24 January One of the brightest leaders of the Russian "defense" - JSC "Corporation" Tactical Missile Weapons "marks 15 years. In the difficult years for the country, KTRV declared itself as the leading developer and manufacturer of advanced precision weapons systems. Many models of weapons produced here remain unsurpassed, have no analogues in the world. What is the phenomenon of the corporation? What path is it and where are its sources?
Talking about the super-modern weapons produced by KTRV, one cannot but remember its recent and distant past, which is inseparably linked with today's successes and achievements.
By presidential decree
As an integrated structure, the corporation was formed as a result of the implementation of the Federal Target Program “Reforming and developing the defense industry complex (2002 – 2006)”. By presidential decree of 24 in January 2002 of the year No. 84, the FSUE “ZNPT“ Zvezda-Strela ”(Korolev, Moscow Region) was then converted into OJSC“ Tactical Missile Armament Corporation ”, and the federal shares of the Omsk Avtomatika plant were transferred to its authorized capital (later became part of the CKB Automation OJSC), DETAL UPKB (Kamensk-Uralsky, Sverdlovsk Region), Iskra ICB named after I. Kartukova (Moscow), Krasny Gidropress (Taganrog, Rostov Region) and TMKB Soyuz (Lytkarino, Moscow Region).
Boris Viktorovich Obnosov was approved as the General Director of OJSC "KTRV", and the priority areas of activity were defined as:
development, production, supply and modernization of guided missiles and tactical guided missile systems for the needs of the Ministry of Defense;
development, implementation, after-sales service and the provision of licensed production of weapons and military equipment for export;
effective use and development of scientific and production potential of subsidiaries.
As you know, in our time, a lot depends on the personality of the leader. Unfortunately, some of them are more engaged in building ingenious schemes, working, as they say, on their own pockets. In this regard, the team of KTRV, we note it especially, was lucky with the general, who masterfully combined through a number of transformations, reforms, without losing the labor collectives and scientific schools. But first things first.
The subsequent stages of the development of the corporation were associated with new presidential decrees - dated May 9, 2004 No. 591 and July 20, 2007 No. 930. The Moscow enterprises were included in the structure of the corporation (as subsidiaries) at the second stage: OJSC GosMKB Vympel . I. I. Toropova ”, OJSC“ GNPP “Region”, OJSC “Design Bureau of Mechanical Engineering”, OJSC “Horizon”, as well as OJSC “GosMKB“ Rainbow ”named after A. Ya. Bereznyak ”(Dubna, Moscow Region), Azov Optical and Mechanical Plant OJSC (Azov, Rostov Region), Salyut OJSC (Samara), Smolensky OJSC aviation plant". At the third stage, the composition of the corporation was expanded by the inclusion of OJSC NIC ASK (Moscow), OJSC ANPP TEMP-AVIA (Arzamas of the Nizhny Novgorod Region), OJSC GosNIImash (Dzerzhinsk of the Nizhny Novgorod Region), OJSC RKB Globus ( Ryazan) and OJSC Central Design Bureau of Automation (Omsk).
Thus, 19 enterprises entered the corporation together with the parent company, and the total number of employees exceeded 22 thousands.
Further expansion of the corporation took place in accordance with the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 27 of October 2012 of the Year No. 1443 and the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 31 of March of 2015 of the Year No. 167 due to the inclusion of two integrated structures as subholdings: NPO Mashinostroenie, military industry (Moscow region) ) and its five subsidiaries, as well as the concern “Marine Underwater Weapon - Hydropribor” (St. Petersburg) and its five subsidiaries.
By magic, or even the highest order, such powerful associations with established competence do not appear. From scratch it is impossible to create in a short time a scientific school, a production base, a team of professionals. All this, as a rule, is born in agony, over the years, sometimes by trial and error, and most importantly - by the enthusiasm of people in love with their work. And such dedicated people after the dashing 90's were found. They turned out to be the bearers and successors of the glorious traditions that were laid here by their fathers and grandfathers, who were at the origins of the parent company.
The predecessor of the corporation was the plant number 455 in Kostin, situated near Moscow (now the city of Korolev) of the People's Commissariat of the aviation industry, created on June 3 of 1942 by a decree of the State Defense Committee. He began to produce ribbons and poured aviation instruments for combat aircraft, then cluster holders, and other products for the Tu-4 bomber. Since 1955, he has mastered the mass production of air-to-air guided missiles (SD): RS-1U, RS-2U. In 1957, KB was created here, which worked to improve this product. In 1966, the plant was renamed Kaliningrad Machine-Building (KMZ), its design bureau was transformed into an OKB (later known as “Star”). The chief designer was appointed Y. Korolev. The first air-to-surface UR X-66, developed by the design bureau team, was put into service in 1968, in 1970 – 1982 - UR X-23, X-25 and X-27. Work on the creation of modular SD X-25M will be awarded the State Prize of the USSR. From 1976 to 2002, the enterprise will go through a number of reorganizations and renames. It will be called the "Arrow", then "Star-Arrow".
In 1975, work will begin on the UR X-31 on the basis of a ramjet engine with a solid-fuel accelerator. In 1977, technical proposals will be developed for the X-35E anti-ship missile (ASM). In 1981, the association will be awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor for achievements in creating air-to-surface missiles.
All this is the Soviet past, without which the present day would be impossible. Let us recall the difficult fate of the ship-borne missile complex (KRK) "Uran-E" with the anti-ship missiles X-35E. Designed under the direction of Chief Designer V. Galushko, he successfully completed the first stage of flight tests as early as 1987 – 1989. However, since 1992-th work almost stopped. The state did not have money anymore. The company, mobilizing all its resources, continued to work on fine-tuning the rocket. From 1992 to 1997, the second stage of flight design tests was carried out, but only four rockets were launched during this period, which was clearly not enough.
In the new market conditions, government purchases were actually curtailed. Many defense enterprises then, as you know, dragged out a miserable existence. The plant management did not rely only on the GOZ. It was then that the team began active work with foreign customers. Participation in the very first international exhibition with a rocket demonstration (it was nevertheless brought up to standard) and information on the Uran-E ASC immediately attracted the attention of foreign experts. The first to evaluate the prospects of the new combat complex were representatives of the Indian Navy. In 1994, a contract was signed for the supply of Uran-E ASC to India. After that, the complex received recognition in their homeland.
Recalling that time, we can say that the union survived, despite difficult circumstances, because many developments in 90 were suspended and the whole working dynasty, the color of "defense," left the enterprises.
To give a new impetus to the life of the workshops, to unite the forces of separate industries, it was precisely the very presidential decrees that were mentioned above. Thanks to the foresight of the leadership, it was possible to keep the main thing - a scientific school, the backbone of professionals. And the one who left, began to return on the first signal. The year when the FSUE “ZNPT“ Zvezda-Strela ”FSUE was transformed into a corporation“ Tactical Missile Armament Corporation ”has drawn a line under that period 2002.
Package effective solutions
At present, the corporation is a single technological complex that supplies, in the interests of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and for export, a wide range of guided weapons for long-range, naval and front-line aircraft of the air-to-air, air-to-surface aircraft, as well as ship-to-ship, coast-to-ship missiles and defenses. KTRV has the right to carry out independent foreign trade activities in the service maintenance and repair of export samples produced by its enterprises.
Air-to-surface class URs have long since become corporate samples: X-25M multi-purpose modular type, X-31P high-speed anti-radar (X-31PK), X-31A anti-ship anti-ship (X-31E anti-ship target), X-35E anti-ship anti-ship (X-3E) 24E).
Krk "Uran-E" remains a formidable weapon. It is designed to destroy missile, torpedo, artillery boats, surface ships with a displacement of up to five thousand tons and sea transports. It can be used in a wide range of combat and climatic conditions, while simultaneously firing up to six surface targets. The possibility of salvo firing (up to 16 missiles) is able to provide a firebreak of the missile defense of modern warships.
At the same time, its unified rocket 3М-24Э is also used in the Bal-E mobile coastal missile system, and may be part of aircraft carriers (airplanes and helicopters). The Bal-E complex is capable of simultaneously firing at up to 32 targets (in the standard version).
But a new rocket has already appeared - the X-35UE, which will also be produced in the aviation version. Its combat capabilities have been significantly expanded due to the new guidance system, including satellite, the range of use has been increased (doubled), a new noise-resistant active-passive homing head has been introduced, and other characteristics have been improved. Modern “digital board” allows you to implement flexible programs for targeting and attacking targets.
In addition to tactical class anti-ship complexes, which include Uran-E and Bal-E, KTRV offers ship-based and coastal tactical-class complexes based on the Yakhont supersonic cruise missile (3М-55Е) developed by the military industrial complex NPO Mashinostroeniya. . PBRK "Bastion", created on the basis of this rocket, is able to provide cover for the coast within 600 radius of kilometers and hit enemy surface ships of any class at a distance of up to 300 kilometers in fire and electronic countermeasures.
Another ship complex of missile weapons, the Moskit-E, developed by the Raduga GosMCB, has now been further developed as a modification of the Mosquito-MBE with the 3M-80MBE series. It has an increased firing range due to the introduction of an additional combined rocket flight profile. Supersonic speed (up to 2900 km / h) in combination with extremely low (10 – 20 m) altitude at the final segment and anti-aircraft maneuver provides a high probability of overcoming the missile defense system of warships.
The X-59MK extended range aviation anti-ship missile with an active radar homing head, developed by Raduga GosMCB, is designed to hit a wide range of radar-contrast surface targets at any time of the day, both in simple and in difficult weather conditions.
A number of enterprises of the corporation specialize in creating weapons for the Navy. Universal electric remote-controlled torpedo ТЭ-2, developed by the concern “Sea underwater weapon - Gidropribor”, is designed to destroy modern submarines (PL) in any region of the World Ocean, in all ranges of depths and speeds of their course, large-tonnage NK and enemy ships, also fixed surface targets. It is used both from submarines and from surface ships in autonomous and remote control modes. MDM-2 and MDM-3 sea bottom mines are capable of striking all types of small displacement ships, submarines in surface and submerged positions, as well as landing craft. Their design provides the possibility of programming for a wide range of purposes.
Marine defensive armament, in particular, is represented by the small-sized anti-submarine complex “Package-E / NK” (developed by SNNP “Region”), which is designed for anti-submarine defense and anti-torpedo defense through the use of enemy submarines in the near zone of the ship, as well as anti-torpedo .
GNPP Region also produces a unique weapon system of its kind based on the Shkval-E high-speed underwater missile using the supercavitation mode, thanks to which it can reach speeds on the march to 100 meters per second. The complex can be placed both on surface ships and on submarines, as well as stationary installations.
Significant place in the corporation's products is occupied by passive jamming complexes (manufactured by the machine-building design bureau), including projectiles of optical-electronic and radar jamming. Modern complexes such as PC-10 and КТ-308 provide protection of surface ships and boats of all classes from high-precision weapons with radar, optical-electronic and combined guidance systems. In terms of combat effectiveness, the scope and quality of the tasks they solve, they are not inferior to the best world analogues.
The corporation is entrusted with the task of equipping the fifth generation fighter with a complex of aviation weapons of destruction (TSA) of the new generation. At the same time, a wide range of air-to-air and air-to-air ASD classes for export is being prepared for foreign customers.
In the air-to-surface class, it is worth noting:
modular multi-purpose SD X-38МЭ;
the Ovod-ME rocket weapon system with the UR X-59М2Е, which can be used around the clock and with limited visibility;
UR X-59МК2, designed to destroy ground targets that do not have radar, infrared and optical contrast to the surrounding background;
anti-radar UR X-31PD and X-58USHKE, equipped with new wide-range radar seeker;
X-31AD high-speed anti-ship missiles;
unified anti-ship missile X-35UE;
CRP X-59MK, capable of hitting surface targets in the open sea and near the coastline;
Adjustable aerial bombs of the latest development caliber 250, 500 and 1500 kilograms with new guidance systems (television-correlation, laser, satellite) and combat units of various types (concrete-breaking, penetrating, space-detonating). Some of them have been successfully tested by our VKS in Syria when attacking militants and strongholds of the “Islamic State” banned in Russia.
In the class "air-air" are offered:
SD of short range and close maneuverable air combat RVV-MD with a new dual-band infrared GOS, designed to arm fighters, attack aircraft, helicopter gunships;
SD medium range RVV-SD with a range of destruction up to 110 kilometers at any time of the day, at all angles, in terms of REP, including with multi-channel shelling on the principle of "let-forget";
SD RVV-DB with a range of damage to 200 kilometers (in targets at altitudes from 15 m to 25 km).
Of course, without extensive and reliable cooperation, all this would be impossible. We name at least a few teams engaged in the production of unique products.
GosMKB "Vympel" - the leading enterprise in Russia to create air-to-air UR. Worldwide known missiles maneuverable melee P-73E (P-73EL), medium-range missiles such as P-27 and RVV-AE, long-range missiles P-33E.
GosMKB "Rainbow" for 65 years of its activity has developed and delivered to customers more than 50 rocket weapons systems. In the field of aviation precision weapons (WTO), this is an air-to-surface air defense missile for front, sea, and long-range aircraft. The company was the first in the world to develop such a weapon as anti-ship missiles. The shock anti-ship complex Moskit-E deserved a high appreciation of domestic and foreign experts. GNNP "Region" specializes in the design and manufacture of adjustable aerial bombs and naval weapons systems.
Thus, it is thanks to cooperation that many important tasks are being fulfilled, which is confirmed by Boris Obnosov, KTRV General Director: “We have gone through several stages in the development and expansion of the corporation. We started in 2002 – 2003 from just six enterprises, and today our integrated structure consists of more than 30 stably operating enterprises, including those that have joined as subholdings in 2013-m of the military industrial complex NPO Mashinostroyenia and Gidropribor. The total number of staff of the integrated structure exceeded 2015 thousands.
Innovations and Credits
With the formation of the corporation, the country's leadership set the goal of mobilizing resources for the creation of highly efficient guided missiles and armament complexes of air, land and sea basing, strengthening Russia’s position on the world arms market. Today we can confidently say that the goal has been achieved.
Despite the fact that the KTRV product range is quite extensive, it is interconnected by a certain technological logic. All products — aviation and marine — in terms of their aerodynamic and hydrodynamic forms, principles of manufacture, and the necessary machine park, fully fit into the production schemes, which allows for sufficient flexibility in the use of available capacities and design potential.
About a quarter of the production is exported. Now its annual volumes are about 600 million dollars, while in the period of the formation of the corporation there were on average about 300 million. In the short term, exports are expected to grow to the level of 900 million dollars or more per year. Together with the Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation of Russia, the state intermediary of Rosoboronexport JSC and the corporation independently, it is fruitfully working to further promote its products to the world market, search for and conquer new niches on it. But task number 1 was, is and remains a state defense order, in the fulfillment of which the requirements and "standards" are much higher. It is clear that sometimes there are problems. They are mainly due to insufficient production capacities of the supplying enterprises, their lack of readiness to supply purchased components in the required volumes and on time.
“The task of uneven loading of production facilities with tasks of the state defense order in terms of volumes and timing, which adversely affects the relationship between the leading contractors and contractors, complicates the task,” said Boris Obnosov, sharing his observations. “In addition, the budget allocation limits planned by HPV-2020 are forcing to attract loans with quite high interest rates.”
However, this is the scourge of all our "defense." Such loans, more precisely, the absence of reasonable rates on them - the phenomenon is widespread. There is something to work on the financial block of the government. Today, the corporation devotes significant resources to the modernization of production, the reconstruction of factory premises, the introduction of innovative technologies and processes. Therefore, cheap loans would not hurt.
According to the LG-2020, an almost complete update of the guided weapons is being prepared. This work is carried out on the basis of the requirements of ensuring the security of the country and taking into account global trends in the development of means of warfare. New, significantly improved versions of anti-ship, anti-radar and multipurpose missiles are being created. About ten such products have been tested. In the next three years, more 10 – 12 samples will be completed, including for the PAK FA.
Now the share of GOZ is more than 70 percent in the total release. Enterprises of the corporation perform tasks on 85 state contracts for the supply of serial products and repairs, maintenance of weapons, military and special equipment. KTRV provides almost 100 percent of the supply of aviation weapons for the Russian army and over 70 percent - sea. In the global market, the share of the integrated structure accounts for about 10 percent of the production of aircraft weapons and more than 15 percent - the sea.
A significant part of the projects is implemented in accordance with the Corporation Innovation Development Program before 2020. A set of measures is envisaged for the formation of a scientific and technical reserve and the development of innovative potential, ahead of the creation and introduction of promising technologies, new solutions, restructuring of design, production and testing bases. According to the Federal Targeted Program for the Development of the Military Industrial Complex, more than 100 investment projects worth over 60 billion rubles are being implemented.
To achieve the set target indicators and development indicators, there is a wide interaction with the Russian Academy of Sciences, as well as the leading research centers of the military-industrial complex: GosNIIAS, VNIIAM, TsAGI, CIAM, NIISU. Without this, for example, it would be impossible to master such an important and extremely difficult direction of the defense industry as hypersound.
The state target program for the development of hypersonic technology was developed and approved by the Ministry of Defense in 2015. In KTRV, the topic began to be dealt with long before, using another Soviet reserve. According to Boris Obnosov, a powerful research and production cooperation has been formed under the implementation of the Federal Targeted Program, which is able to find breakthrough solutions. The key goal is to keep in the foreseeable future a high level of deterrence against massive aggression against Russia by advancing the development of hypersonic systems that devalue the potential adversary in the area of territorial missile defense and a global disarming strike.
It is clear that similar programs are also being implemented abroad, particularly in the USA, China, France, and India. At one of the last international aerospace shows in Zhukovsky, I was able to ask the CEO of the corporation how far they had come in this area. Boris Obnosov then tactfully walked away from a direct answer, saying only that such a weapon would not appear on the move, it would be necessary to combine the efforts of cooperation, years of work.
Now, assessing the state of the work, Boris Viktorovich slightly elaborated on his answer: “We can say that we are moving in parallel with our competitors and partners, and even ahead in some areas. The work is being carried out actively, we expect that the first full-scale sample of a hypersonic rocket capable of a long flight in the atmosphere at a speed of five to six Machs or even more may appear by the 2020 year. ”
In this area there are enough problems of a design, technological, financial nature. This is an expensive program, but it’s the future for the development of not only weapons, but also promising civilian technologies. The one who masters them first will open the way for a transition to a qualitatively new level in many areas of the development of science and technology.
Ensuring a long hypersonic flight is a challenge for domestic engine builders. Difficult tasks to be solved in part of the filling of such an aircraft. Here a lot of things are connected with high temperatures, therefore, a different element base is needed. And of course, you need the right fuel.
The solution of all these tasks requires an integrated approach and serious cooperation, as mentioned by Obnosov at MAKS. But besides, the constant attention of the country's leadership is necessary, because the emergence of fundamentally new technological solutions that are important both for defense and for the economy as a whole undoubtedly entails an adjustment of state policy. For example, in import substitution.
Even the most enterprising, enterprising leader is still dependent on many factors in solving this problem. This includes the limited range of domestic analogs suitable for replacing the import element base with raw materials and materials, the lack of a mechanism for budget financing of enterprises implementing replacement measures, and a long time for developing R & D results, and a significant excess of the cost of our components over foreign ones.
Boris Obnosov believes that for the successful implementation of plans for import substitution, it is necessary to ensure the safety stock of components for a period of three to five years. The question of how they can be created should be resolved. One of the possible outputs is to include their cost in the order of the Ministry of Defense.
Another option is to include the task in the FTP. Use in the product of domestic elements should be laid at the initial stage of work on its creation, in staged research.
Some provisions of FZ-44 should also be reviewed. It states that any OCD should be completed by a specific date and for a sum of money that cannot be exceeded. But no OCD in the world can be carried out on such harsh conditions, unless, of course, as a result, to bear in mind the positive effect, and not wasted money.
In a word, solving the problem of import substitution, one should remember the main goal - to make the final product cheaper both in the domestic and foreign markets without compromising quality.
From place of residence to place in the ranking
And yet the main thing in any enterprise is not iron, no matter how perfect it is, but people. About this indisputable truth in KTRV do not forget. Therefore, significant resources are allocated to human resources development and social programs.
The personnel policy of the corporation is aimed at ensuring competitiveness in the struggle for qualified specialists. Priority areas - optimization of the number and age structure of workers, increasing their educational level, conducting a focused strategy of rejuvenating work teams, improving the wage system, housing.
In recent years, the age requirement for qualified defense personnel has been steadily increasing. Their aging and withdrawal from the defense industry have led to the fact that the personnel problem has acquired a national scale. But the corporation was able to form a coherent system of training, so that young people under the age of 35 make up a significant part - more than 30 percent of the company's employees.
For the preparation of qualified engineering personnel, KTRV cooperates on a contractual basis with the leading specialized universities of the country - MAI, Moscow State Technical University named after N. E. Bauman, MATI, MSTU "Stankin", Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Computer Science, as well as with many well-known regional educational institutions. Applicants enroll in basic technical universities in a targeted area, are trained in popular specialties. Every year more than 1600 students undergo industrial, technological, design and pre-diploma practice in the corporation. The enterprises have established and operate basic departments of universities, including the MAI and the Moscow State Technical University named after N. E. Bauman.
The program of housing construction for workers on favorable terms is being successfully implemented. In 2015, in the Moscow region near Korolev, the construction of four residential multi-storey buildings was completed, in which for employees of the corporation the living space was provided at a cost two times lower than the market. Next up is another project. Construction will be carried out on land allocated from the main industrial site of the enterprise.
This approach is carried out by many leaders of the corporation's core enterprises: in Reutov and Khimki near Moscow, in Dubna, Ryazan, Taganrog, Perm, and Orenburg. In total, over the past five years, more than 850 employees have become new settlers in the programs operating in the corporation. In the next two to three years, the apartments will be able to acquire about 3300 employees.
Thus, the social policy of the corporation is focused on the new generation, with respect for the veterans, the revival of the best traditions of organizing a healthy lifestyle and interesting leisure activities. The youth council is actively working, regular sports competitions and tourist meetings are held.
Sophisticated social policy has a beneficial effect on the quality of products, the attitude of staff to work. If over the previous two decades, the release of all enterprises of the company of new models was calculated in units, then in the coming years dozens of new high-precision aviation and naval armament systems will start to emerge from the corporation's workshops. According to 2016, KTRV has every reason to be again among the leading enterprises in the industry. Back in 2009, the corporation was awarded the first “Golden Idea” award in the nomination “For contribution in the field of military product design”. Two years earlier, Boris Obnosov was awarded the title of laureate of the national prize “Golden Idea” in the nomination “For personal contribution, initiative and diligence in solving the tasks of military-technical cooperation”. According to the rating of Top-1000 of Russian managers, he is among the top five top executives of Russia in the category “Mechanical Engineering”.
In the world ranking table, Tactical Missile Weapons Corporation JSC takes the 37-place (Top-100 of the world's largest manufacturers of military products according to the authoritative publication Defense News). According to the calculations of American analysts, KTRV ended 2015 a year with an indicator of revenue from sales of 2,39 products of a billion dollars, increasing it by 2014 percent compared to 11,2. And in ruble terms, revenue increased by 36,2 percent, exceeding 160 billion rubles.
But the matter is not even in awards or top lines of ratings. In its current composition of JSC "KTRV", we can safely say - the corporation is the winners. It has accumulated a unique scientific, technical and production potential of enterprises, which allows to successfully solve all the problems of creating modern and promising models and systems of guided missile weapons of various classes both in the interests of Russia and for expanding military-technical cooperation with foreign countries. Both the products of the corporation and its unique experience are a matter of national pride.