Armored cars and booking standards

20
Miraculously, the human brain is built. After an article about the US decision to deliver lethal weapon Readers have a lot of questions about booking equipment. In particular, automotive. Probably, a large role in this was played by our new armored car "Tiger-6M".

Armored cars and booking standards




That is why today I will touch on this issue. Protection classification: is compliance with it a panacea for enemy weapons? Does it make sense to completely hide a fighter behind armor plates? Well, and the most frequently encountered question: "Why are the soldiers rolling out an armored vehicle in a well-protected vehicle in the database area on the armor?"

So, the main document determining the level and class of protection of an armored car is GOST R 50963-96. This document is basic. You can get acquainted with it today without any problems.

There are 6 reservation classes in the world. However, if you carefully read the GOST, it becomes clear that the classification and separation is quite conditional. Simply put, the class of the machine can be one, and the elements of protection others. Let's talk about the Russian classification of objects.

To comply with the protection class, the product must withstand a shot of the appropriate weapon from a specified distance.

1 class

Makarov pistol (PM) with cartridge 57-H-181 (with Pst bullet), steel core, weight 5,9 g, speed 305-325 m / s, distance 5 meters.

“Nagan” revolver, 7,62-mm turret cartridge 57-H-122 with a bullet P, lead core, weight 6,8 g, speed 275-295 m / s, distance 5 meters.

2 class

Special small-caliber PSM pistol, 5,45-mm pistol cartridge 7Н7 with PST bullet, steel core, weight 2,5 g, speed 310-335 m / s, distance 5 meters.

Tokarev pistol (TT), 7,62 mm pistol cartridge 57-H-134С with Pst bullet, steel core, weight 5,5 g, speed 415-445 m / s, distance 5 meters.

There is another requirement for this booking class (class 2А). Hunting rifle 12 caliber, 18,5-mm hunting cartridge, lead core, weight 35 g, speed 390-410 m / s, distance 5 meters.

The first two booking classes for military vehicles are almost not applied. It is clear that in combat with hunting rifles, and with pistols, very few people will “attack” an armored car. It makes no sense to “sacrifice” the technical characteristics of a car for the sake of such armor protection.

The most common in our country and in foreign countries is the next, third, class of protection. As the most optimal for combat armored vehicles.

3 class

Automatic AK-74, 5,45-mm cartridge 7Н6 with PS bullet, SNTU core, weight 3,4 g, speed 890-910 m / s, distance 5-10 meters.

Automatic AKM, 7,62-mm cartridge 57-H-231 with PS bullet, SNTU core, weight 7,9 g, speed 710-740 m / s, distance 5-10 meters.

4 class

Automatic AK-74, 5,45-mm cartridge 7Н10 with PP bullet, STU core, weight 3,4 g, speed 890-910 m / s, distance 5-10 meters.

5 class

SVD rifle, 7,62-mm cartridge 57-H-231 with PS bullet, SNTU core, weight 9,6 g, speed 820-840 m / s, distance 5-10 meters.

Automatic AKM, 7,62-mm cartridge 57-БХNUMX-3 with БНNXX armor-piercing incendiary bullet, special core, mass 231 g, speed 3-7,4 m / s, distance 720-750 meters.

For the 5A class, the requirements are somewhat different. Enough to book "kept" AKM.

6 class

SVD rifle, 7,62-mm cartridge CT-М2, STU core, weight 9,6 g, speed 820-840 m / s, distance 5-10 meters.

The requirements for the 6A class are even more stringent.

SVD rifle, 7,62-mm cartridge 7-БХNUMX-3 with БХNUMX-3 bullet, special core, weight 3 g, speed 32-10,4 m / s, distance 800-835 meters.

For comparison and conclusions, I will give booking tables for the USA and Germany.

US Standard NIJ STD-0101 / 03

I - .22 LRHV Lead, 2,6g, 320 m / s
.38 SPL RN Lead, 10,2g, 259 m / s

II-A - .357 Mag JSP, 10,2g, 381 m / s
9 mm Para FMJ, 8,0g, 332 m / s

II - .357 Mag JSP, 10,2g, 425 m / s
9 mm Para FMJ, 8,0g, 358 m / s

III-A - .22 Mag JSP, 15,5g, 426 m / s
9 mm Para FMJ, 8,0g, 426 m / s

III - 7,62 mm FMJ, 9,7g, 838 m / s

IV - .30-06 SPRG AP, 10,8g, 868 m / s

Norms of body armor of the technical police department of Germany (1988 g.)

I - 9 mm Para FMJ, 8,0g, 410 +/- 10 m / s

II - .357 Mag FMJ KTW, 7,45g, 560 +/- 20 m / s

III - 7,62x51 FMJ SC, 9,45g, 875 +/- 25 m / s
5,56x45 FMJ SC, 3,56g, 1005 +/- 20 m / s

IV - 7,62x51 FMJ AP, 9,8g, 875 +/- 25 m / s

As you can see, the parameters are very similar. The only difference is that both Americans and Germans use their own cartridges for testing. This approach is clear. Native is more well known. So, the tests will be more objective.

But there is another problem that greatly changes the armor protection of any car. This is a glass problem. Alas, cars are poorly protected precisely in this regard. Modern technologies allow to make armored glass of the same class as armor. Only here the thickness of this glass will be huge. For example, the glass of presidential cars is 12-15 centimeters thick. Bulletproof glass for combat armored vehicles is regulated again according to GOST. In terms of comparing Russian and Western requirements, they are almost equal. The differences are completely irrelevant.

Resistance armored glass to the shot.

Protection class according to GOST R 51136-98

1 - PM pistol, 9-mm steel core, weight 6,1 g, speed 315 m / s.
2 - TT gun, 7,62-mm steel core, weight 5,6 g, speed 420 m / s.
3 - Automatic AKM, 7,62-mm steel non-reinforced core, weight 7,9 g, speed 735 m / s.

In general, the problem of armored cars arose only when the tactics of combat had changed. The concept of an armored personnel carrier and an infantry fighting vehicle is good in combat with an enemy with at least some kind of front. Today, heavy, well-armed armored personnel carriers are often used to destroy small groups of bandits. And often simply because such equipment is inferior in speed to armored vehicles, operations are delayed.

A modern armored car is widely used by special services of various countries, mobile reconnaissance groups, and police. In most cases, these cars have either a sunroof for aimed shooting, or a combat module, but in the same hatch. That is actually unprotected top. By and large, it turns out that the classification of the reservation is conditional. That is why at the beginning of the article I voiced this very thought.

Under certain conditions, well, and luck, it is there that a grenade can "fly". The fate of the crew in this case is deplorable. Everyone understands that they will create fragments in an enclosed space. By the way, "craftsmen" solved this problem! Modified design on the spot. And the decision is akin to the "space pencil" of the USSR. Above, we installed a regular netting net. And that's all. Grenades bounce off of her like peas due to the speed of the car (obviously, someone traveled to Africa, using the experience of the French Foreign Legion, their invention initially).

So why open top? It's all about land mines. It is the mines and land mines that make the designers stick to the idea of ​​a "free roof". During special operations, armored cars are most often affected by RPGs. However, such a failure is not critical. The crew will remain alive and ready to maintain the database, with the exception of those who directly fall under the action of the cumulative jet. Critical is getting a jet in ammunition. Then…

But mines and land mines often disable the entire crew. With the top closed fighters get serious barotrauma. And the blow to the legs is such a force that the limbs often “dry out” for a long time.

In general, the controversy about "covered" and "open" armored cars is long-standing. Through this at one time the designers of the BTR passed. BTR-152, BTR-40, BTR-60 took this opportunity into account.

Then the decisive argument was the WMD. Nuclear war, which dictated the survival of the crew. Appeared first-BTR-60P and then the whole line with the landing force "on the armor." And it would be better - under the armor. As implemented today in armored vehicles.

Comparing GOST and Western standards, it can be concluded that they are mostly similar. This is done not so much by whim of someone personally. Made it out of necessity. Both Russia, the USA and Western Europe produce armored vehicles not only for themselves, but also for export. This is the main "standardizer" and "unifier" of modern military production.

Buyer for comparing the tactical and technical characteristics of weapons and equipment needed clear, unified standards. Only in this case, the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed product become clear. Only in this case, the manufacturers "shines" the contract for the supply. Yes, and long-term contracts for maintenance and repair.

But our main differences in approaches, in particular, to booking vehicles, are additional requirements. Often not related to the main task. I gave an example in the article on the supply of lethal weapons of the Ukrainian Armed Forces of a different approach to the defeat of personnel in vehicles of one class of protection.

The development of weapons systems and equipment is unstoppable. This fact is indisputable. Today is the time of armored cars. We are returning to the "well forgotten old." Aerostats, airships, armored cars, PTR (albeit already in the form of a sniper rifle). A new level of engineering development. New level of industry development. New level of science development. Here are the "whales" that hit and for a long time will hit our imagination with completely inconceivable just recently machines, weapons and other things that are not yet known to us.
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  1. Cat
    +4
    4 October 2016 06: 41
    The most important thing that makes the landing force "ride on armor" is the mines. Regarding open infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers, Israel has a good experience, which until the mid-90s used old, WWII half-track American M3 armored personnel carriers, with an open body, while adopting a heavy BMP "Azakhat" based on the T-54 tank.
    Seriously, it is necessary to develop infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers for specific combat missions.
    For the army, to the maxim, for the Russian Guard, open armored vehicles with increased mine protection, or closed but with good surveillance equipment (similar to South African anti-guerrillas), for the police, armored doors with a class of protection against hunting weapons should have a minimum standard.
    1. 0
      4 October 2016 14: 35
      So the Almaty series is designed for this, but God forbid that there will be a rearmament on them in the middle of the century.
  2. +1
    4 October 2016 06: 51
    Does it make sense to completely hide the fighter behind the armor plates?


    Of course have.
    At least looking at the real attacks of the Taliban on convoys of cars ...

    the armor gives valuable time for survival ... you can hide behind it from fragments, call for help, help the wounded, etc.
    I would like to listen to the opinions of people who actually find themselves in such a situation (for example, in Chechen companies).
    1. +5
      4 October 2016 07: 07
      In the direction of travel, the probability of getting from small arms is not so great. But the landmine, as a means of stopping the column is used almost always. in the event of an explosion, the landing party, at best, receives serious contusion. For tracked vehicles in general seams. With hatches closed.
      it’s the explosions that drive the soldiers to the armor ...
      Probably it is necessary to raise this topic ....
      1. +12
        4 October 2016 08: 33
        Quote: domokl
        In the direction of travel, the probability of getting from small arms is not so great.

        Quite the opposite is great. Also great is the opportunity to fall under the use of landmines placed on the sidelines. Well, mines such as OZM and MON, located both on the side of the road and on the side of the road.
        And the waters hitting a land mine disguised in the roadway with trained drivers is unlikely.

        Quote: domokl
        it’s the explosions that drive the soldiers to the armor ...

        Boredom drives out the armor of the fighters, the complete lack of comfort in the landing squads. For example, for a long ride in the BMP-2 landing it is necessary to have a very trained vestibular apparatus. The airborne squad of armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles were created at a time when the soldier had slightly different equipment. However, then quickly leaving the car in full gear, with the OZK, was quite difficult. With modern security features it has become even more difficult.

        Also, the absence of volumes and places for transporting property and equipment that provide a quick exit from the car is important here. Well, often there wasn’t enough transport, and the infantry sat on the armor like hares in a cartoon about Grandfather Mazay.
      2. +1
        4 October 2016 12: 55
        Quote: domokl
        For tracked vehicles in general seams

        Tracked combat vehicles, by default, have more powerful armor, and the shock wave is received first by the caterpillar, and then distributed to the suspension and body. For the crew (landing), under equal conditions, survival is higher than wheeled.
    2. Cat
      +13
      4 October 2016 08: 24
      One anti-terrorist operation, the other combined-arms, when infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers follow tanks and support a soldier with fire.
      In a special place are transporting personnel on the roads and fighting in the city.
      During the fighting in Chechnya, APCs and BRDMs with brackets welded to the armor were valued! And saddles from cars and other devices up to sofas on armor are a daily practice. Sometimes the crews of the BTR-70 even riveted reactive armor modules to calm them down. Just imagine a picture of an armored personnel carrier in modules with an artisanal method reinforced with dynamic armor from a tank and on top of it there are policemen who are on anything from a harness on an office chair to a sofa canapes above the engine and all this is attached to homemade brackets and fasteners from harnesses to ropes. Moreover, "saddles" are movable and inalienable property owned by the soldier. And, if necessary, is rearranged to another armored personnel carrier or tank inclusive. And the T-62 tank with dynamic armor and grilles of 75mm corners from the RPG in the stern projection, a leather seat and DShKM welded to the engine compartment cover on the pipe towards the stern. Poor to imagine. When asked what kind of "garbage". The answer followed that the neighbors had a ZSU-23mm on "I-beams" on the tank, which allows them to fire even forward "in the attics".
      Soldier savvy, good! But seeing this mess in 2000, it becomes a shame for the state.
      The conclusion of the armor must be many and different. for all occasions. And maybe they will not come to your classes and pick up students only who have arrived for advanced training in order to replace those who died there ....
      Once again, I draw the attention of all who can influence, is it really difficult to equip the doors of cars with traffic police, traffic police and district police officers with minimal armor. So that the guys had a chance .... and their mothers, wives and children did not lose sons, husbands and fathers.
    3. +1
      4 October 2016 23: 39
      In the Chechen campaigns.
      gramota.ru/spravka/trudnosti?layout=item&id=36_19
      2
  3. +1
    4 October 2016 08: 40
    By the way, somewhere the information slipped between the GOST and Western standards in that according to GOST 100% protection is required (i.e. 100 bullets out of 100 armor delays), and according to Western - only 51% (i.e. 49 can break through). Or didn’t I finish something ??
    1. Cat
      +1
      4 October 2016 08: 48
      I specify according to the American standard and over 50%. That is, out of 100 shots should be at least 51 do not break through the armor of the case. The requirements for triplexes and viewing windows are different.
      1. +1
        4 October 2016 09: 54
        Quote: Kotischa
        That is, out of 100 shots should be at least 51 do not break through the armor of the case.

        And this is not an urban legend?

        It seems like penetration is allowed only if the distance between the bullet hit points is less than standard. However, if it is more than the standard one, the shot is also not counted. At least, these are the requirements for STANAG 4569. And it was about this standard that there were stories about certain "percentages"
        1. +2
          4 October 2016 11: 15
          At shopping center Zvezda "Military acceptance" I told that abroad it is considered that if you were wounded behind the armor, then you were evacuated and you died in 1 minute, then the armor fulfilled its task, oh, how! And here, even kerosene should not seep through dents. And every element of the body is shot at the tiger, and only after passing the control they put it in place, even traces of bullets can be found on new Tigers.
          1. +1
            4 October 2016 16: 24
            Quote: uskrabut
            And with us, even kerosene should not leak through dents. And every element of the body is shot at a tiger, and only after passing the control they put it in place, even traces of bullets can be found on the new Tigers.

            About kyrosin true. He, the bastard seeps even where in general there is nothing more leaking. but about the shelling ... Look at the armored personnel carrier and infantry fighting vehicles .. the same story .. all the cars are fired back before being transferred to the troops
            1. +1
              4 October 2016 19: 06
              Quote: domokl
              About kyrosin true. He, the bastard seeps even where in general there is nothing more leaking.

              This is a classic ...
              Once we took a kerosene with us, but never again! For a whole week we seemed to live in a kerosene shop. Kerosene leaked everywhere. I never saw anything leaking out like kerosene. We kept it on the bow of the boat, and from there it leaked to the helm, soaking the boat and all its contents. It spread all over the river, filled the landscape and poisoned the air. Sometimes a kerosene wind blew from the west, sometimes from the east, and sometimes it was a north kerosene wind or maybe a south wind, but, whether it came from the snowy Arctic, or originated in the sands of the desert, it always reached us, saturated with the aroma of kerosene.

              This kerosene seeped farther and spoiled the sunset for us. As for the rays of the moon, then they simply smashed with kerosene. We tried to get away from him in Marlo. To get rid of kerosene, we left the boat at the bridge and walked around the city, but he followed us relentlessly. The whole city was full of kerosene. We walked through the cemetery, and it seemed to us that the dead were buried in kerosene. The main street smelled of kerosene; we could not understand how to live on it. We walked mile after mile along the Birmingham road, but to no avail - the whole area was saturated with kerosene.
              © Jerome K. Jerome
          2. 0
            5 October 2016 00: 40
            Quote: uskrabut
            At the shopping center Zvezda "Military acceptance" I told


            The most reliable, however, source ... If they’re doing the same thing on the air as on the site, then you can’t believe it under any sauce.
        2. Cat
          0
          4 October 2016 12: 01
          The check takes place over the area of ​​approximately the core2 of the armor of all projections. Shelling from a distance of 100 yards. The distance between bullet holes (dents) should be less than an inch. Moreover, the hull is divided into bow and stern. Otherwise, you are right.
  4. +5
    4 October 2016 12: 36
    The infantry on the march should be under armor, then the chances of survival are significantly increased. Colleagues will confirm that it often happened that an armored personnel carrier or infantry fighting vehicle skipped a dangerous section at a speed and that a landmine or mine was blown up behind the machine and only those who were on the armor suffered. And if you recall the stretch marks at the antenna level of the armored vehicles, when they hooked MON-5O to a tree or post and she coughed up everyone who was on top? And how many were just machine-gun bursts of greens for the landing on top? After which sometimes they even had to stop and dismount in order to pick up the wounded and killed, thereby making armor an easy motionless target. In the end, when a mine is blown up, depending on the power, everyone dies either immediately or they get concussions and injuries, but some of the fighters have a chance to survive inside while in equipped seats, unlike those who will be on armor, they will drop those from the car and at best, they will turn into light shell-shock targets with low combat readiness, until they come to their senses.
  5. +3
    4 October 2016 18: 39
    By the way, "craftsmen" have solved this problem! Modified the design right on the spot. And this solution is akin to the "space pencil" of the USSR. A regular mesh-netting was installed on top. And that's all. The grenades bounce off her like peas due to the speed of the car (obviously someone has been to Africa, used the experience of the French Foreign Legion, their original invention).

    And where does the Foreign Legion and Africa?
    An open tower with factory anti-grenade mesh was still on Sd.Kfz.222

    And before that - on the grandfather of all tanks Mark I smile
  6. 0
    4 October 2016 20: 18
    Maybe you need to make a shorter triaxial boomerang like AMX-10 and typhoons will not be needed. And the unification of the nodes and mechanisms with the usual boomerang will be.
  7. 0
    16 December 2016 03: 15
    For almost a year he worked at the Straight Manufacturing plant at a plant in Canada. Now this company is actively cooperating with ukrovoyaks as the owner himself is from there. By the way, the same company was at the origin of the Typhoon at Kamaz. But they quickly figured out what kind of types the contract was terminated.
    Those machines that were made in Canada for Iraq and Afghanistan according to STANAG 6 were just clams. Yes, the armor was holding a .308 caliber and 7.62 well, what else was there when tested .... But the bullets from 7.62 were definitely with soft cores. And shot armor samples from the usual SCS. Welding seams lowering the metal have never been tested because they made their way through or burst. Generally This STANAG is a strange standard. Only business and nothing personal. We received complaints from the customer. But we hung the whole vin for a Hindu armor manufacturer. And nothing is ever exacted from them. That is who Ukrovermaht is collaborating with today. There they and the road ....

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