Scanners in the USSR - how it all began

61


With the advent of the new year, social network users unearthed an old filmstrip (a kind of slide show with captions) “In 2017” in their caches. Its authors in an intelligible form tried to tell the Soviet kids what the world will be like 57 years later on the anniversary of the Great October Revolution: Robots, video communication, space travel, nuclear trains.




I'm interested story use and application of the scanner in the USSR.
Terms and brief technical details:
→ Image Scanner
→ Information input / output devices.
→ How a scanner works and works.
Progenitor Scanner→ Phototelegraph
→ Scanning technology

Images from the 1957 animated film:
Scanners in the USSR - how it all began



But only in the year 1953 V.M. Fridkin, who had just graduated from Moscow University, created the first Soviet photocopier, and later developed the theory of xerography. The future, as we know, came much earlier than 2017, which with regards to scanners - for sure.

In the Soviet Union, copying and duplicating machines (hectographs) were considered strategic, were necessarily registered in the KGB, and the strictest records were kept of who copied what and where.
"Erica" ​​takes four copies, - Sang in the famous song of Alexander Galich (hint, as you understood, on samizdat ...)

For the unauthorized use of copying and scanning technologies in the USSR, it was possible to “sit down” years on 10.
"HUNDRED YEARS UNDER THE BAN, OR ABUSE OF HECTOGRAPH"

The beginning of the spread of computer technology in the USSR opened up a new field for innovative developments. At the end of 80, a group of young engineers from Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS initiated the creation of a projection scanner.

Information:The Russian Academy of Sciences was established by Emperor Peter I Decree of the Governing Senate of 28 in January (February 8) of 1724. Recreated by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of November 21 1991, as the highest scientific institution of Russia. Historical milestones RAS.

Having achieved some success, colleagues organized a cooperative and started creating and promoting their development. The result of their work was a projection scanner Uniscan, which combined the capabilities of a scanner and a modern digital camera. It had 72 megapixel resolution. This resolution allows you to see the individual eyelashes on the image of a person with the format A0.


Tripod Scanner


The image in 72 megapixels at the end of 80's turned out so

The first scanner samples made it possible to obtain black and white images or images in grayscale. "Open the world in all its amazing dullness!" - joked in the brochures. The refined design of these models also did not differ. Later light filters were added to the design, and from that moment the scanner allowed to get full-color images.

The Uniscan scanner was used for receiving and processing images in the printing industry, for text recognition and database creation, in cartography and design, for creating digital copies of rare books in state libraries, for macro and micro photography of fixed objects. The combination of a scanner with a microscope turned out to be a very demanded forensic medical examination - the Uniscan scanner turned out to be the best that was offered in the world for these tasks.


Microscope with Uniscan scanner


As far as I understood this issue, this initiative group of young engineers in 1995 (already in the Russian Federation) founded Uniskan LLC in Novosibirsk.


Uniskan LLC still works quite fruitfully now..

Scanners for entering slides made it possible to qualitatively enter information from transparent media. This is usually either flatbed scanners with a special slide module, or drum scanners. Their main use is publishing and cartography. By the way, until recently, the teletype, using the principle of a drum scanner, was used to transmit page layouts of central publications throughout the former USSR.


Of course, we were not the first in this area:

The first SEAC drum scanner *, Russell Kirsch and the background scanner control panel. 1957 year, United States.


But not outsiders.

Soon in the USSR appeared "hand" scanners:


From the domestic coding devices with freely movable sight, PKGIO is known - “Semiautomatic Coding of Graphic Information Optical” (the optical part is, apparently, a viewfinder in the form of a magnifying glass with a crosshair and built-in induction coil). The kit also includes an electric pencil and keyboards: a double (Russian and Latin, as well as an additional one with Greek letters) a push-button keyboard and a keyboard in the form of a table with holes, into which you have to stick an electric pencil - it is mounted on the tablet next to its working field. The resolution of the device reaches 0,1 mm.

I would like to note a special category of scanning (or rather, copying) equipment — espionage (or reconnaissance).


Note: Spying is the illegal intelligence activity of bodies (their agents) of foreign states, which, as a rule, involves the abduction of officially classified information (state secrets) by the special services of other states.

The best-known (or rather, the "famous") special means are the Cinnamon, Winter and Tan photocopiers.


Cinnamon photocopier (from Keith Melton Spy Museum archive)


The effectiveness of the use of rolling machines, as well as the need for fast and high-quality copying of a large number of documents, prompted the developers of NJL-11 (a specialized laboratory that was part of the Operational and Technical Directorate). KGB of the USSR) to create a portable rolling photocopier for A4 documents. In the new camera with the name “Cinnamon,” the document was covered with a pressure glass of the working side of the device (with dimensions like that of the A4 format), and the mirror-prism mechanism moving inside the device was evenly scanned through the document under the action of a spring.

For uniform illumination of the document, a special thin and long illuminator, like fluorescent lamps, was used in the Koritsa, which moved with a mirror-prism mechanism. Its movement, as well as the transportation of photographic film, was provided by a spring cocked by a side lever for shooting a single frame. The Cinnamon cassette contained up to 400 frames of standard 35 mm film and could quickly be replaced with “fresh” in the light in a few seconds, which made it possible to copy a large number of documents. The aperture of the lens was selected depending on the sensitivity of the film. Cinnamon had a frame counter, as well as a convenient shutter lever that worked from both the right and left hand. To power the Cinnamon illuminator, a standard 110 / 220 volt electrical system could be used, as well as a 12 volt voltage through the vehicle's cigarette lighter socket.


Set of apparatus "Cinnamon" (from the archive Keith Melton Spy Museum)


Cinnamon turned out to be a very effective machine for quickly copying a large number of documents, for example, when the officer-curator received secret documents through a cache from his agent for a fairly short time, copied them in the car, observing the conspiracy requirements, and after completing the work, returned them to the agent prearranged by. “Cinnamon” was also actively used in safe houses and in hotel rooms, where the documents received for the period of time were delivered and returned to official storage after photocopying. The dimensions and weight of the “Cinnamon” together with the power supply unit and pre-loaded photographic cassettes made it possible to transfer the entire set in a regular briefcase or attache case, which ensured the conspiracy of the whole activity of working with the device both in the car parked or in motion, and for document shooting in room.

Operational units of the KGB actively used “Koritsa”, noting the simple setup and convenient control of the device, in connection with which the serial production of “Cinnamon” was organized at the Krasnogorsk plant, where the unit was assigned the factory index C-125.

Later, the KGB prototype, developed for using 16 mm film with an electric motor to drive a mirror-prism system and a film transport mechanism, entered the operational divisions of the KGB. The new device "Winter" was smaller in size and provided copying of the A4 document in two times with overlapping of each half of the sheet. The “Winter” cassette was designed for 400 frames, contained 6 meters 16 mm photo films with double perforation and sensitivity from 45 to 700 units. GOST. Photographing one frame began after the lever-switch shifted to the right with the thumb of the right hand, and was performed for 2,5 seconds. The power supplies included in the “Winter” package ensured that the device operated from the 12 volt automotive network and from the standard 110 / 220 volt electrical network.

Despite the smaller dimensions and the presence of the electric drive, the Zima device was not actively used in operational practice. According to KGB officers, the device often lay for years in the storage areas of operational equipment and was taken out only for the annual inventory. According to experts, copying the A4 document for two times turned out to be inconvenient, and many operatives preferred the old Cinnamon.


Photocopier "Winter" (from the archive Keith Melton Spy Museum)


In the middle of 1980's. A prototype of “Cinnamon” and “Winter” appears, the camera “Tan”, for copying a full sheet of А4 to 16 mm film with electric drive of the mirror-prism mechanisms of film scanning and transportation.

The Zagara cassette was designed for 400 frames, the kit also included two more cassettes. Thus, "Tan" could provide a relatively fast copying of more than a thousand sheets of documents.


Photocopier "Tan" (from the archive Keith Melton Spy Museum)


However, the new “Tan” was not actively used, perhaps because of the relatively large weight (more than 3 kg) and increased dimensions, which, most likely, turned out to be inconvenient for operational officers in the case of transportation of “Tan”, which was already difficult to place in standard portfolio. In the second half of the 1980's. began the active use of computer scanners, on which copying was much easier compared to the bulky “Tan”. All this led to the fact that the factory party "Zagarov" has not found application. New kits of this device were stored for a long time in the warehouses of operational equipment until it was instructed to send the entire batch to NIL-11 for destruction or possible use of individual blocks, assemblies and parts.

So ended a century of highly effective use by the KGB units of rolling cameras, which gave a lot of necessary and especially important for the USSR documents, including copies of materials in rare languages, when the requirements of high definition of the negatives were particularly high. Today, in the arsenal of modern intelligence, there are various household digital devices that allow, without any camouflage, it is quite open and easy to scan documents and drawings of any complexity.

By the way, to the scanners include the camera of the spacecraft Luna-9, Luna-13, side cameras Lunokhod, cameras Venus. And a real scanner can be considered Luna-19 and -22. The camera was a linear photosensitive element that scanned the image of the surface of the Moon moving under the vehicle. Snapshot:



Today, without scanners, we can no longer imagine our normal life:




Computer processing of photos in the USSR (1987)


That's all that I managed to dig about scanners in the USSR.
Maybe someone knows more?

Used documents, photos and videos

Sources of

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  1. +2
    17 February 2017 15: 43
    At home there was a projector and a bunch of filmstrips .. I also remember the toy in the form of a miniature movie camera, tuck in the film and turn the side lever, watching the resulting animation through the peephole ..)
    1. +2
      17 February 2017 18: 46
      my father’s friend in the garage specifically went and found a projector with her old filmstrips. Will twist his son. good Wow! It’s better than TV, and it develops better. Yes, because the imagination and other processes are turned on, unlike the TV. My friends! Great weekend to everyone! Yours faithfully, hi
      1. 0
        14 August 2017 09: 35
        As a matter of fact, for our childhood watching filmstrips was a kind of magic - a large screen, a dark room - almost a movie that you still manage.
        And the indescribable smell of the film heated by the projector ...
        However, any modern home projector and computer can easily display any old filmstrip (of course, pre-scanned), if there really is such a need.
        Of course, you can prepare the material yourself, having the necessary, very simple knowledge. And with a little brain effort, such a show turns into an interactive one, which makes a lasting impression on young viewers.
        That's just the magic of the old film from a round box and the cozy heat from the lamp will no longer be ...
        1. 0
          14 August 2017 09: 39
          That's just the magic of the old film from a round box and the cozy heat from the lamp will no longer be ...

          Yes you are right. Projector - it was a whole magic. drinks hi remembered all my childhood. Everything digitized is probably not the same ..
  2. +11
    17 February 2017 15: 46
    Thanks, Anton. But we will not see the future from the filmstrip until there is USSR-2.
  3. +5
    17 February 2017 16: 01
    I will supplement the author - in 86-90 he studied at the Higher School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (no matter what winked ), in the process of studying the subject of warfare (operational-search activity), we studied and trained with the FKP-2 device (photo-copy folder). This device was placed in a leather folder of A4 format and allowed you to secretly copy documents. You take the document from the suspect, put it in a folder (sort of like by mistake), press the button - time! and done.
    And even when I was in the mid-80s, all (!!!) typewriters that were in circulation by citizens and organizations went through "shooting" and "cartridges", i.e. printed sheets were stored in a special file cabinet, for operational work in the event of samizdat and leaflets. That’s how they lived like that then ... laughing
    1. +6
      17 February 2017 16: 29
      Quote: Vik66
      no matter what


      Higher School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR (from 1974 - Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR)
      Higher Investigative School MOOP - Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR (since 1967)
      Higher Correspondence School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR (since 1988)
      Gorky Higher School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR (until 1972, Gorky Secondary Special Police School)
      Yerevan Higher School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR
      Karaganda Higher School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR
      Kiev Higher School MOOP - Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR
      Minsk Higher School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR (since 1976)
      Moscow Higher Police School (since 1975)
      Omsk Higher Police School MOOP - Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR
      Ryazan Higher School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR (Until 1970 - Ryazan Secondary Special School for the Training of Commanding Officers)
      Tashkent Higher School of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs (since 1967)
      Tyumen Higher School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR (since 1987)
      Ufa Higher School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR (Until 1988, Ufa Secondary Special School for the Training of Commanding Officers)
      Khabarovsk Higher School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR (Until 1980, Khabarovsk Specialized Police School)
      Quote: Vik66
      and trained with the FKP-2 device

      Has the police adapted a photo-movie to a machine gun?

      Threat. It's hard to call it a scanner


      Quote: Vik66
      And when I was still in the middle of the 80, all (!!!) typewriters that were in circulation by citizens

      This is yes ...
      Everything is registered.

      This is a photocopier, the Soviet counterpart of the “Xerox”.
      He ate tracing paper drawn from the Whatman paper
      entire departments of draftsmen-copiers.
      As a result, all this was translated into a roll of blue.
      Then they cut it with a special roller knife.

      I’ve gotten so blue. All with the permission of competent comrades. Then showed (reconciliation for consumption and paper)
      1. 0
        17 February 2017 20: 33
        and there was also a color string picture tube, the technology was not enough at the moment to implement, for which Sony Trinetron mercilessly slammed
  4. +3
    17 February 2017 16: 37
    I don’t know about scanners, but about phones:
    "Russian mobile phones of the fifties - the ordinary sensation of the space era.
    For the first time, the devices we call mobile phones today were invented in the USSR in the fifties, a few years before their re-invention in the USA. Moreover, the level of technology and the simplicity of solutions "pocket radio" for that time were the best in the world .... "

    More details here: http://www.kramola.info/vesti/rusy/russkie-mobiln
    iki-pjatidesjatyh-rjadovaja-sensacija-kosmichesko
    j-jery
    1. +1
      17 February 2017 16: 46
      Quote: Boris55
      The first devices that we call mobile phones today were invented in the USSR in the fifties,

      1. +3
        17 February 2017 16: 59
        Quote: krass
        bullshit

        Yes Yes
        In 1935, a collection of scientific works of the Leningrad Experimental Communication Institute was published, where an article by engineer Dmitry Ageev was published under the title "Fundamentals of the theory of linear selection." The mathematical algorithm of mobile telephony, proposed by scientists, was ahead of time, but the technical department of the NKVD classified the invention.
    2. +5
      17 February 2017 16: 50
      Quote: Boris55
      that we call mobile phones today

      This is a radio phone:


      communication is carried out according to the scheme: radiophone - ATR-ATS - telephone.
      At a regular city automatic station (ATS), a special automatic telephone is installed radio station (APR)
      Although yes:

      Radioelectronics (Bulgaria) 1965g Hristo Bachvarov
      1. 0
        17 February 2017 19: 26
        Quote: opus
        ... but the technical department of the NKVD classified the invention ...

        But this question is interesting, why all our inventions are not available to us and are in the Western world to this day. Who at that time was a "nano-Chubais" merging all patents to his relatives ...
        1. +3
          17 February 2017 19: 46
          Quote: Boris55
          But this question is interesting, why all our inventions are not available to us and are on

          This is definitely not my topic.
          I can only assume that under "capitalism": iPhone, phone, washing machine, microwave
          vka, "Xerox" ..in everyday life there are MORE chances for development (in everyday life, and everyday life is MONEY) than under "socialism".
          I put "", it’s understandable why, maybe the theory is very far from practice
          1. 0
            18 February 2017 09: 24
            It is not a matter of social order, since far from every house had such gadgets. Rather, it is a militarized economy, as they were going to fight on a serious one.
            1. +4
              18 February 2017 13: 13
              Quote: kugelblitz
              It's not about the social structure,

              "Demand begets supply" is a phrase from an economics textbook.
              Looking at the fact that in every kiosk they sell booze, and on the Internet around the N0pnuha, it becomes clear why there are so many drunkards and p0stitutes.?

              no

              Not a product is created for our needs.
              On the contrary, these needs are created for THEIR product in order to get more money (or program the electorate to fit your needs: get slaves, get the territory and resources of the electorate, clean the territories for yourself of "genetic" garbage, make sanitation of the area finally).
              I would never believe that somewhere inside the Russian public there was a need to see Verka Serdyuchka.
              Or "Christmas light" with the same snouts for 10 years


              But how do manufacturers of phones (mobile) parasitize?
              Vk and FB, twitter, etc.
              Does demand generate supply?

              Or someone subtly manipulates both
              1. 0
                18 February 2017 17: 44
                The same snout is kakbe everywhere. How right now they are promoting pederasty in the countries of developed capitalism. I’m probably more aware of the trend in electronics and media. They ideologically rot, from their very liberalism. By the way, drug addiction went from there, the Czechs came to us, all the fly agarics in the district devoured.

                So the consumption economy does not affect technological progress anymore, there is a stupid GHz race, x86 is ossified to ugliness, wai-wai despite the high speed actually withering shit from the slightest interference, the operating systems are overgrown with fat from whistle transformers, but the core is the same from 80s. Here it is liberalism.
                1. +4
                  18 February 2017 22: 43
                  Quote: kugelblitz
                  the operating systems are overgrown with whistles

                  But how did the manual from Microsoft lose weight good

                  The volume of documentation supplied by Microsoft with printed Windows operating systems has been steadily declining. From a thick volume for Windows 3.1 to a Windows 7 flyer.
                  1. 0
                    19 February 2017 08: 45
                    It was, in principle, not painfully difficult before, much less there is a help file with all keyboard commands. The only thing they have done in so many years is not the window GUI, but the NT kernel. The rest is stray from the evil one, which are essentially driver packages hung on the kernel.
          2. +3
            20 February 2017 15: 52
            "I can only assume that under" capitalism ": iPhone, phone, washing machine, microwave
            vka, "Xerox" ..in everyday life there are MORE chances for development (in everyday life, and everyday life is MONEY) than "////

            Absolutely correct assumption. The greatest profit in the capitalist world comes from the sale of consumer goods, including household appliances.
            Therefore, they try to turn any invention into a household appliance first of all.
            A “military” is unprofitable (even supermarkets earn more)
            therefore, the “inventions” are stuck in the military for years.

            Thanks for the interesting article.
      2. +3
        19 February 2017 11: 08
        Quote: opus
        communication is carried out according to the scheme: radiophone - ATR-ATS - telephone.
        At a conventional city automatic station (ATS), a special automatic telephone radio station (ATR) is installed

        EMNIP system was called "Altai".
        Anton, an interesting publication! good Especially considering that on the weekend! lol
    3. 0
      28 December 2017 23: 09
      Enough to duplicate this fake photo. In fact, Kupriyanovich’s phone looked like this
  5. +1
    17 February 2017 19: 56
    Quote: opus
    This is yes ...
    Everything is registered.

    This is a photocopier, the Soviet counterpart of the “Xerox”.
    He ate tracing paper drawn from the Whatman paper
    entire departments of draftsmen-copiers.
    As a result, all this was translated into a roll of blue.
    Then they cut it with a special roller knife.
    I’ve gotten so blue. All with the permission of competent comrades. Then showed (reconciliation for consumption and paper)

    Yes, typewriters were locked in a closet for the weekend ...

    This blueprint is already more or less. In our neighboring department, the unit was generally ancient. After sweep
    the paper was placed in a container and developed with liquid ammonia.

    Quote: Boris55
    "Russian mobile phones of the fifties - the ordinary sensation of the space era.
    For the first time, the devices we call mobile phones today were invented in the USSR in the fifties, a few years before their re-invention in the USA. Moreover, the level of technology and the simplicity of solutions "pocket radio" for that time were the best in the world .... "

    We could invent anything. The main thing is not invention, but implementation.
  6. 0
    17 February 2017 20: 27
    class! the dam across the Bering Strait and the last island of the imperialists, I really liked it. In fact, everything is real and feasible, realized. It remains to choose the island on which to drive the last imperialists.))) Take the eraser and erase it from the map.)
    1. +3
      17 February 2017 22: 15
      Quote: wizard
      lass! a dam across the Bering Strait and the last island of the imperialists

      +
      and no one else noticed anything?

      on a poster on the wall the USSR looks very promising in 2017, swallowed Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, China and a number of Asian countries.
      still in the USSR Syria, Bulgaria, Romania and a number of countries to the Baltic
      I'm for a joke:

      (on a well-known democratic site) snapped -9
      1. +5
        17 February 2017 22: 24
        On the edge - the poured Alice Selezneva is standing. fellow
        And no one else noticed anything?
        1. +1
          18 February 2017 00: 56
          Quote: Mordvin 3
          On the edge - the poured Alice Selezneva is standing.

          good
          with a child?
          1. +2
            18 February 2017 01: 06
            Quote: opus
            with a child?

            I do not know. He doesn't look like Kolya with a melaphone. request But it’s clear where the directors copied the character, and the dress. wink
        2. +1
          18 February 2017 19: 22
          So the poster is a clear remake.
          The artist has a clear nostalgia for the times of "stagnation" or prosperity, as you like.
          1. +4
            18 February 2017 19: 50
            Yeah, Anton pinned. Realized, but late. 2011 picture of the year.
          2. +1
            18 February 2017 19: 52
            Quote: garri-lin
            The artist has a clear nostalgia for the times of "stagnation" or prosperity, as you like.

            there is another option

            who hurts something ... (I'm talking about seminole)
  7. +1
    18 February 2017 12: 07
    Quote: kugelblitz
    It is not a matter of social order, since far from every house had such gadgets. Rather, it is a militarized economy, as they were going to fight on a serious one.

    I agree with Anton. In this case, the whole thing was connected precisely with the social system of the country.
    Quote: opus
    I can only assume that under "capitalism": iPhone, phone, washing machine, microwave
    vka, "Xerox" ..in everyday life there are MORE chances for development (in everyday life, and everyday life is MONEY) than under "socialism".

    It was the opportunity to have an iPhone, telephone, Xerox, computer in the west and made it possible to quickly develop this technique. If you look, for example, the history of the creation of staffers in the United States, for starters, one of the tasks for "consumer goods" was the ability for housewives to store in them a database, recipes, for example, or addresses. But punch cards did not allow mass development. Winda appeared accordingly with its interface (maybe I simplistically describe it, but something like that). A normal, convenient interface is an increase in the market.
    With us, with our total secrecy, all this could not be a priori. And there was no market - no development. See what, for example, were our cars of the late 80s and the same 286th?
    What kind of computer, Internet or Xerox can be talked about even if typewriters were registered (print), if the “enemies” voices were muffled, if any replication is a long process. Even if it concerns working materials. One can not talk about personal replication. Unless he himself was directly connected with the replicating technique. And even then they could punish for "excessive paper consumption."
    Therefore, Anton is right. It was with them that it had the possibility of development.
    As for the washing machine and microwave - this is of course secondary. But for the most part, the enterprises producing them were not particularly interested in mass production, since they were often produced at defense industry enterprises and belonged to obligatory "consumer goods". which was required to produce a factory.

    And as for the city and the world of the early 2000s, it’s interesting to see, for example, the Techno-Youth magazines for the 50s. There you could see the external surroundings, as it was represented by artists, equipment and everything else
    1. +1
      18 February 2017 13: 04
      Quote: Old26
      It’s interesting to see, for example, the Techno-Youth magazines for the 50 year. There you could see the external surroundings, as it was represented by artists, equipment and everything else

      Yes




      in principle, you can

      photon ship "Hius"


      Read
  8. +1
    18 February 2017 17: 47
    in principle, you can read these books. But this is a work of art. And in the magazine you look and "plunge" into the reality of the future
  9. +2
    18 February 2017 19: 07
    Touching phrase from the Wiki about the Academy of Sciences
    [/ Quote]Recreated By the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of November 21 of 1991 as the highest scientific institution in Russia. [quote]
    So EBN is on a par with Peter the Great.
    1. +2
      18 February 2017 19: 59
      Quote: Aviator_
      So EBN is on a par with Peter the Great.

      history can not be rewritten (by the way, to "THIS IT DOESN'T APPLY)."
      WHAT HAS BEEN.


      "parade of sovereignty"

      everyone shouted and stuck out

      (as you think, what we “bought”, and so easily, even diarrhea of ​​the brain arises)

      Good to have stopped
      1. +1
        18 February 2017 23: 01
        Well,
        [/ quote] yelling and "sticking out" [quote]
        far from all, mostly young alternatively “gifted” in Moscow and St. Petersburg, this was the first edition of the Kiev Maidan. And the fact that the EBN reassigned the Academy and all the ministries to itself (while still being the president of the RSFSR), Gorbi must answer for this with the tagging - he was taken away from the country and shredded.
  10. 0
    18 February 2017 19: 40
    The weather control station seems to be copied from ARCTANIA. And the centaur saw the spaceship to Alpha from the magazine cover from about those years. A feat type monthly but with fiction.
    And the location of the island of the imperialists does not resemble anything?
  11. +1
    18 February 2017 19: 59
    Quote: garri-lin
    And the centaur saw the spaceship to Alpha from the magazine cover from about those years.

    "Hius" according to the book flew only in the system. And the collection was called not "Feat", but "Seeker"
    1. 0
      18 February 2017 20: 10
      There is no spaceship that was in the filmstrip, a sort of bag from ...... I don’t know chtoli cones or needles. Futuristic for that time is drawn. I saw him almost the same picture on the cover. Apparently in those days so-so imagined.
      I read about the adventures of the Hius team in a collection in childhood. I liked it terribly. The illustrations there were slightly different.
      And for the reminder of the "Seeker" thanks. I only read it a couple of numbers, but I remembered the name poorly.
      1. +1
        18 February 2017 23: 08
        Classical illustrations at that time, among other artists-illustrators, were drawn by Yu. Makarov, namely his work in the books “The Country of the Crimson Clouds” and “Return, Noon, XXII Century”, published in the series “Library of Adventures and Science Fiction”, publishing house “Children's Literature” . Gold embossed books.
        1. +2
          19 February 2017 02: 59
          Quote: Aviator_
          Classical illustrations then, among other illustrators, were drawn by Yu. Makarov,

          aha

          (Illustration from A. Kazantsev’s book “The Grandsons of Mars”, 1963)
          and Nikolai Mikhailovich Kolchitsky painted for the magazines “Technique - Youth”, “Spark”, “Young Technician”, illustrated books, stories, essays
          1. +1
            19 February 2017 14: 03
            And most of all, I liked Robert Avotin in style, he illustrated a lot of science fiction and was the main artist of the journal "Technique-Youth" in the 60's 70's under the chief editor V. Zakharchenko
            1. +1
              22 February 2017 11: 43
              "TM" was an excellent magazine in the 60-70s. And very diverse.
  12. +1
    19 February 2017 00: 03
    Quote: garri-lin
    And for the reminder of the "Seeker" thanks. I only read it a couple of numbers, but I remembered the name poorly.

    Of course, I read them a little more, my friend was in the newsstand. And basically, on the EMNIP rootkacker, there was a selection of "searcher No. for 20 years
  13. 0
    19 February 2017 00: 19
    Quote: garri-lin
    There is no spaceship that was in the filmstrip, a sort of bag from ...... I don’t know chtoli cones or needles. Futuristic for that time is drawn. I saw him almost the same picture on the cover. Apparently in those days so-so imagined.

    Yes, in the filmstrip, this photon spacecraft is unclear what. But actually, if you look at the same “Youth Technique” for the 50s, they already painted a photon rocket there, like rice now. Reflector and long lattice structure at the beginning of which are living compartments.
  14. 0
    20 February 2017 00: 12
    The author somehow strangely applies the term prototype. Prototype (from other Greek: πρῶτος - first and τύπος - imprint, imprint; prototype) - a working model, a prototype of a device or part in design, construction, modeling. That is, this is the previous production version of the product: A-34 - the prototype T-34, AK-47 - the prototype AK. The model cannot be a prototype in relation to the previous one: “Winter” is not a prototype of “Cinnamon” and “Tan” is not a prototype of “Cinnamon” and “Winter”, just like AK-74 is not a prototype of AK and AKM, but T-44 - not prototype T-34 and T-34-85.
    1. +1
      20 February 2017 22: 55
      Quote: Navigator Basov
      The author somehow strangely applies the term prototype

      1. This is not my spelling, I have to complain about "Spy arsenal. History of special services operative technology" Authors: Vladimir Alekseenko, Keith Melton Head of 37. Photocopiers "Cinnamon", "Winter", "Tan"

      2.Prototype (Engineering) - working model, prototype devices or parts in design, construction, modeling.
      Prototype - fast, rough implementation of the future system
      The prototype is later specified to obtain the final product.
      3. Understand
      Quote: Author
      In the middle of the 1980's. a prototype of “Cinnamon” and “Winter” appears, the “Tan” camera
      need so:
      The Tan camera was the prototype of the Cinnamon and Winter systems.
      As the authors, he stands in the description after "K" and "Z" and left it
      see:
      1. 0
        21 February 2017 00: 46
        Hello, come! If there is a mistake in the source, the task of the site editor is to carefully transfer it to the article?
        Quote: opus
        This is not my spelling.
        This is not a spelling mistake at all, but a factual one. And what difference does it make, I didn’t claim that it was your spelling, I claimed that the author was mistaken. Grossly mistaken. The editor should correct this if the author did not have an editor, and he is not on this site, well, I actually act in his role in this case.
        Quote: opus
        The prototype is a quick, rough implementation of the future system
        This is another meaning of the term: foam, clay or wooden model, for example. All the products described are not quick, rough implementations. The prototype as a prototype is exactly A-34 in relation to the T-34.
        Quote: opus
        You need to understand this
        Yes, do not understand this. This cannot be understood this way, just as it cannot be understood that the son is the ancestor of the father. This must be corrected. Take a source - write material based on it. Copy-paste without applying the head is not serious at all. But I realized that the feed is not in the horse.
        R. S .: In general, of course, I apologize for such harshness, in fact, nothing personal, it just burns out from such indifference.
        1. +2
          21 February 2017 19: 18
          What was the extra glass drunk?
          Quote: Navigator Basov
          I did not claim that it was your spelling, I claimed that the author was mistaken.

          I’m switching to you, only with homo, and it’s necessary sapiens, and even then not with everyone.
          I don’t remember that I would drink sour beer with you on the Brudershaft. I cook it at home, incl. mistake
          Quote: Navigator Basov
          . The editor should correct this if the author did not have an editor,

          1. I am not an editor. The editor on the site, there is a desire / basis for a complaint
          2. I certainly owe you nothing, the editor thinks the same.

          Quote: Navigator Basov
          Copy-paste without applying the head is not serious at all.

          1. There is no copy-paste, this is your residual F.20.1.
          2. Correcting a book (in the "Winter" part), published by 30 000 in circulation, is megalomania.
          Quote: Navigator Basov
          But I realized that the feed is not in the horse.

          I have nothing to do with equidrops.
          I understand that you are Equidae and you are looking for the same, but I’m homo sapiens.
          We will not understand each other.

          Quote: Navigator Basov
          R. S .: In general, of course, I apologize for such harshness, in fact, nothing personal, it just burns out from such indifference.

          And you forgive me.
          Your post is very similar to gutting
          1. 0
            22 February 2017 02: 12
            And I am always with you on the Internet, like all normal people who understand the impersonality of such communication. You should only translate everything into the plane of ChSV. By the way, about the drunk glasses: I don’t remember drinking at all, not just drinking brudershaft, but whoever thinks in what categories! Sorry, sapiens, it wasn’t for me to argue with those who openly acknowledge their belonging to Neanderthals, proudly opposing the modern look homo sapiens sapiens (the picture is not fun for the sake of, but for general development, in order to at least slightly bring the neoanthropus to the cultural level).
          2. 0
            22 February 2017 02: 31
            Quote: opus
            I certainly owe you nothing, editor, I think, too.
            That’s why we live so fabulously that no one owes anything to anyone, no one answers for anything, everyone around spit on something. So you owe it to yourself, but if you haven’t moved anything, you shouldn’t sprinkle it with beads. Out of the usual neutral remark to the text without personal accusations, he unwound some pathos old-fashioned rebuke, he wanted to offend me, but only made himself a laughing stock. Oh, it’s even a pity.
            1. 0
              4 December 2017 19: 48
              Quote: Navigator Basov
              That’s why we live so fabulously that no one owes anything to anyone, no one answers for anything, everyone around spit on something.

              This is exactly "both in copper and not in copper" that is, "To have and not to have"
      2. 0
        28 December 2017 23: 17
        That is, their brains are not there?
  15. +1
    20 February 2017 16: 02
    Obliged to supplement with a photo of an outstanding copy machine good .
    1. +1
      20 February 2017 22: 58
      Quote: voyaka uh
      photo of an outstanding copy machine

      It's buulshit.
      I wrote.
      HECTOR MUCH is retro
  16. -1
    22 February 2017 13: 18
    Quote: voyaka uh
    Obliged to supplement with a photo of an outstanding copy machine

    The letter "er" sinks, as it should?
  17. +1
    22 February 2017 19: 26
    Quote: opus
    Quote: Boris55
    But this question is interesting, why all our inventions are not available to us and are on

    This is definitely not my topic.
    I can only assume that under "capitalism": iPhone, phone, washing machine, microwave
    vka, "Xerox" ..in everyday life there are MORE chances for development (in everyday life, and everyday life is MONEY) than under "socialism".
    I put "", it’s understandable why, maybe the theory is very far from practice

    Well, now under capitalism, where are OUR introduced inventions, new or old? The point, of course, is in capitalism, but not in the way you understand it. Capitalism is a system leading to globalization in the idea of ​​a global financial pyramid. In it, at the top of the pyramid, a group of people controls the entire economy of the Earth. They do not need the introduction of Russian inventions here in Russia. In the West, a bunch of patents and implementations of Russian and Soviet inventions only by Western businessmen. That's all. We plunged into this in the year 91, faithfully believing in "honest capitalism."
  18. 0
    22 February 2017 19: 37
    Quote: opus
    Quote: Navigator Basov
    The author somehow strangely applies the term prototype

    1. This is not my spelling, I have to complain about "Spy arsenal. History of special services operative technology" Authors: Vladimir Alekseenko, Keith Melton Head of 37. Photocopiers "Cinnamon", "Winter", "Tan"

    2.Prototype (Engineering) - working model, prototype devices or parts in design, construction, modeling.
    Prototype - fast, rough implementation of the future system
    The prototype is later specified to obtain the final product.
    3. Understand
    Quote: Author
    In the middle of the 1980's. a prototype of “Cinnamon” and “Winter” appears, the “Tan” camera
    need so:
    The Tan camera was the prototype of the Cinnamon and Winter systems.
    As the authors, he stands in the description after "K" and "Z" and left it
    see:

    So is this your note? Here on site. It is clear that from somewhere you took the information. But this phrase with the prototype also misled me. It violates the logic of the note. It turns out that the prototype "Tan" came out in the mid-80s, and the production models "Cinnamon" and "Winter" later (the prototype is a pre-production model, it goes before the serial production of the product, and you yourself gave links to the terminology).
    But in the late 80s, the transition to computer scanners began. So when, then, were Cinnamon and Winter used? Only 2-3 years or what?
    The author, probably due to his lack of knowledge of the language, confused the words "prototype" and "successor". "Tan" was the successor to the "Cinnamon" and "Winter" systems - this is logical.
  19. 0
    April 27 2017 17: 02
    A key feature of science fiction writers is an extremely primitive imagination, coupled with a failure to remember the technical complexity and objective necessity. What ours, what foreign.

    Talking robots, a note left to the car, this is a blunt projection of what a person easily performs on technology. The simple fact is that the talking robot is not only complicated, but a full-fledged AI has not been created so far, only stupid execution of the program, but no one needs it, the person copes with this task himself, he doesn’t get to science fiction. The task of "cooking porridge" is perfectly programmed through a few buttons.

    But this is boring in a book or film, but the Bender from Futurama, whose only industrial function is to perform the work of a banal pipe bending machine, but at the same time it eats beer, steals and generally behaves worse than people, is fun. Like apples from Mars, which were not there for humanity in general, in order to move away in space from the level of ancient sailors who sailed in direct line of sight of the coast, and at least in their solar system to move in days, not years, you need to do so much that the rash takes. But this is also boring, and science fiction is not interesting, and no one in 50 years will say that: "You are a scribbler."
  20. 0
    28 July 2017 18: 03
    Large THANK YOU Auto RU!!!!!!!!!

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