Armored cars and booking standards
That is why today I will touch on this issue. Protection classification: is compliance with it a panacea for enemy weapons? Does it make sense to completely hide a fighter behind armor plates? Well, and the most frequently encountered question: "Why are the soldiers rolling out an armored vehicle in a well-protected vehicle in the database area on the armor?"
So, the main document determining the level and class of protection of an armored car is GOST R 50963-96. This document is basic. You can get acquainted with it today without any problems.
There are 6 reservation classes in the world. However, if you carefully read the GOST, it becomes clear that the classification and separation is quite conditional. Simply put, the class of the machine can be one, and the elements of protection others. Let's talk about the Russian classification of objects.
To comply with the protection class, the product must withstand a shot of the appropriate weapon from a specified distance.
Makarov pistol (PM) with cartridge 57-H-181 (with Pst bullet), steel core, weight 5,9 g, speed 305-325 m / s, distance 5 meters.
“Nagan” revolver, 7,62-mm turret cartridge 57-H-122 with a bullet P, lead core, weight 6,8 g, speed 275-295 m / s, distance 5 meters.
Special small-caliber PSM pistol, 5,45-mm pistol cartridge 7Н7 with PST bullet, steel core, weight 2,5 g, speed 310-335 m / s, distance 5 meters.
Tokarev pistol (TT), 7,62 mm pistol cartridge 57-H-134С with Pst bullet, steel core, weight 5,5 g, speed 415-445 m / s, distance 5 meters.
There is another requirement for this booking class (class 2А). Hunting rifle 12 caliber, 18,5-mm hunting cartridge, lead core, weight 35 g, speed 390-410 m / s, distance 5 meters.
The first two booking classes for military vehicles are almost not applied. It is clear that in combat with hunting rifles, and with pistols, very few people will “attack” an armored car. It makes no sense to “sacrifice” the technical characteristics of a car for the sake of such armor protection.
The most common in our country and in foreign countries is the next, third, class of protection. As the most optimal for combat armored vehicles.
Automatic AK-74, 5,45-mm cartridge 7Н6 with PS bullet, SNTU core, weight 3,4 g, speed 890-910 m / s, distance 5-10 meters.
Automatic AKM, 7,62-mm cartridge 57-H-231 with PS bullet, SNTU core, weight 7,9 g, speed 710-740 m / s, distance 5-10 meters.
Automatic AK-74, 5,45-mm cartridge 7Н10 with PP bullet, STU core, weight 3,4 g, speed 890-910 m / s, distance 5-10 meters.
SVD rifle, 7,62-mm cartridge 57-H-231 with PS bullet, SNTU core, weight 9,6 g, speed 820-840 m / s, distance 5-10 meters.
Automatic AKM, 7,62-mm cartridge 57-БХNUMX-3 with БНNXX armor-piercing incendiary bullet, special core, mass 231 g, speed 3-7,4 m / s, distance 720-750 meters.
For the 5A class, the requirements are somewhat different. Enough to book "kept" AKM.
SVD rifle, 7,62-mm cartridge CT-М2, STU core, weight 9,6 g, speed 820-840 m / s, distance 5-10 meters.
The requirements for the 6A class are even more stringent.
SVD rifle, 7,62-mm cartridge 7-БХNUMX-3 with БХNUMX-3 bullet, special core, weight 3 g, speed 32-10,4 m / s, distance 800-835 meters.
For comparison and conclusions, I will give booking tables for the USA and Germany.
US Standard NIJ STD-0101 / 03
I - .22 LRHV Lead, 2,6g, 320 m / s
.38 SPL RN Lead, 10,2g, 259 m / s
II-A - .357 Mag JSP, 10,2g, 381 m / s
9 mm Para FMJ, 8,0g, 332 m / s
II - .357 Mag JSP, 10,2g, 425 m / s
9 mm Para FMJ, 8,0g, 358 m / s
III-A - .22 Mag JSP, 15,5g, 426 m / s
9 mm Para FMJ, 8,0g, 426 m / s
III - 7,62 mm FMJ, 9,7g, 838 m / s
IV - .30-06 SPRG AP, 10,8g, 868 m / s
Norms of body armor of the technical police department of Germany (1988 g.)
I - 9 mm Para FMJ, 8,0g, 410 +/- 10 m / s
II - .357 Mag FMJ KTW, 7,45g, 560 +/- 20 m / s
III - 7,62x51 FMJ SC, 9,45g, 875 +/- 25 m / s
5,56x45 FMJ SC, 3,56g, 1005 +/- 20 m / s
IV - 7,62x51 FMJ AP, 9,8g, 875 +/- 25 m / s
As you can see, the parameters are very similar. The only difference is that both Americans and Germans use their own cartridges for testing. This approach is clear. Native is more well known. So, the tests will be more objective.
But there is another problem that greatly changes the armor protection of any car. This is a glass problem. Alas, cars are poorly protected precisely in this regard. Modern technologies allow to make armored glass of the same class as armor. Only here the thickness of this glass will be huge. For example, the glass of presidential cars is 12-15 centimeters thick. Bulletproof glass for combat armored vehicles is regulated again according to GOST. In terms of comparing Russian and Western requirements, they are almost equal. The differences are completely irrelevant.
Resistance armored glass to the shot.
Protection class according to GOST R 51136-98
1 - PM pistol, 9-mm steel core, weight 6,1 g, speed 315 m / s.
2 - TT gun, 7,62-mm steel core, weight 5,6 g, speed 420 m / s.
3 - Automatic AKM, 7,62-mm steel non-reinforced core, weight 7,9 g, speed 735 m / s.
In general, the problem of armored cars arose only when the tactics of combat had changed. The concept of an armored personnel carrier and an infantry fighting vehicle is good in combat with an enemy with at least some kind of front. Today, heavy, well-armed armored personnel carriers are often used to destroy small groups of bandits. And often simply because such equipment is inferior in speed to armored vehicles, operations are delayed.
A modern armored car is widely used by special services of various countries, mobile reconnaissance groups, and police. In most cases, these cars have either a sunroof for aimed shooting, or a combat module, but in the same hatch. That is actually unprotected top. By and large, it turns out that the classification of the reservation is conditional. That is why at the beginning of the article I voiced this very thought.
Under certain conditions, well, and luck, it is there that a grenade can "fly". The fate of the crew in this case is deplorable. Everyone understands that they will create fragments in an enclosed space. By the way, "craftsmen" solved this problem! Modified design on the spot. And the decision is akin to the "space pencil" of the USSR. Above, we installed a regular netting net. And that's all. Grenades bounce off of her like peas due to the speed of the car (obviously, someone traveled to Africa, using the experience of the French Foreign Legion, their invention initially).
So why open top? It's all about land mines. It is the mines and land mines that make the designers stick to the idea of a "free roof". During special operations, armored cars are most often affected by RPGs. However, such a failure is not critical. The crew will remain alive and ready to maintain the database, with the exception of those who directly fall under the action of the cumulative jet. Critical is getting a jet in ammunition. Then…
But mines and land mines often disable the entire crew. With the top closed fighters get serious barotrauma. And the blow to the legs is such a force that the limbs often “dry out” for a long time.
In general, the controversy about "covered" and "open" armored cars is long-standing. Through this at one time the designers of the BTR passed. BTR-152, BTR-40, BTR-60 took this opportunity into account.
Then the decisive argument was the WMD. Nuclear war, which dictated the survival of the crew. Appeared first-BTR-60P and then the whole line with the landing force "on the armor." And it would be better - under the armor. As implemented today in armored vehicles.
Comparing GOST and Western standards, it can be concluded that they are mostly similar. This is done not so much by whim of someone personally. Made it out of necessity. Both Russia, the USA and Western Europe produce armored vehicles not only for themselves, but also for export. This is the main "standardizer" and "unifier" of modern military production.
Buyer for comparing the tactical and technical characteristics of weapons and equipment needed clear, unified standards. Only in this case, the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed product become clear. Only in this case, the manufacturers "shines" the contract for the supply. Yes, and long-term contracts for maintenance and repair.
But our main differences in approaches, in particular, to booking vehicles, are additional requirements. Often not related to the main task. I gave an example in the article on the supply of lethal weapons of the Ukrainian Armed Forces of a different approach to the defeat of personnel in vehicles of one class of protection.
The development of weapons systems and equipment is unstoppable. This fact is indisputable. Today is the time of armored cars. We are returning to the "well forgotten old." Aerostats, airships, armored cars, PTR (albeit already in the form of a sniper rifle). A new level of engineering development. New level of industry development. New level of science development. Here are the "whales" that hit and for a long time will hit our imagination with completely inconceivable just recently machines, weapons and other things that are not yet known to us.
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