In recent years, an incredibly large number of video reports from the exercises of the military air defense of the Russian Ground Forces have been posted in the media, where you can get acquainted in detail with the highest combat qualities of the self-propelled anti-aircraft missile systems Tunguska-M, Tor-M1 and Pantsir- C1 ", designed to cover motorized rifle brigades and tank units from tactical aviation the enemy on the march and directly during a collision with enemy enemy units of the NE, as well as the closure of the 3-5-kilometer dead zone of the S-300PS / PM1, S-300V4 and S-400 Triumf long-range and ultra-long-range anti-aircraft missile systems erupted high-precision means of aerospace attack. Meanwhile, in practice, everything is much more complicated than on TV screens.
The first modifications of self-propelled air defense systems "Tor" and "Tunguska-M", at the time of their active adoption by the USSR / Russia in 80-90-s, were already able to work on quite complex air objects, including low-profile cruise missiles , as well as ballistic targets and PRLR with speeds from 500 to 700 m / s. In the same turn, the target canal of their radar guidance devices (1 and 2 simultaneously fired at the target, respectively) soon ceased to correspond to the new operational and tactical realities of the theater of the 21st century. In particular, by the end of 90's. The rocket armament of the AH-64D Apache Longbow attack helicopter already included a promising anti-tank guided missile AGM-114L Hellfire-Longbow designed to work in a system linking with the AN / APG-78 over-the-barrel radar.
This rocket opened a new milestone in stories weatherproof precision weapons air-to-ground class for helicopter attack aircraft. First, equipped with millimeter ARGSN, AGM-114L allowed attacking ground targets in the most difficult meteorological conditions of poor visibility, where the Hellfire versions with semi-active laser homing systems had extremely low combat qualities. Secondly, the “let-forget” mode was implemented, which no longer required the target to be illuminated with a laser designator beam. Due to this, the time of Apache's stay on the line of sight by the enemy's optical-electronic and radar means of ZRSK was reduced to a few seconds required for the weapon operator to detect and capture the target with AN / APG-78 radar, and then make a single or salvo launch AGM-114L, which on 4-x suspension nodes can accommodate up to 16 units. Even though the Hellfire ATGM family is relatively slow (about 1500 km / h), for the single-channel version of the Thor or even the two-channel Tor-M1, a volley of 8 - 10 ATGM can be deadly, since missiles have a small EPR within 0,05 m2. The frontiers of interception of similar objects for the "Torah" begin with 3 - 5 km. At "Tunguska-M" with the interception of similar missiles, everything was more complicated. These circumstances pointed to the need for the earliest possible start of the modernization program of the Tor-M1 family, with which the specialists of Concern EKR Almaz-Antey JSC coped perfectly well.
Its result was the emergence of a whole series of Tor-M2 self-propelled anti-aircraft missile systems, unified by the 9А331МК / -1 advanced autonomous combat module (АБМ), but radically different in chassis type. This decision was caused by the need to adapt a unique complex to various conventional theaters of military operations, which were “drawn” at the borders of the Russian Federation over the past decade, against the background of a tightening geostrategic “game”. In particular, modifications such as Tor-M2K and Tor-M2DT were developed. The first ZRSK is an ABM 9А331МК located on the MZKT-6922 three-axle chassis. This chassis is unique in its kind. Its main advantage is 8-cylinder 420-strong diesel engine with turbocharging YMZ-7513.10, which has 1765 torque N * m. It allows you to realize the full potential of the 2-speed transfer box and the GMP-400 hydromechanical transmission. As a result, we have a maximum travel speed on the highway of the order of 85 km / h, which allows the Tor-M2K to move into the alert area 1,3 times faster than the Torah does on a tracked chassis (Tor-M1, Tor- M2U "); during high-intensity hostilities, this indicator can be attributed to the so-called “critical list” of parameters. MZKT-6922 has a fairly good maneuverability due to the hydropneumatic independent suspension, assembled in the walls of the Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant. Thanks to a reasonably economical engine with a minimum specific fuel consumption of about 195 g / kWh, the range with a total fuel supply of 730 liters can reach 1 thousand km, which is almost 2 times more than most tracked vehicles.
As for the modification of Tor-M2DT, it is intended exclusively for the Arctic theater of operations in the framework of the growing “Arctic race” between Russia, the USA, Canada, the United Kingdom, Norway and Denmark for controlling the largest hydrocarbon fields in the Arctic shelf, whose share is about 25% of the world (exactly like Saudi Arabia). This air defense system is also represented by an autonomous combat module 9А331МК-1, installed on the slave link of the two-link all-terrain vehicle DT-30 "Vityaz", serially produced by the Ishimbay transport engineering plant. As you already understood, the emphasis in this modification of the complex is not on speed indicators, but on permeability. The specific pressure on the ground with a minimum load is about 0,29 - 0,32 kg / cm2, which allows you to quickly and successfully overcome the snow mounds and is safer to pass the areas with a thin envelope of ice. Moreover, the transport-charging vehicle for the Arctic version will be able to overcome the openings and streams by using floating modifications of the Vityaz (4-5 km / h due to rewinding the tracks and 15 km / h using the propeller).
Despite the average range of fuel in 500 km and speed on a flat surface in 37 km / h, 780-strong 12-cylinder tank diesel B-46-5, along with a hydromechanical semi-automatic gearbox and torsion suspension, allows Vityaz storm the most difficult snow obstacles in the arctic zone. At the same time, he can do it with a multi-ton autonomous combat module on the driven link. The Tor-M2DT ZRSK divisions, integrated into the common “Arctic air defense system” by means of the Ranzhir-M 9C737М Ranzhir-M or the Polyana-D4М1 automated missile control system, will be able to perfectly cover the strategic facilities of the Russian Armed Forces and Russia, as well as Russia, as well. of the fuel and energy complex from possible attacks by NATO’s DFSS.
Information about the tactical air situation (with target designation data) will initially be sent to the Polyana automated control system from such advanced radar information sources as interspecific 55ЖХNNXXМ Nebo-M radar, passive radio-electronic reconnaissance radar, multipurpose centimeter radar Radar, multipurpose centimeter radar reconnaissance radar, multi-purpose centimeter radar Radar, multipurpose centimeter radar reconnaissance radar, multi-purpose centimeter radar Radar, multipurpose centimeter radar reconnaissance radar, multi-purpose centimeter radar Radar, multipurpose centimeter radar reconnaissance radar, multipurpose centimeter radar Radar, multipurpose centimeter radar reconnaissance radar, multipurpose centimeter radar Radar, multipurpose centimeter radar reconnaissance radar, passive radio-electronic radar reconnaissance, multipurpose centimeter radar "Chammameme". ”, Distributed, and then transferred to each combat vehicle of the division in accordance with its location and location of the object. Also sources of information will be airplanes DRLOUA A-6U and A-1 “Premier” X-ray radar detectors 50H100E of C-91 complexes. In the Arctic region, exactly as in the south, the “Torahs” will be aggregated into advanced layered network-centric missile defense with C-6B400 and C-300, because no one cancels the blows of the hundreds or hundreds of strategic Tomahawk Block IV UGM-4E CRs placed on multi-purpose submarines "Virginia", "Los Angeles" or shock options "Ohio". These submarines can suddenly appear on any Arctic divorce and perform a deadly volley "Tomahawk".
The next, most flexible in use version of the Tor-M2 SAM is Tor-M2KM. The 9M331MKM complex has a fully modular design and is designed to be placed on completely different platforms, from stationary ground structures to military and cargo surface ships. This product will also have a significant impact on the formation of promising air defense / missile defense in the Arctic zone, since the stand-alone 9A331MK-1 combat module can also be deployed on ice class ships. Tor-M2KM was developed in 2013 on the basis of the Tor-M2E complex and is mass-produced by the capacities of Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant Kupol JSC. Beginning in October 2016, tests of the 9A331MK-1 combat module from the deck of the lead patrol ship (frigate) Project 11356 Admiral Grigorovich, which is in service with the Black Sea fleet The Russian Navy.
Tor-М2КМ, fixed on the frigate’s helipad, demonstrated new features previously unavailable for the Tor-М1 line. In particular, we are talking about firing at small airborne objects in motion at speed in 8 nodes. One of them was the training Saman 9F841 target missile, developed on the basis of the Osa-AK 9FM33М2 anti-aircraft missile 9K33М2 anti-aircraft missile complex. It was successfully intercepted not only when Admiral Grigorovich was moving at a speed of 15 km / h, but also in conditions of an 2-ball sea swell. Successfully passed full-scale tests opened the "Toru-M2KM" way to the Russian Navy, where such modular modifications, like the Tor-M, will later replace the ship’s self-defense air defense system, the Dagger. With the 3 quick-release brackets, the new complex can be installed not only on the deck of the ship, but also on railway and car platforms.
Loading of loading system 9М334 with the transport and launch container 9Я281
It should be noted that various basing concepts were also provided for the Tor-М1 air defense system. Thus, the "Tor-M1TA" could be installed on the wheelbase of the semi-trailer ChMZAP-8335 (combat module) and the truck "Ural-5323" (hardware cabin); "Tor-M1TS" was intended for stationary placement. But the essence did not change: the antenna post with PFAR, located on the 9А331 combat module, could simultaneously handle no more than two air targets even when using an electron-optical sighting device operating in the television channel of sight. This disadvantage is observed in view of the less productive computing facilities Tor-M1, which are responsible for the precise auto-tracking of air objects, as well as for the simultaneous targeting of 9МXNNXX anti-aircraft missiles on them.
Now let's take a look directly at the parameters of the standalone BM 9А331МК-1. For its fire performance, the same coherent-impulse radar of the SVR / SPK guidance, represented by a low-element passive HEADLIGHT and operating in a centimeter X-wave band, is responsible. Due to this, the width of the scanning beam does not exceed 1 °, which ensures a minimum slip of a few meters, and hence the highest probability of successful interception. Despite the standard for the Tor-M1 family of ZRSKs, the radar of detection in 48 of simultaneously monitored target paths, the number of target guidance simultaneously fired by radar has increased to 4 units thanks to the complex fire control four-channel effect. Tor-M2E ”,“ Tor-MU ”,“ Tor-M2KM ”and other versions with improved ABM of 9-331МК / -1 type. It is also known that in the review mode the SOC can detect up to 144 air objects at a distance of 9 km (targets with EPR 0,1 м2) and 27-32 km (objects with EPR in 3 - 5 м2). This mode is implemented for 3 SOC turnover, given that the latter is no longer represented by the old coherent-impulse AR, but by a more advanced SCHAR.
Let us turn to the rocket part. The upgraded complexes of the Tor-M2 family use short-range anti-aircraft missiles 9М331Д, which are analogous to the early 9М331 for the Tor-M1 FRMS. Compared with the first 9М330 SAM systems (9K330 “Thor” complex), the new product has: on 25% a longer range (12 versus 15 km, respectively), 2 times the available overload (16 versus 30 - 35 units, respectively) and increased from 6000 to 10000 m ceiling of intercepted target. The maximum flight speed of the 9М331Д remained at the same level in 3060 km / h, as was the speed of the targeted target in 700 m / s, but the new computational base allowed achieving a minimum reaction time in 5 s, which is almost 1,5 times better than Torr M1. With such parameters, even one autonomous combat module 9А331МК-1 is quite capable of repelling group raids of anti-radar or heavy anti-tank missiles of the type AGM-114L, which have speeds up to 2600 km / h (they are not adapted to high interception speeds of the Torov control system are not adapted).
Later, another noticeable problem appeared, expressed in the scarcity of the 9М331Д missile ammunition. In each autonomous combat module 9А331МК / -1 there is an anti-aircraft missile module 9М334 on 8 of the above-mentioned interceptor missiles. The module is represented by 2YX9 quadruple transport and launch containers, in which all cells are separated by a special protective diaphragm. In the face of the massive use of supersonic elements of high-precision weapons by the enemy, 281 8М9Д anti-missiles are absolutely not enough to repel an impact. And this problem was eliminated by the specialists of Almaz-Antey. The key to the solution is the advanced anti-aircraft missile 331М9. Compared to the 338M9D, the new product is much more compact, and, unlike the old rocket (with a square cross-section transport and launching cup in 331 mm), uses a small tubular TPK with a diameter of 540 mm. As a result, the Torah missile arsenal will increase by 240 times and reach 2 16М9 missiles, also known as Р338В-МD.
The flight-technical and accuracy qualities of the new anti-aircraft missile are very impressive. The maximum flight speed at the time of operation of the solid-propellant rocket engine reaches 3600 km / h, which allows the updated “Toram” to intercept more high-speed targets in pursuit; The altitude of interception has not changed and reaches 10 km. The aerodynamic design of the "duck" was changed to a "bearing case" layout with a tail block of front stabilizers and rear aerodynamic control surfaces. The ballistic braking of the rocket was reduced, due to which the range increased by another 1000 m and reached 16 km. As we see, along the radius of action, the new ZUR R3B-MD puts the Tor-M2KM almost one step ahead of the Pantsir-C1 anti-aircraft missile and artillery complex. But not everything is as wonderful as we would like ...
Installation of a tactical long-range cruise missile KEPD-350K "TAURUS" on the wing assembly of the F-15K air force of the Republic of Korea Air Force
On 20 September 2017, the Asian and Western media circulated extremely interesting photographs taken during the exercises of the Republic of Korea Air Force, which were held to demonstrate to Pyongyang the strength and capabilities of the South Korean army to deliver massive pinpoint strikes at a distance of several hundreds of kilometers. The Swedish-German tactical long-range KEPD-350K "Taurus" was used as a strike unit, the carrier of which was the "strategic asset" of the South Korean air force - the heavy tactical fighter F-15K "Slam Eagle". Launch of "Taurus" was carried out in the airspace over the Yellow Sea, 400 km from the coastal target. Having overcome this distance, KEPD-350K fell into a square farm with a circular probable deviation in the 1 meter. Stunning accuracy was demonstrated. It is unlikely that this brought great fear to the command of the Korean People’s Army and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, but once again made me think about the security of our Tor-M2KM from blows of precision weapons. The photos clearly show how the “Taurus” swoops on the target farm at an angle of about 85 °. Why it should be alerted?
We return to the consideration of the Tor-M2KM / U radar architecture. Improving the channel of the complex to 4 simultaneously intercepted targets causes respect, but the parameters of the radiation pattern of the radar guidance (SVR), as well as its sector turning in the elevation plane remained at the same level, exactly like the spatial characteristics of the review and target designation of the station SOC. The usable scanning range in the "lower beam" mode is 32 degrees, in the "upper beam" mode - 64 degrees. This suggests that during the combat operation of the Tor-M2 FRMS, a huge “funnel of the dead zone” with an unseen sector in 52 degrees gapes over it (even in the mode of maximum elevation of the beam).
Now let's imagine for a moment that during the fighting in the same European theater of operations, a tactical "link X" of the British Air Force, consisting of 4 "Typhoon" of the last "tranche", launches a swarm of 8 missiles towards the Tori division KEPD-350. At the same time, the rockets are suitable at an altitude of 30 m in the rounding mode of the terrain from the side of any elevation. As is well known, the rectangular composite case of these products causes an effective reflective surface (EOC) in 0,08 - 0,1 м2. The detection station of the “first oncoming” SOC “Sora” will detect such a target from a distance of no more than 7 km (taking into account the peculiarities of the relief, it is less!). Adding here the response time of the Tor-M2 OMS in 5 seconds, during which the Taurus will fly 1000 - 1100 m, we have a "cheerful" result: no more 4 - 4,5 km of the missile's flight path remains for interception. One "Torah" is clearly not enough here; and considering that KEPD-16 makes the 350-degree maneuver "slide" with an elevation of 85 - 1 km, some of the missiles can in any case fall into the "dead zone" above the complex, which will lead to defeat.
An even more unpleasant situation developed with the British “smart” anti-radar missile ALARM, which was put into service in the 1991 year. This PRLR has become a much more insidious means of suppressing air defense than the American AGM-88HARM. First, the flight task is loaded onto the storage of the inertial navigation system at the airfield or in the air, in accordance with the received tactical tactical information about the location of the enemy's radar equipment. Also, the guidance can be carried out directly in the radius of the radiation of the enemy's radar; in this case, target designation may come from the antennas of the radiation warning system. Then, a start is made from the distance to 95 km (with a high altitude) and 45 km (in low-altitude start mode). The rocket climbs, rises into the lower stratosphere (12 - 16) and follows the location of the enemy anti-aircraft missile division or radar at speeds from 2600 km / h with gradual ballistic braking.
Information from the British media referring to the country's defense department about the decommissioning of the most dangerous and sophisticated ALARM anti-radar missiles with unique action configuration continues to raise a number of serious questions.
For all modifications of the Top-M1 / 2 anti-aircraft missile system, such an approach can be fatal even in the case of a single strike by one ALARM rocket, since the latter’s entry into the “dead zone funnel” will be outside the high-altitude boundaries of the 9X338 missiles (Р3В-МD ). When ALARM turns out to be over the "Thor", the only way to avoid defeat is to completely shut off all the radio-emitting facilities of the complex, which include SOC, SVR, and even the radio station-terminal of the telecode operational-command communication. Otherwise, PRLR ALARM, being above the ZRSK “Tor-М1 / 2” duty station, opens the parachute and launches a quick 2 - 3 - minute descent into that same unseen “funnel”. At this moment, the passive downlink radar homing, will detect radiating radar detection and a Torah tactical information exchange, after which the parachute will be dropped and the combat mode engine will be launched. ALARM rushes to the target almost at right angles.
A similar situation is observed with the Pantsir-C1 anti-aircraft missile and artillery complex. AFAR-radar tracking and target capture 1PC2 / 1PC2-1E “Helmet” has a large 0 - 45 ° viewing sector, which makes the “funnel of the dead zone” reach an even larger sector in 90 degrees. The disadvantage is partially compensated by the presence of the 10EC1 / 10ES1-Е stand-alone optical post, whose elevation angle reaches 82 °, it is able to view the entire upper hemisphere, the unseen “funnel” has an 16-degree sector. Meanwhile, it is absolutely not necessary to assume that the Pantsir-С1 is free from this drawback, because in a difficult meteorological situation the 10EC1-E optic-electronic sighting system will be inactive, and the entire range of tasks will be assigned to the “Helmet” radar with insufficient parameters work on the corner of the place. The situation could be improved by introducing advanced AFAR-RPN with an additional device for mechanical adjustment of the antenna web in the radar image of the Tor-M2 and Pantreyrei-M1 combat vehicles with an additional device for mechanical adjustment of the antenna web in the direction of the upper hemisphere. An additional expedient option could also be the development of specialized missiles 9М338 with active radar seeker which could be an excellent alternative (or addition) to the standard 9М331Д radio command missiles that will become useless in case of failure of the radar control stations installed on anti-aircraft rocket complexes.