London through Scandinavia, receiving Paul's generous gifts. Then Kostyushko traveled to Europe and America. In 1798, arrived in Paris. In France, the “Generalissimo” offered help to Napoleon, demanding guarantees of restoring the Commonwealth to its former borders. Napoleon refused, believing that the value of Kosciusko exaggerated.
October 6 1794, the year Suvorov held a military council, which decided to go to Warsaw. In this case, Suvorov ordered the corps of Fersen and Derfelden to go to the Polish capital. October 14 Suvorov received the news that the Polish detachment is located near the town of Mare and Okunevo. He sent Ferzen to Okunev, and he went to the Mare. Brigadier Isaev walked in the forefront with several hundred Cossacks and 10 squadrons of Pereyaslav horse rangers (total 1,5 thousand people). Isayev’s squad made a night march through swamp forests and in the morning on October 15 clashed with the Poles. It was the 4,5 ths. Squad of Mayen. The Polish commander put infantry in the center with several guns, and there were cavalry on the flanks.
Isaev went on the attack, but she was repelled by rifle and artillery fire. Suvorov arrived. In the words of one of the officers that the detachment has no guns, he said that they should be beaten off from the enemy. Meanwhile, the main forces of the Russian corps began to approach. The Polish flanks were overturned. Mayen began to withdraw troops in two columns. One of them was surrounded in the forest and laid down arms. About 1 thous. People surrendered. The second column was moving along the main road to Warsaw. Suvorov threw almost all the cavalry and two Cossack regiments around it, which came from Fersen. Polish squad was surrounded. The Poles tried to break through, but the Mariupol Horse-Light Regiment and two squadrons of the Glukhovsky Carabinieri, because of the terrain, dismounted and attacked with swords and broadswords along with the rangers. Violent battle lasted more than an hour. Polish column was destroyed. More than 1 thousand people took prisoners alone. Russian troops lost 153 man. 9 guns, banner and wagon train were captured.
For several days the troops rested. October 19 arrived Corps Dörfelden. As a result, Suvorov's forces grew to 25 thousand people (including 4 thousand cavalry and 3 thousand Cossacks) with 86 guns. October 22 Suvorov left Kobylka and moved to Prague - a suburb of Warsaw, located on the right bank of the Vistula.
The suburb was defended by an earthen fence; it consisted of three lines of fortifications: abutments and wolf pits; an earthen rampart with a palisade and a moat; here were separate bastions; internal redoubt for artillery batteries. The northern part of the fortification was based in the Vistula, the south-eastern part - in the swampy, impassable tributary of the Vistula. In addition, there was bridgehead. The garrison of Warsaw was approximately equal to the Russian army - about 20-32 thousand people with 104 guns (according to other data - 200). Artillery batteries from the opposite bank of the Vistula could provide additional support to the troops in Prague. The shortcoming of the defense of Prague was the great length of the defensive line, as well as the weak military training of a significant part of the garrison. The commanders of the Polish troops were the new commander-in-chief, Tomash Vavzhetsky and General Zayonchek.
23 (November 3) October 1794, there was an artillery fire exchange. Alexander Suvorov divided the troops into seven columns. Four columns — Lassi, Lobanov, Isleneva, and Buxgevden (two from the 1 Division of Derfelden and two from the 2 Division of Potemkin) were to storm the northern part of the fortification. After breaking through the outer ring of defense, the first column of Lassi was to cut the Poles off the bridge, and clean up the rest of the inner ring of the Polish defense. Tormasov's 5th column and Rakhmanov's 6th column from the Ferzen corps attacked the eastern line of fortifications. Denisov’s 7 th column was given the task of making a long round of the right flank of the Poles along the marshy coast of the Vistula, seize the batteries and advance towards the bridge. In front of each column were soldiers with entrenching tools and means of overcoming fortifications (wickers for closing wolf pits, fascines, assault ladders, etc.), they were covered by arrows. They were followed by an infantry reserve, which, upon breaking through the forward line of fortifications, was to create a passage for cavalry. All field guns were in the first line and were supposed to fire at the enemy fortifications at the beginning of the battle.
On 5 in the morning of 24 (November 4), a rocket leaped up, and the first four columns silently moved to the assault. Approaching the fortifications, the soldiers shouted "Hurray!" And went on the attack. The pits were covered with watchers and ladders, the ditches were piled with fascines, they were climbed onto the shaft with the help of ladders or hammered bayonets. Poles were hit on the shaft with a bayonet, they fought with rifle butts, sabers and knives. Suvorov demanded without the need not to shoot, not to waste time, “to beat and drive the enemy with a bayonet; to work quickly, quickly and bravely, in Russian! ”The Poles fought fiercely. According to the Russian participant in the assault on Warsaw von Kluge (Klugina), the Poles "have little to say that they fought with bitterness, no - they fought with frenzy and without mercy ... In my life I was twice in hell - at the storming of Ishmael and at the storming of Prague ... It is terrible to remember! .. ”
Battle-painter A. Orlovsky. Sturm Prague, 1797
However, they could not stop the Suvorov "miracle heroes." One of the instigators of the Polish defense, General Zayonchek, was shot in the stomach and at the very beginning of the battle was taken to the other side of the Vistula. General Vavzhetsky tried to organize a defense, but realizing that the matter was lost, he fled across the bridge before the column of Lassi took the Prague garrison into the ring of encirclement. In some places the Poles counterattacked, but their strikes were repulsed. Polish defense collapsed. But the Poles continued to fight in separate bastions, fortifications and houses. Only an insignificant part of the Polish garrison was able to escape in boats or by swimming (about 1 thousand people). Many drowned. The rest were interrupted or taken prisoner. The Russian soldiers, enraged by the stubborn resistance of the Poles and the memories of the Warsaw morning service, tried not to take prisoners. Civilians were also affected. According to Von Kluge, when the houses were shot, our soldiers, rushing into them, did not spare anyone. Suvorov did not continue the battle and ordered to burn the bridge to the other side.
The fierce battle ended in 9 hours. In just a few hours, the Polish garrison of Prague was almost completely destroyed. Everywhere there were piles of corpses. Suvorov ordered to leave them before the arrival of the Warsaw delegation, in order to have a psychological impact on her. In a report from Suvorov on November 7, it was reported that they had counted the killed Poles of 13340, the prisoners of 12860, sank more than 2 thousand people. Among the prisoners were three generals (Mayen, Gesler and Krupsinsky) and 442 officers, and among the dead were four generals (Yasinsky, Korsak, Kvasnevsky and Grabovsky). The Russian army lost 1,5 thousand people.
I must say that in the wars of the time it was a common practice. The same Poles, or Ottomans and French, often acted even tougher than the Russian army. Suvorov has always been cruel to a resisting enemy and merciful to those who laid down their arms. During the storming of Ishmael, the Russian army acted in a similar way.
Following his usual practice to an already defeated enemy, Suvorov ordered the release of thousands of prisoners of militia to 6. Then, at the request of the Polish king, Suvorov released the captured officers. This gesture of goodwill greatly elevated the Russian commander in the eyes of the Poles. About 4 thousand people from regular troops sent to Kiev. In addition, Suvorov took the responsibility and announced an amnesty in the name of the empress. Those who laid down their arms were promised "liberty and oblivion of everything that happened." By November 30, 1794 was pardoned by more than 25 thousand Poles. The Russian general allowed the Polish king to have 1 thousand guardsmen. They even complained to the empress that Suvorov let go of the rioters, including the main ones.
Officer’s Cross and Soldier’s Medal for the capture of Prague in 1794
The end of the uprising
Shocked by the simultaneous death of the entire garrison of Prague, the inhabitants of Warsaw demanded that the command surrender the capital. October 25 Suvorov dictated the terms of the surrender to the delegates and gave time for reflection before October 28. Several desperate Polish officers wanted to take the king and Russian prisoners from Warsaw to continue the war, but were stopped by the townspeople. October 28 Russian Army solemnly entered the Polish capital on the restored bridge. Part of the rebels, having learned about the surrender of Warsaw and the amnesty, laid down their arms. Several units attempted to continue the resistance, but were quickly defeated. Prussia also suppressed the uprising on its territory.
Suvorov for the exploits in the Polish campaign was awarded the highest military rank of Field Marshal, strewn with gifts. The Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm sent the Russian commander the orders of the Red Eagle and the great Black Eagle. Austrian emperor Franz granted Suvorov his portrait, studded with diamonds. In 1795, Catherine the Great greeted the officers with gold crosses "For Toil and Bravery", and silver medals were distributed to the soldiers.
The third section of the Commonwealth
In November 1795 Polish King Stanislav Augustus Ponyatovsky was sent under escort to Grodno, where he signed an act of abdication of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The last years of his life spent in the Russian capital. 12 February 1798 died suddenly at his residence in the Marble Palace and was buried with royal honors.
Immediately after the fall of Warsaw, negotiations began on a new partition of Poland. 13 (24) October 1795, in the Russian capital, was signed the trilateral Russian-Prussian-Austrian Convention on the third section of the Commonwealth. Petersburg, Berlin and Vienna mutually guaranteed each other new possessions. They were supposed to provide military assistance in the event of the attempt on the land of any third parties or attempts to return them to Poland.
Prussia ceded land to the west of the Pilica, Vistula, Bug and Neman rivers together with Warsaw. These territories are called South Prussia. Berlin also received land in Western Lithuania (Samogitia). In total, Prussia received a territory with a total area of 55 thousand square meters. km with a population of 1 million. Most of these lands were inhabited by ethnic Poles, it was the indigenous Polish territory. In addition, Prussia received part of the West Russian lands - a district with the city of Bialystok.
Under Austrian rule, Krakow and part of Lesser Poland between Pilica, Vistula and Bug, as well as part of Podlasie and Mazovia, were ceded. The total area of the Austrian share was 47 thousand square meters. km, with a population of 1,2 million. The structure of Austria included both the indigenous Polish lands and Western Russian regions. The Russian Empire gained land east of the Bug and the Nemirov-Grodno line. These were the Western Russian and Baltic regions. Their total area was 120 thousand square meters. km, with a population of 1,2 million. Kurland, Vilna and Grodno gubernias were established on these lands.
Thus, Rzeczpospolita "came to success." A long series of worthless wars, rebellions, stupidity and mistakes led to the death of Polish statehood. Catherine the Great said in a letter to the Polish king: “The fate of Poland ... is a consequence of the beginnings, destructive for any order and society, drawn in the example of a people who has become the prey of all possible extremes and delusions. It was not in my power to prevent the disastrous consequences and to fall asleep under the feet of the Polish people the abyss, dug out by its corrupters, and into which it was finally carried away. All my worries ... were paid by ingratitude, hatred and treachery. "
Three sections of the Commonwealth