Military Review

About Mauser ... with love. The end ... (part five)

36
The new Mauzer rifle was so successful that the entire World War I fought in the Weimar army almost unchanged, the army of the Weimar Republic was armed with it, and then the Wehrmacht fought with it in World War II. In a variety of ways, it was exported and produced on the basis of licenses in Austria and Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, in China and in various other countries, including Sweden and Spain.



That's how she charged ...

Simultaneously with the Gewehr 98 rifle, Mauser developed the Kar.98 carbine, but it was produced only until the 1905 year, when a new X7,92 × 57 mm cartridge with a pointed bullet entered service. In the 1908, the Gewehr 98 base appeared Kar.98a (К98а). The length of the box and, of course, the trunk was reduced in him, but the main thing was that he had the bolt handle bent down, a special hook under the barrel to put on the goats. Then came the most massive modification of the Karabiner 98 Kurz, a model made in the 1935 year and adopted by the Wehrmacht as its main individual weapons. Improvements in it were small: changed the scheme of attachment of a gun belt, sights (fly fixed in namushnikom). Interestingly, the name “carbine” does not fit this pattern from the point of view of Russian-language terminology, or rather, “not quite”. It is more correct to call the 98k Mauser a “shortened” or “lightweight” rifle. The fact is that in German terminology it turned out that some German "carbines" were longer than rifles of the same type. But later they also began to denote a shortened rifle, so if you delve into all these linguistic difficulties, it is not difficult to go crazy. But from the technical point of view, “size matters”, so let it be a “shortened rifle”.

About Mauser ... with love. The end ... (part five)

Karabiner 98 Kurz, mod.1937


This model was launched in the 1935 year, the most interesting being the marking of the manufactured weapon. For some reason, even on instances of 1937, one can see both the old German eagle and ... the stylized Nazi "bird". Here they are - for some reason, three!


But from the opposite side - he - "Weimar Orlik."

During World War II, 98k mass production required a lot of change in production technology. So, the lodges began to be made of beech plywood, which was replaced with walnut wood, which is why the weight of the carbine became more by 0,3 kg; some parts began to be made from sheet metal by stamping; began to use spot welding; simplified the scope with the shutter; instead of bluing, parts of the rifle began to phosphate; lining the blades of the blade bayonet began stamping out of bakelite.


Characteristic features of the 98k are the bolt handle, the recess under it on the bed, the slot for the belt on the butt.

In addition to Germany, 98k was produced at Czechoslovakia plants from 1924 of the year to 1942 of the year. The Czech rifle had a slightly different design, it was somewhat shorter and more comfortable than the Gewehr 98. The plant where these rifles were manufactured was located in the town of Povazska Bistrita.


The year of manufacture is indicated on the breech breech. All parts are blued, including the feeder.

By design, any Mauser, as we have already seen, is a magazine rifle, which has a sliding bolt with a rotation of 90 degrees at locking and three lugs. Two in front of the bolt and one in the back. The reloading handle is also at the back of the shutter and bent down. Venting holes are provided in the gate through which, in case of gas breakthrough from the barrel, they go down into the magazine cavity. The shutter can be removed without the help of tools, as it is held in the receiver with a special retainer, which is located on it to the left. The fuse is placed in the middle position, the front part of the lock is pulled back and you can pull out the bolt. The ejector does not rotate, it captures the rim of the cartridge and rigidly holds it pressed to the gate. Thanks to this, even the “tight” liners are removed without much hassle. For disassembly of the shutter, a metal disk with a hole on the butt (eyelet) is used, which is needed as a stop.


Shop cover. There is a hole in it, and a button in it. You can click the tip of the bullet and ... "til open." Conveniently!

Double row store is well thought out. There are five rounds in a checkerboard pattern, and it is completely hidden in the box. You can charge from the holder or insert cartridges one by one. But in the chamber of patrons can not be inserted by hand, it can cause tooth breakage in the ejector.

The course of the trigger is made with a warning that is convenient. Whether the drummer is cocked can be easily determined by the position of the protruding shank, both by touch and visually. The fuse is three-position, flag, flip, located on the bolt in the back of the year with 1871. It can be put in three positions: if horizontally to the left, it means that “the fuse is on, the shutter is locked”, if it looks vertically upwards, then “the fuse is on, the shutter is free” and, finally, horizontally to the right - you can shoot! The "up" position is used when loading and unloading a rifle, and to extract the shutter. Control the fuse with the thumb of the right hand.


The fuse on the gate is on, the shutter itself is locked.

The sight is sector, consists of an aim block, an aim level and a collar with a latch. The divisions are from 1 to 20 and each division is equal to 100 m. The front sight is on the base of the muzzle of the trunk and on some samples, it is closed by a semi-circular removable headset. On this sample it, however, was not.


Aim.

The box has a characteristic semi-pistol grip. The butt plate is made of steel and has a door in it that closes the accessory cavity. The ramrod is under the barrel. Moreover, as in previous samples, it is a half-billow. To clean the rifle, a standard length ramrod is screwed out of the two halves. As you can see, the "fight" with the weight was literally per gram.


Front swivel.

Instead of the traditional two sashes for the belt, the front was combined with a box ring, and instead of a back sling, a through slot in the butt was made. The 98k has an advantage over early models that the holder is thrown when the shutter is sent, and the feeder is designed so that when the magazine is empty, it will not allow the shutter to close, which is convenient for shooters with poor memory.


Fly, ramrod and again the front swivel.

Like rifles, carbines in the German army had different types of blade buttons attached to the tip of the box. But since the bayonet fighting for the Second World War turned out to be an atypical affair, in order to save money, at the end of 1944, the weapon was no longer equipped with bayonet knives.


On the basis of a front sight antiglare corrugation! “Trifle, but nice!”

Advantages:
- The effectiveness of the bullet 98k;
- durable, simple in design, and safe to operate shutter, which provides high reliability and smoothness of operation, and has a large operational resource;
- stopping the shutter in the rear position warns the shooter about the need to load the weapon and eliminates attempts to fire from an unloaded weapon;
- placing the handle in the back of the bolt makes it possible to reload the rifle without taking it from the shoulder and not losing sight of the target, that is, without breaking the aiming monotony, which increases the accuracy of shooting;
- the store in the box is well protected from possible mechanical damage and it is convenient to carry it with such a store.

Disadvantages:
- Only five rounds in the store;
- despite the solid mass, the recoil is strong, the sound of the shot is sharp and loud;
- British "Lee-Enfield" has a higher rate of fire;
- quite difficult to manufacture.

Well, public recognition of Paul Mauser in strengthening the military power of Germany in 1898 received a political expression as a result: he became a deputy of the German Reichstag, and 14 of June 1902 was also an honorary citizen of Oberndorf. When he 29 passed away on May 1914, the mourning black flags were hung on the buildings of all well-known weapons companies from various countries.



Personal impressions.
I do not know how to shoot, but in the hands of this carbine seemed to me somehow less convenient than ... Spanish. Firstly, this one is obviously harder, though not a bit, and secondly, the pistol grip, which is so praised by everyone, did not seem to be lying very well “by the hand”. That is - yes, it is convenient, who argues, but not only the “Spaniards” seemed more comfortable (after I held them all in my hands several times), but even “Karl Gustov”. Here is a purely subjective impression of this "Mauser", which is even surprising. That is, if it came to shooting, then I would definitely choose Mauser, yes, but not German, but Spanish No. 2 (1 place), Spanish No. 1 (2 place), then Swedish "Karl Gustov" (3 place) , and I would put the above model only on the 4-th place! Although this, of course, is a purely subjective opinion.
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  1. Comrade Stalin
    Comrade Stalin 3 February 2017 06: 32
    +6
    But since bayonet battles were not atypical for the Second World War, in order to save money, at the end of 1944 they stopped equipping weapons with bayonet-knives.

    Because by that time half of the soldiers of the Red Army was armed with PPSh, and the Yankees had Garands and Thompson with M3. So neither the Soviet troops nor the Americans launched a bayonet attack.
  2. cap
    cap 3 February 2017 06: 43
    +7
    Vyacheslav! Thank you, I read without stopping. hi
    1. kalibr
      3 February 2017 07: 18
      +18
      And I wrote without stopping! When at the same time five Mausers fell into my hands at once, I scribbled three sheets of notes and impressions, tried on three times what, “aimed”, clicked the shutters. Only gradually came the feeling of "unity" with the weapon. A very amazing feeling, however. Then I read the sources. And surprisingly, everything is dry, formal, and, most importantly, there is no comparison. I am extremely sorry that I could not hold on to Anfield. I would have checked with a stopwatch where the shutter twitches faster. But they are very expensive! But this theme, despite the "end", I promise to continue!
      1. cap
        cap 3 February 2017 08: 03
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        But this theme, despite the "end", I promise to continue!


        Good luck I look forward to it. hi
        1. kalibr
          3 February 2017 08: 42
          +5
          Today we are ready ... three materials and work is underway on the 4th. Found a company that agreed to provide me with a photo. So even so ...
          1. Stas57
            Stas57 3 February 2017 09: 10
            +6
            Thank you, decent material, otherwise that’s how I became a monarchist, Obama’s curses and Rostov journalism

            Advantages:

            except for the entire bolt fuse group

            Disadvantages:
            - Only five rounds in the store;

            like many "non-automatic" we have, the Japanese

            This is a purely subjective impression of this "Mauser", which is even surprising.

            purely subjective, it depends on skills, physique, etc. I like swt;) lay down like a native, everyone else is already somehow wrong.
            1. your1970
              your1970 3 February 2017 12: 21
              +1
              You hold it in the photo and you feel that it’s less convenient for you than with the others. I’m so holding double-barreled shotguns — they are all a little short after PA.
      2. moskowit
        moskowit 3 February 2017 21: 00
        0
        Dear Vyacheslav, what is declared at the beginning of the article is completely unacceptable. Especially for you, carefully grinding the entire text presented ...

        "... fought in the Weimar army throughout the First World War, ..." Apparently you were printed about?
        On the right, somewhere taken "disc" was already an error ....
        You most likely wanted to print "... in the German Army ..." ....
        1. kalibr
          6 February 2017 07: 54
          0
          Yes, of course, you noticed well. I was thinking about when this sample was accepted, that both these and these are stamps on it, well ... "forgot". "German" certainly!
  3. alex-cn
    alex-cn 3 February 2017 07: 52
    +4
    My alteration was slightly different from the classic version .... The bed was straightforward, there were no ways to disassemble the shutter, by the way, there were no German stamps either, so maybe after the war they were collected from trophy blanks, the butt plate was simpler. Well, purely hunting troubles - the store is muffled, the forend is shortened, but the tree is walnut, the cartridges were inserted one at a time and it was extremely uncomfortable to enter the chamber, it was impossible to drive the bolt, the hunting fly.
    And about the return on the battle Mauser, so the three-ruler has it too - be healthy.
    There is no need to talk about the shutter itself - the vast majority of modern bolted ones are variations on the Mauser ...
  4. bubalik
    bubalik 3 February 2017 08: 18
    +2
    ,,, Vyacheslav how versatile you are all the same ,,, I’m even a little jealous of you, and you know about Japan, and about knights, and PR, and about weapons hi
    1. kalibr
      3 February 2017 08: 38
      +9
      This is not necessary to be surprised. I live a long time in the world and do not waste time on trifles. I’ve been doing tanks since 1980, first models, then a magazine ... Knights since 1995. Japan since 1999. PR has become a profession since 1995, but did the first independent project in 2000 - he studied this for five years. Shooter ... still at the institute received a sports rank and a diploma of a shooting instructor. By the way, he wrote his first article in 1977 - the anniversary will be soon! So everything is due. If you have been doing something for so many years, then you will inevitably begin to understand this, right? And I also write 4 pages of text every day, each. So the "hand filled too." You can follow my example, systematically and tirelessly do something little by little and in 5-10 years you will also be pretty good at understanding what you want! It is only necessary not to rush, not to run ahead and periodically check your knowledge. How? It’s very simple to try to write about what you know.
      1. cap
        cap 3 February 2017 08: 56
        +4
        Quote: kalibr
        You can follow my example, systematically and tirelessly do something little by little and in 5-10 years You’ll also be good enough at what you want! Just don’t rush


        So I live like this! As they say in Odessa. Good luck again. drinks
  5. Dekabrist
    Dekabrist 3 February 2017 08: 34
    +3
    "The new Mauser rifle came out so successful that it fought almost unchanged in Weimar army"
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, correct.
    And eagles are hallmarks. They were placed after all stages of quality control. The system is complex, but the quality of German weapons has always been at its best ..
  6. shultz21070
    shultz21070 3 February 2017 08: 41
    +1
    how many grammatical errors
  7. unknown
    unknown 3 February 2017 09: 09
    +3
    The material is decent.
    But the question is.
    Doesn’t it turn out that the domestic army was armed with the worst rifle. And if so, then why didn’t they try to correct the situation.
    1. Dekabrist
      Dekabrist 3 February 2017 10: 08
      +3
      Fedorov V.G. Evolution of small arms. - In 2's parts. - M .: Military Publishing House, 1938-1939. - Part I. Development of handguns from loading from a muzzle and flintlock to magazine rifles. - 1938. - 199 s .; Part II. The development of automatic weapons. - 1939. - 315 sec.
      In the first part, in theory, you will find the answer to your question.
    2. Mikado
      Mikado 3 February 2017 10: 22
      +4
      And if so, then why didn’t they try to correct the situation.

      Good day to all! I think the reason is banal - at the time of creation the rifle was good, then the best samples appeared, and then .. Russian leisureliness (even warships left the slipways already obsolete, "Aurora", for example), then the Russo-Japanese War - the 1995 revolution - PMV - Civil - devastation. And forever there is not enough money, that is, they stamped what they were used to, and under what industry was imprisoned (and even this was not enough released in tsarist Russia if “Berdanks” were issued to the army and “Arisaki” was purchased). And in the 30s, a course was already taken to rearm the army with self-loading rifles, but in the world only one country was able to do this - the United States.
      A wonderful cycle, the author of "bravo"! We look forward to continuing, if not according to the Mausers, then according to other models of weapons. Yours faithfully, hi
      1. bistrov.
        bistrov. 3 February 2017 10: 56
        +1
        Quote: Mikado
        And in the 30s, a course was already taken to rearm the army with self-loading rifles, but in the world only one country was able to do this - the United States.

        Although the Garands were released 1957 million by 5,4, they can’t talk about the complete rearmament of the American army during World War II, just like in the Red Army, Enfield-based bolt engines were also used in large numbers.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 3 February 2017 10: 59
          +1
          massively used and boltoviki, based on "Anfield"

          Naturally, but, it seems, they tried to remove them from the "first line". The exception is snipers.
    3. bistrov.
      bistrov. 3 February 2017 10: 48
      +6
      Quote: ignoto
      Doesn’t it turn out that the domestic army was armed with the worst rifle

      “Mosinka”, despite one flaw, an unsuccessful fuse, is no worse than the “Mauser”.
    4. Stas57
      Stas57 3 February 2017 11: 11
      +2
      Doesn’t it turn out that the domestic army was armed with the worst rifle. And if so, then why didn’t they try to correct the situation.

      No, Mosinka and K98K are about the same, I would use 98K, it’s more convenient for me, or SVT)
      but no difference between the first and second, the only minus of Mosinki is the fuse.
  8. Baursak
    Baursak 3 February 2017 09: 14
    +1
    Vyacheslav, thank you very much for the article.
    I'd love to learn more about Lee Anfield. I understand that you are writing about what you were holding in your hands, but still ...
    Somewhere I came across an article that the praised Lee-Enfield rate of fire is just a myth. Judging by the article, the rate of fire is not a design feature of this rifle, but was practiced in the British army by special exercises and years of training and over the years has become a brand. In other armies, such large-scale training was not conducted.
    1. alex-cn
      alex-cn 3 February 2017 09: 30
      +1
      An article about Lee and his enfields written by respected Vyacheslav was already in this section. Rate of Fire This rifle is really a bit more - a shutter without rotation, two movements less. And training, of course, plays a role. In any case, by modern standards, the "targeted shoot-out" from the pump is in no way inferior to the semiautomatic device. And to my shame, I did not master the pump, and I shoot from it with the rate of muzzle-loading, although the p-machine had many years
      1. Comrade Stalin
        Comrade Stalin 3 February 2017 11: 12
        +3
        Since when did the Enfield become irrevocable? Do not confuse with Manliherah.
        1. alex-cn
          alex-cn 3 February 2017 11: 19
          0
          “To reload it, the shooter had to pull the shutter handle back. She turned in a curved neckline on the receiver and lifted the back of the shutter. Moreover, his only combat ledge !! was on the underside of the shutter in a rectangular shape !! (which itself it was amazing by itself!), came out from behind the supporting surface of the receiver. Then the bolt had to be pulled back, and it moved back and up and threw the sleeve. " From the description given by V. Shpakovsky for the Li shutter.
          square - ride!
          1. Dekabrist
            Dekabrist 3 February 2017 13: 14
            +2
            Structurally, Lee-Enfield was a store rifle with manual reloading and longitudinally sliding rotary shutter design Lee.

            The barrel was locked according to the principle of a sliding shutter with rotation. The chamber was locked by coupling the bolt of the bolt (from the bottom of the bolt) with the receiver. When closing the shutter cocked.

            The shutter had easy travel and was well protected from contamination. The back handle of the shutter was located above the trigger.

            The receiver was closed with a steel cover that protected the shutter from clogging and contamination. The lid had a reciprocating motion simultaneously with the shutter. For the exit of powder gases, in the event of a rupture of the sleeve, in the front of the receiver and in the combat larva there were gas vents.
            locking the trigger on the platoon, and also kept the shutter from opening when the trigger is lowered.

            The weapons were supplied with ammunition from a removable boxed double-row magazine with 10 cartridges capacity, which was filled in the open state with one cartridge each. The open magazine from the rifle did not completely separate, since it was attached to it through a ring and an eye. The magazine latch is located inside the trigger guard.

            The Lee-Anfield rifle, as well as Lee-Metford, was equipped with a magazine cut-off device, which, when turned on, blocked the supply of cartridges from the magazine to the chamber. Thus, the weapon was used as a single-shot rifle, and ammunition was stored in the store for the most crucial moment of the battle.


            Shutter closed


            Shutter open
            1. alex-cn
              alex-cn 3 February 2017 15: 28
              0
              I must admit my mistake. As I understood from everything, only the handle of the shutter was cranking, being released from engagement with the receiver, and the shutter was disengaged as well. And the shutter itself looks square in cross section. I admit ...
              1. kalibr
                3 February 2017 15: 34
                +2
                It was a square bolt on an American Li-Navy rifle, and on Lee-Anfield it was cylindrical.
                1. alex-cn
                  alex-cn 3 February 2017 15: 38
                  +1
                  Perhaps confused in the models.
    2. Dekabrist
      Dekabrist 3 February 2017 09: 41
      +5
      In his work “The material part of small arms”, the famous scientist A. Blagonravov writes that “practical firing rate means the number of shots that can be fired from a given weapon per unit of time, taking into account the time spent on aiming, correcting it, and loading (for example, cartridge magazine change). Thus, the practical rate of fire characterizes the properties of the weapon under conditions of its actual combat use and depends both on the arrangement of the weapon mechanisms, being related to the rate of fire for self-shooting weapons, and on the conditions of use of the weapon and its properties as a whole. ”
      Anfield’s bolt, unlike the Mauser, didn’t have a separate, third combat ledge locking the bore, its role was played by the base of the bolt handle, which had a peculiar, curved shape. On the shape of the handle is worth mentioning separately. The fact is that the English shutter of the Lee-Enfield rifle was perhaps the most “rapid-fire” of all that existed on store rifles, and this was due to the very successful location of the shutter handle above the rear wall of the trigger guard. Thus, the right hand of the shooter made the shortest path from the trigger to the shutter handle.
      Those. the shutter design provided the ability to achieve high rate of fire, and training in order to put this opportunity into practice.
      1. Baursak
        Baursak 6 February 2017 06: 18
        +1
        Thanks for the detailed explanation, Dekabrist. But somehow I can’t believe that such a small design feature of Lee-Enfield gives such a great advantage in rate of fire (20-30 high / min. Vs. 15 high / min. With Mauser). In my opinion, there is still an element of advertising based on everyday training.
  9. D-Master
    D-Master 3 February 2017 14: 53
    +3
    Thank you so much for the series of articles. All articles are archived!
  10. Monarchist
    Monarchist 3 February 2017 17: 26
    +1
    I read the book Beetle Small Arms and he spoke positively about Czech and Polish Mausers.
    Almost all of us watched “Four Tankers” and there is an episode where Vakhmist Kalina accidentally met her pre-war commander. He looks at Mosin’s carbine and says: “knocking (shutter), but our Mauser doesn’t knock” - this is true: the Polish Mausers of the pre-war release were of very good quality
  11. andrewkor
    andrewkor 4 February 2017 07: 14
    +1
    In my opinion, for an ideal, you would need a 10-charging store, as in Anfield !!
  12. 2203836
    2203836 12 November 2019 10: 28
    0
    The article is very good, but in the part where the shutter fuse is described, the position of the shutter flag is incorrectly described. Correctly with the horizontal left position - the fuse is off, you can shoot, but with the horizontal right position - the shutter is locked, the fuse is on!