According to the domestic press, the formation of a new state armaments program was to be completed last month. For obvious reasons, the collection and analysis of the "wishes" of the military department was conducted over the past few years, and led to certain results. As reported, the main features of the future program were identified by the beginning of 2015, and in the future, the Ministry of Defense specialists were engaged in optimizing plans in financial and production terms. In particular, it was possible to significantly reduce the required amounts of funding. According to the latest data, now 17 trillion rubles is supposed to be spent on the whole program.
SSBN "Alexander Nevsky", Vilyuchinsk, 30 September 2015, Photo of the RF Ministry of Defense / Mil.ru
The existing economic difficulties and the understandable desire to save led to a certain reduction in the planned funding, which, among other things, should have an impact on the modernization of the submarine forces of the navy. Probably, the military will have to abandon some plans for the construction of new submarines, as well as reduce the modernization projects of existing submarines. However, after such reductions, you can expect to receive a significant number of new or updated ships.
Perhaps the main part of the program to upgrade the submarine fleet is the construction of strategic missile submarine cruisers of the 955A Borey project. The project "Borey" for a long time moved to the stage of construction of production boats, some of which have already been transferred to the customer and put into operation. The first three Boreas, serving in the Navy, were completed and handed over to the customer as part of the current state armaments program. All other submarines, respectively, will be transmitted already in the period of the next similar program.
Currently, five new 955A type submarines are located in the workshops of the Sevmash plant at different stages of construction. All of them were laid during the current state program and, in the absence of serious difficulties, several can be transferred to the customer before its termination. The Prince Vladimir, Prince Oleg, Generalissimo Suvorov, Emperor Alexander III and Prince Pozharsky submarines were laid down in 2012-16 and should be transferred to the fleet before the beginning of the next decade. At the same time, all of them will surrender no earlier than 2018 of the year - soon after the start of the new state program.
According to the existing approved plans, the Navy should receive a total of eight submarines of the project 955 / 955А. Earlier, the possibility of building a larger number of such ships was considered, but as a result, eight units were put into the current state armaments program. In connection with the moral and physical obsolescence of the previous types of SSBNs, a fundamental decision may be taken in the foreseeable future to continue the construction of the Boreev. Given the timing of the implementation of various programs, it can be assumed that such construction will start no earlier than 2019-20 and, accordingly, will be included in the new state armaments program. In this case, it remains only to guess how many new submarines the military department will order, and when they will be commissioned.
The launch of the Bulava missile by the Vladimir Monomakh submarine, 12 in November 2015. Photo by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation / Mil.ru
Another priority project of the present time is the construction of multi-purpose nuclear submarines of the "Ash" type. To date, only two submarines have been built on the 885 “Ash” project. One of them, Severodvinsk, serves in the Navy with 2014, the second, Kazan, was launched this year. Under the current state program on 2011-2020, the construction of seven such boats is envisaged. Of these, five are contracted and four are at different stages of construction.
According to reports, the nuclear submarine "Kazan" will complete the tests and replenish the combat strength of the fleet only next year, shortly after the launch of the new state program. Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Arkhangelsk and Perm are scheduled to be handed over to the customer by the end of the decade. In the near future, the construction of the seventh ship under the name "Ulyanovsk" should begin. Its delivery is scheduled for the beginning of the next decade and will take place after the end of the current state program.
As in the case of the Boreas, the required number of new multi-purpose submarines of the 885 project has been revised several times. In a certain period, even proposed the construction of three dozen "Ash". Subsequently, the plans were revised and gradually reduced. As a result, it was decided to limit only seven boats. A comparatively small amount was proposed to be compensated by quality: characteristics and combat capabilities.
At the beginning of the next decade - already in the framework of the new state program for 2018-25 years - the main nuclear submarine of the new project, which is still known as “Husky”, can be laid. So far there is very little information about this project, and some messages may contradict each other. Nevertheless, a certain picture is already taking shape, and in addition, there are estimates of the beginning of the construction of such ships.
The laying of the submarine "Prince Vladimir", July 30 2012. Photo Kremlin.ru
According to various data and assumptions, the Husky project involves the creation of a universal underwater platform, which is proposed to be used for the construction of strategic, multi-purpose and torpedo submarines. At the same time, unification will affect part of the hull units, power plant and other general ship systems. The base model of the family can be a multi-purpose submarine with cruise missiles of existing and prospective types. In the future, on its basis will create a strategic rocket carrier and mine-torpedo carrier weapons.
According to a widespread forecast, the Husky head submarine will be built in the 2020-21 years, and its construction will continue until mid-decade. Then the construction of serial ships for different purposes will begin. Due to the unification and other ways to reduce the cost of construction, it will be possible to build a series of, at a minimum, 10-12 boats of various modifications. Such construction will continue until the mid or late thirties.
However, for the time being, it is safe to talk only about the existence of a new project and the possible launch of construction at the beginning of the next decade. Probably in the future there will be new information about the Husky boats, but so far the available information does not provide answers to most questions.
In parallel with nuclear submarines, the domestic industry will build ships with diesel-electric power plants. Last year, construction of six submarines of the 636.3 Varshavyanka project for the Black Sea Fleet was completed. Soon the military department announced plans to build similar diesel-electric submarines for the Pacific Fleet. Over the next few years it is planned to build six Varshavyanok necessary for the rapid and effective re-equipment of one of the largest fleets.
In the very near future, the first two Varshavyanok will be laid for the Pacific Fleet. According to reports, these ships were named "Mozhaisk" and "Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky." Construction of other submarines of the new order will soon begin. Earlier, information was cited, according to which four of the six new submarines will be completed by the beginning of the next decade. The remaining two are planned to be included in the combat composition of the Navy at the very beginning of the twenties.
According to official data, while the fleet plans to receive 12 diesel-electric submarines of the 636.3 project, designed to re-equip the two main alliances. In this case, it is already being suggested that a next series of such submarines could be ordered for the Northern or Baltic fleet. Whether such an order will appear - it remains only to guess. If the relevant contract is signed, it will happen no earlier than the beginning of the twenties, i.e. already during the action of the new state armaments program.
Further development of the non-nuclear submarine fleet was previously planned to be carried out using promising Kalina-type submarines, equipped with a new air-independent power plant. So, last year it was claimed that the first boat of this type will be laid already in the 2018 year. However, the plans of the Ministry of Defense subsequently changed. During the recent International Maritime Defense Show in St. Petersburg, it was announced that in the very near future there will be a contract for the construction of two serial diesel-electric submarines of the 667 Lada project. At the same time, "Kalina" was not mentioned anymore.
It should be recalled that the Lada-type submarines were already considered as a means of updating the fleet of vehicles, and it was precisely them that should be emphasized. At some point, the Ministry of Defense planned to build such boats before the 12-14. Nevertheless, the technical problems of the leading ship "St. Petersburg" led to a revision of such plans. The built boat was put into trial operation, and the construction of new submarines was suspended indefinitely.
"Novorossiysk" - the head diesel-electric substation of the 636.3 project "Varshavyanka", 2015. Photo of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation / Mil.ru
According to recent reports, an order should soon appear for two new diesel submarines of the 677 project, which are planned to be built before 2025. After this period, the construction of LAD will be continued. Thus, there is reason to believe that the main problems of the project in the existing form have been successfully resolved, and now it is ready for serial construction. Given the timing of the contract, it can be argued that the two new “Lada” will be built under the new state weapons program.
Simultaneously with the construction of new submarines, it is planned to repair and upgrade existing ships. Some such plans have already been announced. In early June, the leadership of the Ministry of Defense spoke about its intentions to upgrade four multi-purpose submarines of the 949A Antey project, currently serving in the Pacific Fleet. These submarines have rather high characteristics, but their age leads to known problems. In this regard, in the near future a new modernization project should appear, on which the renewal of boats will soon begin. The necessary work will be carried out both in the framework of the current and in the course of the next state armaments program.
According to the announced information, the proposed modernization of the Anteyev provides for the replacement of a number of general ship systems, which will allow to improve the main technical characteristics. In addition, the submarine will lose the existing missile complex "Granit". Funds for transportation and launch of Caliber family missiles will be placed in the existing launch pits. Due to this, the submarines will receive new combat capabilities, as well as significantly increase their ammunition. The first of four boats planned for modernization, the Irkutsk, is already undergoing repairs. The next three ships will go to the restructuring later.
Since 2014, the project for the modernization of the multi-purpose submarines of the 971 “Pike-B” project has been carried out. As part of this program, it is planned to repair and upgrade the six submarines available to the fleet. The project involves the replacement of a number of onboard systems and a significant upgrade of the weapon system. In its original form, "Pike-B" are mine-torpedo weapons and missile complex RK-55 "Granat". Last year, it was announced that the armament complex of such submarines in the course of modernization will be reinforced by new Caliber missiles, which are proposed to be launched through regular torpedo tubes.
In the past it was argued that the modernization of the "Shchuk-B" is of particular importance for the submarine forces of the fleet. Improved old submarines of this type and built new "Ash" were to be the basis of grouping multi-purpose submarines of the Russian Navy. Due to certain technological, economic and organizational problems, the modernization of the boats of the 971 project was noticeably delayed. Because of this, all the necessary work will be completed only by the middle of the next decade. Thus, three or four "Pikes-B" will be rebuilt and improved already in the framework of the new state armaments program.
The submarine "Leopard" (project 971) shortly before being sent for modernization. Photo of Wikimedia Commons
It should be noted that the new state program for 2018-25 years, apparently, does not provide for the modernization of all existing submarines of projects 949А and 971. Thus, the fleet will retain a certain number of such ships in the existing configuration and with existing combat capabilities. It is also likely to be handled by the multi-purpose submarines of the 945 “Barracuda” and 945 “Condor” projects. The possibility of a deep modernization of these ships was repeatedly mentioned earlier, but the required work has not been started. It can be assumed that the command decided to do without a major update of such submarines.
Quite expectedly, the new state armaments program, planned for the 2018-2025 years, is a continuation of the current, implemented from 2011 to 2020. In the context of updating the submarine forces of the navy, this, in particular, leads to the fact that the construction of a new ship or the renewal of an old one starts during the execution of one program and is completed in the period of the next one. This is exactly the case at once with a number of construction projects, both in the area of strategic rocket carriers and in the field of multi-purpose submarines.
Let's sum up. During the implementation by the industry of the next state armaments program, the Russian Navy will have to receive five strategic missile submarines of the Borey project 955A. Perhaps the beginning of the construction of the head cruiser type "Husky". The grouping of multipurpose nuclear submarines will be replenished with six ships of the project 885М "Ash". The non-nuclear submarine fleet will receive six diesel-electric boats of the 636.3 Varshavyanka project and two ships of the 677 Lada project. Four submarines of the 949A “Antey” project and six submarines of the 971 “Pike-B” project will be upgraded. Naturally, this list does not include submarines of one type or another, whose construction or modernization plans have not yet been announced by officials. However, information on this subject may appear as soon as possible.
The new state armaments program, designed for the end of the current decade and the first half of the next, is a direct continuation of the program already being implemented, ending in 2020. The continuity of the programs is clearly manifested in the context of the development of the submarine fleet - an area characterized by relatively long periods of construction of new combat units. Nevertheless, despite all the characteristic features of submarine shipbuilding and possible difficulties in fulfilling new orders, we can already say that by the middle of the next decade the submarine forces of the Russian Navy will noticeably increase their potential in all main directions.
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