5 legendary swords of medieval Europe

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Sword is not easy weapon, but a symbol of the status and power of its owner. Swords often received their own names and fame, which has not dimmed so far. Today we will tell you stories famous blades and their owners, who lived during the Middle Ages.

5 legendary swords of medieval Europe




Excalibur

According to legend, Excalibur is often confused with a sword in stone, which will be discussed below. Both of these swords belonged to King Arthur, who himself is a great mystery to historians. Despite popular opinion, most of the original sources speak of them as different blades.

Excalibur or Caliburn - another sword of King Arthur, the legendary leader of the Britons, who lived around the V-VI centuries. The epos about the king and his loyal subjects is very extensive and includes a complete list of heroic adventures: the salvation of beautiful ladies, the battle with the monstrous dragon, the search for the Holy Grail and just successful military campaigns. The sword is not just a weapon, but a status symbol of the owner. Of course, such an outstanding person as Arthur simply could not have an ordinary sword: in addition to excellent technical characteristics (which was indeed an outstanding achievement for the Dark Ages), the magic properties are also attributed to the sword.

Before romanization, the name of the sword most likely originated from the Welsh Caledfwlch: caled (“battle”) and bwlch (“destroy, tear”). According to legend, the king got the sword with the help of the wizard Merlin and the mysterious Virgin of the Lake, instead of lost in the battle with Sir Pelinor. The sheath of the sword was also magic - they accelerated the healing of the wounds of the owner. Before his death, Arthur insisted that the sword be again thrown into the lake and thus returned to his first mistress. The abundance of swords of the Dark Ages period, found by archeologists at the bottom of various reservoirs, allowed them to assume that in those times there was a custom of submerging weapons in water after the death of a warrior.

Sword in stone



The sword in stone, which according to legend, the king himself plunged into the rock, proving his right to the throne, has a curious relative who has come down to our days. It is about a boulder with a blade firmly entrenched in it, which is kept in the Italian chapel of Monte Ciepi. The master of the sword was, however, not the legendary king, but the Tuscan knight Galliano Gvidotti, who lived in the 12th century. There is a funny story connected with him: one day, to Gvidotti, who, like many knights of that time, led a dissolute life and was a cheeky snapper, the archangel Michael himself appeared and demanded that Galliano relinquish his knightly vow and become a monk. In response, the knight with a laugh said that it would be as easy for him to become a servant of the Lord, as well as to cut a stone. Rubbing the nearest boulder to prove his words, Guidotti was amazed: the blade easily entered him like a knife into butter. Of course, after this, Galliano immediately embarked on the righteous path and later even received canonization.

According to the results of radiocarbon analysis, the legend really does not lie: the age of the boulder and the sword stuck in it coincides with the approximate lifetime of a knight.

Durendal



Durendal is another sword in stone. It was owned by Roland, a real knight, who later became the hero of numerous sagas and ballads. According to the legend, during the defense of the Not-Dame chapel in the city of Rocamadour, he threw his blade off the wall and he remained hanging around it, sowing firmly in the stone. It is noteworthy that there really is a blade in the rock near the chapel: thanks to the skillful public relations of the monks who actively spread the legend of Durandal, the chapel quickly became the center of pilgrimage for parishioners from all over Europe.

Scientists, however, question this fact and believe that the chapel is not at all the legendary Roland's magic sword. First of all, the banal logic is lame: Durendal is a female name, and the hero, it seems, had a real passion for him. It is doubtful that he began to throw away such valuable and dear to the heart weapon. The chronology also fails: the loyal subject of Charlemagne himself died according to historical evidence on 15 in August 778 in the battle of the Ronneval Gorge, which is several hundred kilometers from Rocamadour. The first evidence of the sword appeared much later - in the middle of the XII century, at about the same time when the famous "Song of Roland" was written. The original owner of the blade in the chapel was never installed: in 2011, the blade was removed from stone and sent to the Paris Museum of the Middle Ages.

Sword of wallace



The huge broadsword, according to legend, belonged to Sir William Wallace, the leader of the Scottish Highlanders in the battle for independence from England. The famous knight lived in the period from 1270 to 1305 and, apparently, had remarkable strength. The length of the sword is 163 cm, which, with its weight in 2,7, makes it a weapon of great power, which requires the owner to use his skills and daily training. As you know, the Scots had a passion for two-handed swords - it is worth remembering the claymore, which in a certain historical period became a real symbol of the Scottish kingdom.

The sheath for such an impressive weapon is not easy to make, and the material was very unusual. After the battle at Stirling Bridge, where the sword and its master gained fame and honor, the blade acquired a scabbard and sword belt made from human skin. Its owner was the English treasurer, Hugh Cressingham, who "tore off three skins from the Scots and received a deserved reward." Scientists are still arguing about the authenticity of the ancient relics: due to the fact that King Jacob IV Shotlsky at one time presented the sword with a new handle and decoration to replace the worn old, it is very difficult to establish historical authenticity.

Ulfbert



“Ulfbert” is not one, but a whole family of Carolingian-type medieval swords dated between the 9th and 11th centuries. Unlike their legendary counterparts, magic properties are not attributed to them. Much more important is that for the early Middle Ages, these blades differed not only in mass, but also extremely high quality workmanship. Their hallmark was the + VLFBERHT + stamp at the base of the blade.

In those days, most European swords were made on the principle of "false Damascus": cast from low carbon steel with a high degree of slag impurities, these blades only visually resembled the famous Damascus steel. The Vikings, being sea merchants, appeared to buy crucible steel in Iran and Afghanistan, much more durable and reliable. For the Middle Ages, it was a real breakthrough in blacksmithing, and therefore such swords were valued very highly: weapons of comparable strength in Europe were mass produced only in the second half of the XVIII (!) Century.
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  1. +2
    17 September 2017
    One of the virgins' favorite cartoons was Sword in Stone. I didn’t even know that there were several of these swords in the stones. Thanks for the interesting article.
    1. +6
      17 September 2017
      Quote: sds87
      One of my favorite cartoons virginity was a "sword in stone."
      and now that the "girlhood" hehe ... gone? "sword in the sheath"? wassat
    2. +19
      17 September 2017
      Quote: sds87
      Thanks for the interesting article.

      It is strange that the author circumvented the legendary swords of the Slavs ...
      The coronation sword of the Polish monarchs - Shcherbets, according to legend, was presented to Prince Borislav the Brave (995-1025) by an angel.
      By the way, "Shcherbetsom", that is, with a notch - a shcherbina, he became during the assault on the Poles, ATTENTION !!!!!!!!!!, Kiev.
      And of course, the sword of Dovmont, to the word Saint.
      Here he is next to the great sword of the XNUMXth century, which belonged to the Pskov prince Vsevolod. Both princes canonized as Russian saints. Both swords are the largest relics of the era. About Dovmontov sword made an entire film.
      1. Cat
        +10
        17 September 2017
        I support you with all paws! In the morning about swords of Asia, in the evening - of Europe! Where are we Slavs? In Europe or Asia, or do we have a place of dumbness in Eurasia and the author does not accept the merits of our ancestors? But then where is the story of the famous "Carolingian", "Scramosaxax" and much, much .....?
        By the way, if we take the point of the author’s report on Japanese masters (14-15th century), what did their brothers from the Faceted Chamber in Moscow not please. Trite, any former schoolchild of the late USSR, except for the mythical "escalibur" in the cartoon, remembers the archaeological find of the sword with the stigma - "PEOPLE FORGET" from the history textbook!
        The same situation with Asian bladed weapons, if we take the legends on the post-space of the Mongol empire, there is no famous “Tamerlan’s two-blade saber”! And so on in the text, so they called it "climb into the box". We look forward to working on the bugs!
      2. +3
        17 September 2017
        Quote: svp67
        It is strange that the author circumvented the legendary swords of the Slavs ...

        Kolovrat's sword
        1. +3
          17 September 2017
          Quote: poquello
          Kolovrat's sword

          It would be interesting to look at him ...
          1. +2
            17 September 2017
            Quote: svp67
            Quote: poquello
            Kolovrat's sword

            It would be interesting to look at him ...

            they write that during the period of the occupation, Anneverbe was looking for - she couldn’t find, he’s a kladozhenka, he’s also Agrikov’s sword, brought to Russia by Andrei Bogolyubsky
            1. +4
              17 September 2017
              Quote: poquello
              during the occupation of Annotlooking for an erb

              Anya was looking for a willow? laughing
              1. +1
                18 September 2017
                Quote: iConst
                Quote: poquello
                during the occupation of Annotlooking for an erb

                Anya was looking for a willow? laughing

                more in willow, but m. and in the willow, but on the Oka, Neva has nothing to do with it
          2. +8
            17 September 2017
            It’s even more interesting to take a look at the Kladen Sword! recourse
            1. +2
              17 September 2017
              Quote: sabakina
              It’s even more interesting to take a look at the Kladen Sword!
              For the weekend, get to Kitezh grad, there he is an honorary exhibit in the local museum ...
              1. +6
                17 September 2017
                Alyosha, give me a map? And then the navigator does not understand what I want from him!
          3. Cat
            +1
            17 September 2017
            Just like the escalibur, or Roland's sword!
            1. +1
              17 September 2017
              Is it weak without a card?)))
              Just close your eyes and an inner feeling will lead you where you need to.
              P.S. Come back just do not forget!
      3. 0
        17 September 2017
        Alas, the sword of the first Pskov Prince St. Vsevolod-Gabriel Mstislavich is a replica of the XIV-XV centuries. The real sword has been lost in city fires.
        Dovmont’s sword is most likely not a battle weapon, but a ceremonial weapon.
      4. 0
        18 September 2017
        And Slavic swords are made by Franks or from Norway.
  2. +2
    17 September 2017
    I don’t understand ... How did the Vikings buy steel in Afghanistan?
    1. +1
      17 September 2017
      Yes, because the balabol is the author and the rhyme.
    2. +3
      17 September 2017
      And how did the Afghan emeralds appear on Tutankhomon’s sarcophagus? hi
      1. +7
        17 September 2017
        Quote: Kasym
        And how did the Afghan emeralds appear on Tutankhomon’s sarcophagus? hi

        Are they definitely Afghan? If so, then the monks from Tora Bora drove up.
        1. +3
          17 September 2017
          Right It's all about trading along the Silk Road. hi
          1. +3
            17 September 2017
            Quote: Kasym
            Right It's all about trading along the Silk Road. hi

            The Silk Road did not seem to reach the Scandinavians. request
    3. 0
      17 September 2017
      also strange in sweden deposits of his good iron
      1. +3
        17 September 2017
        There were deposits, they are practically developed.
        Not so long ago an interesting story surfaced. The Swedes for some business received ore from the States. She was so high-quality that they decided to interfere with her. When it was over, the Swedes decided to buy it from the Yankees. But it turned out that this is not American. They started to find out and it turned out that she had been lying near the port since the Second World War. It was delivered under Lend-Lease from the Union, from the Kazakh SSR. hi
    4. +3
      17 September 2017
      Quote: Mordvin 3
      How did the Vikings buy steel in Afghanistan?

      For gold ... made an order through Ali Express ... a dove
      1. +2
        17 September 2017
        Quote: svp67
        For the gold ...

        So. Okay. I admit that they plundered. But you can’t trample on boats in Afghanistan. And the only thing I know, a decent place, is the fortress of Torah-Bora. Where else could steel be bought?
        1. +2
          17 September 2017
          Quote: Mordvin 3
          I admit that they plundered. But you can’t trample on boats in Afghanistan.

          Boating is not necessary. "Stripes" brought. You understand, the sword, in those days was not the weapon of every war. It was the weapon of the elect, mainly commanders and commanders. The main weapons were axes and clubs, and their derivatives. So, that a lot of "stripes", that is, blanks were not required
          1. +2
            17 September 2017
            Quote: svp67
            So, that a lot of "stripes", that is, blanks were not required

            I understand all this. But. In Afghanistan? Vikings?
            1. +1
              17 September 2017
              Quote: Mordvin 3
              I understand all this. But. In Afghanistan? Vikings?

              And so what? We understand very little how that society lived. How everything was arranged in it, but we are very much surprised at the mobility of the inhabitants of that time
              1. +2
                17 September 2017
                Quote: svp67
                but we are very surprised at the mobility of the inhabitants of that time

                Yes, here. Harold the Hairy united Norway for the sake of a woman. But so that his sword was made of Afghan steel, like that ... It does not seem ..
                1. +1
                  19 September 2017
                  The main intermediaries in trade with China, Hindustan, S.-V. and CA were Arabs and Persians.
                  Nothing has changed since then. “Demand creates supply” - if the merchant knew that there was demand and he would sell the goods at a profit, then caravans would deliver in 4-5 months from Afghanistan to Europe. hi
            2. +2
              18 September 2017
              Quote: Mordvin 3
              I understand all this. But. In Afghanistan? Vikings?

              Why send the Vikings to Afghanistan? It is more logical to make them fans and collectors of the best swords. Given their funeral rites, many swords survived in the "killed" form. Including Ulfberts. According to the same film called Ulfbert, a considerable part of them is made of crucible steel. Those. there were Ulfberts crucible and there were European Ulfberts made at the limit of technology, but still inferior to crucibles. The first thing that begs itself was an office, among whose regular customers were mostly Vikings. And since the customer was ready to shell out huge sums of money for swords, it came to importing crucible steel just for the Vikings. It never occurred to anyone to order a weapon worth its weight in gold (or rather, the weight of spices and silk), and even of a certain brand.
              It is as if a small country of wealthy bikers had formed. Under them, they would start producing wound Harleys, despite the fact that they would catch up to piece ferrari, lamborshiny, etc.
              1. 0
                18 September 2017
                Quote: brn521
                Those. there were Ulfberts crucible and there were European Ulfberts made at the limit of technology, but still inferior to crucibles.
                Kill it somewhere, now I don’t remember where, that low-quality Ulfberts are fakes of cunning blacksmiths-crooks. If, as if, Irbit motorcycle makers stuck a Harley badge on their crafts)))
                1. 0
                  19 September 2017
                  Quote: otto meer
                  Kill it somewhere, now I don’t remember where, that low-quality Ulfberts are fakes of cunning blacksmiths-crooks.

                  The same film seems to be mentioned. Those swords on which the word ulfbert is written non-standardly are of high quality. The rest is not very. But I surfed the Internet, experts in unison say that ulfberts come from Europe. And at the same time, they were normally noted only by the Vikings. Hence the comparison with Harley and bikers. There is a story about how American bikers bought and burned Japanese Harleys. Those. there in the first place is not even quality, but communion with the legend.
                  Quote: otto meer
                  If, as if, Irbit motorcycle makers stuck a Harley badge on their crafts)))

                  It is unlikely that the Vikings bought the dream of their lives from anyone through third parties. Unless through their trusted. Hence the suspicion that this original office riveted swords in different price ranges in order to properly cover the formed market.
                  1. +1
                    19 September 2017
                    Quote: brn521
                    The same film seems to be mentioned. Those swords on which the word ulfbert is written non-standardly are of high quality. The rest is not very. But I surfed the Internet, experts in unison say that ulfberts come from Europe.
                    maybe there’s absolutely nothing to argue about here. I will only add that in addition to the well-known ulfs, the Scandinavians also willingly gave weight in gold for swords from Gardariki. There are many references to this in the sagas. The most famous is Turfing, the sword of the king by the Serglams of Gardarika, described in the saga of Herver. So not a single ulfbert ...
                    Quote: brn521
                    There is a story about how American bikers bought and burned Japanese Harleys.
                    I heard another. Moreover, from a direct participant in the events of the former Bandidos. The backbone of the Bandidos was made up of Vietnam veterans and therefore when they saw the choppers (they didn’t count the rest for motorbikes) from Honda or Yamaha, the rider was pounded and the car was broken or burned.
  3. 0
    17 September 2017
    I have long heard that the legends of swords in stone go back to the "Bronze Age" .... Bronze items and weapons were poured in stone forms .... So the ancient technological process has preserved human memory ....
  4. +4
    17 September 2017
    Another article under the heading “X” files. “Well, how can you write such an“ X ”and then publish it? Well, V.O.Shpakovsky wrote earlier about medieval weapons. An inconsiderate author, you don’t understand, in Europe of the early Middle Ages it was technically impossible to cast anything from steel. And yes, the swords were made of so-called “Damascus steel.” Not false Damascus steel, but real. And crucible steel is damask steel (which is not steel in our understanding). metallurgists write at least once an article on the development of metallurgy from the Bronze Age to the present day, otherwise we will read “X” files about casting “low-carbon steel with a high degree of slag impurities.” Explain to people that Japanese swords are not a miracle weapon and wretched technology.
    1. +2
      17 September 2017
      This is for Viktor Nikolaevich. Hello, Marat, I wanted to wish a good evening, but realized that he had ceased to be languid.
      1. +2
        17 September 2017
        Hello. Obviously V.N. busy with business or just already stopped paying attention to this “X”. V.O. so generally refrains from commenting on this. I suppose he is afraid not to hold back and be banned. What a pity, he would comment on the comments about the Vikings in Afghanistan. A little more and the Scandinavians will be sent to the moon.
    2. +2
      17 September 2017
      There is a very interesting book on this topic. Written easily and very professionally ....
      1. 0
        17 September 2017
        On these issues, a lot of publications. The question is, why, from the mass of publications, choose material with the stamp "X" and place it on the site?
    3. +2
      17 September 2017
      "Dear metallurgists, write at least once an article on the development of metallurgy from the Bronze Age to the present."
      Do you imagine the volume of this work? Moreover, information should preferably be presented in an accessible way. common language, as the abundance of special terms dramatically reduces the attractiveness of the article for the average reader. In addition, another factor of regional specificity is added, which also needs to be disclosed. An example is Japanese swords. I would not agree with that. that it’s poor technology. At an intuitive level and primitive technologies, people were able to realize the local characteristics of naturally alloyed raw materials, moreover, bad raw materials, and to obtain nickel-molybdenum steel. At the same time, people had no idea about nickel or molybdenum. pure practice.
      And after all this work, there will be some kind of fitting that will say. that all your writings - "X" - information and he, a blacksmith practitioner and rodnover knows better.
      I already have experience in discussing drafts from railway rails with such a "practitioner". Throughout the night, TMP and the history of metallurgy was outlined with metallography of rails starting from the Demidov mines, while the truth triumphed.
      So I do not see the prospects for the appearance of such a review on the VO website. We forge knowledge purely individually.
      1. 0
        18 September 2017
        Quote: Curious
        Do you imagine the volume of this work?

        There, problems will already begin with the beginning. For example, how will metallurgists react to the fact that bronze was invented by chance and everywhere? The tale of the copper age has long been refuted. Or where did the same Indians get a nickel breakthrough for their ternary bronze? Which appeared even before the tin, and immediately and in large quantities.
        Quote: Curious
        while the truth has triumphed.

        The practitioner came in person, armed with his rail :)?
        1. 0
          18 September 2017
          Practice with the rail I have something to meet. So he just admitted that he was wrong.
          1. 0
            19 September 2017
            Quote: Curious
            So he just admitted that he was wrong.

            Yes, he just could not raise his rail. We used a stub of a rail with a welded handle as a gymnastic weight.
            And about the bronze is still interesting. I remembered where I got this sedition. Sklyarov has a whole book on this subject. Like do not listen to historians, refer directly to archaeological data and to metallurgists.
        2. 0
          19 September 2017
          Quote: brn521
          Or where did the same Indians get a nickel breakthrough for their ternary bronze? Which appeared even before the tin, and immediately and in large quantities.

          Yes, this is from the same opera where everything comes from (plants from South America in Africa, Australia, for example). There is a theory about developed trade in those periods and the free movement of the necessary ore and metal in industry. scale. Much does not fit into traditional history.
          And since it dominates the minds, they are not considering an alternative.
          1. +1
            19 September 2017
            Quote: Catherine II
            There is a theory of developed trade in those periods and the free movement of the necessary ore and metal in industry. scale.

            Sklyarov foresaw everything. http://www.lah.ru/text/sklyarov/metal-web/text.ht
            m In America, the designated place for mass smelting of ternary bronze products is on a plateau. To get to the nickel ores, you need to cross over a mountain range and wander around the jungle for quite some time. As a result, 2000 km. Nickel ore is not enriched. At the same time, cruel historians forced the ancient Indians to cast bronze not only for their own needs, but also in large quantities to cast metal clips for megalithic structures. Sklyarov accordingly claims the opposite, megaliths and bonds are left from an ancient, much more advanced civilization. And the Indians only broke metal out of stones and melted for their own needs. Until the supply ran out and it was not necessary to switch to the complex and laborious smelting of ordinary bronze. There was no reason for them to invent a complex alloy and run after zinc ore to distant lands, they could start right away with tin bronze. But they did not need it, because at your side is a mountain of free stuff.
            Quote: Catherine II
            Much does not fit into traditional history.

            The problem is that the matter is sliding into a banal conspiracy theory. Well edited story, suppose so what? Those. we assume that there is a kind of shadow government that needs something from us. Under it are the official governments and special services. As a result, coming to a conflict with them is like arranging a world revolution, but it will cost more to yourself. Therefore, no matter what we assume, there is no sense in this. Do you believe the official story or do not believe it - it does not change anything. Unless for practical purposes, some kind of fiction can be written about the terraforming of the proto-earth with the help of microorganisms, artificial evolution and a two-component civilization. I even came up with a key technology - the ability to preserve at the expense of the time flowing at different speeds. You go into the room, relax for an hour, outside, during this time a week, a month or a thousand years pass. Typically, our ancestors this concept was well known. A society in which different sections of society live at different speeds is much more stable than usual. Plus, there remains the opportunity for one generation to control processes lasting thousands and millions of years, such as interstellar flights, evolution, or the formation and development of states. It is interesting, if our biologists give such an opportunity to the same Mars for several million years, what would they be able to achieve?
    4. 0
      18 September 2017
      Quote: mar4047083
      And crucible steel is damask

      Not necessary. Homogeneous steel without slag, that’s the main thing. A better and more reliable alternative to refining through reforging. And it is available in processing to any experienced blacksmith. While damask steel with its dendritic structure must be obtained on purpose, and the features of its processing and operation are markedly different from ordinary steel. It makes no sense to bring it; the local blacksmith is likely to ditch the workpiece.
      Quote: mar4047083
      in Europe of the early Middle Ages it was technically impossible to cast anything from steel

      But without problems it was possible to forge any of the imported steel castings. As a result, there is a noticeable difference in the structure of the swords. Crucible Ulfberts allegedly do not have in their composition slag, from which European swords could not get rid. That's just not so many of them, which is not surprising. It’s the same as forging a sword from gold. But there were comrades, these Vikings, they preferred to wear a cool sword, rather than a golden chain for the whole belly.
      Quote: mar4047083
      Explain to people that Japanese swords are not a miracle weapon, but poor technology.

      Yet polishing draws. In the average workshop, it is not possible to achieve the same polishing as the Japanese master polisher who works manually. It certainly has a positive effect on the cutting properties. That's just the weapon turns out to be disposable, in combat conditions polishing will not last long.
  5. +1
    17 September 2017

    The sword was found in the 90s of the 20th century, 100 kilometers north of Perm. Carolingian type sword.
  6. +1
    17 September 2017
    So the plasma sword from star wars will go down in legends in the west
  7. +5
    17 September 2017
    Wings, Feet, most importantly Tail !!!!

    The most legendary sword. laughing
  8. +2
    18 September 2017
    comparable in strength weapons in Europe began to be mass-produced only in the second half of the XVIII (!) century.


    Many mounds ((Kiev, Chernigov. Gnezdovo-Smolensk, Timirevo-Yaroslavl), camps of warriors (Shestovitsy, Chernihiv region), areas of active agricultural and commercial activity (southeastern Ladoga, Suzdal Opole) X century provide armament for professional warrior warriors, who formed the basis of the ruling class. In these burials (547 took them into account), the weapon is not an ethnic, but a social indicator.

    To obtain a metal with an uneven carbon content, Slavic blacksmiths took rods or strips of iron and steel, folded or twisted them together after one and then forged many times, folded several times again, twisted them, assembled them with an accordion, cut along, forged again and so on. It turned out strips of beautiful and very strong patterned steel, which was etched to reveal a characteristic herringbone pattern. This steel made it possible to make swords rather thin without loss of strength, it is thanks to it that the blades straightened, being double-bent.


    Often, strips of welding damask steel (Damascus) formed the base of the blade, along the edge welded blades of high-carbon steel: it was previously subjected to the so-called cementation - heating in the presence of carbon, which impregnated the metal, giving it special hardness. Such a sword was quite capable of dissecting the shells and chain mail of the enemy, because, as a rule, they were made of steel or iron of lower grades. They also cut the blades of swords made less carefully.

    Experts emphasize that the welding of iron and steel - alloys noticeably different in melting point - is a process requiring the highest skill from a blacksmith. And archaeological evidence confirms that in the IX-XI centuries, our ancestors did this


    1. 0
      19 September 2017
      Slavic blacksmiths took rods or strips of iron and steel, folded or twisted them together after one and then forged many times, again folded several times, twisted, assembled with an “accordion”, cut along, forged again and so on. It turned out strips of beautiful and very strong patterned steel, which was etched to reveal a characteristic herringbone pattern. This steel made it possible to make swords rather thin without loss of strength, thanks to it the blades straightened, being bent twice

      way available to many. The same ancient people on the territory of owls. India also used wire of different quality (twisted them and melted them into a bar). There were a lot of manufacturing technologies and they were quickly borrowed if they made it possible to make weapons better.
      5 of the most PR swords in the world ... read this article earlier.
  9. +1
    19 September 2017
    Cool article, I want more!

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