If France had not de Gaulle, it would have passed into the category of secondary European powers already in 1940. But only if the charisma and indomitable will allowed this man to become the last paladin of the former Europe?
Quietly forgotten история with the Mistrals, it became a watershed. It did not so much change the relations of Russia and France at the military-technical cooperation level, as it turned the invisible page of the Fifth Republic, because from now on it wouldn’t turn the language to call its citizens the descendants of the harsh Clovis, the selfless Joan of Arc or the fearless d'Artagnan. Before us is a new formation associating itself with the magazine Charlie Hebdo, which specializes in the humiliation of other shrines.
If we recall the terminology of Lev Gumilyov, then, undoubtedly, the French are now in a state of obscuration, that is, a deep ethnic old age. At the same time, they look like a very elderly person who, despite the whole bunch of age-related ailments, does not at all seek to give up bad habits. This is evidenced by the demographic policy of the country with the connivance of same-sex marriages and thereby the destruction of the main criterion of the vitality of the nation - a full-fledged Christian family, and the inability to curb the hordes of migrants flooding France.
Against the background of all these sad events concerning, in general, the Old World as a whole, the figure of the last paladin is united, a politician desperately and, as history has shown, unsuccessfully trying to reanimate the spiritually dying Motherland - brigadier General Charles de Gaulle.
His efforts to save the Old World and the prestige of his own country were truly heroic, it was not for nothing that Churchill called de Gaulle "the honor of France". To the general - by the way, he was never confirmed in this rank - the impossible was possible: not only to revive the country as a great power, but also to introduce it to the number of winners in the Second World War. Although she did not deserve this, having broken at the first and by no means catastrophic failures at the front. When American troops landed in the pro-fascist regime of Vichy in North Africa, they were surprised to find portraits of Marshal Petain’s traitor in France in most local houses and, in addition, faced resistance from Vichy troops. And during the war years, the French industry regularly worked for Germany.
Finally, according to the Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis, losses of the Resistance made 20 thousands of people out of 40 millions of people, and the French units fighting on the side of the Wehrmacht lost forty to fifty thousand killed, mainly in the ranks of the SS Charlemagne voluntary divisions. How not to recall the legend about the reaction of Field Marshal Keitel, who saw the French delegation at the signing of the act of the unconditional surrender of Germany: “How! We also lost the war by this? ” Even if the Hitlerite military leader did not say it out loud, then he certainly thought for sure. If anyone belonged to the fourth place among the victor countries, so whimsical, but heroic Poland or courageous Yugoslavia, but not France at all.
But the latter had de Gaulle, and the Poles did not have such a scale after the death of the Sikorsky figure. Tito did not have a place in Potsdam for many reasons, one of which, the two communist leaders, was too much for the leaders of the United States and Great Britain.
De Gaulle was born in 1890, twenty years after the defeat of Napoleon III's army by Prussian troops and the proclamation at Versailles - the palace of the French kings of the second Reich. The fear of a repeated German invasion was the nightmare of the inhabitants of the Third Republic. Let me remind you that in 1874 Bismarck wanted to finish off France and only the intervention of Alexander II saved her from final defeat. Distracted somewhat, I note: it will take another 40 years and Russia at the cost of the death of two of its armies in East Prussia will once again save France from inevitable defeat.
At the same time, in the last quarter of the 19th century, among the French military and intellectuals, there was a thirst for revenge. The de Gaulle family shared similar sentiments. The future president's father, Henri, who was wounded near Paris in 1870, told his son a lot about that unfortunate war. He was not a professional military man, but served France as a teacher of literature and philosophy at the Jesuit College. It served. And I gave my inner state to my son, who graduated from the same college where his father taught.
This is a very important detail on the life path of de Gaulle. For he received a good Christian upbringing and education, the foundation of which was the motto in the spirit of medieval Christian chivalry, to which, by the way, belonged to de Gaulle's family: "Tron, altar, saber and kropilo", in the future will make the general not just a supporter of creating a strong Europe , but without exaggeration the defender of Christian civilization and its values, forgotten by the modern leadership of the country.
It was with a saber in the hands of the young Charles decided to devote his earthly life to France, entering Saint-Cyr - an elite military school created by Napoleon, in which noblemen, who came from old knightly families and were brought up in the spirit of Christian piety and devotion to the Motherland, were trained.
Unofficially, Saint-Cyr was under the patronage of the Jesuits and was in a sense an island of old France. It is symbolic that the school was not destroyed by the Nazis, but by the American aviation: thus, deprived of the historical roots of the United States, willy-nilly destroyed Christian Europe.
Two years before the start of the First World War, de Gaulle was let out of school, beyond the gates of which he was met by far from the France he had dreamed of. At the beginning of the century, three thousand religious schools were closed, and the Church was separated from the state, which was a blow to the spiritual and moral education and education of the French. Blow targeted, because a number of prime ministers of the Third Republic - Gambetta, Ferri, Combe were masons. The consequences of their disastrous educational policies for the country, de Gaulle felt later years after becoming president.
But this is in the future, but for now the young captain found himself in the flames of the First World War, where he was waited for by three wounds, captured and six unsuccessful escapes, as well as the experience of war with the Bolsheviks as part of the Polish army, in whose ranks he could have made a brilliant career. Had this happened and — who knows — Poland might have avoided defeat in World War II.
This is not speculation, refuted by the undisputed "history does not tolerate the subjunctive mood." It's time to touch another face of de Gaulle's personality - his intuition. Back in college, the future general was fascinated by Bergson’s teaching, which placed intuition at the center of man’s existence, expressed for a politician in anticipation of future events. This was also characteristic of de Gaulle.
Feather and sword
Returning home after the Peace of Versailles, he understood: the lull for a while and the most prudent thing for France now is to prepare for a new, completely different war. About her in the Third Republic tried not to think at all. The French reliably, as it seemed to them, separated themselves from Germany with the Maginot Line and considered this to be sufficient.
It is not surprising that de Gaulle’s first book “Discord in the camp of the enemy”, published in 1924, remained unnoticed by either the military or politicians. Although it expounded the experience of a man who saw Germany from the inside. And in fact, the work of a young officer, then still, became the first step towards a close examination of the future enemy. It is important to note that de Gaulle appears here not only as a writer, but already as a politician.
Less than ten years later, his second book, already better known, “At the Edge of a Sword”, comes out. It shows de Gaulle's intuition. There is an opinion about the book of the English journalist Alexander Vert: "This essay reflects de Gaulle's unshakable faith in himself as in a man sent down by fate."
Then, in 1934, the work “For the Professional Army” came out, and four years later - “France and its army”. In all three books, de Gaulle writes about the need for the development of armored forces. However, this appeal remained a voice crying in the wilderness, the leaders of the country rejected his ideas as contrary to the logic of history. And here, oddly enough, they were right: history showed the military weakness of France, despite the power of its armament.
The point is not even in the government, but in the French themselves.
In this regard, the analogy with the characteristic once given by the German historian Johann Herder to the Byzantine society of the late antiquity is appropriate: “Here, of course, divinely inspired men — patriarchs, bishops, priests — delivered speeches, but to whom did they speak, what did they say? .. Before the insane, spoiled, unrestrained crowd, they had to explain the Kingdom of God ... Oh, how much I regret you, O Chrysost. "
In pre-war France, de Gaulle appeared in the guise of Zlatoust, and the crowd unable to hear it was the government of the Third Republic. And not only it, but also society as a whole, to which the prominent church hierarch Veniamin (Fedchenkov) gave an accurate description in 1920: “We have to agree that the population growth in France is decreasing, because the country needs an influx of immigrants. It was also pointed out the decline of agricultural farms: heavy rural work became unpleasant to the French. Easy fun life in noisy cities pulls them from villages to the centers; farms were sometimes abandoned. All this bore signs of the beginning of the weakening and degeneration of the people. It is not in vain that the French in the theaters are often shown to be bald. I personally also noted for them a relatively larger percentage of bald people than the Germans, Americans or Russians, not to mention the Negroes, where there are none at all. ”
Voice crying in Paris
In short, in the pre-war years, de Gaulle resembled a stranger from a different, knightly age, who in an unknown way turned out to be in the world of a well-fed elderly bald bourgeois who wanted only three things: peace, peace and entertainment. It is not surprising that when the Nazis occupied the Rhineland in 1936, France, as Churchill writes in his memoirs, “remained completely inert and paralyzed and thus irretrievably lost the last chance to stop Hitler without a serious war”. Two years later, in Munich, the Third Republic betrayed Czechoslovakia, in 1939-m - Poland, and after ten months - itself, abandoning real resistance to the Wehrmacht and becoming a puppet of the Reich, and in 1942-m - in its colony. And if it were not for the allies, the vast possessions of France in Africa would soon have been inherited by Germany, and in Indochina by the Japanese.
Most of the French did not object to such a state of affairs - food and entertainment remained. And if these words seem too harsh to someone, find on the Internet photos about the life of the majority of Parisians under the German occupation. In the provinces, the situation was similar. The wife of General Denikin recalled how they lived "under the Germans" in the south-west of France in the town of Mimizan. Once, English radio called on the French to commit an act of civil disobedience on their national holiday, Bastille Day: to go out in festive clothes on the streets, despite the ban. “Two Frenchmen” came out - she and her old husband-general.
Thus, in 1945, de Gaulle saved the honor of France against the wishes of the majority of its population. Saved and, as they say, went into the shadows, waiting in the wings, for so intuition prompted. And she did not let down: in 1958, the general returned to politics. By that time, the Fourth Republic had already suffered a defeat in Indochina, and could not crush the uprising in Algeria. In fact, the aggression against Egypt, the operation of the Musketeer, together with Israel and Britain, ended in collapse.
France was once again heading for disaster. About this directly declared de Gaulle. He did not conceal that he had come to save her, having become like a self-denying doctor trying to restore the youth to a decrepit old man. From the very first steps as the head of the Fifth Republic, the general came out as a consistent adversary of the United States, striving to turn the once great empire into a secondary country completely dependent on Washington. Undoubtedly, the White House’s efforts would have been successful if de Gaulle had not stood in their way. As president, he undertook a titanic effort to revive France as one of the world powers.
From this logical confrontation with the USA flowed. And de Gaulle went for it, unilaterally withdrew the country from the military component of NATO and drove the American troops out of France, collected all the dollars in their homeland and took them by plane overseas, exchanging them for gold.
Trader did not
It must be said that the general was in no position to love the States, since they had a hand in the geopolitical failures of the Fourth Republic cited above. Yes, Washington provided substantial military-technical assistance to the French troops in Indochina, but did not care to preserve the overseas possessions of Paris, but to strengthen its own positions in the region. And if the French had won, Indochina would have been prepared for the fate of Greenland - formally a Danish colony, and the bases on its territory are American.
During the Algerian War, the Americans supplied weapon neighboring Tunisia, from where it regularly fell into the hands of the rebels, and Paris could not do anything about it. Finally, it was the United States, along with the USSR, who demanded the cessation of Operation Musketeer, and the position of the seemingly allied Washington became a slap in the face for England and France.
True, the founder of the Fifth Republic’s hostility towards the United States is not only and not so much a political factor, a clash of strategic interests, but was metaphysical in nature. After all, for the true aristocrat de Gaulle, the very essence of the once created by the Freemasons, from whom the general deliberately delivered France, of American civilization with its inherent spirit of commerce and economic expansion, completely inappropriate for this man’s chivalrous attitude to life, politics and war, was alien to him.
However, de Gaulle set himself quite pragmatic geopolitical tasks. According to the compatriot General Philippe Moro-Defark, the founder of the Fifth Republic tried to “combine two usually opposite elements: on the one hand, the commitment to geographical and historical realism expressed by Napoleon at the time:“ Each state follows the geography dictated by it .. On the other hand, de Gaulle believed that it was necessary to “regain lost independence in the key area by creating nuclear deterrent forces, which should allow, in principle, independently guaranteeing Vat defense of national territory, efficiently manage their heritage, give yourself the power amplifier, through the creation of a European organization on the initiative of France, finally, we continue to pursue an independent foreign policy without regard for anyone else. "
Being an apologist for the Eurasian Union from the Atlantic to the Urals, as he himself expressed it, de Gaulle inevitably had to go closer to the USSR and West Germany, becoming in the field of geopolitics the ideological heir of the outstanding German thinker Haushofer. For it was precisely in the alliance of France with these states that the general saw the only possible way to create a strong Europe independent of the USA.
With regard to the internal policy of the president, it suffices to recall only one of his decisions: to grant independence to Algeria, who was in the grip of semi-criminal groups. Back in 1958, de Gaulle said: “Arabs have a high birth rate. This means that if Algeria remains French, France will become Arab. "
The general and in a nightmare could not have imagined that his successors would do everything possible so that France would be flooded with uncultured immigrants from North Africa, hardly knowing who I am, Ibn Rushd. During the reign of de Gaulle 17 on October 1961, five hundred French police defended the Parisians from the terrible pogrom that émigrés gathered to assemble, forty thousand strong and partly armed crowd that took to the streets of the capital. In Paris they prefer not to remember the feat of the police; on the contrary, sympathize with the victims of the brutal crowd. What is surprising, the French, for the most part now "all Charlie ..."
Alas, the ideas of the creator of the Fifth Republic to create a united Europe from the Atlantic to the Urals remained a dream. France every year more and more turns into an emigre enclave, intellectually and culturally degrading. And in the field of foreign policy is becoming increasingly dependent on the United States.