Military Review

Telephone and Stalin

247
When I studied at the Academy, Russian and Soviet literature was taught by Professor Vladimir Maksimovich Piskunov, the author of dozens of books and monographs. He told me this bike: “Somewhere in 1942, a professor, conditionally speaking, Sidorov, because I forgot his last name, wrote a monograph on Bagration. And when the professor was giving a lecture in the cold institute hall, the secretary of the rector ran up to him and frightened out in dismay: “Professor, Comrade Stalin is calling you!”




An elderly scientist did not have time to reach the apparatus. The agitated rector warned him:

"Today, at seven o'clock in the evening, Comrade Stalin himself will call you to your apartment!"

And I must say that the professor lived in a communal apartment. Therefore, after returning home, he went around all the neighbors and asked them at nineteen o'clock not to occupy the telephone. People, of course, went to meet a scientist, although they did not know with whom their neighbor would communicate. At the appointed time the bell rang.

Stalin said something like this:

“You have written a very wonderful, interesting book. It is dear to us also as that spoon for dinner or an egg for Christ's day. There is such a huge war, so the experience of past years is very valuable to us. But I strongly disagree with some of the messages in your book. There are fourteen such points. The first…"

Stalin said, as always, deaf and slow. Somewhere on the third or fourth point, the communal tenants became agitated: they, they say, respected the professor, and he is Hameet. The poor scientist had no choice but to say to the leader with a shiver in his voice:

“Sorry, Comrade Stalin, but we have a common phone - a communal apartment, and I can’t borrow it anymore, people need to call.”

Putting the phone down, the professor went to his room and began to collect the prison briefcase, because he understood what tactlessness he had made regarding the dear comrade of the leader. And I did the right thing (I did not allow it, but I collected it), because three security officers came to him exactly half an hour after the telephone conversation. They put the scientist in the black craters, brought him into a house with dark windows, lifted it up to the fourth floor, opened the doors, and the elder said:

“This is now your apartment. And in five minutes, Comrade Stalin will call you. ”

Exactly five minutes later the bell rang and the great leader continued, as if the conversation was not interrupted at all: “The fifth point, on which I disagree with you! ..”

In this bike, for me personally, it’s not at all what comes to mind right away: what a powerful man was Stalin! He took and put the professor without any delay in a separate apartment - I suppose, not in the “hruschob”, they simply did not exist then. Much more important is this: in the midst of such a terrible war, the leader did not just read a specific monograph, about which not all historians still knew, but also found time to call the author. But he could simply convey his opinion through his many assistants. Finally, he could have called the professor to the Kremlin for a talk. However, Joseph Vissarionovich chose the phone ...

As Alexander Sergeyevich used to say “our everything”, we are lazy and not curious. We cannot even imagine the fact that only during the 1418 days of the war did Stalin personally make several tens of thousands of phone calls! Or maybe even more. How many, surely we will never install. More than ever, we will not find out what was discussed by the leader in telephone conversations with directors of thousands of military enterprises relocated outside the Urals, with secretaries of party committees of these plants, with representatives of the State Defense Committee, with designers, generals, admirals, workers, collective farmers, artists, diplomats, scientists ...

During the Khrushchev's retroactive struggle against the cult of personality, the logs of the long-distance talks of the leader were destroyed. But it is authentically known that Joseph Vissarionovich could call the head of some Far Eastern collective farm in the middle of the night and ask him about the harvest in the region. The country during the Great Patriotic War and lived according to the routine established in the Kremlin: at night all the leaders were up until six in the morning. What if Stalin calls! And this is not a beautiful author's curl for a journalistic “liveliness”. So it was in reality. The leader really could call anywhere, anyone, anytime. The signalers in all parts of the immense Soviet Union knew this. They have even developed a technology to connect the Kremlin’s host with long-distance subscribers. Before Stalin was going to speak, telephone operators throughout the chain, no matter how long it turned out, had to “ring out” all telephone hubs, wipe plugs and cells with alcohol so that noises and cod would distract the “high talking parties”.

... Stalin almost mystically loved the telephone. He was his most devoted and indispensable assistant since the revolutionary turbulent years. Suppose Lenin also never disdained telephone communications. Otherwise, where did the legendary installation of the seizure of mail, telegraph, telephone and ... banks come from? Nevertheless, Vladimir Ilyich did not leave us inspiring examples of handling the telephone. With telegraph - yes, it was. There is even a famous painting by Igor Grabar “V.I. Lenin at the direct line ”, where the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars issues the CC and the EBCU (valuable and even more valuable instructions). It is understandable. During the time of Lenin’s first government of workers and peasants, so-called long-distance telephone communication existed only between Moscow and St. Petersburg. The beginning of Stalin's activity in the party and in the country coincided with the rapid development of telephone communications. And the leader appreciated her with all the eastern wisdom and foresight. If you want, Joseph Stalin won a long and protracted struggle with Leon Trotsky solely with the help of a telephone set. And do not rush the author to pull over seditious promises. Because before each party congress, before each party conference, and just before any serious meeting (literally!), Joseph Vissarionovich did not disdain to call his comrades, to ask their opinion, to correct this opinion, if that happens, in the right direction. Yes, and just could call and ask: "Well, how are you doing, Comrade Kirov?".

... For some reason, it was in this place that an old joke was remembered. Midnight. Stalin calls Mikoyan:

"Anastas Ivanovich, how did it happen that twenty-six Baku commissars were shot, and you alone survived?"

With a tongue twingling with fear, Mikoyan once again tells why it was not him who was shot.

"Well, well, dear Anastas Ivanovich, good night."

Next call Molotov.

“Comrade Scriabin, here we have planted your Polina Pearl. Don't you think that husband and wife are one Satan? ”-“ Koba, well, how many times have I argued to you that I have never been interested in her vile deeds ”. “Well, good night.”

“Beria, don't you give up that lately you have sent too many people to the other world?” - “But these are our enemies, Koba!” - “Enemies, you say. Well, good night. ”

And in this way, the leader calls around all his political Politics colleagues. Then, with a deep sense of duty, he says to himself:

“Something like this: I comforted my comrades, now you can sleep yourself.”

Have you noticed that in the joke the phone is in second place after the leader? And folk stories, I tell you, never appear just like that, from the bay-barge.
They always reflect the very essence of our being.

Returning to the mentioned struggle between Stalin and Trotsky, it should be emphasized that the “great lion of the revolution” never condescended to talk on the phone with party members, “to ventilate their opinion”. Comrade Leib Bronstein preferred to act through the retinue of his numerous assistants, being always confident that when the time comes he will rise to the podium, give his next fiery, pep talk and ensure himself, as usual, the majority in front of this “genius mediocrity” by Stalin . At first, it happened all the time. However, Stalin, like no one, knew how to endure and wait. And by the end of the 1920-s, the personnel apparatus, picked up and placed on the ground by Stalin (including using a telephone set!), Threw Trotsky into the garbage storieswhere he, in fact, the place. Joseph Vissarionovich firmly knew that cadres decide everything. Lev Davydovich did not understand this truth. Stalin beat Trotsky precisely as an apparatchik. It will take time - and he will achieve exactly the same victory over Hitler.


Bunker Stalin, Samara

And here I really want to be understood correctly. Of course, in the past war our soldier won, because he had both the military skill better and the strength of the spirit more than that of the enemy. Weapon we generally released more efficiently than the enemy. In general, the potential forces of that socialist society, even with all its already meaningful evils, were objectively more progressive than the German society. (That is why Soviet totalitarianism and German totalitarianism can never be equal to each other. Because, for all the twists of those difficult times, socialism has never been bestial, misanthropic). But not least the victory came to us thanks to the accurate, reliable work of the domestic bureaucratic mechanism, the main unit of which was the T-bills. And the dynamo machine of that unit was Stalin. The most remarkable thing here is that after all the German bureaucracy opposed the Soviet bureaucracy - the most reliable in the world, debugged for centuries, and even fanatically pedantic.
I understand how vulnerable such a comparison is, but I repeat, among other things, Stalin managed to outplay Hitler as an apparatchik, as a bureaucratic leader who befell the higher laws of managerial functionaries and skillfully applied them in extreme military conditions. The Führer, by the way, also perfectly mastered all forms and methods of forcing society to war, nevertheless, he could not even create anything remotely resembling our T-bills. (It’s characteristic that the possessed person was as dismissive as Trotsky. But he loved to “broadcast for history” before the public. Therefore, in his office there was always (I repeat: always) a stenographer. It wouldn’t occur to Stalin like that.)

And now, dear readers, the discovery is amazing and somewhere even incredible! Nevertheless, it is quite obvious. It turns out that even the sad and tragic repression of 1938 of the year happened because of the phone! At the same time, the author is also well aware that the main reason for the repressions lies in the core essence of any revolution, which always devours those who plot it. There are no exceptions here. But as for specific events, namely, the famous trials of “Trotsky-Zinoviev dogs” and other “enemies of the people”, they were largely, if not decisively, provoked directly by telephone. And here not to do without a solid retreat.

At the beginning of 1930, the Red Army Intelligence Directorate (Intelligence Agency) managed to find an approach to the imperial adviser, V. Venner, head of the Reichswehr cryptography service, and through him to the head of the Germany’s phone tapping service, to imperial adviser Gans Kumpf. It was the phenomenal success of Soviet military intelligence. Never before has she sought such a thing! This breakthrough happened largely due to the efforts of Arthur Artuzov. Therefore, Stalin allowed him to report directly, bypassing his immediate superior, Jan Berzin. So Artuzov became in Reconnaissance eyes and ears of Stalin. He regularly wore tape recordings to the leader with telephone conversations of all the highest bosses of Germany, including Hitler himself! Joseph Vissarionovich had a good knowledge of German, although he never boasted about it. And he kept all the tapes with the conversations of his opponents, periodically listening to them. But just in case, he insured himself with the opinion of experts. They were unanimous: the records are authentic!

In April 1935, Kumpf suddenly committed suicide because of an unrequited love for a young dancer. Loss for Artuzov seemed irreplaceable. However, the case helped. His subordinate went to the deputy Kumpf - Kranke. He was an avid player, a tireless walker for women, and therefore he constantly lacked money. And once he offered Kranke: for a small fee, I will supply you with telephone information about the political situation not only in Germany, but also in the USSR. Stalin ordered such information to spare no money. And then it began that Mama Do not Cry. The leader began to receive tapes of telephone conversations of his “friends-comrades-enemies” with centners! Suppose he had previously assumed that many of his closest friends were plotting against him. Although not to the same extent!

Here, I deliberately ignore the question that German intelligence specially and maliciously supplied the first person in the USSR with information that compromised his comrades. This, as they say, is a topic for a separate study. Another thing is important. In any case, Stalin received cassettes with recordings of genuine telephone conversations of people who were really evil against him! You can compose something, substitute, correct on one tape. Especially in the middle. Xnumx's. But, when there are hundreds, thousands of tapes and each with such wild details of a conspiracy that hair stands on end, there can no longer be any dramatization into account. Joseph Vissarionovich understood: he was betrayed by people whom he trusted! Somewhere to the middle. 1930, Stalin began to receive literally the ninth wave of convincing evidence of a large-scale conspiracy to kill him and seize power in the country. The tape recordings of the conspirators' starkly frank conversations confirmed this. They were literally drunk and lost their vigilance, especially when they went abroad.
Together with Artuzov, the leader carefully studied the conversations of Grigory Zinoviev, Alexei Rykov, Lev Kamenev, Nikolai Bukharin and many others. Even Sergey Kirov, who was killed by this time! Pedantic Germans retained records of secret conversations, from which it followed that Kirov and his colleagues had the first intention of cracking down on a “overblown Georgian”. People's Commissar of Communications Rykov set out with amazing details how he would cut off communications in the Kremlin, as well as monitor the telephone conversations of the party and government leaders. Most of all, Stalin was amazed that the entire government connection, it turns out, could only be controlled by 5 – 7 signalmen!

Commissariat communications in the hands of the conspirators! This is unlikely to dream of the head of state, even in a nightmare! But that's not all. Iosif Vissarionovich listened to the tape recordings of telephone conversations in which the conspirators discussed in detail how best to organize an accident on the urban telephone network so that no one would be suspicious. He knew the voices of his old friends perfectly. For so many years of joint revolutionary struggle, he studied their every intonation. And now, with bitterness, he noted Plutarch following: the traitors betray themselves above all.


Stalin's telephone (Livadia Palace, Crimea)

The leader could not think of another important thing. If such a huge number of telephone conversations is recorded on the territory of the USSR, not only on ordinary lines of communication, but even on government, then what should be an extensive spy network, working under his nose, what are the scales of betrayal! And then Stalin instructed Lazar Kaganovich to conduct a thorough investigation of the activities of the NKVD, especially those departments that were responsible for government communication. It was at that time, with the filing of Lazar Moiseevich, that the small figure of Nikolai Ezhov appeared on the political horizon of the Soviet Union. It was he who personally established that the head of the NKVD, Heinrich Yagoda, unauthorizedly tapped conversations of all members of the government, including Stalin himself.

Moreover, Enoch Gershevich Yehuda independently determined which of the conversations he had heard should be reported to Stalin, but which did not, and grossly violated the established procedure for preparing reports for Stalin. During the investigation, the enormous scope of Berry’s illegal activities was revealed. He learned how to deftly manipulate the data obtained from telephone conversations so that he could easily influence Stalin’s decisions to appoint people to leadership positions in the country. Sometimes Yagoda believed (several times he even smugly talked out!) That he was powerful, Yehuda, and not Stalin. Upon learning of this, Joseph Vissarionovich was furious. It seems to the reader that Yagoda was immediately dealt with. By no means. As a great statesman, Stalin never chopped off his shoulder. He appointed Yagoda Commissar of Communications of the USSR. True, he ordered the NKVD officers to establish permanent supervision over the new head of the department in order to reveal all his contacts with the workers of the NKVD, the Red Army, the Central Committee, the institutes and enterprises that produced communication devices.

At the end of 1935, Artur Artuzov received the first information that Mikhail Tukhachevsky organized a conspiracy against Stalin in order to remove him from his post as head of government. The leader, as always, incredulously perceived this signal, believing it to be frank disinformation. Although again, just in case, ordered to strengthen control over the marshal. In an interview with Artuzov complained:

“I have the feeling that someone is constantly watching me!” - “I confess, Joseph Vissarionovich, I myself am confused.” - “But could the Germans start the game with us by sending us disinformation?” - “This can not be ruled out. But what I guarantee you for sure is that all materials are authentic. Several times I involved famous Soviet musicians in the analysis of tape recordings. Of the fifteen people, no one expressed doubts about the authenticity of the voices on the tapes. ”

In December 1936 of the year, an employee of Artuzov in Germany reported that Kranke had requested a huge amount, since he had very valuable information concerning the leader himself. The reconnaissance amount paid Kranke paid and received ... Stalin's conversation with his wife Alliluyeva on the eve of her suicide!
... Joseph Vissarionovich possessed inflexible, truly steel will and inhuman exposure. Once, in a link to a picnic, Yakov Sverdlov began jokingly saying that Kobu could easily have been recruited by the secret police, intimidating him or torturing him and allegedly could well have betrayed his comrades. At that time, such rumors were actively exaggerated in the party environment. Then Dzhugashvili silently put his left hand on the burning coals. Smell of grilled human flesh. Sverdlov became ill. And Koba calmly remarked:

"Remember, Jacob, and tell others: you can neither intimidate nor break me."

And yet, having heard the voice of the deceased wife, Stalin turned pale and clutched at his heart. Artuzov called the doctors. Stalin with a heart attack was taken to the hospital. Recovering from the disease, he began to act quickly and decisively. 11 January 1937, Artuzov was released from work in the Intelligence Agency and transferred to the NKVD to work on archives. Iosif Vissarionovich personally ordered to break off all contacts with Kranka and the rest of the German agents at the Hermann Göring Research Institute. In March, 1937 was arrested by Heinrich Yagoda, who admitted that he had instructed Karl Pauker to listen to all of Stalin's telephone conversations, including those that were conducted via HF communication. To this end, he repeatedly sent Pauker to Germany to acquire special equipment for remote listening. She was found in his office and in one safe house of the NKVD, which was used only by Yagoda.


The telephone used by the chairman of the USSR Council of People's Commissars I.V. Stalin during the Tehran Conference

In April, 1937 was arrested by Pauker, and later by Artuzov. During the search, it turned out that the latter had hidden from Stalin the recordings of telephone conversations from Tukhachevsky with German generals received from the Germans. They were made during his participation in the German maneuvers of the 1932 of the year, where he negotiated remuneration for the transfer of secret information from the German army. Artuzov also hid from Stalin the recordings of several conversations of Jerome Uborevich, Mikhail Tukhachevsky and Ion Yakir in 1935, containing information that they were developing a detailed plan for seizing power. Artuzov was an old friend of Tukhachevsky and at his own risk did not report such information to Stalin. This played a decisive role in imposing the death sentence on him. The concealment of such information was interpreted as aiding German intelligence.

In May, Otto Steinbrück, Gleb Bokogo and Stephen Uzdansky were arrested. Thus began a grand cleansing: they destroyed everyone who knew at least something about the project of listening. Identified those who could help Yagoda, Pauker install listening devices. Yezhov proposed to improve the search for enemies. Those who had ever met with the repressed or their relatives or spoke to them by telephone at least once were counted among them, therefore the number of such “enemies of the people” increased many times over. The arrests covered not only the Intelligence Agency, the NKVD, the Central Committee, the Red Army, but also many of the People's Commissariats who carried out the orders of the Red Army, and first of all the People's Commissariat of Communications. The materials found during the search of Artuzov served as a pretext for the arrest of M. Tukhachevsky 22 in May 1937 of the year in Kuibyshev. 25 May Marshal interrogated, presenting records of more than fifty of his telephone conversations! Mikhail Nikolayevich immediately admitted that he had participated in the conspiracy.

Telephone and Stalin


An amazing thing: at all trials, “enemies of the people” very quickly confessed to spying against the USSR when they were provided with tape recordings of their conversations. Hearing his speech, where they discussed in detail the various topics of cooperation with German intelligence, sabotage, sabotage or the overthrow of the government, the arrested people experienced such a psychological shock that they signed any evidence that the NKVD investigators presented to them. This partly can be justified by the fact that many commanders, including M. Tukhachevsky, who went through the war, confessed to all the charges against them just the next day after the start of interrogations. It can not be explained only by the fact that during interrogations in relation to them torture was used. Although, of course, they were also actively used to knock out confessions. Stalin himself stated: “The NKVD used the methods of physical impact, which the Central Committee allowed. It was absolutely right and necessary. ” On the other hand, Kaganovich once said: "Real Bolsheviks and under torture will never go to the voluntary confession of their guilt." And here a psychological paradox arises, so far, by the way, not fully clarified. Why do our numerous scouts, guerrillas, officers and generals who were captured during World War II, endured the most severe torture of the Gestapo and did not give any evidence, and many combat commanders of the Red Army confessed at the interrogations in the NKVD almost immediately and many themselves recanted?

One explanation could be this. The defendants were so badly shocked when they heard their voice and the interlocutor's voice in the recordings that they lost the ability to control themselves and admitted that they had never actually committed them. Recall how the telephone recording had an effect on the leader. But he was not a slander like his opponents. Thus, the investigators obtained any evidence from those arrested. The main thing, as Stalin demanded, the recognition of guilt must come from the arrested themselves. Why was it so necessary to Stalin? Probably because the tape recordings received from German intelligence had a tremendous psychological impact on him: he no longer trusted the investigators of the NKVD either.



Stalin’s closest associates — Lazar Kaganovich, Kliment Voroshilov, Semyon Budyonny, frightened by such a peculiar form of technical plot, strongly demanded that Stalin investigate the activities of employees of all organizations that dealt with communications, its protection and control. As a result, G. Bokogo’s cryptographic department was practically crushed. 70% percent of employees shot. The repressions struck hard at the technical departments of the Razvedupra and at the Research Institute of Communications of the RKKA Razvedupra, which led to a halt in the development of promising special equipment for interception systems. Production of new types of encryption technology has stopped. The chiefs of 6, 7, 10, and the secret ciphering divisions of the Red Army Intelligence Agency, Jacob Fayvush, Pavel Kharkevich, Alexei Lozovsky, E. Ozolin, and many others, were shot. In 1937, cryptography in the NKVD and Intelligence services was virtually destroyed in the same way as radio intelligence.

2 June 1937, Stalin spoke at an expanded meeting of the Military Council under the People's Commissar of Defense:

“In all areas we broke the bourgeoisie, only in the field of intelligence we were beaten, like boys, like guys. Here is our main weakness. There is no intelligence, real intelligence. I take this word in the broad sense of the word, in the sense of vigilance and in the narrow sense of the word also, in the sense of good organization of intelligence. Our military intelligence is bad, weak, littered with spies.

Our intelligence on the PU line was headed by a spy Guy, and inside the KGB intelligence there was a whole group of owners of this business who worked for Germany, Japan, Poland, all they wanted, but not for us. Intelligence is the area where, for the first time in 20, we suffered a severe defeat. And the task is to bring intelligence to its feet. These are our eyes, these are our ears. ”


So because of the "wiretapping empire" built by Yagoda, the whole complex of problems associated with intelligence became the chief problem of the leader. Mass betrayal of comrades also did not improve the mood of Joseph Vissarionovich. Worst of all, it turned out that he could no longer speak calmly on his beloved phone, fearing that even "undiagnosed traitors" might be listening to him. Therefore, he burned a “great Soviet ear” created by Yagoda with a hot iron. For some time, this struggle against "internal enemies" came to the fore. Stalin was no longer up to protection from an external enemy. He purposely did not improve, if not worse, the link between his powerful army, intelligence, the government and the Central Committee.

As a result, by the beginning of the Great Patriotic War in the USSR, communications in such power structures as the Red Army, the NKVD, the Central Committee and other defense departments, dragged out a miserable existence. It is difficult for someone to believe this, but in the very first days of the war, Joseph Stalin and Georgy Zhukov were connected with the fronts through the Central Telegraph on Gorky Street! Underground communication nodes did not exist at all. Moreover, with the opening of the HF-communication line Moscow-Berlin, which passed through Brest, German intelligence had the opportunity to listen to all the conversations of the Soviet government and the people's commissariat of defense! In the reserve of the High Command, communications were missing as a class. Neglect of communication, rightly called the nerves of war, turned out to be complete, total, all-penetrating. Only by 1945, the situation here has changed somewhat. Although on the whole we can safely say: if by the end of the war we were significantly ahead of the Germans in all the main areas of the armed struggle, we still did not overtake the enemy’s communications. However, this, as the reader understands, is a separate topic.

We will return to the telephone as a means of communication between Stalin and the outside world. And here is a very eloquent memory of the Chief Marshal aviation Alexander Golovanov:

“If Stalin called himself, then he usually greeted, inquired about affairs and, if it was necessary that you personally came to him, never said:“ I need you, come, ”- or something like that. He always asked: “Can you come to me?” - and, having received an affirmative answer, he said: “Please come.” Quite often he also asked about health and family: “Do you have everything, do you need anything, do you need help with your family?” ... Even holding very important meetings, Stalin never turned off the phone. So it was at that time when there was a discussion of more efficient use of our divisions. The phone rang. Stalin, without haste, went to the office and picked up the phone. When talking, he never pressed the phone close to his ear, but kept it at a distance, since the volume of the sound in the device was amplified. A nearby person could freely hear the conversation. Called corps commissioner Stepanov - a member of the Military Council of the Air Force. He reported to Stalin that he was in Perkhushkovo (here, a little west of Moscow, the headquarters of the Western Front was located). “Well, how are you doing there? - Stalin asked. - The command raises the question that the front headquarters is very close to the front edge of the defense. We need to bring the front headquarters east for Moscow, and organize the command post on the eastern outskirts of Moscow! ”There was a rather long silence. “Comrade Stepanov, ask your comrades — do they have any shovels?” Said Stalin calmly. “Now ...” followed a long pause again. “And what kind of shovels, Comrade Stalin?” - “But don't care what.” - “Now. “Quite quickly Stepanov reported:“ There are shovels, Comrade Stalin! ”-“ Tell your comrades, let them take shovels and dig their own graves. ” The headquarters of the front will remain in Perkhushkovo, and I will stay in Moscow. Goodbye". Slowly, Stalin hung up. He did not even ask which comrades who exactly posed these questions. And, as if nothing had happened, he continued the interrupted conversation. ”

... As already mentioned, Joseph Vissarionovich communicated by telephone with a variety of people, ranging from the marshal and ending with the stoker in the Kremlin boiler room. (There was a case when Stalin asked the latter to reduce the heating temperature a little.) However, the leader’s communication with the creative intelligentsia is a special article. According to some reports, he sporadically or often talked on the phone with writers. Stalin often talked on the phone with the singer Ivan Kozlovsky. Ivan Semyonovich himself told the author of these lines:

“If you want to know, Stalin called me home several times. I also had a phone: K, six hundred ... so I forgot ... "-" And what did you and the leader talk about? "-" They talked about life, about art, about different things. He was the cleverest peasant, though, of course, very cunning ... ”-“ And when did he usually call you? ”-“ Always after midnight. He knew when the artists returned home after work ... "

I have no reason to disbelieve the great singer, especially my countryman. With the exception of the statement: "About life, about art". For all his greatness and all-round intellectual development, Stalin was still a very concrete, pragmatic person. And this is especially clearly seen almost in the most historically legendary telephone conversation of the leader with Boris Pasternak, held in 1934 year. The reason for that conversation was the arrest of the poet Osip Mandelstam. The fate of Mandelstam was worried by Nikolai Bukharin, who wrote a letter to Stalin with a postscript: “Pasternak, too, is worried.” Knowing that Pasternak was at that time with Stalin in favor, Bukharin wanted to emphasize with this postscript that this concern was, as it were, a social matter. After reading the note of Bukharin, Stalin phoned Pasternak.



There are 14 (fourteen!) Versions of this communication between the Master of the Kremlin and the Poet. The author of the closest option is Osip Mandelstam’s friend and Boris Pasternak, poetess Anna Akhmatova:

“Stalin called Boris and said that he had been ordered that everything would be all right with Mandelstam. He asked Pasternak why he didn't bother. "If my friend got into trouble, I would climb the wall to save him." Pasternak replied that if he had not been bothered, Stalin would not have learned about this case. “Why didn't you contact me or the writing organizations?” - “Writing organizations have not been doing this since 1927 of the year.” “But is he your friend?” Pasternak hesitated, and Stalin, after a short pause, continued the question: “But is he a master, master?” Pasternak answered: “It doesn’t matter ...”. Pasternak thought that Stalin checks whether he knows about the poems (“We live, not feeling the country under us, / Our speeches are not heard in ten steps. / Only the Kremlin mountaineer is heard, - / The Slayer and the muzhikobortsa.” - M.Z. ), and by this he explained his shaky answers. "Why do we always talk about Mandelstam and Mandelstam, I wanted to talk to you for so long." - “About what?” - “About life and death.” Stalin hung up.

Because the leader too valued his time to waste his time on idle talk, especially on such abstract topics. The great and deep Pasternak did not understand this. He called the chief’s secretariat back to the secretariat, but wasn’t connected again. "Can I talk about this conversation?" - "And this is your own business," - said the secretary. The next day, all of Moscow knew about Stalin's call. Which, by the way, did not change one iota of his attitude to the poet.

No less well-known telephone conversation took place between Joseph Stalin and Mikhail Bulgakov.

“Bulgakov ran, excited, to our apartment (with Shilovsky) on Bol. Rzhevsky told the following. After dinner, he went to bed, as always, but then the phone rang, and Lyuba (L.E. Belozerskaya, the writer's wife. - MZ) called him, saying that they were asking from the Central Committee. M.A. I did not believe it, deciding that it was a joke (then it was done), and disheveled, irritated, took up the phone: “Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov?” - “Yes, yes.” - "Now with you, Comrade Stalin will speak." - "What? Stalin? Stalin? ”And then he heard a voice with a Georgian accent:“ Yes, Stalin speaks to you. Hello, Comrade Bulgakov. - "Hello, Joseph Vissarionovich." - “We received your letter. Read with friends. You will have a favorable answer on it. Or maybe it's true - are you asking abroad? What, are we very tired of you? ”-“ I have been thinking a lot lately - can a Russian writer live outside the homeland. And it seems to me that it cannot. ” - "You're right. I think so too. Where do you want to work? In the Art Theater? ”-“ Yes, I would. But I talked about it, and they refused. ” - "And you apply there." It seems to me that they will agree. We would need to meet, talk to you. ” - "Yes Yes! Iosif Vissarionovich, I really need to talk to you. ” “Yes, you need to find time and meet, sure.” And now I wish you all the best. ”



... I will end these somewhat chaotic notes with what I began. For his long leading life (almost four decades), Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin used the telephone a myriad of times. How many exactly, we will never install. Through this simple apparatus, which was first patented by Alexander Bell in 1876, Alexander Bell, the leader practically not only led the great country, but also often communicated directly with the huge, incredible multitude of its people. Therefore, when I see an image of a leader with an indispensable pipe, it seems to me that it is not entirely accurate. Stalin often smoked cigarettes. But the phone never changed.
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  1. vsoltan
    vsoltan 19 July 2016 19: 11
    +135
    Beautifully and very lively written article, with jokes. ... however, one should not forget that I.V. Stalin was not only the most talented organizer, but one of the most educated people of his time. Now, to us. .. :-)
    1. GYGOLA
      GYGOLA 19 July 2016 19: 20
      +68
      Now, to us. .. :-)
      we have ... iPhone and Medvedev. About times, about morals.
      1. figwam
        figwam 19 July 2016 19: 41
        +37
        Quote: GYGOLA
        Now, to us. .. :-)
        we have ... iPhone and Medvedev. About times, about morals.

        Now an iPhone phone is needed for catching Pokemon.
        1. Svidetel 45
          Svidetel 45 20 July 2016 19: 21
          +2
          Alas, getting stronger.
      2. iliitchitch
        iliitchitch 19 July 2016 19: 51
        .
        Quote: GYGOLA
        we have ... iPhone and Medvedev. About times, about morals.


        And Stalin brought the CASSETTE. Why not CDs or flash drives? But the article is informative. "+".
        1. sabakina
          sabakina 19 July 2016 21: 10
          +26
          Quote: iliitch

          And Stalin brought the CASSETTE. Why not CDs or flash drives? But the article is informative. "+".

          I do not know what these magnetic tapes were called in the time of J.V. Stalin, but in the days of my mother's youth, they were called "bobbins", in the days of my youth, "coils" ...
          1. oldseaman1957
            oldseaman1957 20 July 2016 01: 05
            +9
            Quote: iliitch
            And they brought CASSETS to Stalin
            - By chance, NOT SUCH tapes?
            1. alatanas
              alatanas 20 July 2016 11: 51
              +6
              German from the 2nd world.
            2. Mikhail3
              Mikhail3 20 July 2016 14: 40
              +3
              Hardly. Most likely they were coils with wire. Then they wrote more to the wire. But most of all there was probably paper ...
          2. Amurets
            Amurets 20 July 2016 01: 37
            +15
            Quote: sabakina
            I do not know what these magnetic tapes were called in the time of J.V. Stalin, but in the days of my mother's youth, they were called "bobbins", in the days of my youth, "coils" ...

            I don’t know how in the days of Stalin, in my childhood and youth they were called this way and that. But I’m talking about something else. Here the author writes a lot about the film, but the first film appeared only in 1935, I mean in production and it was of poor quality, often torn. This I remember from my youth. Type2 and type6 films often had to be glued, and the German Democratic Republic also torn. Good films went when they began to be made on mylar basis. Type1970 was considered the most chic in the 10s.
            1. dvina71
              dvina71 20 July 2016 03: 01
              +14
              Quote: Amurets
              Here the author writes a lot about the film

              Before the film, the carrier of the magnetic signal was a metal wire.
            2. SergeBS
              SergeBS 20 July 2016 20: 17
              +1
              Quote: Amurets
              Here, the author writes a lot about the film, but the first film appeared only in 1935, I mean in production and it was of poor quality, often torn. This is what I remember from my youth.

              Or maybe the year is still not 1935, but 1965 onwards? No need to whistle.
              At the same time, let us recall the "suitcase" "Comet", "Dnipro" and other mammoths of the 1960s, but not the 1930s.
              And by the 1980s and up to "Type 10" Shostka and Svema we will get there. smile
          3. SergeBS
            SergeBS 20 July 2016 20: 20
            +4
            Quote: sabakina
            I do not know what these magnetic tapes were called in the days of I.V. Stalin

            Sleep well. In the days of Stalin, there were no magnetic tapes. There was a magnetic wire.
            1. Amurets
              Amurets 21 July 2016 00: 40
              +1
              Quote: SergeBS
              Sleep well. In the days of Stalin, there were no magnetic tapes. There was a magnetic wire.

              Read at least the wiki and do not show your stupidity. And at the same time Gladyshev "Tape recorders". And the real mammoths were MAG8, MAG, MAG59. Next to them, "Comet" seemed portable. By the way, the first MAGs appeared in 1946.
              1. SergeBS
                SergeBS 21 July 2016 19: 10
                +1
                Quote: Amurets
                Read at least a wiki and don’t show your dumbness.

                Well, tell me about MAG8, 9, etc. And for Gladyshev too. Only "there is a discrepancy": I dealt with "Kometa" live. About "quality" Type 1, 2, 6 - I also know from MY experience. So I don't need Vicki. I remember with "pens". And even, oh horror, PAPER books about the design of tape recorders on the mezzanine have been lying around since 196X. In which there are still only asynchronous devices in 3 copies are present as a "driving force" for "sandpaper" Type 1, 2. For example.
            2. magician
              magician 24 July 2016 22: 33
              +1
              you are mistaken, there was also a tape recording. True, it is imported, as was the equipment. Well there were no opportunities then. Although the brains were enough for this and for more interesting things. But after the war, domestic electronics received such an impulse. In general, when it comes to electronics, all the advanced technologies were developed and later sold west from the USSR. Remember that Sonkovsky trinitron, pulse frequency modulation, etc. We could not take advantage, there were those who did not miss the benefits.
          4. Baloo
            Baloo 21 July 2016 22: 59
            +2
            they were called "bobbins"
            In the 30s cassettes? And then they didn’t write to the wire?
            In the late 60s, in the thrift store on Kirova St. I saw a ragged desk in which drawer was mounted something like a tape recorder comparable to domestic tape recorders of the 50s-60s and separately a roller on which the drive was mounted belt and cassette.
            An instructive article, I propose to hand the author to each Mitrofanov-type anti-Stalinist liberast who demands to open all the archives.
        2. Nekarmadlen
          Nekarmadlen 20 July 2016 00: 31
          .
          Previously, for naive Soviet children, they wrote popular stories like "Lenin and the Pechnik", and now for malachol adults "Stalin and the Telephone")))))
          1. SergeBS
            SergeBS 20 July 2016 19: 51
            +1
            That's for sure. The disk dialer and the STACKERS that the telephone operators ALCOHOL cleaned. Minusers, READ the history of telephony. It’s not simple, but VERY simple.
            Or (at the beginning of the 20th century) - plugs and telephone operators. The subscriber got to the telephone exchange with his call and said: "Young lady, I'm 909". The young lady stuck the plug.
            The dialer dial on the phones was NOT.
            Or (later) - the phone’s dialer disk through the STEP-BY-TIME decade-long switches SAM set the desired number. AND NO telephonists with plugs.
            Kindergarten, pants on the straps.
            About tape recorders, I also have something to say. ALSO NOT LIKE. am
            1. NikolaiN
              NikolaiN 20 July 2016 22: 21
              +4
              Quote: SergeBS
              Or (later) - the phone’s dialer disk through the STEP-BY-TIME decade-long switches SAM set the desired number. AND NO telephonists with plugs.

              Everything is correct, but only if you need to reach the subscriber connected to the same station. If the subscriber was in another city, then everything is much more complicated ...
              1. ver_
                ver_ 22 July 2016 10: 10
                +1
                ... I am wondering what I am - at the telephone operator (s) on the switchboard it is the plug - I had to "sit" on this at one time ..
            2. 97110
              97110 21 July 2016 14: 15
              +3
              Quote: SergeBS
              Or (at the beginning of the 20th century)

              And at the end too. You pick up the phone from the phone without a number, the operator says that "Reka" is listening. You ask, well, for example: "In Moscow, give Pronin, please." Or in Khabarovsk Marcinechko. You put down the phone. When they catch the subscriber you ordered, they will call. Or they will report that there will be no answer for a long time, they will ask if you will wait. The system worked in the 90s, when it was broken, I don't know.
              1. SergeBS
                SergeBS 21 July 2016 19: 28
                +1
                Quote: 97110
                You pick up the phone from the phone without a number, the operator says that "Reka" is listening. You ask, well, for example: "In Moscow, give Pronin, please."

                You cheat. You go out "by callsign" to Moscow, then go out "to the city" (city automatic telephone exchange), and already there - the city number. In this case, you need to have "some cronyism". Otherwise, the "city" will give you figs. On duty such a chain - quite rolled, if not rude and EVERY duty in relatives does not ring.
      3. Asadullah
        Asadullah 19 July 2016 20: 57
        +4
        we have ... iPhone and Medvedev. About times, about morals.


        Pakemon go!
      4. dmi.pris
        dmi.pris 20 July 2016 06: 26
        +2
        Sorry .. There are still ..
        Quote: GYGOLA
        Now, to us. .. :-)
        we have ... iPhone and Medvedev. About times, about morals.
    2. sa-ag
      sa-ag 19 July 2016 19: 22
      +2
      Quote: vsoltan
      Now, to us. .. :-)

      In a capitalist state? Well, there would be another deputy of the State Duma
    3. Andrey Yuryevich
      Andrey Yuryevich 19 July 2016 19: 42
      +3
      =vsoltan] Beautifully and very vividly written article, with jokes. yes .with your permission, colleagues, I allow myself, one more joke: During a meeting of the Bet, calls phone, Stalin picks up the phone: “Stalin is listening!” Then: hello ... NO ... NO! ... no ... YES! ... no ... NO! bye! Stalin hangs up. One of the front commanders asks: Comrade Stalin, why did you, only once answered "yes" ??? Stalin: I was asked if I can hear well ... lol
      1. Andrey Yuryevich
        Andrey Yuryevich 19 July 2016 20: 04
        -3
        Quote: Andrey Yurievich
        , I allow myself, another joke

        (different interpretations are possible)
    4. siberalt
      siberalt 19 July 2016 19: 52
      +32
      I read the article with great pleasure! Still, the details cannot be neglected. There could be no "German pedantry, developed over the centuries", since Germany did not exist in those distant times. Artuzov could not wear tapes to Stalin in 1930. They were of the celluloid type of film and were not actually used in practice. At that time, the special services wrote on ferromagnetic wire until the end of wartime. For the first time, a magnetic tape based on cellulose acetate was only patented in Denmark in 1935. There are other copyright inaccuracies that warp, but nevertheless do not detract from the author's meaning. Something like this.hi
      1. Andrey Yuryevich
        Andrey Yuryevich 19 July 2016 20: 02
        +13
        Quote: siberalt
        At that time, special services wrote on ferromagnetic wire until the end of wartime.

        with us in 1981 on the radar landing system (RSP) was also a wire carrier ....
        1. olegkrava
          olegkrava 20 July 2016 00: 41
          +1
          SM-61, and the planes were SM-47. And they didn’t write like that. I don’t know now, but no one has canceled the RSP and PAR8 and 6. Itself with RLG, but with this equipment is familiar with 80.
      2. nadezhiva
        nadezhiva 19 July 2016 20: 09
        +17
        Quote: siberalt
        Artuzov in 1930 could not wear tape recorders for Stalin.
        Very controversial.
        In 1927, a German engineer Fritz Pfleumer, after a series of experiments with various materials, sprayed iron oxide powder onto a thin paper using glue. In 1928, he received a patent for the use of magnetic powder on a strip of paper or film. In the same year, he showed his magnetic tape recorder to the public. The paper tape was well magnetized and demagnetized, it could be cut and glued. In 1936, the German National Court declared the rights under the Pfleimer patent invalid, since the coating of paper tape with iron powder was set forth in the Poulsen patent of 1898.

        In 1932, AEG, adopting the idea of ​​Pfleimer, began production of a magnetic recording device called the Magnetophone-K1. The carrier at Magnetophone-K1 was a tape manufactured by the German chemical concern BASF. “Magnetophone-K1” was presented to the public in 1935 at a radio exhibition in Berlin.
        The development and innovations available to intelligence come to the mass consumer much later.
        1. iliitchitch
          iliitchitch 19 July 2016 20: 24
          +1
          Quote: nadezhiva
          The development and innovations available to intelligence come to the mass consumer much later.


          And when did the 1st cassette recorder appear, even among the special services? Here, along the way, the victims of the exam are not distinguished from a bobbin. wassat
        2. SergeBS
          SergeBS 20 July 2016 20: 03
          +1
          [quote = nadezhiva] [quote = sibiralt] Artuzov could not wear tape films to Stalin in 1930. [/ quote] Very controversial. [quote]
          Never disputed. Enough to LIFT data about the magnetic media used at that time.
          Since, for example, a PAPER-based ferrule had ANY wear resistance. Roughly like the notorious "audiophones" of Edison's system - on rolls with tin foil (on which he recorded a poem about Mary and the sheep). And it took 20 years to "raise" the wear resistance of both "gramophone records" and magnetic tapes.
        3. Camel
          Camel 20 July 2016 22: 22
          0
          Quote: siberalt
          Artuzov in 1930 could not wear tape recorders for Stalin.

          It is quite possible that we are dealing with a journalist's misunderstanding of the specifics of that time, or with a number of misunderstandings of many journalists - it seems to me (me personally) that either the effect of the "dead phone" happened - corr. did not correctly convey the direct speech, or the fantasy of the correspondent. - he came up with everything, or really intentional "duck".
    5. Alekseev
      Alekseev 19 July 2016 21: 18
      +10
      Quote: vsoltan
      Beautifully and very lively written article, with jokes. ...However

      However, although funny, but an essay, not historical facts.
      Although the propensity I.V. Stalin, to receive information personally from the source, and not through assistants, was correctly noticed.
      Well, in those years, the telephone was the most important tool providing such an opportunity.
    6. aba
      aba 19 July 2016 21: 21
      +3
      Now, to us.

      Yes, if now an unexpected call takes you off from business or leisure, it will be more likely an advertising offer or a call from the collector, but not from Putin or Medvedev.
      1. midivan
        midivan 20 July 2016 01: 30
        +2
        Quote: aba
        Yes, if now an unexpected call takes you off from business or leisure, it will be more likely an advertising offer or a call from the collector, but not from Putin or Medvedev.

        Sorry for the tactless question of course, and who are you? Is Bulgakov a modern ali ......? For which there was an insult that the president is not calling you?
    7. Karasik
      Karasik 20 July 2016 00: 59
      +2
      To be honest, I don't even want to imagine what would have happened to us if history had not given us such a Great STATE PROVIDER like Stalin! Having ABSOLUTE power, he could not "conceal himself" and was able to raise the country to the level ... which we still dream of!
    8. dmi.pris
      dmi.pris 20 July 2016 06: 25
      +4
      About Joseph Vissarionovich and in two hundred years people will remember kindly .. But will remember that there existed an iPhone player with his gadget ???
      1. CONTROL
        CONTROL 20 July 2016 10: 55
        -1
        Quote: dmi.pris
        And do you remember that there was an iPhone with its gadget ???

        ... and why are they attached to M.A.? with this iPhone7 ..
        I have the same ... and sho?
    9. SergeBS
      SergeBS 20 July 2016 19: 53
      -1
      Nonsense in the style of "How Kozma Prutkov planted ten Germans on a peak." And that stupid peak length for 10 bodies is not enough - well, the author does not know. And the readers too. For instance.
    10. Dmitry_24rus
      Dmitry_24rus 21 July 2016 19: 50
      0
      It’s a very good article, thoughtful and impudent, it’s a pity there are no links to the sources, but I think this article can claim the best article of the year.
    11. Sergey K.
      Sergey K. 22 July 2016 09: 27
      0
      Now, to us. .. :-)

      Fortunately, we have a worthy replacement for the iron leader of that time.
  2. bubalik
    bubalik 19 July 2016 19: 13
    +36
    Stalin is talking on the phone with Churchill:
    - Nat.
    - Nat.
    - Nat.
    - Nat.
    - Yes.
    - Nat.
    - Nat.
    Hangs up.
    Poskrebyshev asks:
    - Comrade Stalin, what did you agree to at Churchill?
    - And he asked me if I can hear him well

    A source:
    https://sovtime.ru/anekdot/stalin ...вот так,,,
  3. Khariton
    Khariton 19 July 2016 19: 16
    +31
    Radio Liberty, etc. , if you do not turn it on, they fire Stalin ..))) They are afraid of his revival! Nix he brought and created a great country together with the people ... Which is so hated in the West and is afraid of its revival, since all the humiliation and plundering of the great community of the peoples of the USSR will have to be paid for! The main battle is still ahead, gentlemen ...
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 19 July 2016 19: 19
      .
      Khariton (3) RU  Today, 19: 16
      ,,, as the owner of the beads? laughing ,,
      1. Khariton
        Khariton 19 July 2016 19: 37
        +4
        Quote: bubalik
        Khariton (3) RU  Today, 19: 16
        ,,, as the owner of the beads? laughing ,,

        Your malice, in this thread is not appropriate ...
        1. bubalik
          bubalik 19 July 2016 19: 59
          .
          Khariton (3) RU  Today, 19: 37Your malice is not appropriate in this thread
          ,,, and in that it was appropriate ,, laughing how did you decide to her to blow,, recourse sing ,,, not distant people minus you ,, good hold on angry
          1. bubalik
            bubalik 19 July 2016 21: 20
            -2
            ,,, minusers ,,, heard ringing, but don’t know where he is ,,, bully ,,, argue (if you can) ,, tongue
            1. Khariton
              Khariton 19 July 2016 21: 51
              +1
              Quote: bubalik
              ,,, minusers ,,, heard ringing, but don’t know where he is ,,, bully ,,, argue (if you can) ,, tongue

              Well, I minus and explained like everything ..))) Didn't like it? I can repeat it! bully
        2. The comment was deleted.
    2. SergeBS
      SergeBS 21 July 2016 20: 02
      0
      Quote: Chariton
      Radio Liberty, etc. , if you do not turn it on, they fire Stalin ..))

      So this is a GENERAL rule - "if the ENEMIES praise, it means that you are doing something wrong; if the ENEMIES are scolding, it means you are doing EVERYTHING RIGHT." And that the Naglo-Saxons, that the United States - they were NEVER even ENEMIES. "To ruin, subjugate, rob" - all interests (never allied, for example). Quite so in the spirit of the Naglosak doctrine: "England has no permanent enemies, no permanent allies. There are only permanent interests: the empire from edge to edge." R.Kipling - most openly stated it "in an artistic form".
      They cannot understand our paradigm: “live as you want, just don’t touch US”. Because we are accustomed to the model: "either master or slave. Wherever the sun rises."
  4. Vladimir 1964
    Vladimir 1964 19 July 2016 19: 17
    +23
    I liked the article, and it is cool interesting and informative. I read it with pleasure, noting how the article is significantly different for the better, from the flow of empty information overwhelming the site, and designed only to increase traffic to the site, that is, increase the owners' income. The author is well done, having done such a great job of preparing the article. hi
  5. Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 19 July 2016 19: 17
    +21
    Inappropriate article. But Stalin was a leader. With a capital letter.
    1. sherp2015
      sherp2015 19 July 2016 20: 11
      +3
      Quote: Mordvin 3
      Inappropriate article. But Stalin was a leader. With a capital letter.

      Stalin is a real man! Definitely !!
    2. In100gram
      In100gram 19 July 2016 20: 12
      +6
      Quote: Mordvin 3
      Inappropriate article. But Stalin was a leader. With a capital letter.

      The article is unambiguous. Stalin used the available means of communication to solve the state tasks of the administration according to Lenin’s commandments (telephone, telegraph).
  6. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 19 July 2016 19: 20
    -3
    Well, that’s why it’s a delay, that you don’t know who is listening to you at that end.
    1. iliitchitch
      iliitchitch 19 July 2016 20: 01
      +1
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Well, that’s why it’s a delay, that you don’t know who is listening to you at that end.


      A neutral statement, but Mavrikiy went into a minus, well, who is spanking? Personally, I don't care for a long time these "toys in the rating", but something Banderlog here is multiplying exponentially, if only to call the first comer a "earthworm".
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 21 July 2016 16: 06
        +2
        Quote: iliitch
        Quote: Mavrikiy
        Well, that’s why it’s a delay, that you don’t know who is listening to you at that end.


        A neutral statement, but Mavrikiy went into a minus, well, who is spanking? Personally, I don't care for a long time these "toys in the rating", but something Banderlog here is multiplying exponentially, if only to call the first comer a "earthworm".

        To me (-), and to you (+), "all that I can" ("Hot Snow" seems) for understanding, because of me they got under the distribution. Probably the insulting "Banderlog" hurt their tender soul. Well, what should I wish them as a keepsake, for good? I wish: "That the monitors at the Banderlog burned out! At midnight."
        1. iliitchitch
          iliitchitch 21 July 2016 21: 12
          0
          Quote: Mavrikiy
          To me (-), and to you (+), "all that I can" ("Hot Snow" seems) for understanding, because of me they got under the distribution. Probably the insulting "Banderlog" hurt their tender soul.


          No, Banderlog is a statement, it is offensive for them themselves to obey the herd instinct, but because it's easier this way. Oh-pa - they mold the chela minus - he doesn't even think - "approvals"! If only I could read it thoughtfully, not "diagonally". As a result, the site is being emasculated by the "plus sign drivers".
          Yes, here's a fact for you, in the same article it was originally written (burst my eyes!) That Stalin had the CASSETS with notes. Well, I mocked about CD and flash drives, so already at -12, and figs with them.
    2. In100gram
      In100gram 19 July 2016 20: 18
      +2
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Well, that’s why it’s a delay, that you don’t know who is listening to you at that end.

      The government communications layer assumes signal encryption. Another thing was a little behind at the beginning of the war. "Enigma" example
    3. In100gram
      In100gram 19 July 2016 21: 39
      +1
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Well, that’s why it’s a delay, that you don’t know who is listening to you at that end.

      The government communications layer assumes signal encryption. Another thing was a little behind at the beginning of the war. "Enigma" example
      1. your1970
        your1970 20 July 2016 01: 50
        +1
        "the level of government communications" did not imply the presence of HF or ZAS equipment for each collective farm chairman. Regular telephone communication around the country in manual mode (switches, of which there were plenty of switches all over the country in the 90s), with a tougher attitude towards equipment and specialists.
  7. Verdun
    Verdun 19 July 2016 19: 21
    +15
    As a man of technical mentality, he could not miss the passage on how
    Artuzov became in Razvedupra the eyes and ears of Stalin. He regularly wore the leader tape tapes with telephone conversations of all the highest German bosses, including Hitler himself!
    Moreover, judging by the dates indicated in the article, this was before 1935, in other words, even before the creation of the first working models of tape recorders, which used magnetic tape. Because of this "technical trifle", all other material is called into question. No matter how I feel about Stalin, evaluating the mixture of tales and philosophical discourses "on the topic" is a thankless task.
    1. Gray brother
      Gray brother 19 July 2016 19: 41
      +9
      Quote: Verdun
      Moreover, judging by the dates indicated in the article, this was before 1935, in other words, even before the creation of the first working models of tape recorders

      Not a specialist in the matter, but I know that at that time there was already a sound movie. So they could write sound using the optical method.
      In 1923, the Danes Axel Petersen and Arnold Poulsen demonstrated their system in which sound was recorded on a separate synchronized film with a variable-width track [9] [11]. Commercial use of this recording method began on a combined phonogram in the American RCA Photophone technology, developed in 1929. In the USSR, the modulation of light by the stroke length was carried out in 1926-1928 by Alexander Shorin. To do this, he used a string galvanometer in an oil bath, which prevents the mechanical resonance of the modulator. The galvanometer thread is positioned so that at zero signal value exactly half the width of the recording line is illuminated [12]. The photographic recording of sound vibrations on film, or film, in the mid-1930s became widespread not only in cinema, but also in broadcasting, as well as in musical sound recording, making a serious competition to gramophone methods. The principal advantage of the technology was the practically absent limitation of the duration of the initial recording. Unlike gramophone discs, suitable only for short phonograms, the film could be of any length

      https://ru.wikipedia.org "Оптическая запись звука"
    2. vsoltan
      vsoltan 19 July 2016 19: 48
      +5
      Verdun

      I understand that the Wiki is not reliable, however here is an excerpt:

      The principle of magnetic recording on steel wire in 1888 was first developed by Oberlin Smith, influenced by his visit to Edison’s 1878 laboratory. However, the first working device was made by the Danish engineer Waldemar Poulsen only in 1895. The inventor called the device itself “telegraph”.

      In 1925, Curt Stille introduced an electromagnetic device that records speech on magnetic wire. Subsequently, devices of its design, using a thin steel tape as a carrier, were produced under the brand name “Marconi-Stille”, and were used on the BBC from 1935 to 1950 of the year. In 1925, the USSR patented "a flexible tape made of celluloid coated with steel filings (for example, using wood glue)", but the invention was not developed. In 1927, Dr. Fritz Pfleumer patented magnetic tape (first on a paper basis, then on a polymer one). This principle itself began to be developed in parallel with Smith, in the BASF laboratory.


      Do you doubt that Russian / Soviet engineers could not modify the simplest thing and apply it much earlier than in Europe? Moreover, for special services?
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 19 July 2016 20: 11
        +4
        Quote: vsoltan
        In 1925, Curt Stille introduced an electromagnetic device that records speech on magnetic wire.

        You yourself wrote everything. Wire... Watch Seventeen Moments of Spring. In this aspect, it is correctly shown there. The article deals with the ribbon.
        For the first time such a tape began to produce in 1935, the German company AEG.
        As for Gray Brother’s remark that
        Not a specialist in the matter, but I know that at that time there was already a sound movie. So they could write sound using the optical method.
        , I can only answer that recording sound on film is a time-consuming process, not applicable for undercover work.
        1. Gray brother
          Gray brother 19 July 2016 20: 17
          +1
          Quote: Verdun
          , I can only answer that recording sound on film is a time-consuming process, not applicable for undercover work.

          Listening to telephone lines is not an agent job. The devices could stand stationary and what the laboriousness was, I did not quite understand - there is a miracle of technology for yourself and writes, just change the cassettes.
          1. Verdun
            Verdun 19 July 2016 20: 32
            +5
            The sound on the film in optical format is recorded in the form of a separate track on which the sound vibrations are visualized. This image is printed and developed using the same technology as the film itself. Developers, fixers, brighteners ... A long process. And the method of fast optical recording that you mentioned was spread around the same time when the first tape recorder appeared and lasted for some time only because at that time it was possible to get a better recording.
            1. Gray brother
              Gray brother 19 July 2016 20: 50
              -1
              Quote: Verdun
              . And the fast optical recording method you mentioned became widespread around the same time,

              In the USA since 1929, in commercial use, which method was - slow or what?
              Manifest yes, took off for a couple of minutes - you’re about an hour.
              1. Verdun
                Verdun 19 July 2016 21: 18
                0
                Quote: Gray Brother
                which method was slow or something?
                Manifest yes, took off for a couple of minutes - you’re about an hour.

                Similarly, with sound recording.
                1. Gray brother
                  Gray brother 19 July 2016 21: 26
                  +3
                  Quote: Verdun
                  Similarly, with sound recording.

                  I found something else - the word "incisor" is alarming, maybe it was not necessary to show anything, stupidly lit it and that's it.
                  Later, other devices and sound recording systems were created, among which was the Soviet apparatus of Alexander Shorin, designed in 1928. In the “shorinofon”, this device was called so, the film glued into the ring moved past the cutter, which, recording sound, shifted to the side to the next track until the entire width of the film was spent.

                  It is noteworthy that up to 35 sound tracks were placed on a 50 mm wide film strip, and a recording of up to 300 hours in length was recorded on a 8-meter film roll. Beginning in 1936, “chorinophones” were used regularly, and in 1940 reportage, that is, portable “chorinophones” appeared. These were still imperfect devices that developed the very possibility of mechanical sound recording. "Shorinofony" actively used reporters of the "Latest News". Many radio programs “from the front” during the Great Patriotic War were made on the basis of sound recordings using “chorinophones”.

                  http://www.menswork.ru/?q=node/56
                  1. Verdun
                    Verdun 19 July 2016 21: 44
                    +3
                    Quote: Gray Brother
                    I found something else - the word "incisor" is alarming, maybe it was not necessary to show anything, stupidly lit it and that's it.

                    Curiously, in this situation, I would rather be ready to believe in the collection of wax rollers somewhere on the shelf of Joseph Vissarionovich. However, the article deals specifically with "cassette tapes", which makes our reasoning purely theoretical.
                    1. Gray brother
                      Gray brother 19 July 2016 21: 53
                      +1
                      Quote: Verdun
                      ... However, the article deals specifically with "tape recordings", which makes our reasoning purely theoretical.

                      I agree. hi
                      I’ll leave it to the author’s conscience.
      2. SergeBS
        SergeBS 21 July 2016 20: 27
        0
        Quote: vsoltan
        Do you doubt that Russian / Soviet engineers could not modify the simplest thing and apply it much earlier than in Europe?

        Counter-question: in what year did Losev discover the LED effect and in what year did this effect begin to be applied in practice? For instance.
        When was the FIRST transistor created, and when did the transistors begin to replace lamps in INDUSTRIAL products? For instance.
        Well, about the "simplest thing": I would really like to hear your version of how they fought, for example, with no wear resistance of the FIRST magnetic tapes, why did they introduce RF bias, what are compressors and expanders in magnetic recordings, why were they "suddenly" needed?
        "On the fingers": now almost all watches are electronic, not mechanical. The arrangement of this electronic clock is quite simple. WEAK to do it yourself? "On the knee", and not relying on advances in the technology of manufacturing ICs and LCDs over the past 15 years?
        Or what, "the party said - it is necessary", and the technological "breakthrough" was provided by thousands of "Pavlik Morozovs"? laughing
    3. gladcu2
      gladcu2 19 July 2016 20: 15
      +3
      Verdun

      There, the author remembers the cassettes. That’s all, it seemed fantastic.

      Until now, I have never seen such versions of telephone rights. Especially these repressions. The first time I read about listening to phones since almost 1920.
      1. In100gram
        In100gram 19 July 2016 22: 07
        +2
        Quote: gladcu2
        The first time I read about listening to phones since almost 1920.

        Writing is not the most important and time-consuming. Decrypt, here's an ambush. Kilometers of film, can you imagine what kind of work?
    4. Nekarmadlen
      Nekarmadlen 20 July 2016 01: 02
      +1
      The author has some kind of sick fantasy))) Cassettes with recordings of telephone conversations)))) At that time (the beginning of the 30 years), a voice could be recorded on a phonograph or gramophone record in everyday conditions, and even if you speak loudly in a special speaker) )))
      1. Nekarmadlen
        Nekarmadlen 20 July 2016 01: 32
        +3
        The suspect was brought for interrogation, the investigator started the gramophone, put down a record with all his telephone conversations, and tears of remorse flowed from the eyes of the enemy of the people ....))))
        1. SergeBS
          SergeBS 21 July 2016 20: 38
          +1
          Quote: Nekarmadlen
          the investigator started the gramophone

          Suitable banter. +! smile
  8. Teberii
    Teberii 19 July 2016 19: 22
    0
    The phone is the only means of quick contact that is still being used in the corresponding structures. And they painted a bully for us from jokes.
  9. GYGOLA
    GYGOLA 19 July 2016 19: 25
    0
    Quote: Teberii
    Phone is the only way fast ligature, which is still being used in the corresponding structures. And they drew us a bully from jokes.
    The best connection is sexual. laughing
    1. Teberii
      Teberii 19 July 2016 19: 31
      +3
      When, as Stalin, you put Europe into cancer, then you will write like that.
      1. GYGOLA
        GYGOLA 19 July 2016 19: 43
        +3
        What exactly is similar? I did not write about fast ligature.
        1. In100gram
          In100gram 19 July 2016 22: 08
          -2
          Wrong branch?
          Fashion went on the forum: to answer in the wrong thread and in the wrong comments. Maybe I don’t understand request
  10. weksha50
    weksha50 19 July 2016 19: 27
    +3
    Hmm ... Pretty interesting information ... And a pretty interesting interpretation of past events ...

    However, knowing how many "connoisseurs of history" and, especially, the personal life of famous people, are now divorced, you involuntarily doubt ...

    But - anyway, many thanks to the author of the article ... Cognitively ... hi
  11. PKK
    PKK 19 July 2016 19: 30
    +8
    Mikhail! Let me clarify. This is not only our soldier who won the War, it is under the talented leadership of Stalin that victory on the enemy became possible.
  12. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 19 July 2016 19: 30
    +4
    Recently an article with a similar theme flashed .. But how the style differs ..) You read with pleasure.
  13. Mentor
    Mentor 19 July 2016 19: 33
    +11
    The article is interesting, but one question raises doubts. How can I eavesdrop on RF communications? Everywhere it is argued that this connection is impossible to eavesdrop on, in principle, impossible. And yet, how did German intelligence overhear Stalin's non-telephone conversation with his wife? Yes, and the Kremlin talks that were conducted on the Kremlin telephone exchange, without access to the city network. And the author could be more responsible for the selection of photographs. Ordinary telephones, and there is not a single government.
    1. Severok
      Severok 19 July 2016 20: 46
      +6
      You can listen to the HF if you know the keys and have the appropriate equipment. By the way, government phones at that time practically did not differ from the Soviet version that we were used to. Only the hardware on the switches was different.
    2. pv1005
      pv1005 19 July 2016 20: 55
      0
      Quote: Mentor
      The article is interesting, but one question raises doubts. How can I eavesdrop on RF communications? Everywhere it is argued that this connection is impossible to eavesdrop on, in principle, impossible. And yet, how did German intelligence overhear Stalin's non-telephone conversation with his wife? Yes, and the Kremlin talks that were conducted on the Kremlin telephone exchange, without access to the city network. And the author could be more responsible for the selection of photographs. Ordinary telephones, and there is not a single government.

      And what do you think should look like a government phone? request
    3. Igor V
      Igor V 19 July 2016 21: 54
      +1
      How can I listen to RF communications also with the remote devices mentioned in the article?
  14. erased
    erased 19 July 2016 19: 36
    +4
    If in the 20s and 30s of the last century, enemies were identified and destroyed, now enemies are being identified and destroyed by those who are trying to somehow lift the country out of ruin. True, they do this not necessarily with weapons, but through the media, financing, and other tricks in which they have become proficient.
    And there are already no such people as Stalin. Alas...
  15. 1536
    1536 19 July 2016 19: 36
    +2
    For some reason, I recalled a joke about a flea and a student:
    The student has learned only one biology topic about fish. At the exam, the professor asks him: "No, sir, tell us about the flea." The student began the story: "A flea has no scales. But if it had scales, it would look like a fish ..."
    And then he told everything he knew about fish.
    I don’t know what grade the student received, but about Stalin and the phone - this is interesting.
  16. esaul1950
    esaul1950 19 July 2016 19: 39
    +3
    The article is good. Thanks to those who posted it. The time will come and the monuments to Joseph Vissarionovich will return to their places.
  17. The comment was deleted.
  18. Stas57
    Stas57 19 July 2016 19: 42
    +7
    He regularly wore the leader tape tapes with telephone conversations of all the highest German bosses, including Hitler himself!

    uh what to get sorry is this in xnumxm year?
    Well, the author, lie, lie and don’t lie, there was a delay ...
    the first film appeared only in 35.

    and so unscientific reading matter at the level of Dontsova and Akunin
    1. Dali
      Dali 20 July 2016 01: 12
      -2
      Quote: Stas57
      and so unscientific reading matter at the level of Dontsova and Akunin

      Not all comments were read by chtol ... it is necessary to carefully, as mentioned above, in the USSR in 1925, only it did not receive development (but as it was in the special services ... well, this is still a secret), the Germans 1927 ...
      1. Stas57
        Stas57 20 July 2016 12: 46
        0
        Quote: Dali
        Not all comments were read by chtol ... it is necessary to carefully, as mentioned above, in the USSR in 1925, only it did not receive development (but as it was in the special services ... well, this is still a secret), the Germans 1927 ...

        uh, if you, your native read komenty, you noticed that two said about the wire almost simultaneously.
  19. Olegater
    Olegater 19 July 2016 19: 47
    +5
    Yes, an interesting article, we know little of I.V. Stalin. Unfortunately, there is no such figure in Russia. And this is sad, as they say in Odessa, "we are on the eve of a grandiose nix", a strong leader would pull Russia out now and we have a chance to fight off the western jackal, as then before the Second World War. And after the Great Patriotic War to organize the restoration of the country, and now "peace", and where our population, factories, factories and finally our products, and not ga.v.n.d. from the west?
    But then we listen to a lot of crap from the opposition, which came out from the traitors who agreed with the Nazis on the payment of state secrets.
    1. Andrey Yuryevich
      Andrey Yuryevich 19 July 2016 20: 09
      -1
      Quote: Olegater
      as they say in Odessa "we are on the eve of a grandiose nix"

      it was said in Robin ... (see avatar below ...)
      1. GYGOLA
        GYGOLA 19 July 2016 20: 38
        0
        Quote: Olegater
        as they say in Odessa "we are on the eve of a grandiose nix"

        it was said in Robin ... (see avatar below ...)
        laughing laughing laughing
        1. Olegater
          Olegater 19 July 2016 20: 45
          +1
          When I read Andrey Yuryevich then too laughing laughing laughing
  20. HAM
    HAM 19 July 2016 19: 47
    +1
    Interesting article ...
    The word "long-distance" is written with "s", and wipe the contacts and "plugs" with alcohol, which is more expensive ...
    . All to blame on the phone is something.
    1. HAM
      HAM 19 July 2016 20: 16
      -2
      From this one word it is clear that a person is far from communication, and wrote a political-technical article ....
      1. Dali
        Dali 20 July 2016 01: 15
        -1
        Quote: HAM
        From this one word it is clear that a person is far from communication, and wrote a political-technical article ....

        And not only for wiping the plugs, but also for all sorts of different contacts that were immeasurably on the GTS ... it looks like you are even further ... laughing
        1. HAM
          HAM 20 July 2016 08: 48
          -4
          There was suede for cleaning the contacts, and after cleaning with alcohol, a non-conductive film remains on the contacts, after the alcohol still needs to be cleaned mechanically. So no la la.
          1. Dali
            Dali 20 July 2016 09: 52
            +2
            Quote: HAM
            There was suede for cleaning the contacts, and after cleaning with alcohol, a non-conductive film remains on the contacts, after the alcohol still needs to be cleaned mechanically. So no la la.

            Yeah, after these cleaners, it was normally not audible, since the silver coating, such as you washed completely, saving alcohol on the wipe, but not saving for pouring inside laughing ... that's why they gave alcohol to wipe the silver contacts, so that the silver contacts would not be erased prematurely ... damn smart guy ...

            And about alcohol, which creates a non-conductive film - alcohol was needed for that to wash away from contacts, everything that interferes with contact. But if you don’t rinse off, but only moisten it so to speak (saving alcohol for your laughing ), then of course, the crap that was on the contacts can really dissolve and completely cover the contact ...

            Teach materiel Nam-nam laughing
            1. HAM
              HAM 20 July 2016 11: 44
              0
              AT DSH APPLIANCES THOUGHT AVIATION KEROSIN, ask women technicians who have earned allergies and asthma. And your calculations are purely theoretical ..
              1. Dali
                Dali 20 July 2016 11: 59
                +1
                And what does that prove ?! belay

                Although I will tell you who should have ordered and dispensed alcohol to wipe the contacts, he himself put it inward or on the side.
              2. Dali
                Dali 20 July 2016 12: 03
                0
                Quote: HAM
                And your calculations are purely theoretical ..

                Your statement about the film from alcohol does not even draw on the theoretical ... laughing

                Those. where did you use alcohol without saving, did you use it for purely theoretical reasons? laughing laughing laughing
                1. HAM
                  HAM 22 July 2016 13: 11
                  0
                  If alcohol had not been drunk by specialists like you, then it would not have been bred with some stinking rubbish, there would have been no whitish film.
        2. SergeBS
          SergeBS 21 July 2016 20: 52
          +1
          Quote: Dali
          And not only for wiping the plugs, but also for all sorts of different contacts that were immeasurably on the GTS ... it looks like you are even further ...

          Well, tell me how the contacts on the DSHI are "wiped", for example. smile
          Start with their number on a regular PBX station of 198X and dismantling (for example). laughing
    2. DED - 53
      DED - 53 20 July 2016 00: 12
      0
      Even at the end of the USSR they gave out alcohol to wipe the plugs! am
  21. Приговор
    Приговор 19 July 2016 19: 53
    +9
    Once again I’m convinced that the larger the scale of the head of our state, the more different trash tries to discredit him. The same with Ivan the Terrible, also with Peter the Great, the same with Catherine the Second, and so on ... I just remember how long they all lied to us that Paul the First was squalor. No wonder all this is done. You just need to ask yourself, to whom is all this profitable? And immediately everything falls into place.
    1. Khariton
      Khariton 19 July 2016 20: 34
      0
      Quote: Sentence
      Once again I’m convinced that the larger the scale of the head of our state, the more different trash tries to discredit him. The same with Ivan the Terrible, also with Peter the Great, the same with Catherine the Second, and so on ... I just remember how long they all lied to us that Paul the First was squalor. No wonder all this is done. You just need to ask yourself, to whom is all this profitable? And immediately everything falls into place.

      I would say briefly ... Russia has long been, should not exist, according to estimates of the west and east, south, etc.! And we live on evil to all and develop again! soldier And yet, they are afraid that we will present huge bills to them, for everything! (there is everything for this document ..) But we don’t like to sue and don’t want ... We prefer to sort things out differently and they know and feel it! So the screech is in the world ... And we can intercede for other nations! (Even to the detriment of ourselves, the West will never understand this) And gentlemen, too .. hi Keep yerking and angry ... Everything will be ours!
  22. Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 19 July 2016 20: 08
    +3
    Bokiy. It is customary to write "at Bokii", and not "at Boky".
  23. kanevsvv
    kanevsvv 19 July 2016 20: 22
    0
    very interesting article.
  24. Chaos
    Chaos 19 July 2016 20: 33
    -4
    Again a servile article. Joke: Comrade Lenin in Shushensky would go out into the street and begin to sharpen a dangerous razor on his belt to shave. Around him, the kids gather right away. He could have slashed the kids with a razor, but he hadn’t. What a kind soul was a man))
  25. Basil50
    Basil50 19 July 2016 20: 34
    +5
    The more I learn about AND IN STALIN real stories and eyewitness accounts, the more I get confirmation of the reasons for such hatred for this really GREAT MAN. The reason is simple, he did not forgive betrayal and never left betrayal without punishment. Here's another interesting detail, AND STALIN never made decisions without comprehensive consultation with specialists with different views on the problem.
    1. tatra
      tatra 19 July 2016 20: 47
      +2
      Quote: Vasily50
      confirmation of the reasons for such hatred of this really GREAT MAN.

      The reasons are that ALL stalinophobes in the world are enemies of the Soviet / Russian / Russian people, pathological liars, slanderers and hypocrites who never admit guilt for their crimes.
      And those who captured the USSR slandered the Soviet Communists, especially Lenin and Stalin. in order to justify their capture of the USSR, than they themselves proved that they captured the USSR with criminal purposes.
      When people do something for good, they don’t need to slander others to justify it.
      1. Chaos
        Chaos 19 July 2016 21: 56
        -7
        1982 year. There is no abundance on store shelves. Soviet communists, for example, the head of the workshop, he also drives up to the sales department at an official UAZ truck and sells chocolates, meat, condensed milk, etc. to special stores. Long live the Soviet Communists! Hooray !
        1. tatra
          tatra 19 July 2016 22: 14
          +2
          Quote: Chaos
          There is no abundance on store shelves

          And what about your, enemies of the communists, vaunted "but now everything is there"?
          Sausage without meat, but meat with hormones, dairy and confectionery products from soybean and palm oil, GMO vegetables and fruits without smell, taste and vitamins, bread from low-quality grain.
          1. Chaos
            Chaos 19 July 2016 22: 28
            -3
            Novocherkassk events how to comment? People asked for food, they were shot.
            1. tatra
              tatra 19 July 2016 22: 41
              +3
              Quote: Chaos
              Novocherkassk events how to comment?

              Give at least one example of those that the enemies of the communists, starting with your "Liberator" Gorbachev, were exposed for "crimes of communism", wherever you lie, or slander the communists, did not prove that the same facts that you expose for the crimes of the communists , in all other cases you justify or "do not notice" how you justify the shooting of a peaceful demonstration on Bloody Sunday, and "do not notice" this in your "Saint" Nicholas II:
              May 1901, 7 - Execution of Obukhov workers;
              1902 November - The execution of Rostov workers: killed - 6 wounded - 20;
              March 1903, 11 - Execution of workers of the Zlatoust weapons factory killed - 60, injured - 200;
              July 1903, 14 - The shooting of striking railway workers: 10 killed, 18 wounded
              1903 July 23 - The shooting of a demonstration in Kiev: killed - 4, wounded - 27
              1903 August 7 - The execution of workers in Yekaterinburg: killed - 16, wounded - 48
              1904 December 13 - Execution of workers in Baku: 5 killed, 40 injured;

              1905, January 12 - The shooting of a workers ’demonstration in Riga: 127 killed, more than 200 wounded;
              1905 June 18 - The shooting of a demonstration in Lodz: killed - 10, wounded - 40
              April 1912, 4 - Execution of workers on strike in the Lena goldfields: 254 people were killed;
              June 1914, 3 - The shooting of a rally of Putilov workers in St. Petersburg;
              1915 August 10 - Shooting of a demonstration in Ivanovo-Voznesensk: killed - 30 wounded-53
          2. Chaos
            Chaos 19 July 2016 22: 31
            -2
            do not distort ... I wrote to you about the Soviet Communists, about the fact that they had special rations. if you position yourself as a communist, give rations to a hard worker, sweets for children. No, they ate themselves, and at party meetings they talked about the five-year plan in three years and about the best Soviet people.
        2. Igor V
          Igor V 20 July 2016 01: 29
          +3
          Chaos again about sausage, how much is it possible? Apparently the fantasy is not enough. I would write about ideology, otherwise everything is about the stomach. By the way, my shop manager in the 85th was non-partisan.
    2. Chaos
      Chaos 19 July 2016 22: 01
      -7
      you would have licked his ass. Millions of people have been hit by scammers like you.
  26. bober1982
    bober1982 19 July 2016 20: 36
    +11
    Stalin often smoked cigarettes
    The author is mistaken, he filled his pipe with tobacco only Herzegovina Flor cigarettes, Stalin cigarettes themselves never smoked.
    1. Flatter
      Flatter 20 July 2016 16: 28
      0
      Having tried once the Herzegovina Flor cigarettes, I almost quit smoking, a sharp, caustic acid. And what did he find in such tobacco?
  27. The comment was deleted.
  28. Severok
    Severok 19 July 2016 20: 42
    +5
    The version about the repressions of the 37th year is very interesting, the version about wiretapping in the events of the past is very organically entered. However ... Is this true? And in general, will we ever learn the truth about those great, formidable and, at times, terrible years ???
  29. ALEA IACTA EST
    ALEA IACTA EST 19 July 2016 20: 46
    +3
    Communication is everything.
  30. Khariton
    Khariton 19 July 2016 20: 58
    +6
    Damn it .. Everything is so! And the howl goes to the whole world .. And Russia is being reborn, for the evil of everyone and the USSR will be, but in a slightly different format ... So "gentlemen", prepare your suitcases!
    1. Chaos
      Chaos 19 July 2016 22: 14
      .
      Specify on which past? On the gop stopnik young Dzhugashvili or the example of 38 years? Guys, are you completely overwhelmed? Yes, he trampled people, and they licked his boots for it. He planted Kalinin’s wife, and a normal man would give him in the face for that. Get together in a heap and go live in the DPRK. They also called Una great
      1. V.ic
        V.ic 20 July 2016 18: 04
        0
        Quote: Chaos
        He planted Kalinin’s wife, and a normal man would give him in the face for that.

        The surname of the enta woman before the "headman" was locked up was Lorberg. The little wife's landing did not prevent the "headman" from "getting carried away" with the ballerinas ... And you beat the face ...
  31. deman73
    deman73 19 July 2016 21: 08
    +3
    THE GREAT WAS A MAN AND THE MAIN HEAD is definitely not there now, but it's a pity
    1. Mikhail Krapivin
      Mikhail Krapivin 19 July 2016 21: 48
      +4
      When my grandmother heard Stalin's name, she blossomed and said "Yosya - sunshine!" She said this very sincerely and with great love. And this despite the fact that her family was dispossessed and their life was not at all sweet. But all the same "Yosya - the sun!".
      1. Chaos
        Chaos 19 July 2016 22: 06
        .
        They say about people like granny. The family has its black sheep. No, well, it’s necessary, they dispossessed, they broke their fate, they threw them into poverty, and she praises it for this. What do you call this? I can’t pick up the words.
        1. tatra
          tatra 19 July 2016 22: 21
          +4
          Quote: Chaos
          . No, well, it’s necessary, they dispossessed, they broke fate,

          Enough of making "white and fluffy" fists.
          Your fists ripped open the stomachs of the food detachments, all the "fault" of which was only that they wanted the townspeople not to starve to death, massively destroyed grain and cattle, so long as they did not go to the Soviet people.
          In 1928, 1307 terrorist attacks were carried out with fists in the territory of the RSFSR, including over 400 murders of communists, activists, teachers, police officers and tractor drivers.
          In 1929, only in the villages and villages of the central regions of Russia, 1002 terrorist attacks were noted, including 384 murders and 141 arson of collective farm buildings
          In January-April 1930, 6117 kulak performances took place in the USSR, in which 1755300 people took part. Only in March and only registered: in Ukraine - 521 terrorist attack against rural workers of the Soviet government; in the Central Black Earth Region of Russia - 192 (25 murders). For the first 9 months of 1930 in Western Siberia - more than 1000 attacks (624 killings)
          1. Chaos
            Chaos 19 July 2016 22: 42
            -5
            so who brought people to this famine? your party. My ancestors were fists, worked from morning to night, their shops were in the villages. And my great-grandfather’s brother, a loafer, joined the party, after the next meeting desk he ran, warned that they would come for them in the morning. They loaded everything that got into the cart and drove very far at night. The terrorist attacks were not committed there, the head had to be cut down.
            1. tatra
              tatra 19 July 2016 22: 52
              +2
              Quote: Chaos
              so who brought people to this famine

              Firstly, there was a chronic famine in the Russian Empire, and ALL you, enemies of the communists, do not care about that, not once did any of you even portray "philanthropy" for the starving and starving people in Ingushetia.
              And the "Holodomors" of both the Soviet people and the peoples in the former republics of the USSR that you captured, have always been arranged by YOU, the enemies of the communists.
              In Soviet Russia / USSR, you deliberately deprived the Soviet people of food, massively destroying grain and livestock, sabotaging work on collective farms, stealing "three ears of corn" from the people in sacks and pounds.
              And after your capture of the republics of the USSR, you deliberately deprive people of their livelihood by not paying them many months of wages and pensions, especially in the 90s, when 8 million people died in Russia over 4 Yeltsin years alone than in the previous 8th anniversary of the RSFSR.
          2. alexej123
            alexej123 20 July 2016 16: 45
            +3
            tatra, there were different fists. My great-grandfather, a native Kuban Cossack, was dispossessed and exiled to the city of Kotlas, where he died. The family had two sons, the eldest in a former white Cossack officer, died in the famine of 1933 with his wife and three children, the second son unlearned a medical degree, a veteran, lived and died in Kiev, and four daughters. So these four also worked their land and hired to earn money for others. Great-grandfather did not hire farm laborers - on principle. When my grandmother got a boyfriend from the newcomers, he whipped her with the words "Though for a farm laborer, but for a Cossack." What happened, she married my grandfather's poor Cossack. And my great-grandfather did not do any dirty tricks to Soviet power. By the way, our village was included in the "Black List" along with other eleven settlements of the Kuban. The delivery of food was stopped, the sale of food to local people in stores was prohibited, only visitors were allowed. The grandmother gave money to visitors to buy food for small children. I'm not about the fact that "Soviet Power is bad", I mean that there were different people and one size fits all?
  32. Naladchik
    Naladchik 19 July 2016 21: 09
    0
    The article is interesting. To the question why? He answered himself this way: either timed to the “phone day”, or to the upcoming increase in telephone tariffs.
  33. Bator
    Bator 19 July 2016 21: 20
    +11
    According to a certificate prepared in February 1954 by Prosecutor General R. Rudenko, Minister of Internal Affairs S. Kruglov and Minister of Justice K. Gorshenin, for the period from 1921 to February 1, 1954 he was convicted of counterrevolutionary crimes by the OGPU collegium, “triples »NKVD, Special Meeting, Military College, courts and military tribunals 3 people, including 642 people were sentenced to death. This is for thirty one years. This is the end of the Civil War, this is the era after it. This is four years of a terrible war with Hitler. This is the period after the Second World War. This is a fight against gangs of Bandera and forest brothers. This includes Berry and Yezhov, and other bloody executioners. Here are the traitors of Vlasov. Here are deserters and looters. Self-shooters. Alarmists. Participants in the gangster underground. Nazi accomplices who shed blood. This is the "Leninist Guard", which destroyed a great country to the joy of the enemies of Russia. Here Zinoviev and Kamenev. Trotskyists in this number. Figures of the Comintern. Traitor and traitor Tukhachevsky, who was about to arrange a military coup. The executioner Bela Kun, thousands of drowning officers in the Crimea with stones on their necks. Multifaceted figure, polysyllabic.
    If you divide the total number of executed by the number of years, you get less than 22 people a year. A lot of? Of course. But let’s not forget what years it was. And there are no tens of millions executed. This is exactly a deliberate lie. Remember this number: 642 980 people. It was. It is necessary to know and remember
    1. yugan
      yugan 20 July 2016 18: 33
      +1
      It should also be added for the liberally concerned about the whole head - the number of those sentenced to imprisonment at the present time (in 2012, something about 780 thousand) with a population of 140 million in Russia, while the USSR had a population of about 180 million at the beginning of the war. Solzhenitsyn with fantastic novels about "five hundred million" languishing now behind bars?
  34. Bator
    Bator 19 July 2016 21: 21
    +9
    About the allegedly repressed command staff of the Red Army from May 1937 to September 1939 in the amount of 40 thousand people. It was such a round figure that the Spark magazine (No. 26, 1986) called for the first time, followed by Moskovskiye Novosti and others. Where did this figure come from? But from where.
    The fact is that on May 5, 1940, the head of the Main Directorate of Personnel of the People’s Commissariat of Defense, Lieutenant General E. Schadenko, presented to Stalin a “Report on the work of the department” for 1939. It stated that for 1937-1939 36898 commanders were dismissed from the ranks of the Red Army. Of these, 1937 people were laid off in 18. (658% of the headcount of the commanding and political personnel), in 13,1 1938 people were laid off. (16%), in 362 9,2 people were laid off. (1939%).
    The motives were as follows: 1) by age; 2) for health reasons; 3) for disciplinary offenses; 4) for moral instability; 5) were fired for political reasons 19 106 (of which, after complaints filed and checks made, 9247 were reinstated in 1938-1939); 6) was arrested, that is, repressed, there were 9579 people of the commanders (of which 1457 was restored in 1938-1939).
    Thus, the number of officers arrested in 1937-1939. (without the Air Force and the fleet), is 8122 people. (3% of the total number of comm staff for 1939). Of these, about 70 were sentenced to death, shot 17 - basically the highest, for example, two of the five marshals (Tukhachevsky for organizing a Trotskyite military conspiracy, Yegorov for participating in espionage, preparing terrorist attacks and participating in the revolutionary organization), another Marshal Blucher was arrested for participating in the military a fascist conspiracy, which led to unjustified losses and the deliberate failure of the operation on Lake Hasan, but died in prison. Also, for similar especially dangerous crimes, 5 out of 9 commanders of the 1st rank (Belov, Yakir, Uborevich, Fedko, Frinovsky) and other representatives of the “fifth column” were shot.
    “... The Wehrmacht just betrayed me, I perish at the hands of their own generals. Stalin committed a brilliant act by arranging a purge in the Red Army and getting rid of rotten aristocracy "(from the interview of A. Hitler to the journalist K. Shpeydel in late April 1945)
  35. Chisayna
    Chisayna 19 July 2016 21: 30
    +1
    In general, for a certain category, those who are circumcised on the 8th (eighth) day. The word STALIN causes increased foam and salivation. And if "they" hear Stalin and the Crimea, Stalin and Birobidzhan, the case of the grabber, the "famous" front in the grain city. Then they have liquid fertilizer from all the cracks.
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 19 July 2016 21: 40
      +3
      Sleeping Sayan, and that you so hesitated to the Jews? laughing
  36. Orionvit
    Orionvit 19 July 2016 21: 35
    +1
    Quote: sabakina
    Quote: iliitch

    And Stalin brought the CASSETTE. Why not CDs or flash drives? But the article is informative. "+".

    I do not know what these magnetic tapes were called in the time of J.V. Stalin, but in the days of my mother's youth, they were called "bobbins", in the days of my youth, "coils" ...

    In any case, Stalin received tapes with the recording of genuine telephone conversations of people.
    Now, I just copied a piece of text into the clipboard, for a quote, Already everyone is talking about it.
  37. Zhar2012
    Zhar2012 19 July 2016 21: 35
    -1
    Chic article. Reveals a series of white spots. Thanks to the author.
  38. Orionvit
    Orionvit 19 July 2016 21: 39
    0
    Quote: Naladchik
    The article is interesting. To the question why? He answered himself this way: either timed to the “phone day”, or to the upcoming increase in telephone tariffs.

    Really, everything interesting should be "why"? For me, this interest is wonderful in itself. When I, for example, read "The Three Musketeers" as a child, I did not ask the question "Why?"
    1. Naladchik
      Naladchik 19 July 2016 22: 08
      -4
      An ambiguous article, this is an opinion, with controversial sketched facts. Therefore, questions arise why, for what purpose, etc. ? From the text: destroyed communications and cryptography so that it led the fronts from the Main Post Office, and they could not surpass the Germans in communications even by the end of the war. Ours in Crimea each with a walkie-talkie (Germans noticed).
  39. Aleksander
    Aleksander 19 July 2016 21: 50
    -4
    Together with Artuzov, the leader carefully studied the conversations of Grigory Zinoviev, Alexei Rykov, Lev Kamenev, Nikolai Bukharin and many others
    Somewhere to ser. 1935 years, Stalin began to receive literally the ninth shaft of convincing evidence of large-scale conspiracy in order to kill him and seize power in the country
    figure of Nikolai Yezhov. It was he who personally established that the head of the NKVD, Heinrich Yagoda, unauthorized listened to the conversations of all members of the government, including Stalin himself.
    At the end of the 1935, Arthur Artuzov received the first information that Mikhail Tukhachevsky organized conspiracy against Stalin
    On April 1937, Pauker was arrested, and later Artuzov. During the search, it turned out that the latter hid from Stalin the records of telephone conversations from Tukhachevsky with German generals received from the Germans

    This is not a conspiracy. This is ordinary paranoia.

    And the "conspirators" were REHABILITATED by the state in a legal manner: By definition number 4n-0280/57 of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR) all the defendants were acquitted and rehabilitated for lack of corpus delicti. :
    “The military collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR, having studied the materials of the case and additional verification, considers it indisputably established that the criminal case against Tukhachevsky, Cork, Yakir and others on charges of their anti-Soviet activities was falsified”


    They were rehabilitated, like hundreds of thousands of other "spies", "traitors", conspirators ", pests," etc.
  40. Mentor
    Mentor 19 July 2016 22: 00
    +1
    Quote: pv1005
    Quote: Mentor
    The article is interesting, but one question raises doubts. How can I eavesdrop on RF communications? Everywhere it is argued that this connection is impossible to eavesdrop on, in principle, impossible. And yet, how did German intelligence overhear Stalin's non-telephone conversation with his wife? Yes, and the Kremlin talks that were conducted on the Kremlin telephone exchange, without access to the city network. And the author could be more responsible for the selection of photographs. Ordinary telephones, and there is not a single government.

    And what do you think should look like a government phone? request

    Like at the cottage in Yalta
  41. KRIG55
    KRIG55 19 July 2016 22: 08
    0
    To the author plus, the article is interesting. We would be about ten such Stalin ....
  42. Igor V
    Igor V 19 July 2016 22: 14
    +5
    The beginning of the article is pure Grossman: Stalin called the professor, then a detective story, wiretapping, kilometers of magnetic recording, then a psychological thriller, people fall with heart attacks and go crazy. From all this eclecticism, the conclusion about repressions due to the phone is drawn. It is hard to believe in the reality of action. No, the fact that Stalin actively used the phone is a fact to which we must add the words of A.S. Yakovlev that he knew all the directors of defense plants, their deputies and the situation in their family (how, Ivan Ivanitch, did you find your family after evacuation?). But to believe that Stalin spent hours listening to recordings of conversations, what, did he have nothing more to do? It was just a lot of cases.
    So I consider this article as a literary opus. smile
    1. Igor V
      Igor V 19 July 2016 23: 49
      0
      I want to clarify. Grossman is the kind of writer who wrote Life and Fate, now considered horribly banned, but published in the Soviet Union.
      1. Zulu_S
        Zulu_S 20 July 2016 10: 38
        -1
        It is not terribly forbidden, but the book is not cheap. Type in the search engine "Life and Fate".
        But in the USSR it was published only in perestroika fervor. An interesting book, by the way. Not easy.
        1. Igor V
          Igor V 20 July 2016 11: 09
          0
          We started to minus, so I decided to explain about the book. I did not like it because of the obvious nationalist orientation. Not so long ago, there was a TV series about it, and the advertisement got about the "forbidden book". I remember in the preface it was written that the first edition was almost in the 49th year.
  43. swan
    swan 19 July 2016 22: 18
    +2
    Quote: GYGOLA
    Now, to us. .. :-)
    we have ... iPhone and Medvedev. About times, about morals.

    It turns out that the "intelligence" of the phone and the owner is inversely proportional.
  44. DimYang
    DimYang 19 July 2016 22: 18
    0
    Personality !!!!!! We need him.
  45. Simpsonian
    Simpsonian 19 July 2016 22: 36
    +1
    As a result, by the beginning of World War II in the USSR ...

    it should even be a fool because of the negotiations between Moscow and St. Petersburg through Brest, it should be clear that the disadvantages did all this ...

    In the end, of course, Bell had to be licked, with which even in the USA there was a patent craving up to an hour. And he wrote on paper that the Chinese invented ... laughing
  46. mlad
    mlad 19 July 2016 23: 07
    +4
    a good fairy tale about magnetic recordings, read about the first tape recorders and sound carriers on a steel tape and you will understand that the whole article is a lie, my God, what tapes ????
  47. acetophenon
    acetophenon 19 July 2016 23: 16
    +2
    We Russians have something to be proud of. Stalin is an occasion for pride. Lenin too. But such types as Nicholas II, Khrushchov, Gorbachev, Yeltsin ... yes, what’s there, there are no censorship expressions.
    1. tatra
      tatra 19 July 2016 23: 43
      -1
      Khrushchev, Gorbachev, Yeltsin are deceitful "de-Stalinizers" despised by the majority of the people, and the enemies of the communists on the territory of the USSR do not care about them, and Nicholas II is STRICTLY the only one of the 13 ruling Romanovs, about whom only the Russian enemies of the communists "remembered", and then only to create their anti-Soviet myth "how everything was wonderful before the Bolsheviks."
  48. Cosmonaut
    Cosmonaut 19 July 2016 23: 37
    -3
    Actually, - why this article ???!
    Check for cowardice ???
    Time will tell ! wassat
    Lawrence Pavlovich was forgotten, there was a "maniac"! wink
  49. Cosmonaut
    Cosmonaut 19 July 2016 23: 44
    -7
    Quote: acetophenon
    We Russians have something to be proud of. Stalin is an occasion for pride. Lenin too. But such types as Nicholas II, Khrushchov, Gorbachev, Yeltsin ... yes, what’s there, there are no censorship expressions.

    Such comments, shkolotskie-worse than the enemy mat !!!
    PS. not so long ago on this forum (Military Review), 70-80% of freaks .... !!!
    1. avva2012
      avva2012 20 July 2016 04: 13
      +2
      Such comments, shkolotskie-worse than the enemy mat !!!
      PS. not so long ago on this forum (Military Review), 70-80% of freaks .... !!!

      It’s good to be unicellular. Everything is clear and understandable to you. The main thing is your OPINION.
      Diagnosis: Liberal severe brain damage.
  50. Cosmonaut
    Cosmonaut 20 July 2016 01: 23
    -4
    Quote: acetophenon
    We Russians have something to be proud of. Stalin is an occasion for pride. Lenin too. But such types as Nicholas II, Khrushchov, Gorbachev, Yeltsin ... yes, what’s there, there are no censorship expressions.

    You, not even a Fool - you, the Enemy! Moreover, stupid! wassat
    1. Koronik
      Koronik 20 July 2016 05: 56
      -3
      So, so he, for the most I do not want, apparently the space flight is over, there is nothing more to say. - "Not so long ago on this forum (Military Review), 70-80% of freaks." I agree with the diagnosis.
      1. Orionvit
        Orionvit 20 July 2016 12: 52
        0
        70-80% of freaks I do not know, did not consider. But there is definitely a certain percentage. Someone walked in the morning and put the cons to everyone in a row, in my opinion without even reading and thinking about what people write about.
        1. DimYang
          DimYang 20 July 2016 17: 01
          0
          Quote: Orionvit
          Someone walked in the morning and put the cons to everyone in a row, in my opinion without even reading and thinking about what people write about.


          I have suspicions of historians, I expressed to them here that they are mostly liars. Can they?