Military Review

all hands on deck

25
Orbital grouping should be the basis of the intelligence system of the Russian Navy.


Incomplete and inaccurate information about the enemy, especially its absence or obtaining false data about the situation has always led to a defeat side, even significantly superior in quantity and quality of weapons and military equipment, the number of personnel. This is particularly pronounced in the confrontation at sea.

Meanwhile, analysis shows that our fleet does not have the forces and means of reconnaissance, even at the minimum acceptable level. The existing system is capable of monitoring only in the areas adjacent to our coast and in some relatively small, quickly operational areas of a distant sea zone. One of the main drawbacks of the disposable forces and means is their low combat stability, which calls into question any possibility of conducting reconnaissance in the far sea and ocean zones with the start of hostilities.

In these conditions, in fact, the only type of naval intelligence that can provide a solution to the whole range of emerging tasks, especially in areas remote from our shores and in the conditions of active opposition of the enemy, remains space exploration. As part of the Soviet Navy was a fairly effective system. It had passive (radio) and active (radar reconnaissance) satellites. This system provided surveillance of surface ships of other states on a global scale. Accuracy of positioning and resolution of satellites, as well as the possibility of transmitting reconnaissance data directly to warships, allowed the system to be used for issuing target designation to strike ships and submarines. A sufficient number of satellites in orbit minimized data obsolescence to a level acceptable for organization of combat. But by now our fleet has lost this system, and a new one is just being created. Its characteristics are not disclosed. However, from an analysis of the requirements for such a system arising from the tasks imposed on the forces of the Russian Navy, it is possible to form an idea of ​​its likely appearance.

What is needed at the exit?


The cosmic component can and probably should become the main one. First of all, it is necessary to highlight such a property as globality. Today, only space intelligence is capable of observing the waters and territories of the entire globe. Another of its most important advantages is the high accuracy and reliability of intelligence, based on the vastness of the information obtained. Space exploration fleet capable of providing continuous monitoring of designated objects. It should be noted that this concept does not imply maintaining constant contact with the object. Surveillance is considered continuous if the data are received at intervals not exceeding the obsolescence time. It varies greatly for tasks of operational and tactical scale, the type of object and its mobility. A space reconnaissance system is potentially capable of providing data acquisition about targets with a frequency shorter than the aging time and therefore meets the requirement of continuity - the whole question is in building a constellation of spacecraft (SC). Also, the most important advantage of the system is its extremely high combat stability, at least today, when there are no effective anti-satellite assets in the armed forces of foreign states, at least in large quantities.

Look under the water


One of the most important tasks of the Russian Navy is to identify combat patrol areas, detect and track nuclear missile submarines with ballistic missiles (SSBNs) of foreign states, primarily American ones. Accordingly, the most important operational requirement for the space reconnaissance system of our fleet is the identification of the combat maneuvering areas of these submarines, as well as the infrastructure for operational support of their activities in these areas. That is of paramount importance is the ability to detect the operation of communication systems of SSBNs, especially space, to intercept ultrafast transmissions, the operation of the radar, in the future - to identify other demasking signs, determining the location of the radiation source with an accuracy sufficient for targeting maneuverable anti-submarine forces. First of all, we are talking about areas of probable combat patrols of foreign SSBNs - off the coast of the United States in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, in the northern part of the Norwegian Sea, in the Greenland and Mediterranean seas, and possibly in the territorial waters of China.

Another important task of our fleet is to identify areas of combat use of multipurpose submarines (PLA, submarines) of other states. This is necessary to ensure the combat stability of our SSBNs, as well as submarines of other classes and formations of surface ships.

The system should be capable of conducting reconnaissance of enemy submarines and submarines in the areas of their potential combat operations near, distant sea and ocean zones to a depth of 600 kilometers from our coast, from where they can strike Russian coastal targets and counteract the forces of our fleet. In addition, it is necessary to monitor foreign submarines and submarines on their deployment routes in areas of combat missions or patrols.

The fight against the formations of the surface forces of a potential enemy is also an important task of the Russian Navy. In peacetime, our fleet should monitor aircraft carrier and other naval strike groups, monitor them in areas of their combat maneuvering and on deployment routes. With the onset of hostilities, the most important task of our fleet is the destruction of the shock groups of surface ships of the enemy before they reach the line of mission.

And in peacetime, the Navy’s space reconnaissance system is required to identify the connections of foreign ships at least to the line of operational deployment of our forces and to monitor them with an accuracy that ensures the continuous retention of a foreign connection in the shooting area of ​​our assault ships. In a special period, the space reconnaissance of the Navy must, in addition, ensure the withdrawal of our attack forces to the combat area and issue target designation to the missile armsprovide shock guidance aviation.

In addition to these basic and most complex operational tasks, the space reconnaissance system of our fleet must be capable of monitoring the coastal infrastructure of foreign naval forces, primarily likely adversaries, in peacetime and in wartime, revealing maritime communications areas and their operational equipment with accuracy that allows the beginning of hostilities inflict effective blows on them. At the same time, with respect to stationary objects, the main requirement is the ability to track their functional structure with an accuracy that ensures the possibility of selecting the most vulnerable elements for guaranteed decommissioning.

Intelligence had three subsystems ...


all hands on deckThe analysis performed allows us to work out an expedient image of the naval space intelligence system. Structurally, it should obviously include three subsystems: ground infrastructure, surface and submarine forces. This selection of components due to the specifics of the objects of intelligence - the characteristics of their features and the specifics of the activity.

The subsystem of space reconnaissance of ground objects of the naval forces of foreign countries includes spacecraft designed for photo, optoelectronic, radio and electronic reconnaissance (RR and RTR). The resolution in the optical range should be no more than a few centimeters, which will allow for the classification of objects, to reveal their design and configuration. The space subsystem of the RR and RTR of ground-based objects should provide the ability to intercept radiation of different RES in ranges from meter to centimeter with determining the place of the emitter with an accuracy sufficient to use TFR ("Caliber", X-101 and others), that is, a few meters. The frequency of viewing ground objects can range from several hours to several days. The viewing area should cover the entire coastal area of ​​North and South America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Accordingly, this subsystem can be built using high-altitude (for conducting the RR and RTR, in particular, in stationary and quasi-stationary orbits) and low-altitude satellites (photo- and optoelectronic intelligence). Time to bring the data to the fleet PU may be several hours.

Obviously, the basis of the subsystem of the submarine space reconnaissance should be the PP and RTR satellites capable of conducting reconnaissance over the entire range of the operation of foreign submarines in the boundaries between 80 and 85 degrees of northern and southern latitudes. Requirements to positioning accuracy are less stringent than to ground targets: within two to four nautical miles, but significantly higher in terms of communicating information, which should be a maximum of 10 – 20 minutes, directly to the tactical forces of anti-submarine forces. Accordingly, the basis of this subsystem consists of high-altitude satellites, possibly located in stationary or quasi-stationary orbits. Their number should make it possible to cover the entire globe with observation in the equatorial plane. However, exploration at high latitudes will require satellites in polar circuits. The viewing bar of the latter should be such as to ensure continuous or with an acceptable frequency of observation of the water area of ​​operational areas.

Specificity of surface ship reconnaissance determines that the corresponding space subsystem should include satellites of active radar, radio and radio reconnaissance, capable of operating in the entire range of radiations of radio electronic systems of foreign surface ships. The latitudinal range of their observations can be limited to 80 degrees in both hemispheres. Target positioning according to PP and PTP data can be within 10 – 20 miles. More accurate target coordinates are established by radar reconnaissance satellites. The viewing strip should be such as to provide, at an acceptable frequency, observation of the water area of ​​operational areas. At the same time, in addition to the transfer of intelligence data to coastal launchers, the possibility of transmitting this data to the fleet command posts, to separate attack submarines and surface ships is always provided for. This will allow the use of the space system for the direct issuance of targeting to the use of rocket weapons. For the RR and RTR surface forces of foreign states can be used as high-altitude satellites located in stationary or quasi-stationary orbits, and low-altitude on polar elliptical ones. Radar reconnaissance satellites, using, as a rule, side-looking radar, according to the experience of the USSR and the USA (Lacrosse), must be in low polar elliptical orbits.

What's left to run


From the review, it follows that the space level of the space intelligence system of the Navy may include the following main components:

1. Grouping high-altitude satellites PP and RTR, located in stationary or quasi-stationary orbits, providing reconnaissance RES foreign surface ships, submarines and ground objects in the range of latitudes up to 70 degrees in both hemispheres.

2. A grouping of PP and RTR satellites located in low polar elliptical orbits, intended for reconnaissance of RES mainly foreign surface ships and ground objects in the range of latitudes up to 85 degrees in both hemispheres.

3. The grouping of satellites of radar reconnaissance to detect surface ships and their connections in the waters of the O (M) TVD and ensure the issuance of target designation of anti-ship missile weapons with satellites of this group in low polar elliptical orbits.

4. A grouping of photo and optoelectronic satellites for tracking ground objects, as well as surface ships and submarines located in the bases. Satellites of this grouping can be located in medium and low orbits.

Of course, such a system does not replace or cancel other types of intelligence of the Navy. However, given the critical situation in this area, it is space intelligence that can become a lifesaver.
Author:
Originator:
http://vpk-news.ru/articles/29964
25 comments
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 31 March 2016 12: 17
    0
    Orbital grouping should be the basis of the intelligence system of the Russian Navy.

    If the fleet requires new reconnaissance satellites, this is guaranteed to give an impetus to the further development of the space industry of RUSSIA (new technologies, materials, professions, jobs ... there is progress and progress) ... very good prospects
    1. Venceremos
      Venceremos 31 March 2016 12: 26
      +9
      Orbital grouping should be the basis of the intelligence system of the Russian Navy.

      Isn't that obvious? Even in the USSR, such a task was set.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. siberalt
      siberalt 31 March 2016 12: 37
      +2
      Guys, be careful with flying over the square. Not that Poroshenko himself threatened to fine and arrest Russian satellites flying over him laughing
      1. jjj
        jjj 31 March 2016 12: 43
        +5
        The further I go, the more convinced I am that Sivkov is a disguised expert, he loves to show off on television as a member of the "Artillery Academy of Sciences". A couple of weeks ago, he trashed the VKS operations in Syria. Now I took up the marine theme
        1. vlad66
          vlad66 31 March 2016 13: 09
          +10
          Quote: jjj
          The further I go, the more convinced I am that Sivkov is a disguised expert, he loves to show off on television as a member of the "Artillery Academy of Sciences". A couple of weeks ago, he trashed the VKS operations in Syria. Now I took up the marine theme

          The artilleryman Sivkov took up not only the marine theme, but he also swung at space, but
          and a new one is just being created. Its characteristics are not disclosed. However, from an analysis of the requirements for such a system arising from the tasks assigned to the forces of the Russian Navy, one can form an idea of ​​its likely appearance.

          In short, we do not know, probably other and different, which was noted more than once in previous articles.
      2. Venceremos
        Venceremos 31 March 2016 13: 08
        +6
        Quote: siberalt
        Guys, be careful with flying over the square. Not that Poroshenko himself threatened to fine and arrest Russian satellites flying over him


        Not really yours ... The proposal has been received, but it is still in thought, as if to implement the idea better, with a Ukrainian scale.
      3. Borz
        Borz 31 March 2016 13: 20
        0
        On the penalty area will put? Pez-Pez, good to thump!
  2. rotmistr60
    rotmistr60 31 March 2016 12: 27
    +1
    our fleet does not have forces and reconnaissance even at a minimum acceptable level

    In my opinion, the author painted too gloomy a picture. Of course, an additional orbital grouping is necessary, but judging by what the author said, the fleet today does not have anything. Which is not true.
  3. Tusv
    Tusv 31 March 2016 12: 30
    +1
    The Soviet Navy had a fairly effective system. It had passive (radio engineering) and active (radar reconnaissance) satellites

    Question to the author. Why was?
    What is natural is not shameful. Russia is alive
    1. jjj
      jjj 31 March 2016 12: 45
      0
      He recalls analog systems that have worked deadlines. And somehow it’s not possible to compare the report on the deployment of full-scale military GLONASS and the beginning of the operation in Syria
      1. Tusv
        Tusv 31 March 2016 13: 05
        +1
        Quote: jj
        He recalls analog systems that have worked deadlines. And somehow it’s not possible to compare the report on the deployment of full-scale military GLONASS and the beginning of the operation in Syria

        GLONASS is older and more reliable than GP, ​​but this system is for sale
        1. Simple
          Simple 31 March 2016 15: 30
          0
          Not older and not more reliable.
          Both more expensive and heavier / larger.
          You are wrong.
          Therefore, the GPS market is leading.
  4. dobrik10
    dobrik10 31 March 2016 12: 34
    0
    You look into the aerospace industry and understand ...
    Even manufacturers of radio-controlled cars know which components they can’t do without even at the initial stage, let alone positioning systems for submarines.
  5. pts-m
    pts-m 31 March 2016 12: 37
    +1
    How to clean up these fosterlings, if all attempts to do so are faced with motivation .. “what if lathers fleeing abroad tell all the secrets or they can negotiate with foreign banks” ... and how these liberos can clean themselves from the ranks of the upper structures .
  6. guzik007
    guzik007 31 March 2016 12: 45
    0
    Mr. Sivkov, please voice. How many regular oculiards will it take?
  7. Pvi1206
    Pvi1206 31 March 2016 12: 48
    0
    Intelligence is absolutely necessary. There is nothing to argue about.
    But at this stage it is much more important to cleanse our power of moles ...
  8. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn 31 March 2016 12: 52
    +2
    Quote: siberalt
    Guys, be careful with flying over the square. Not that Poroshenko himself threatened to fine and arrest Russian satellites flying over him laughing

    Please reveal a terrible secret, and who else will he fine and how does he distinguish them, by flag or by smell?
  9. gergi
    gergi 31 March 2016 12: 53
    +2
    The eyes and ears of the army. It's time. Once deployed, the AUG will turn into hefty targets. Another horror of "partners". And do not fucking relax, let them strain, maybe their eyes will burst from stress.
  10. ydjin
    ydjin 31 March 2016 12: 57
    +1
    So everything is delayed ... or? Most likely the unpreparedness of Russia is a disinformation. Syria is an example! I hope that we have enough cattle for the adversaries.
  11. karakuin
    karakuin 31 March 2016 13: 47
    -2
    Dear land, may be silent about the fleet sitting in the swamps of the Central Russian lowlands. My neighbor works at a shipyard. Why has Rogozin still not been puzzled by the state of the rust troughs that make up the so-called Pacific Fleet? Why is solid blah blah? You will not see a sailor in the city. Pee some articles there at home. Fu smelly.
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 31 March 2016 14: 01
      +1
      Quote: karakuin
      Dear land, may be silent about the fleet sitting in the swamps of the Central Russian lowlands. My neighbor works at a shipyard.

      what Based on your logic, if my neighbor is working on a tank repair, then I am a tanker?
  12. Corsair5912
    Corsair5912 31 March 2016 14: 23
    0
    The basis of space reconnaissance should be a system of ground-based observation stations associated with orbital complexes, this will be more reliable than conducting observations from space.
  13. igorek4515
    igorek4515 31 March 2016 14: 43
    0
    From the review, it follows that the space level of the space intelligence system of the Navy may include the following main components:

    1. Grouping high-altitude satellites PP and RTR, located in stationary or quasi-stationary orbits, providing reconnaissance RES foreign surface ships, submarines and ground objects in the range of latitudes up to 70 degrees in both hemispheres.

    2. A grouping of PP and RTR satellites located in low polar elliptical orbits, intended for reconnaissance of RES mainly foreign surface ships and ground objects in the range of latitudes up to 85 degrees in both hemispheres.

    3. The grouping of satellites of radar reconnaissance to detect surface ships and their connections in the waters of the O (M) TVD and ensure the issuance of target designation of anti-ship missile weapons with satellites of this group in low polar elliptical orbits.

    4. A grouping of photo and optoelectronic satellites for tracking ground objects, as well as surface ships and submarines located in the bases. Satellites of this grouping can be located in medium and low orbits.

    it remains only to calculate how many total satellites of all types will be needed, and how much it will cost annually to maintain such a satellite constellation in addition to the coastal / ground facilities mentioned ... And will it pull the budget of the Russian Armed Forces .. And yes, the idea is very good .. Sivkov is right here , and didn’t come up with anything new ..
  14. igorek4515
    igorek4515 31 March 2016 14: 49
    +3
    Quote: rotmistr60
    In my opinion, the author painted too gloomy a picture. Of course, an additional orbital grouping is necessary, but judging by what the author said, the fleet today does not have anything. What is wrong

    Just the author is absolutely right .. The fleet today does not have anything worthwhile in this regard .. This is if we discard the local cheers and patriotism sensibly.
    Quote: Tusv
    Question to the author. Why was?

    I am not the author, but I will answer your question. It was because in the USSR there was a system of naval space reconnaissance and target designation called "Legend". But now she has been gone for a long time. The last satellite of this system left orbit in the early 2000s. Since that time, this system has ceased to exist.