Military Review

How Alexander Yaroslavich defeated the Swedish knights

106
Battle of the Neva


By the middle of the XIII century, with the organizational beginning of Catholic Rome, between the three feudal Catholic forces of Northern Europe - the Teutonic (German) Order, the Danes and the Swedes - an agreement was reached on a joint action against Novgorod Russia in order to conquer the north-western Russian lands and planting there is catholicism. According to Rome, who was then the main "command post" of Western civilization, after the invasion of Batu, bloodless and plundered, fragmented and disunited Russia, where each prince "pulled the blanket over himself," could not provide any serious resistance.

This was the main reason for the joint performance of the Swedes, Germans and Danes. They wanted to subjugate and plunder the Russian lands, and especially they were attracted by the rich Novgorod. German and Danish knights were supposed to strike at Novgorod from land from the Livonian possessions, and the Swedes were going to support them from the sea through the Gulf of Finland. On the eve of his campaign, for a personal acquaintance with the Novgorod prince-warrior Alexander and at the same time to explore the territory and the situation, the German knight “God's servant Andriash” - Andreas von Velven, vice-master of the Livonian Order visited Veliky Novgorod.

In 1240, with the blessing of papal Rome, the Swedes were the first to invade Russia, planning to seize the Nevsky Corridor, leading from Novgorod to the Baltic, and then to the capital of Northern Russia itself. To march on Rus, the Swedish government in the person of King Eric Eriksson "Kartaviy", the Yarl (prince) Ulf Fassi and the son-in-law of King Birger gathered a large army. There were quite a few hunters who could still profit from the Russian lands that had not been ravaged: Swedish spiritual and secular feudal lords led by personal squads, knights of crusaders with their squires and servants. The chronicler also mentions "Murman", that is, the Norwegian or Danish knights-feudal lords, and auxiliary detachments from the conquered lands of the Finnish tribes. King Eric Eriksson "Burr" managed to march on Rus powerful for those times for the Northern Europe army. The invasion of the enemy began at the beginning of July 1240, when the Swedish fleet in the number of about 100 ships with 5-thousand troops of the Swedes and their allies under the command of Jarl Ulf Faci entered the r. Neva. Each seagoing ship bore 50 to 80 warriors and shipbuilders, and could carry 8 war horses.

Alexander Yaroslavich, to his credit, was ready for an enemy strike. Already in 1239, he took care of not only the protection of the western, but also the northern borders of the Novgorod land. The prince established the "sea guard" of the shores of the Gulf of Finland and the Neva River. The places there were difficult to reach and the paths ran only along the water or along the rivers. To the south of the Neva River between Votskoy (from the west) and Lopskaya (from the east) Novgorod Volosts was Izhora land. Here lived a small Finnish Izhoran tribe, friendly to Novgorod. The majority of Izhorian were still pagans, but the process of adopting Christianity was already gaining momentum. The elder of this tribe, Pelgusia, was entrusted to Prince Alexander Yaroslavich by the “sea guard”, that is, to guard the ways to Novgorod from the sea. The "guard" Izhoryan, apparently, stood on both sides of the Gulf of Finland, as stated in Alexander Nevsky's "Life" - "at the edge of the sea, I watch the wallpaper of the path." It is clear that the mouth of the Neva River was most vigilantly watched, from where the old waterway from the Baltic Sea to Ladoga began, and further along Volkhov to Great Novgorod itself.

Once, at the dawn of July 1240, when Elder Pelgusius was personally in the “guard of the sea”, he suddenly “heard the noise is terrible at sea”. This was the Swedish military flotilla, in which the ships were "many evil." Elder Izhoryan hastened to send a “two-horse” messenger to Novgorod in order to warn the Prince of Novgorod about the enemy invasion. So, thanks to the prudence of the Russian prince, an unexpected attack by the enemy on Russian lands did not occur.

The significance for Sweden of this aggressive campaign can be judged at least by the fact that the feudal army was personally led by the second and third persons in the state after the king himself - Earl Ulf Faci and his cousin, the royal son-in-law Birger, who became Xarnum years old, the two largest Swedish feudal lords. They themselves could put the whole army. The plan of the Swedish leadership consisted of the following: disembarking troops on the banks of the Neva and going to "fight" the city of Ladoga, a strong Novgorod fortress, located not far from the place where the Volkhov River flowed into Lake Ladoga. Earlier, the Swedes had already made an unsuccessful attempt to seize Ladoga, which was the ancient capital of the north of Russia.

The seizure of the Neva coast and fixing on them (the construction of several strong fortresses), closed for Novgorod and Russia as a whole, the exit to the Baltic. The Neva, who came under the authority of the Swede, made it possible to block the sea trade routes of Novgorod, as well as the land of the cities friendly to the free city of the Karelians and Finns, which facilitated their conquest of Sweden. The fall of Ladoga, the northern Russian stronghold on the Volkhov, opened the way to Novgorod the Great itself. Ladoga became a springboard for the attack on Novgorod.

The Swedes were confident of victory. Vladimir Russia was ravaged, weakened and could not provide effective assistance to Novgorod. In addition, the strike was prepared in secret and was going to win and gain a foothold in the Novgorod lands to the possible approach of Russian reinforcements from other lands. Confidence in victory allowed the Swedish military leaders not even to rush to the exit of the fleet to the expanses of Lake Ladoga. The Swedish army landed in the place where the Izhora River flows into the Neva River with the tributary Bolshaya Izhorka. This place is called Bugri.

Parking was temporary. The ships moored to the left Nevsky shore and anchored. The ships stood in two rows: board to board, nose to nose. Fairly wide gangways have been transferred from the augers to the shore, and bridges between the ships. Sailors and many ordinary warriors who did not have tents, slept on the decks of augers. Swedish commanders, knights, bishops, their squires and servants spent the night in tents on the shore. Horses brought from the courts on solid ground. The Swedes set their camping tents on an elevated dry place. For the royal generals, the servants placed a large, gold-sewn tent on the knoll, well visible from all sides. A rather wide glade was spread around the camp.

Swedish commanders were so confident that they didn’t even set up a long-range guard. The Swedes put only sentries around the tents, and watchmen were awake on augers. Apparently, the Swedish commanders were waiting for a convenient moment for further movement of the fleet. Ahead of the Neva, there were rapids that hindered the movement of deep-sea vessels. The augers were ships specially built for sea voyages. At that time, river reefs divided the deep Neva into two branches and greatly hampered navigation along it. Thresholds were overcome with good wind and oars. This circumstance forced the ship crews of the Swedes to become a temporary camp in a place convenient for them and to wait for a favorable moment (favorable wind) to continue the march to Ladoga. The Swedes, who often marched on Novgorod lands, knew the waterways to the Russian fortress well. However, as the fortress itself. In addition, it is possible that the Swedes were waiting for reinforcements.

How Alexander Yaroslavich defeated the Swedish knights

Neva battle. Facial Chronicle of the XVI century

Novgorod prince Alexander Yaroslavovich, having received a hurried report about the arrival of a numerous enemy army on the Neva coast, gathered his squad. The young prince did not hesitate in choosing a solution. He ordered to immediately speak out against the Swedes, who entered the threshold of the Novgorod land. Alexander decided not to wait for the gathering of the Novgorod militia, which took time and intercepted the strategic initiative, attacking a strong enemy on the move. In the campaign, Alexander Yaroslavovich took with him a small army: 300 cavalry princely warriors, 500 selective Novgorod horsemen and 500 foot militias. The prince was in a hurry to deliver a preemptive, sudden blow to the enemy. He could not know from the scouts of Izhoryan, who knew the terrain well, that there were at least three times more Swedes on the banks of the Neva than the troops that were at hand. However, this did not stop him. Alexander planned to bring the Novgorod army to the Swedish army as quickly and secretly as possible. In the surprise of hitting his plan was built. As a result, the Rus “ide on them (the Swedes) in the small retinue”.

The Russian army forced a march, without carts, moved to the Neva in order to catch the enemy in the camp near the mouth of Izhora and not allow him to attack Ladoga. The infantry marched down the Volkhov in the assaults (ships). The cavalry marched along the riverbank. The speed of movement of the Russian cavalry brigade is best indicated by the fact that the distance in 150 km, if the riders were traveling "vborzze", "about a two-horse", was usually overcome in 12-14 hours. Ship's army on the river moved even faster - helped for, sails, oars, the lack of natural obstacles. Alexander came to Ladoga, took 150 soldiers from there. Apparently, a sufficient garrison was left in the city, since Ladoga could have deployed a more significant militia.

From Ladoga the Russian army moved to beat the discoveries. Elder Izhoryan Pelgusy along with his scouts continued to observe the enemy. Therefore, the prince of Novgorod promptly received all the latest news about the swedish army. Reliable information about the Swedes allowed Alexander Yaroslavich to seize the initiative and act decisively, to be proactive. From Ladoga, foot soldiers marched on riverboats on Lake Ladoga and Neva, and princely and boyar cavalry on the left bank, overcoming the hard way over 120. Near the rapids, which blocked the Neva before the river Tosna flowed into it, at the sharp turn of the high left bank, the cavalry and foot army united. Then it was dangerous to go along the Neva on ships, a wide reach opened beyond the thresholds, and the Swedes could notice the enemy coming from a distance.

Novgorod ships left early in the morning of July 14 to the river Tosna, where they joined up with horsemen. Then the Russian army passed about six kilometers along the river. Now the Swedish camp was very close. The scouts-Izhorians, who were waiting for the Novgorodians, led the united Russian army along well-known paths through a hill covered with dense forest. Thawing from the enemy, the troops marched along the bank of the tributary of the Izhora - Bolshaya Izhorka. The trackers moved silently ahead.

Thus, Alexander was able to quietly bring the army to the enemy. A few kilometers from the enemy, our soldiers made a halt. Having received the latest information from the scouts, Izhoryan, and possibly sending forward his scouts, the prince himself and his closest comrades could also go on reconnaissance, Alexander made a battle plan.


Map of the Neva Battle 15 July 1240. Source: Bloodless L. Atlas of maps and schemes for the Russian military stories. M., 1946

Battle

Prince Alexander decided to attack the enemy camp at about noon, at one o'clock when the Swedes would cook dinner. The cavalry princely-boyar squad struck a powerful blow to the center of the Swedish camp, against an enemy who was not ready for battle. Part of the Novgorodian cavalry with the Ladozhans struck at the enemy’s right flank. The swiftness of the cavalry attack doubled the power of the surprise attack. Along the Neva, a foot army of Novgorod advanced on the left flank of the Swedish army. “A Novgorodian named after Misha (he later became a posadnik in Novgorod) you drink these things with your friends.” Foot soldiers had to separate the enemy: to cut off the knights living in tents on the shore and their servants from soldiers and sailors who were on ships and who were not immediately able to join the battle on the shore. The Russian commander made a bet on the confusion of the enemy at the moment of a sudden strike on him. The knights and their heavily armed warriors simply did not have time to prepare for battle. In the event of a swift attack, the knightly part of the Swedish army was trapped in the corner formed by the Neva and Izhora. Here the knights were deprived of the possibility of flight on ships, they could be thrown into the water or forced to surrender. The prince sent dozens of Izhorian warriors to the other side of the Izhora River to guard those Swedes who could have escaped from the battlefield. The Izhoraans apparently crossed over to the ford at the confluence of Bolshaya Izhora and Izhora and hid in the coastal thickets.

In the 12 hour, the Russian squad and foot army, having trackers Izhoryan ahead of them and outposts, just in case, went unnoticed to the Swedish camp. At the sign of Prince Alexander Yaroslavovich, Russian soldiers rushed forward. In the enemy camp the pipes howled anxiously, playing the signal of a combat alarm. But it was too late. On the shore began a fierce slashing. The Swedes and other knights with their "spears" (squires, bodyguards, servants) were professional, experienced warriors and bravely took the blow of the Russian army. However, they did not manage to line up in battle order, they had to fight in separate groups, and did not have time to wear full armor, they fought weaponsthat fell under the arms. And the Russian soldiers were ready for battle, were fully armed, their psychological readiness (fighting spirit) was much higher.

Russian army crushed the front ranks of Western knighthood and broke into the camp. However, the Swedish commander was able to rally around himself a personal squad, knights and tried to repel the attack of the Russian cavalry. Given the numerical superiority of the Swedish army over the Russian army, this was a critical moment of the battle. The Swedes could recover and go to the counter. Russian prince and here was on top. Alexander with his inner circle made his way to the Swedish leader. In the midst of a fierce, bloody baton, two leaders of the opposing forces came together - Alexander Yaroslavovich and Birger. It was a fight, the outcome of which was solved very much. Novgorod prince boldly sent a horse to Birger, clad in lat, standing out in the Swedish ranks. Both that and another were famous for skill in duels. Cleverly having beaten Birger’s blow, Prince Alexander contrived himself and aptly struck with his spear into the viewing slot of the lowered visor of the Swede. The edge of the spear stuck in the face of the Swedish commander. He could no longer lead the battle. Squires and bodyguards saved their commander, did not let finish Birger. Hastily carried it to the flagship.


Neva battle. Alexander Nevsky inflicts a wound in the face of the leader of the Swedish army. 1240 Artist A.D. Kivshenko

Swedish army left without a leader. Neither the Ulf Faci Jarl nor the bishops in knightly armor could replace him. The chronicler draws a duel between Russian Prince Alexander Yaroslavovich and the future Yarl of Sweden Birger: "... Begle a lot of them, and the queen himself should embed the seal on his face with a sharp copy." The duel of two commanders, in fact, predetermined the outcome of the Neva battle.

In the meantime, the brutal slashing continued. Russian warriors increased the pressure on the enemy. The Swedes, somehow preserving the remnants of order, retreated to the courts. The chronicler, an eyewitness, a nameless warrior of Prince Alexander Nevsky in the "Life" spoke about the exploits, especially noted six soldiers. The warrior of Gavrila Oleksich, rushed along the gangway on a horse, to the auger, chasing after the Swedes, who carried the wounded Birger out of the battle and saved the noble bishop. There was an unprecedented battle of a lonely equestrian rider with a whole crowd of Swedes on the deck of a ship. The squires and bodyguards managed to defend their leaders and dump Gavrila Oleksich together with his horse to the Neva. However, the brave man was able to quickly get out of the water on the shore and again rushed into battle. He immediately began to cut himself with the Swedish "voivod" who tried to gather around him soldiers. Princely squad killed him.


Neva battle. Feat Gavrila Aleksic. Facial Chronicle of the XVI century

Fight Gavrila Aleksic with a Swedish governor. Facial Chronicle of the XVI century

The Novgorodian hero, named Sbyslav Yakunovich, fought alongside Prince Alexander. Bravely, “having no fear in his heart,” he attacked the Swedes with only an ax in his hands and managed to defeat several enemies. Prince catcher Yakov Polochanin (a native of Polotsk, who only recently came to Novgorod together with the court of a young princess), deserved praise from the lips of Prince Alexander himself. Warrior boldly drove with a sword in his hands on the Swedish squad and "courage a lot." Novgorod Misha led the foot army. He fought bravely in the front ranks of the Russian soldiers. His Pescans managed to capture three Swedish augers and cut through their bottoms. Misha's foot party simultaneously restrained the onslaught of the enemy soldiers who remained on the ships and cut off the knights, overturned by the blow of the prince's cavalry, the path to the ships.

The retainer Sawa was among the first to break into the very center of the Swedish camp. The warrior was able to make his way to the golden-tent of the royal generals and cut off the supporting pole. The fall of the tent caused confusion among the enemy soldiers, and the Russians were even more inspired to fight. Distinguished in battle and the princely close warrior Ratmir. Surrounded by the Swedish knights, he fought fiercely and stubbornly from them, he smacked many. Having received many wounds, the brave warrior fell to the death of the brave on the battlefield.

As a result, the Swedish army was defeated. The sudden and violent attack of the Russian rati, the wounding of Birger, the death of many noble knights and bishops (bishops), the sinking of the three Misha’s Novgorodians on foot, in the end, caused panic and the flight of the Swedes. Despite their numerical superiority, the knights retreated to the augers standing at the shore and began to load ships in fear. The anchor lines were cut, and the ships left the coast in great disarray. Some enemy warriors, who did not manage to get on the ships, swam to the other side, where the Igorians met them. The rout was complete, only part was able to escape on ships, leaving a large number of dead on the banks of the Neva. So ended July 15 1240, the famous Battle of the Neva.

The Swedes did not dare to continue the battle, although they retained most of the ships. The Swedish flotilla ingloriously headed for the mouth of the Neva. Battlefield left for Novgorod. The winners got rich trophies: knightly weapons, armor, horses, tents and supplies. The warriors of Prince Alexander collected the bodies of the dead noble knights, “the top of the ship are two" and "empty ship and to the sea" and "sank (they) on the sea." The rest of the conquerors, who remained forever on the Neva bank, "a fossil pit, in the metropolitan area (s) in the byschisla nu". Glorious victory was obtained by a little blood. In the battle fell only twenty Russian soldiers. The Novgorod warriors, who died the death of the brave in the Battle of the Neva, were commemorated during church services for more than three centuries!


The flight of the Swedes to the ships. Facial Chronicle of the XVI century

Results of the Neva Battle

The strategic importance of the Battle of the Neva was immense. The Neva victory prevented Novgorod from losing the shores of the Gulf of Finland and prevented Russia from interrupting the northern trade route. Novgorod, despite the tough struggle with the Order and the Swedes, was associated with trade with the West. Novgorod’s trade with the West with its handicraft, trade and eastern transit goods remained for the Novgorod boyars and merchants the main source of prosperity and identity. The capture of the Nevsky Corridor by the Swedes in Izhora Pyatina deprived Novgorod of independent access to the Baltic and Western Europe, made them dependent on the location of the Swedes, creating a mortal threat to the economy of Novgorod Russia, and after it the political independence of Novgorod.

Alexander did not allow the enemy to seize a strategic springboard for the march on Novgorod. A simultaneous strike on Novgorod from the west (German knights) and from the north (Swedes) could have disastrous consequences. Alexander Yaroslavich destroyed this scenario, began to destroy the enemies separately. After the Nevsky defeat, the Swedes hurried to conclude peace with Veliky Novgorod and swore that they would not attack the Russian lands - “the king of the king would give himself a letter and an oath, and he didn’t come to Russia at all”.


At the moment of general depression and confusion caused by the invasion of Batu's troops and the simultaneous pressure of Western rulers on the western and north-western frontiers, the Russian people in the victory of Alexander Nevsky saw the halo of the former glory of Russian weapons and the foreshadowing of their future greatness. Alexander Yaroslavich received the honorary nickname “Nevsky” for his commanding art, fearlessness and courage shown in the Battle of the Neva. And in the folk tales and legends there are still “Alexander the Terrible Eyes”, “Alexander the Terrible Shoulders” and “Alexander the Invincible”.

It must be said that judging by the Novgorod chronicles, Novgorod, contemporaries of the battle between Alexander and the Swedes, appreciated his talent as a commander, but did not recognize the all-Russian significance of the prince's activities. Soon after the Neva victory, Prince Alexander quarreled with the people of Novgorod, and he was "shown the way out of the city." The cause of the quarrel is unknown. Perhaps the prince wanted to build on successes and go on the counteroffensive, and the Novgorod boyars were afraid of his activity and popularity among ordinary people. The prince went to his father in Pereyaslavl Zalessky.

In memory of this victory, already in the 13th century, a wooden chapel in honor of the holy Prince Alexander Nevsky was erected at the site of the battle with the Swedes. In 1710, Tsar Peter I founded at the mouth of the r. Black St. Petersburg Alexander Nevsky Monastery (from 1797, the Alexander Nevsky Monastery). In addition, by decree of Peter Alekseevich, the church of St. Alexander Nevsky was consecrated in the presence of the dilapidated chapel in 1711, and in 1712. In modern Russia, a monument-chapel is erected on the territory of this church, and a monument to Alexander Nevsky is erected at the mouth of the Izhora.


Alexander Nevskiy. Artist Y. Pantyukhin

Application. Novgorod first chronicle of the senior izvoda:

In addition, 6748 [1240]. Coming in magnitude, and Murman, and Sum, and “in ship” a lot of things; Have a prince and his sons; and stash to Nev estuary, hot spring Ladoga, just the river and Novgorod. and the whole Novgorod region. But still prejudices, prematurely and human loving god, kill and protect you from foreign tribes, as if in vain labor without divine commandment: come to Novogorod, like Thou cometh to Lados. The prince Oleksandr not tarry nor less with Novgorod and ladozhan Come on AEs, and pobЂdi I have the power of the holy Sophia and prayers Lady Theotokos and prisnodЂvitsa Maria July mЂsyatsa unto 15, in memory of St. Kyurika and Ulitka in nedЂlyu on Sbor svyatyh father 630 , like in Chalcedon -; and that was great svoma. And that was killed by voivod ihm, Spiridon; But the inons of the creature, like and writing, would be the same; and many. many ih pade; and on the ship two vatshih men, save yourself to the void and to the sea; and prokh ih, the fossil of a pit, are in the mecca of the beschisla; and the lines of mannose are ulcers; and in that night, not waiting for the amount of money, shame from the odds.

Novgorod the same pada: Kostyantin Lugotinits, Gyuryata Pineshchinich, Usamt, Jerking Neszdylov son of a tanner, and after all 20 husband with lados, or me, god of gods. Prince Oleksandr of Novgorod and Ladozhan came to health and health, his god, and the holy Sophia and the prayers of all saints.


Monument-chapel at the church of Alexander Nevsky in with. Ust-Izhore (fragment)

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
“Whoever comes to us with a sword, will die by the sword.” That was where the Russian land stood and stands! ”
106 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 4 February 2016 06: 52
    10
    And how old was Alexander then? 19, and this guy failed the experienced knight ...
    1. Darkness
      Darkness 4 February 2016 09: 31
      13
      At 19, the same Svyatoslav already fought in more than one battle.
      Such a time was, they grew up early.
      1. Andrey Skokovsky
        Andrey Skokovsky 4 February 2016 11: 13
        0
        video in the topic, the historian about the myths of the Battle of the Ice
        1. Darkness
          Darkness 4 February 2016 11: 22
          0
          Klim burns like arc welding. His lectures should be shown in schools)))
        2. kalibr
          kalibr 4 February 2016 12: 28
          -3
          "the Swedish ranks of Birger, clad in armor".

          As I read about Birger chained to the armor, I did not begin to read further. Old cliches from the worst school books!
          1. PKTRL
            PKTRL 4 February 2016 15: 22
            +2
            As I read about Birger chained to the armor, I did not begin to read further. Old cliches from the worst school books!
            Ignorance rules you .. This is a chronicle interpretation. Chained - this is not our modern chained or brewed in some kind of shell, as you think, but dressed in armor! wink
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 4 February 2016 16: 17
              -2
              Do not judge rashly, the Gospel says. And the question is, is it your "chronicle interpretation" is in the annals?
      2. Mr. Pip
        Mr. Pip 4 February 2016 11: 17
        +1
        Quote: Darkness
        Such a time was, they grew up early.

        It will be more correct, they did not mature early, and the age of social maturity came earlier hi
        1. shasherin.pavel
          shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 15: 42
          +2
          Quote: Mr. PIP
          social maturity

          When the time comes heavy, so in WWII the five-year-olds already drove a horse with a harrow across the field. And the 12 summers at the lathes stood.
          1. Mr. Pip
            Mr. Pip 4 February 2016 18: 59
            +1
            Quote: shasherin.pavel
            So in WWII, five-year-olds already drove a horse with a harrow across the field. And 12 year olds were standing on lathes.

            AND? Standing at the bench and being "socially mature" are two different things. hi
            Social maturity is when you are a "site master" with at least family and responsibility and the right to choose.
            And it is logical to assume that the same educational requirements for the director of the plant in 2015 are clearly "not the same" as for the head of the squad in 1415?
      3. shasherin.pavel
        shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 15: 39
        0
        It should be remembered that at the age of 4 Igor "you cast a mine and he fell at the feet of the horse. The prince has already begun, it's time for us."
        1. Mr. Pip
          Mr. Pip 4 February 2016 21: 24
          0
          Quote: shasherin.pavel
          at the age of 4 Igor "you throw a mine and he fell at the feet of the horse. The prince has already begun, it's time for us

          Well, they would have gone far in the same 20th century ?! fellow
    2. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 4 February 2016 11: 04
      +5
      An experienced knight was also not much older. And military training in those days began ... from about 6-7 years. From 14-15 they were already in full swing in the sections.
      1. kin
        kin 4 February 2016 14: 04
        +2
        Yes, and lived, according to rumors, not enough. So at 15 years old - almost 1/2 of life passed.
        In villages, people even now grow up faster than in the infantile life of modern cities (where you can not grow up to 40 if you wish).
        1. Bersaglieri
          Bersaglieri 5 February 2016 08: 13
          0
          Lived ... The average life expectancy was about 30-35 years, but this does not mean at all that some did not live to 100 with a penny. Just child mortality - aha, wars, illnesses, injuries, etc.
          However, as far back as 100-150 years ago, the SPJ was a little more. The current state is the merit of medicine of the twentieth century.
  2. Shiva83483
    Shiva83483 4 February 2016 07: 05
    +6
    He was severe uncle, as a child read about him ... and even now it would be useful to us, and not just one ...
    1. Voice of the Mind
      Voice of the Mind 4 February 2016 08: 10
      -15 qualifying.
      Quote: Shiva83483
      I read about him in childhood ... and even now it would be useful to us, and not just one ...

      A very controversial person in the history of the Russian state. Even canonized only after 300 years.
      1. Darkness
        Darkness 4 February 2016 08: 47
        -13 qualifying.
        Pear does his dirty deed.
        In this frenzy it is no longer clear where the tale is, and where the truth is.
      2. bober1982
        bober1982 4 February 2016 09: 40
        +6
        Even canonized only after 300 years, you write, you yourself don’t even know what, what, and why (like your other comments on this topic).
        The canonization of the noble prince is not for military merit, but, first of all, with numerous testimonies of miracles that occurred immediately before the canonization.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Darkness
          Darkness 4 February 2016 10: 24
          -2
          And what kind of "miracles" happened?
          1. bober1982
            bober1982 4 February 2016 12: 33
            +5
            Read the "Life of Alexander Nevsky", there will be no questions.
            As soon as troubled times begin, attacks on Russian saints begin. It was in the pre-revolutionary troubled years, it was even in the notorious perestroika years, and now they stir, everything repeats, nothing new.
          2. shasherin.pavel
            shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 16: 06
            0
            You already ask the church about this: according to their canons there should be at least 50 miracles confirmed by at least three witnesses or one clergyman. For each miracle, a commission is drawn up, in which doctors or scientists can be invited.
        3. Voice of the Mind
          Voice of the Mind 5 February 2016 02: 02
          0
          Quote: bober1982
          You yourself do not even know what, what, and why (like your other comments on this topic).

          Not at all) I know perfectly.
          1240 Kiev fell. Russia is exhausted under the Tatars.
          And Nevsky puts Novgorod under the power of the Tatars and faithfully serves them until the end of his life.
          With the Tatars, it also attacks the successfully opposing Russian princes who left for Lithuania (hence the saying from the Belarusians - we are white because the Tatars did not smell) and Daniil Galitsky. Together with Nevruy, Vladimir kills his brother and destroys the capital. etc
      3. V.ic
        V.ic 4 February 2016 10: 55
        -1
        Quote: Voice of Mind
        Even canonized only after 300 years.

        Be consistent and indicate at whose insistence canonized.
        1. Voice of the Mind
          Voice of the Mind 5 February 2016 01: 47
          0
          Quote: V.ic
          Be consistent and indicate at whose insistence canonized

          Alas, I don’t know. Only the archbishop of Novgorod Makarii comes to mind, who later became the Metropolitan of Moscow.
          I know that they canonized not for feats of arms, but for taking monastic tonsure at the end of life. The icons were ordered to depict in the form of a monk. And only after 200 years under Peter began to depict in armor.
          A total of 23 people were then canonized. Moreover, Jonah, John, Paphnutius and Macarius are called great miracle workers.
      4. shasherin.pavel
        shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 16: 00
        0
        Quote: Voice of Mind
        Even canonized only after 300 years.

        "The Sun of our Rus has set" - the first phrase of the bishop in the news of the death of Alexander. Of course ... it may raise doubts about what was written in the annals, that when they wanted to put the letter in Alexander's coffin, he himself took it in his right hand ... When he read this in December, he grinned, but this is what he read in "Secrets of the XX century" No. 4 on page 37. The archive of the gendarme administration of the Tomsk province keeps a document about an event that occurred at the end of the XNUMXth century, when a jury sentenced the murderer of his wife and three small children to be hanged. After the executed man was taken out of the noose, the doctor bent over the body to pronounce death. But the "corpse" unexpectedly grabbed the doctor by the throat ... The police could not unclench the frozen hands, as a result the doctor died of suffocation. end of quote. Never say never can be. Mark's phrase was already below when I wrote. I really don't understand: who is "Pear"?
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 4 February 2016 16: 30
          0
          He didn’t quite correctly write - you need PR, PR or PR - public relations.
  3. Alez
    Alez 4 February 2016 07: 27
    +3
    They expelled Prince Nevsky of the boyars from Novgorod. Throughout history, Russia suffered from undercover intrigues and the sharing of the pie. Russia suffered defeats from the Horde when there were squabbles between the principalities. Now they also want to ruin Russia from within, break it down into principalities.
    1. Riv
      Riv 4 February 2016 08: 13
      +4
      So he was expelled more than once. Then they called again. The prince, characteristically, did not try to arrange a military coup, because, compared with the Novgorod militia, his personal squad looked pale.
      Such a democracy in Novgorod ...
    2. Darkness
      Darkness 4 February 2016 08: 46
      -6
      We must look who ruined Russia into separate principalities
      1. Nikolay K
        Nikolay K 4 February 2016 15: 03
        0
        Liberals again?
      2. shasherin.pavel
        shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 16: 17
        -1
        Quote: Darkness
        We must look who ruined Russia into separate principalities

        Yaroslav the Wise, he created the principality, but in his plans was that in case of the death of the Grand Duke of all the princes - his eldest son - the next oldest son would take the place of the Grand Duke. But his grandchildren - the sons of the Grand Dukes did not agree with this, so the story of small specific principalities began.
      3. Fat
        Fat 5 February 2016 02: 55
        0
        Quote: Darkness
        We must look who ruined Russia into separate principalities

        The "Ladder Law" contributed. This is when in the family the older brother inherits the younger, etc., and not the son inherits the father. Rurik, damn it, the nephews for the "Kiev table" have begun to perpetrate strife.
    3. shasherin.pavel
      shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 16: 10
      +1
      Quote: Alez
      Throughout history, Russia suffered from undercover intrigues

      And as soon as Ivan Vasilyevich stopped these boyar intrigues, he immediately became a "tyrant". So try to become a good sovereign and a kind tsar here. Nikolashka did not succeed, so they threw him off.
      1. andrew42
        andrew42 4 February 2016 19: 30
        +1
        If we are talking about Ivan the Terrible, then he had only 30 percent left to "do" - until the complete monarchy. Most of the formation of monarchical power (60 percent of the way) was passed by Ivan III Vasilyevich, and before him 20% "worked" Vasily II the Dark, who with difficulty defeated Shemyaka and Kosoy, paying with his own eyes taken out. With a proviso, of course: if this is according to Bayer-Schlezer-Karamzin.
  4. kin
    kin 4 February 2016 07: 29
    +4
    His upbringing was not divan.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 4 February 2016 07: 39
    10
    Akhejak: Ah, forgive us Swedes for the Neva battle! laughing
    1. rus-b4
      rus-b4 4 February 2016 11: 00
      +5
      Of course, he himself attacked, they just brought democracy to Russia laughing
    2. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 4 February 2016 11: 03
      +2
      .... and for the burnt Sigtuna ...
  6. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 4 February 2016 07: 43
    +7
    By the middle of the XIII century, during the organizational beginning of Catholic Rome, between the three feudal-Catholic forces of Northern Europe - the Teutonic (German) Order, the Danes and Swedes - an agreement was reached on joint action against Novgorod Russia in order to conquer the north-western Russian lands and plant there is Catholicism.

    The main goal of the Catholic Church in the XIII century was expansion to Russia and further to the East. And to this day they are trying to continue their crusades "contra paganos". The colonial wars were not over. The sign has changed.
    1. Mr. Pip
      Mr. Pip 4 February 2016 11: 20
      -9
      Quote: Mangel Olys
      And to this day they are trying to continue their "contra paganos" crusades.

      Oh come on ?! The Vatican itself will go to war with us ?! Negro Jew and atheist ( wassat ) Obama-Mom in the know ?! laughing
      1. shasherin.pavel
        shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 16: 19
        -2
        But didn’t he know what was already being discussed at the council on the transition of Ukraine to Catholicism? You need to follow the latest news.
        1. Mr. Pip
          Mr. Pip 4 February 2016 19: 03
          0
          Quote: shasherin.pavel
          did not know?

          And firstly, I don’t need to poke, and secondly, I don’t go to the temple, neither to the church, nor to the mosque, or to the synagogue, and to me in parallel.
          And here is the Bible and the Koran, for example, I am guaranteed to know better than you - and "Ukraine" has long been Catholic fellow
          1. visitork67
            visitork67 4 February 2016 22: 24
            0
            You are a guaranteed nonsense reasoner. I did not poke, I hope? I will not boast of knowledge of the Bible and the Qur'an, this is empty, but I will not vouch for a long ago Catholicism in Ukraine (I still insist on just such a name - without quotation marks and a lowercase letter). Well, I do not want to look like a brainless idiot.
            1. Mr. Pip
              Mr. Pip 4 February 2016 22: 56
              0
              Quote: visitork67
              Well, I do not want to look like a brainless idiot.

              Then excuse me, why didn't you understand why "Ukraine" is in quotation marks? Do you know her history?
              And yes, then even more so you should not consider it Orthodox and even more so in 2015 request
    2. Fat
      Fat 5 February 2016 03: 06
      0
      By the middle of the XIII century, with the organizational beginning of the Catholic,
      The main goal of the Catholic Church in the XIII century was expansion to Russia and further to the East. And to this day they are trying to continue their crusades "contra paganos". The colonial wars were not over. The sign has changed.

      A little later, at the end of the XVI century, the Catholic vyb .. vok appeared - the Uniate Church. It entered into force now in / in Ukraine ...
  7. alex-cn
    alex-cn 4 February 2016 07: 52
    +1
    Sometimes it’s not entirely clear to me what the Swedes hoped for in this raid - betrayal, or something, or surprise.
    Novgorod at that time was quite strong and rich. The Tatars did not reach, trade routes remained open, trade flourished, incomes and people were enough ... Of course, the prince himself was not a blunder, but the Swedes did not know about it yet.
    1. igordok
      igordok 4 February 2016 08: 29
      0
      Quote: alex-cn
      Sometimes it’s not entirely clear to me what the Swedes hoped for in this raid - betrayal, or something, or surprise.
      Novgorod at that time was quite strong and rich. The Tatars did not reach, trade routes remained open, trade flourished, incomes and people were enough ... Of course, the prince himself was not a blunder, but the Swedes did not know about it yet.

      Establish bases (cities, fortresses), checkpoints, and collect tribute or impede the trade of Russia with Europe. There was no discussion of any assault on the fortresses of Novgorod and Pskov. And the assault on the suburbs would be unsuccessful.
      1. alex-cn
        alex-cn 4 February 2016 08: 51
        +1
        This all takes time. Do you think Novgorod would give them such an opportunity? There would be more blood, yes.
        1. Darkness
          Darkness 4 February 2016 09: 28
          0
          Time and labor. Where they were going to take it is not clear.
      2. kin
        kin 4 February 2016 14: 10
        0
        Yes, put up a fortress - infrastructure will gradually develop. The local population will go to live with her, trade with the fortress garrison and visiting merchants (you see - the city is being formed). Wild craftsmen live there - Swedish ladies have more local fur coats.
        There was no tax inspection then, the garrison will carry out its functions, sending tributes and taxes to the capital. The local governor, wishing to curry favor and, possibly, change his place closer to the capital, will be fawning on with gifts, etc. etc.
      3. shasherin.pavel
        shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 16: 22
        +1
        in 1240, Pskov has already been surrendered to the Teutons. By the way, the Horde cavalry helped Alexander liberate Pskov. And someone says that the Tatars did not reach Novgorod.
      4. andrew42
        andrew42 4 February 2016 19: 37
        +3
        How simple it is with you. The main thing is not to look into the prehistory, so what? The fall of the vigorous people (Zverina, Vzmorya, etc.), and later Korennitsa and Arkona, began with the same: from the "German" trading colonies. And there, the margraves, and the bishops with a crowd of knights pulled themselves up. It was the same with the Prussians. And with the Curonians. A series of "crusades". Margraves came with a sword, and bishops with a cross for the survivors. Are you familiar with the title "Margrave"? - A feudal lord who seized the region of another people (in fact, Slavic), who founds and develops this very "brand" as a base for subsequent invasions, while all possible carriers of resistance weapons are destroyed, the remnants of the people degenerate and re-baptize into disenfranchised villans.
    2. Vladimir73
      Vladimir73 4 February 2016 11: 15
      0
      They were going to rob ... as always. Control of Novgorod gave access to furs, hemp, honey, etc. ..... not without reason the British were constantly torn to OUR north.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Aleksander
      Aleksander 4 February 2016 11: 16
      +6
      Quote: alex-cn
      Sometimes it’s not entirely clear to me what the Swedes hoped for in this raid - betrayal or something, or surprise. Novgorod at that time was quite strong and rich.

      The Swedes were NOT ONE, the Germans were coming from the West, the Danes, Ests and other trash, they had ALL chances:
      -15 July 1240 years the Swedes were defeated on the Neva, and August 1240 (a month has not passed!) of the year The Order began a campaign in Russia. The Livonian knights, the militia of the Dorpat bishop German, the army of Estonians and the army of the king opposed the Russians. They took Izborsk, Pskov, Koporye.

      And before that, in December 1237, Pope Gregory IX proclaimed second crusade to Finland, and in June 1238, the Danish King Waldemar II and the Master of the Unified Order Hermann Balk agreed to divide Estonia and military operations against Russia in the Baltic states with the participation of Swedes
  8. Sergey Sitnikov
    Sergey Sitnikov 4 February 2016 07: 55
    +4
    The role of personality is always high, Alexander is deservedly a saint!
    1. Darkness
      Darkness 4 February 2016 08: 44
      -11 qualifying.
      Too publicized personality.
      The same Svyatoslav did for Russia many times more than Nevsky and Donskoy combined.
      1. Darkness
        Darkness 4 February 2016 09: 27
        -3
        As always, ANIMEs lute.)))
      2. V.ic
        V.ic 4 February 2016 10: 59
        0
        Quote: Darkness
        The same Svyatoslav did for Russia many times more than Nevsky and Donskoy combined.

        Well, then you would compare those mentioned with Alexander Vasilievich Suvorov.
        1. shasherin.pavel
          shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 16: 31
          0
          Quote: V.ic
          with Alexander Vasilievich Suvorov.

          Suvorov is a commander, Alexander and a great commander and a great politician. And this is unique in history. If I am not mistaken: Alexander Nevsky won more than 40 battles and did not lose a single case of his in politics. When the boyars denied him reign in Novgorod, Pskov had already surrendered the boyars and the governor to the Teutons, and where would the Novgorod boyars have gone from him? But after the Battle of the Ice, many boyars were left without noses with the "thief" stamp on their foreheads. After all these events, no intrigues could shake his power in the principality. It was then that he paid for both the surrendered Pskov and the boyar intrigues.
      3. Heimdall47
        Heimdall47 4 February 2016 11: 41
        +1
        The same Svyatoslav did for Russia many times more than Nevsky and Donskoy combined.

        If we talk about Russia as a separate ethnic group, then it is possible. If Russia is the Russian people as part of the Slavs, Rus and Finns, then your statement is delusional.

        Svyatoslav traded Slavic slaves with the Greeks and others - this fact does not bother you? Slavic, possibly Finnish, slaves were one of the most important articles of profitability for pre-Christian Russia.
        According to the annals, Svyatoslav says - “from Russia the same time and honey, wax and servants»
        Or didn’t you have Slavs in your ancestors - is it all Russia? )))
        1. shasherin.pavel
          shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 16: 40
          -2
          Quote: Heimdall47
          If we talk about

          Allow me to correct it a little, when the "Slovenes" came to the Dnieper, then Prince Kiy founded a city on the Ros River, a tributary of the Dnieper and named it Kiyev. but it's not even Russia yet, maybe Ros? Russia, whatever you say, went from Rurik, from him the land of LadoZskaya, and then Novgorodskaya Rus was nicknamed. I almost forgot: modern Kiev stands on the Desna River, a tributary of the Dnieper, not Ros.
      4. kin
        kin 4 February 2016 14: 16
        0
        Agree that every time must have heroes. Otherwise, it turns out that one can only be proud of Svyatoslav, and there is nobody to be in the 13th century. In addition, if I remember the school course well, the Novgorod Republic and Russia from the time of Svyatoslav are not completely identical states. There was some difference. Type Ukraine Soviet - Ukrainian Republic - Republic of Crimea, etc. But maybe I just forgot the story, sorry.
      5. Nikolay K
        Nikolay K 4 February 2016 15: 14
        +4
        Alexander Nevsky essentially created a modern Russian state with a center in Moscow. Naturally, he did not create it in the literal sense, but it was he who initiated and executed the idea of ​​an alliance with a horde (east) as opposed to an alliance with the west, which another great figure of that time, Daniil Galitsky, went to. Nevsky determined the choice of Russia the first of two evils: the Mongol yoke instead of the dominion of the Catholic West. This choice made it possible to adopt from the horde many fundamental ideas and subsequently build our Russian empire on the ruins of the Horde empire. The very Eurasianism of which we are the carriers was determined by the policy of Alexander Nevsky. Until then, the Russian principalities were purely European states. In this sense, the merits of Alexander Nevsky as a politician are much higher than his merits as a military leader.
        1. Talgat
          Talgat 4 February 2016 18: 03
          0
          I support your post Nikolay K!
          Although I do not consider the Mongol yoke to be a reality and "evil" - my opinion was "intra-Eurasian showdown"

          But that Nevsky is the greatest defender in the history of Eurasia along with Stalin or Peter 1 or Attila, etc. is a fact
      6. shasherin.pavel
        shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 16: 24
        -1
        Well, you are darkness ... History must be studied, not read.
  9. Voice of the Mind
    Voice of the Mind 4 February 2016 08: 02
    -10 qualifying.
    An excellent literary compilation, with preparation, the battle itself and heroic actions. And all this in 5 lines of the chronicle.
    1. Darkness
      Darkness 4 February 2016 08: 49
      -8
      You will be minus. Anonymously)))
    2. Aleksander
      Aleksander 4 February 2016 11: 21
      +1
      Quote: Voice of the Mind
      Great literary compilation, with preparation, the battle itself and heroic actions. And all this according to 5 lines of the annals.


      Can you refute?
      1. Voice of the Mind
        Voice of the Mind 5 February 2016 02: 13
        -1
        Quote: Aleksander
        Can you refute?

        What for? The only thing I note is the loss of 20 fighters on our side, which indicates the scale of the battle and that Nevsky most likely attacked the guarded merchant ships. And the tactics of the Swedes say the same thing - the guards held back the attack until the ships set sail
    3. The comment was deleted.
  10. Riv
    Riv 4 February 2016 08: 35
    0
    The scale of victory is obviously exaggerated. If you evaluate the loss of the parties, then it does not smell like a major battle. Two dozen of those killed by the Russians, about a hundred by the Swedes and the same number of prisoners - does not attract strategic victory. In fact, such losses were not even heavy for the enemy army. The Swedes could continue the expedition, but apparently two factors played a role: Birger’s wound was quite serious (and without it the Swedes could not agree on leadership) and the lack of intelligence about the Russians. That is, the Swedes certainly appreciated the low number of the detachment attacking them, but who guaranteed that the rest of the army was not on the way? Re-landing in such conditions was an adventure.

    In general, the dashing raid failed, but the Russians succeeded in a dashing raid, which of course in itself is the merit of Nevsky. Classic: "Eye gauge, speed, onslaught." Well, they knew how to PR even then and Nevsky certainly did not miss his chance, especially since there was something to be proud of. He drove out the Swedes, the losses were scanty, they took a ransom for the prisoners, according to custom, and even cut the jarl himself almost by a head.

    As a result, the prince had no shortage of volunteers in the upcoming Ice Battle.
    1. Army soldier2
      Army soldier2 4 February 2016 11: 04
      10
      You measure the Middle Ages on the scale of the First World War. This is not true. For medieval Europe, the five thousandth army stands out against the general background with its enormous number. The Russian princes of that time had squads of several hundred people, the rest were militias.
      in short, the significance of the battle is not in the number of those fighting and not in losses, but in the consequences for the war or the state. The victory on the Neva, of course, was of strategic importance for Novgorod Rus.
      Let me remind you that the Spartans generally had 300 people.
      1. Riv
        Riv 4 February 2016 13: 01
        -1
        Do you think that Birger brought with him exclusively "regular soldiers"? He also had vigilantes and a naked militia in the same way. It was exactly the opposite for Alexander: a mobile special-purpose group, well armed and trained, with high morale. This was the reason for the success of the raid.

        You mentioned the Spartans completely out of place. Firstly: not quite 300. Along with them was the militia of one of the policies, which also seemed to move westwardly. In total, the Greeks in the last battle involved about two thousand fighters. Secondly: Leonid’s escapade, with all its courage, ended in strategic defeat. Persians nevertheless occupied the Thermopilus passage, and this opened for them access to that part of Greece, which he covered. If Lenya were a little smarter, show political flexibility, agree normally with the Spartan elders - and the Persians would never have passed through the passage.

        If anything, then in any of the most provincial European feuds, the lord would instantly realize the strategic value of that area and within a year the passage would cover a solid castle. But the Greeks ... why would they? :)))

        But Alexander, unlike Leonid, achieved all the strategic goals set before him.
      2. shasherin.pavel
        shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 16: 53
        -3
        Quote: Army 2
        Spartans generally had 300 people.

        personal troops of Tsar Alexander, and 7 thousand "militias" who joined him during the advance to Thermopylae. When Alexander realized that he had been bypassed, he let the "militias" go, but he himself stayed.
        1. Alex
          Alex 4 February 2016 17: 37
          +2
          Quote: shasherin.pavel
          personal army of the king Alexandra,
          As far as I remember, the united army was commanded by the king of Sparta Leonid.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Aleksander
      Aleksander 4 February 2016 11: 44
      +1
      Quote: Riv
      The scale of victory is obviously exaggerated


      The scale of victory is difficult to overestimate - Alexander managed to defeat the enemy piecemeal-Only a month later, the Order attacked from the West. If the Swedes were not defeated, it is hard to imagine what would have happened.
      1. Riv
        Riv 4 February 2016 13: 08
        -1
        It’s really hard to imagine. The Swedes for the Livonian Order were by no means friends. God forbid from such friendship in fact.

        However, there is no reliable historical evidence that Birger intended to grab a piece of Novgorod lands and gain a foothold on them. Well, he didn’t have enough strength for this, not enough ... Most likely they sailed for a robbery, in the hope that the Russians would just be busy sorting out with the Germans. But not fartanulo. Birger was wounded, and in a different scenario, it would be possible to agree with him, and then in the Ice Battle the flanks of the Novgorod regiment would cover the Swedish troops.

        What then? World friendship forever? Who knows ... In principle, one can also assume Alexander’s bold plan: to finish the Jarl in a duel, then grind with his retainers and lure some of them to him. Nothing contrary to the customs of the time.

        And by the way: you yourself write that a year later you had to deal with the Germans. And where during the Battle of Ice were those of the Swedish prisoners who had not yet had time to redeem? And they fought with the Germans. What else to do at your leisure to a professional warrior?
        1. Aleksander
          Aleksander 4 February 2016 14: 23
          -1
          Quote: Riv
          It’s really hard to imagine. The Swedes for the Livonian Order were by no means friends


          Imagine easy-just imagination is not enough. yes And here is friendship, unfriendlyness? Such concepts are generally absent in such events. The Germans and Swedes were just accomplices in one event, to capture and rob Novgorod.
          Quote: Riv
          you yourself write that in a year I had to deal with the Germans

          Nowhere did I write this. I wrote that less than in a month after the Battle of Neva, the Order and Co. attacked the Novgorod land and the newly called Alexander defeated them.
          1. Riv
            Riv 4 February 2016 14: 34
            -1
            Yes, sorry, in a month. It was described. But how do you imagine it: TOGETHER to rob? Then the production will have to be divided. Count the dead, shares for each, evaluate the goods ... Is it far from a fight between your own? And then also divide the land ...

            With a probability of 100%, everything was easier. Just the Germans were going to gain a foothold in the Novgorod region. Actually, everything turned out fine with them, until Alexander intervened. And Birger, knowing about the upcoming disassembly, was about to quietly take a break in Novgorod, but it turned out that he got the first. Yes, and Nevsky raised authority.

            You can imagine what Alexander's warriors later said in Novgorod: "They came, swooped down, the bosses tore off, they barely carried off the prey, they took so much. Of ours, only Vaska was hit. And our prince is theirs personally! Soon we'll go to beat the Germans. let's take the booty ... "
            1. Aleksander
              Aleksander 4 February 2016 15: 17
              0
              Quote: Riv
              But how do you imagine it: TOGETHER to rob? Then the production will have to be divided. Count the dead, shares for each, evaluate the goods ... Is it far from a fight between your own? And then also divide the land ...


              That is exactly what happened between accomplices in 99% of cases.
              Quote: Riv
              With a probability of 100%, everything was simpler. Just the Germans were going to gain a foothold in the Novgorod region. Actually, everything turned out fine with them, until Alexander intervened. And Birger, knowing about the upcoming disassembly, was about to take a chance to take a break in Novgorod

              And so it could be, of course. But the Swedes could seize the fellow countrymen if they saw the defeated Novgorod, why not? Look at the map - where was the Battle of Neva (the mouth of Izhora) and where the Order seized the land in a month - this is Koporye - practically the same areaWhat if the blow were simultaneous? (and from the west they have already captured Izborsk and Pskov) -? The order was very dangerous - he had just completed the colonization of Estonia and was moving further to the East, Novgorod was in a difficult situation ....
              1. Riv
                Riv 4 February 2016 16: 34
                0
                Well yes! And why the simultaneous blow, if the Germans themselves did an excellent job? And the Swedes subsequently build Landskrona nearby. That is, land that in fact was not really controlled by anyone was then enough.
                In general, I can not believe that Berger then solved strategic problems.
                1. Aleksander
                  Aleksander 4 February 2016 21: 04
                  0
                  Quote: Riv
                  And why the simultaneous blow, if the Germans themselves did an excellent job?


                  So after all, they didn’t manage! Alexander Koporye stormed six months later, killed the Germans and drove them out, executed local traitors.
                  Quote: Riv
                  In general, I can not believe that Berger then solved strategic problems.

                  So his followers decided, then Peter had to "cut through" the window, freeing the old Novgorod Oreshek and other Novgorod lands.
                  1. Riv
                    Riv 5 February 2016 01: 59
                    0
                    How could they not cope if Alexander had to take Koporye?
                    And what does Peter have to do with it? He is not one hundred years old.
            2. The comment was deleted.
        2. The comment was deleted.
    5. shasherin.pavel
      shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 16: 48
      0
      The biggest battle and the most bloody one was during the clash of the White and Golden Hordes, about half a million participated on both sides, lasted three days, and what do you know about it? I understand that the chroniclers always attribute in the number of fighters an extra toe, but 100 000 is not a pound of raisins. The importance of the battle is indicated not by the number of corpses, but by historical significance, its impact on the course of world history.
  11. bionik
    bionik 4 February 2016 09: 01
    +2
    In the historical film directed by Sergei Eisenstein “Alexander Nevsky” (1938), in equestrian episodes, actor N.K. Cherkasov, who played the main role in the motion picture, was duplicated by Hero of the Soviet Union Lev Mikhailovich Dovator.
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 4 February 2016 11: 07
      +1
      Quote: bionik
      duplicated Hero of the Soviet Union Lev Mikhailovich Dovator.

      First: Hero of the Soviet Union (posthumous).
      Secondly: "It was among the cavalrymen of Dovator that they found understudy for Nikolai Cherkasov, the performer of the role of Prince Alexander. He became his namesake, senior lieutenant Nikolai Ivanovich Buchilev. "http://surfingbird.ru/surf/bFO.21591
      1. bionik
        bionik 4 February 2016 13: 45
        0
        I have such data For V.ic https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vIMTi4g_9yY
  12. vomag
    vomag 4 February 2016 09: 05
    +8
    If you evaluate the loss of the parties, then it does not smell like a major battle. But in vain do you think so at the time of the loss of the order of a hundred, and even let 20 of them be trained knights, this rout ... Many people think that in those days epic, ratified 100 thousand people and fought for three days and three nights laughing I hasten to upset people then there were few and a detachment of 1000 riders it was a crushing force ....
    1. Darkness
      Darkness 4 February 2016 09: 15
      +3
      And here was the Battle of Rakovors. Compared to her, Nevskaya is a minor disassembly
      1. kin
        kin 4 February 2016 09: 44
        +2
        Of course, the scale of the battle is shallow. But, the effect of the Neva battle is not small. The ideas of the Swedes were foiled. Remember small punches that break big plans?
        1. Darkness
          Darkness 4 February 2016 10: 05
          -2
          I’m talking about the fact that some battles are being promoted at us and the others, no less, and sometimes more important, are completely forgotten.
          In addition, they grow up with such a layer of fairy tales that it becomes unpleasant to look at this leaf picture.
          1. alebor
            alebor 4 February 2016 10: 57
            +1
            Indeed, if you read the history of medieval Novgorod and Pskov, you can see that clashes with the Swedes, Livonians and Lithuania occurred regularly, almost every year. Sometimes these were small border skirmishes, with the ruin of enemy territory, sometimes major wars. In this regard, it is not entirely clear why it is precisely those two battles that Alexander Nevsky won that stand out, it seems that they do not stand out among many others for their scale and consequences.
            I have a suspicion, perhaps erroneous, that this is largely due to the fact that Nevsky was essentially the ancestor of the Moscow princes. After all, the first Moscow prince Daniel is the youngest son of Nevsky. Naturally, for the ruling Moscow dynasty, the great ancestor-ancestor was highly desirable.
            1. Doctorleg
              Doctorleg 4 February 2016 12: 37
              +1
              I agree. There were constantly skirmishes. Historians write that Novgorod was not a pay-boy, but rather led conquests to himself. And, accordingly, came into conflict with those who also had an appetite for this territory
              1. Mr. Pip
                Mr. Pip 4 February 2016 12: 45
                -2
                Quote: DoctorOleg
                There were constantly skirmishes. Historians write that Novgorod was not a pay-boy, but quite led the conquests.

                Well, in general, yes, and the "crusade" described in the article was already the Second fellow
              2. kin
                kin 4 February 2016 14: 21
                -2
                Yes, probably - the usual borderland. At the borders, even now, when there seems to be peace, battles and skirmishes are underway.
                1. Mr. Pip
                  Mr. Pip 4 February 2016 14: 28
                  0
                  Quote: kin
                  Yes, probably - the usual borderland.

                  Are you talking about the pogrom of the Swedish capital, or about the battles in the "border" Karelia? fellow
                  1. kin
                    kin 4 February 2016 15: 17
                    0
                    About "border" Karelia. I heard somewhere that the border then was understood somewhat differently than it is now - it was 50-100 kilometers wide, and was perceived by all sides as their own land.
                    1. Mr. Pip
                      Mr. Pip 4 February 2016 15: 38
                      0
                      Quote: kin
                      that the border was then understood a little differently than now - it was 50-100 kilometers wide, was perceived by all sides as its own land.

                      Well, I don’t know how it went exactly, but there were no surveyors with columns and border shepherds then, this is a fact hi
                      But it was not mushrooms in the forest that went to "plunder", but cities and villages and caravans between them, and there you can’t even write off the 99th or 101st kilometer to "your land", a classic conquest hi
          2. The comment was deleted.
    2. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 4 February 2016 11: 01
      +1
      That's right. Several hundred professional warriors in full armor, mounted, with the best equipment (combatants / knights). For each, another 1-2 horseback warriors are easier (troopers / squire) + foot army (militia / bollards) - another 5-10 each.
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 4 February 2016 16: 35
        0
        And in full armor, in what? At that time, in 1240 ...
    3. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 5 February 2016 10: 28
      0
      In addition, one should not forget that the chronicles did not show complete losses to a single person. In the era of estate society this could not be. Until a single person there could be marks only in the deed of the slave trader. In the annals, only people of the upper class were noted: from princes to warriors. But not a militia or auxiliary allies.
      The same thing: by name, in the annals only a very important person could be indicated. Not lower than a member of the senior squad. Or from the famous guild city heads, equated in social status with those.
      By name, most often, in such a mass, your people of a lower status could be mentioned. But then again, not at all peasants and townspeople. A simple person in the annals by name could be mentioned only in a completely exceptional case.
  13. Korsar4
    Korsar4 4 February 2016 09: 26
    0
    Not everything is determined by the bloodshed of the battle (according to a general from Prince Florizel). There are sacred events - the basis of statehood. The Neva battle is one of them. There is nothing for us to look at our history from the English bell tower.
  14. kin
    kin 4 February 2016 09: 42
    +1
    And we also had Brest. The veche called for the prince there (read the local aristocracy). Naturally, when they call, and when they decide to expel, or limit in power - there were many grievances on both sides.

    Look modern Ukraine - the elite and the oligarchs who are with Poroshenko, who are against. Germany - some of the big business with Angela, some with the Social Democrats, etc. In all countries, aristocratic groups are ready to create small, but their principalities.
  15. Volzhanin
    Volzhanin 4 February 2016 09: 46
    +1
    Not certainly in that way. This battle is recorded in many sources including several annals (foreign ones as well), icons, paintings, epics, in which everything is described in sufficient detail.
  16. otto meer
    otto meer 4 February 2016 10: 09
    0
    Here in this miniature the holy prince has a terrified saber / sword! According to this, it was a man who was severe. angry
  17. Des10
    Des10 4 February 2016 10: 51
    +2
    Quote: Darkness
    Too publicized personality.

    And we have no other homeland.
    And about Svyatoslav, too much is said.
    Cons did not set.
    1. Darkness
      Darkness 4 February 2016 11: 25
      -1
      Victories Svyatoslav pereyarut at the state level?
      1. kin
        kin 4 February 2016 14: 23
        +1
        Probably Ukraine took this part of the story. I even saw an image of a prince with a forelock somewhere.
        1. Fat
          Fat 5 February 2016 04: 27
          0
          Quote: kin
          Probably Ukraine took this part of the story. I even saw an image of a prince with a forelock somewhere.

          The merits of A. Zasyadko (Zasyadko) are probably little known for the same reason ... Even in the USSR, for some reason he was ignored by his attention
  18. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 4 February 2016 10: 58
    +3
    Still, apparently, not 20 soldiers of all fell, but 20 combatants. And no one believed the light warriors exactly, just like in Zap. Europe- accounting losses only among the knights was conducted.

    But this, of course, in no way detracts from the importance of victory in the Battle of Neva.
    1. shasherin.pavel
      shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 17: 00
      +1
      The main in the battle were the "personal squad", and all the others, if only to interfere with the "Alexander's guards", but they had their own tasks, to cover the flanks, finish off those who had broken through, cut through the bottoms of ships and cut the mooring lines, and prevent those who swam across the river from getting out of the water.
  19. Mr. Pip
    Mr. Pip 4 February 2016 11: 55
    +3
    I will quote D.I.N. Igor Nikolaevich Danilevsky.
    "This is a unique story. The Swedes don't have a word about it. Well, of course, they didn't want to admit their defeats, of course. True, in the" Eric's Chronicle "they tell how in 1187 the Karelians and Novgorodians reached the city of Sigtuna, burned it to the ground; the city has not been revived since then. Heard about this city, right? Well, in vain, it was the capital of Sweden. Well, what, well, you think, destroyed the capital of Sweden ... Well, let's go a little, took a walk There the city gates were captured - they are in Novgorod now, they decorate the Novgorod Sofia. But this is a trifle, however, compared to the fact that they landed, they wanted to capture, in other words, the entire Novgorod land. If we look with you at the map, from Novgorod to the mouth of Izhora - Do you know how much? Petersburgers know, because Peter costs there. How much does it take to train from Novgorod to St. Petersburg? By car rather, right? unexpectedly a month later, he attacks the Swedes, who did not even strengthen the camp. ut need to make a reservation. There is unique information in the "Laurentian Chronicle" that, in general, Alexander Yaroslavich, of course, he beat the Swedes there, but the bulk of the Swedes died on the opposite bank of the Neva, where Aleksandrov's regiment was impassable. In general, he did not get his hands covered in the blood of these Swedes. Class. “A complete economic blockade of Russian lands has been prevented” is a literal quote from “Sketches of the History of the USSR”. The Swedes, however, will build a hefty fortress later, right? Landskrona. They will leave her in a year. It is impossible to live. All the products have rotted, they have scurvy, they are still beaten every day by these same Karelians, Izhora, Novgorodians. It is impossible to live there! They built another fortress - Vyborg. They quit after a year and a half. Impossible to live! Therefore, fortresses were even built - nothing ... But this is a great event. "
    request
    1. Riv
      Riv 4 February 2016 13: 22
      +4
      In fact, the Novgorodians successfully let the Swedes shit. Ushkuyniki regularly swam to rob the Horde, climbed up the Kama, and reached the Urals. Then it seemed a long way to go home. They settled in a place called Khlynov, on Vyatka (present-day Kirov). Replenishment was also recruited there. The local people became so famous for robbery and raids that they received the honorary nickname "Khlynsk thieves".

      Those who wish can try on the globe ruler. How many are there from Kirov to Novgorod?
  20. androv
    androv 4 February 2016 14: 51
    +1
    Quote: Darkness
    Klim burns like arc welding. His lectures should be shown in schools)))

    it will be a bust for the fragile children's psyche ..
  21. PKTRL
    PKTRL 4 February 2016 15: 13
    +1
    Quote: Voice of the Mind
    Quote: Shiva83483
    I read about him in childhood ... and even now it would be useful to us, and not just one ...

    A very controversial person in the history of the Russian state. Even canonized only after 300 years.

    The results of the Neva battle.
    The strategic importance of the Neva battle was enormous. The Neva victory prevented Novgorod from losing the shores of the Gulf of Finland and prevented the interruption of the northern trade route of Russia.
    Come to the museum (it’s very small, but About the great battle) at the mouth of Izhora and Neva. Opposite the church of Alexander Nevsky .. See with your own eyes the place of the battle .. And, then do not be so unfounded! hi
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 4 February 2016 16: 39
      0
      We saw, but of course. And the site of the Battle of Sekigahara in Japan in 1600. Everything is indicated there - here was the headquarters of Ieyasu, here is Wakizaka, here was the "traitor from Mount Mitsuo". While you are walking, you will knock your legs, the length is more than 5 km. it's like walking along the Borodino field. And this place is not at all drawn to a great battle.
  22. androv
    androv 4 February 2016 16: 35
    +2
    the Russian people in the victory of Alexander Nevsky saw a halo of the former glory of Russian weapons

    in relation to the events of the mid-13th century, a primitive propaganda stamp.
  23. shasherin.pavel
    shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 17: 21
    +2
    Note to the author: 1) "at the edge of the sea, guarding the wallpaper of the path" this means that the Izhorians followed the Neva and the Vuoksa river connecting Ladoga and Lake Saimaa, which also has an exit with a small "drag" to the Baltic. That is: if the Swedes made their life a little more difficult, they could pass from the Gulf of Finland to Lake Saimaa and then to Ladoga north of the Neva.
    2) Vladimir Russia? This is something new. The Vladimir-Suzdal principality could not provide assistance.
    3) 1239 l. On 9 December, the Pope signs a bull, declaring a new crusade against Russia.
    The Tatars put the city of Chernigov on fire, captured Pereyaslav South. Yaroslav Vsevolodovich took control of the throne of Vladimir and, securing the rear, received from Batu Khan a label for the Grand Duchy in Vladimir, attacked the Lithuanian army and defeated it. “Having learned about the death of the Grand Duke, the elder brother after him, Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, came to reign in Vladimir; he cleaned the churches of corpses, gathered the people left from extermination, consoled them, and, as the eldest, began to manage the volosts: he gave Suzdal to his brother Svyatoslav, and northern Starodub to the other, Ivan. Alexander Yaroslavich laid the city of Porkhov to protect the southwestern approaches to Novgorod, the first mention in the annals refers to the 1346 summer.
    And so I corrected the chronicle:
    It’s 6748 from the Creation of the World [1240 l. from R.Kh. ]. Bringing Sveta in strength — great, and Murman, and Sumy, and “in the ship, the multitude are many many; Oh, eat the prince and eat the bishops; and stasha in the mouth of Izhera, although it’s easy to take all Ladoga, like the river and Novgorod, the entire Novgorod region. But still the preferable, lucrative human-love God, protected us from aliens, as if in vain laboring without God's command. come for it is in Novgorod, for it’s like to go to Ladoz. Prince Oleksandr didn’t die a little from Novgorod and from Ladoga came to Nya, and by force I prayed to Saint Sophia and prayer, our mistress Our Lady and Mother of God Mary, month of July in 15, in memory of St. Curic (Cyril) and Uliba (Gleb), A week to the Cathedral of the Saints father 630 l., and others in Chalcedon. Here quick is great (here it is rather necessary to use the word “slaughter” Svem. And here you kill the speed of their governor, name Spiridon; and in the same way, like the bishop, kill the same speed; and a lot of them are in the pade. On top of the ship there are two withered husbands, before he’s empty and to the sea, but when you dig them up, you dig in a hole without a number, and the mnos are more vulnerable than that. ”That night, which did not wait for the monk to be shamed.
    It is very unfortunate that you overlooked the words "and the bishop was killed right there." Bishops simply do not leave their services, they leave to found a new parish or establish their own church to replace the old one.
    4) In the 1240 summer, the Biarm ships arrived in Norway to seek asylum, as their country was conquered by the Novgorodians, and King Hakon granted their request, giving the refugees land in the northernmost of their provinces - the Malangen region in Kholuga Land, where Fino now lives -Ougorsk language population. At the same time, in the Dvina land, the population speaking Finno-Ugric languages ​​is now practically absent, although it has been preserved to the west and east of it.
    Perhaps the small number of troops at the Neva battle is due to the fact that the squad then conquered the lands of Bjarmia. P / S. Bjarmia is the territory of the state between the rivers Northern Dvina and Pecher, partially the banks of the Terek pillow, that is, the Kola Peninsula.
  24. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 4 February 2016 17: 35
    0
    Many believe that there was no battle or that the Jarl Birger did not participate in it. However, on the reconstructed head (according to the Gerasimov method) in the city museum of Stockholm, on the cheek of Jarl Birger, a deep scar is clearly visible !!! winked
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 4 February 2016 22: 41
      0
      How so? Gerasimov's method is face reconstruction according to the SKULL! And the spear mark is present on the SOFT FABRICS of the CHEEK! Don't you think this "reconstruction" is strange?
  25. shasherin.pavel
    shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 17: 36
    0
    Yes, I almost forgot, if you want to continue this topic, then write to me at [email protected] I have a selection of annals by year, in chronological order with maps ... I will share it by e-mail, it hurts you write well, there although 8 KB and more, about two Bible formats, but now this is not a problem. The work is really not finished and there is still an editing on dates and historical events, but it can help you in your next work.
  26. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 4 February 2016 17: 42
    0
    And the Finno-Ugric population is not absent here. Simply, they all became Russian a long time ago! It is time to already know that baptism in Orthodoxy was automatically ranked among the Russian population. And the baptism of the Finno - Ugric lands from Moscow to Kostroma, Beloozero, Yaroslavl, Rostov, Perm, Vologda and so on lasted until the 16th century! And now Russian traditions and rituals are identical to Finno - Ugric! Tea in the bathhouse is steamed with a broom, many people like to go!