Military Review

“Whoever comes to us with a sword, will die by the sword.” That was where the Russian land stood and stands! ”

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“Whoever comes to us with a sword, will die by the sword.” That was where the Russian land stood and stands! ”

780 years ago, in 1236, Alexander Yaroslavich began his independent activities as a prince of Novgorod. With military victories on the western borders of the country and skillful policies in the east, he predetermined the fate of Novgorod and Vladimir Russia for two centuries. He showed the need for cruel, uncompromising confrontation with the West and allied relations with the East, the Horde kingdom.


Youth

Homeland of the famous Russian commander was the ancient Russian city of Pereyaslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), standing on the river Trubezh, which flows into Lake Kleschino (Plescheevo). They called it Zalessky because in ancient times a wide strip of dense forests enclosed, as it were, protected the city from the steppe. Pereyaslavl was the capital of Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, a man of authority, decisive and firm in the fight against enemies, who spent most of his life in military campaigns.

Here is 13 in May 1221 of Yaroslav and his wife, Princess Rostislav (Feodosia) Mstislavna, Toropets princess, daughter of the famous warrior, Prince of Novgorod and Galician Mstislav Udatny, the son, the second in a row, named Alexander. The child grew up healthy and strong. When he was four years old, Alexander was ordained as a warrior (initiation). Knyazhych girdled with a sword and put on a war horse. They were given a bow and arrow in their hands, which indicated the duty of the warrior to protect his native land from the enemy. From this time he could lead the squad. The father cooked the knight from his son, but ordered to teach and to read. He studied the prince and the Russian law - "Russian Truth". The favorite occupation of the young prince was the study of the military experience of his ancestors and the events of his native antiquity. In this regard, the Russian chronicles served as an invaluable treasure trove of knowledge and military thought.

But the main thing is still in the training of Alexander was the practical development of all the intricacies of military affairs. This was the unwritten law of that harsh time, and the princes did not make any concessions. In Russia, then they grew up early and became warriors as early as adolescence. Already in the 4-5 years, the prince received an exact copy of the sword from a soft, light-wood linden tree (he allowed him to teach how to keep his distance in battle). Then the wooden sword became harder and harder - it was made of oak or ash. Children were also given bows and arrows. The onion size gradually increased, the bowstring resistance increased. At first they threw an arrow at a fixed target, and then at a mobile one, the princes were taken for hunting. Hunting was a whole school for tracking, tracker skills appeared, youths learned to kill and face danger (psychological preparation). Experienced princely warriors taught Yaroslav Vsevolodovich children to horse riding. Initially on well-traveled war horses. By the age of ten, the prince had to personally pacify the unbroken three-year-old horse. Warriors taught the prince possession of a sulitsa (Russian dart) and a spear. Aptly thrown by the hard hand of a sulic hit the enemy in the distance. Much more skill demanded a fight on a spear. Here, in the first place, a ram hit with a heavy spear was practiced. The pinnacle of art was considered an irresistible injection in the visor.

Such training was no exception: it was obligatory in princely families. The future prince is both a ruler and a professional warrior. Therefore, it is not at all surprising that the facts that almost all the ancient Russian princes were selected knights, personally participated in the battles, and even in the front ranks of their troops, often engaged in fights with the leaders of their enemies. A similar training, albeit simpler, without riding, training a swordsman (the sword was expensive), etc., was received by all free men of Russia. Bow, hunting spear, ax and knife were everyday weapons Russian people of that era. And the Ruses at all times were considered the best warriors.

Features of Novgorod

In 1228, Alexander and his elder brother Fedor were left by their father, together with the Pereyaslav army, who were going to march on Riga in the summer in Novgorod under the supervision of Fedor Danilovich and Tiun Yakim. Under their supervision, the princes continued training in the martial work. The princes learned Novgorod, its order, in order not to make rash decisions in the future, which could cause a quarrel with free citizens. Those invited to reign were often simply expelled from Novgorod. They pointed to the road leading from the city, with the words: "Go, prince, you are not loved by us."

Novgorod was the most populous and richest city in Russia at the beginning of the XIII century. That is why he was called Great. He was not touched by the steppe raids in the south and the fierce struggle of the princes for Kiev, which was often devastated, only strengthened the position of the northern center of Russia. Full-flowing Volkhov divided the city into two parts. The western side was called Sophia, here was a strong Kremlin - “Detinets”, and in it is the magnificent stone cathedral of St. Sophia. The long bridge connected the Sofia side with the eastern part of the city - the Trade side, the busiest place in Novgorod. There was a bargaining. Merchants from the Novgorod Pyatin (regions), from the banks of the Volga, the Oka and the Dnieper, representatives of the Finno-Ugric tribes from the Baltic coast, residents of Scandinavia and Central Europe came here. Russians sold furs and skins, kegs of honey, wax and lard, hemp and flax bales; Foreigners brought weapons, iron and copper products, cloth, fabrics, luxury goods, wine and many other goods.

Novgorod the Great had its own special management system. If in the other Russian lands, the veche has already given way to the leading role of princely power, in Novgorod things were different. The highest authority in Novgorod was veche - a collection of all free citizens who had reached the age of majority. Veche invited a prince with a small retinue who liked Novgorod to reign, so that the prince did not have the temptation to seize control, and elected from the ranks of the boyars the mayor. The prince was the commander of the feudal republic, and the posadnik protected the interests of the townspeople, supervised the activities of all officials, together with the prince he was in charge of administration and court, commanded the militia, supervised the assembly of veterans and the boyar council, represented in external relations. In addition, an electoral tysyatsky played an important role in the city, representing the interests of smaller boyars and black people, in charge of a commercial court, disputes between Russians and foreigners, and participated in the foreign policy of the aristocratic republic. An important role was also played by the archbishop (lord) —the keeper of the state treasury, the controller of measures and weights, and the overlord regiment kept order.

The prince invited to the Novgorodian reign (as a rule, from the lands of Vladimir who were the breadbasket of a free city) did not have the right to live in Novgorod itself. His residence along with the squad was Gorodishche on the right bank of the Volkhov.

Novgorod at that time was a powerful, mobile military organization. Questions of protection of Novgorod from external enemies have always been decided at veche meetings. In the face of the threat of an enemy attack or campaign of the Novgorodians themselves, a meeting was held, at which the number of troops and movement routes were determined. According to the old custom, Novgorod exhibited a militia: each family sent all its adult sons, with the exception of the youngest. The refusal to go to the defense of his native land was considered an indelible shame. Discipline troops maintained verbal promise, an oath, which was based on the decision of the veche. The basis of the army was the urban and rural militia, formed from artisans, small traders and peasants. The troops also included squads of boyars and large merchants. The number of warriors brought by the boyar was determined by the vastness of his land holdings. The squads of the boyars and Novgorod merchants were the equestrian "front squad". The army was divided into regiments, the number of which was not constant. Novgorod could put up 20 thousands of warriors, which for feudal Europe was a big army. At the head of the troops were the prince and posadnik. The militia of the city itself had a coherent structure that corresponded to the administrative division of Novgorod. It was recruited from five urban ends (Nerevsky, Lyudin, Plotnitsky, Slavensky and Zagorodsky) and numbered about 5 thousand fighters. City militia led tysyatsky. The militia consisted of hundreds led by centurions. The hundred included militia of several streets.

In addition, Novgorod land has been famous since ancient times. fleet. Novgorodians were reputed to be experienced and fearless sailors who knew how to fight well on the water. Their ships had a deck and sailing equipment. River vessels were quite spacious (from 10 to 30 people) and fast. Novgorodians skillfully used them to transfer troops and block rivers when it was required to close the way for enemy ships. The fleet of Novgorodians repeatedly participated in military campaigns and won convincing victories over the Swedish ships. And the river flotillas of Novgorodians (ushkuyniki) actively operated on the Volga and Kama, as well as the North. It was in Novgorod that Prince Alexander knew the combat capabilities of ship rati, the speed of movement of foot troops on water. That is, the experience of Svyatoslav the Great was restored, which, with the help of ship marsels, could rapidly transfer troops over vast distances and successfully confront Khazaria, Bulgaria and Byzantium.

It must be said that the linking of the creation of the Russian fleet with the name of Peter I is incorrect in the root. The Russian fleet has existed since ancient times, as evidenced by the victories of Rurik, Oleg the Prophetic, Igor and Svyatoslav and other Russian princes. So, in the Novgorod land the fleet existed for several centuries, inheriting the traditions of the Russian Varyags.

The combat command of the Novgorod troops was not much different from other Russian troops. His “forehead” (center) usually consisted of militia infantry. On the wings (flanks), in the shelves of the right and left hands, became the princely and boyar cavalry (professional warriors). To increase the stability of the combat order and increase its depth in front of the "brow", a regiment of archers armed with long bows, whose bowstring (190 cm) contributed to the long range of arrows and powerful lethal force, was located. The latter was very important in the constant fighting with heavily armed German and Swedish soldiers. Complicated Russian bow pierced the armor of knights. In addition, the center could be strengthened with carriages and sleds so that it would be easier for the infantry to repel the onslaught of enemy cavalry.

Such a construction of the Novgorod army had a number of advantages over the military orders of Western European knighthood. It was flexible, stable, allowed in the course of the battle to maneuver not only the cavalry, but also the infantry. Novgorodians sometimes strengthened one of the wings and created a deep shock column of the “Peshchans”. The cavalry behind them during the battle made coverage, striking from the rear and flank. On the march, the Russian army, who knew how to make fast and long-range crossings, always had a guard detachment (“watchman”) ahead to reconnoiter the enemy and observe his actions. Alexander Yaroslavovich learned this knowledge from the field of military affairs, the basics of the martial art of Russia of that time from early childhood.


Hagia Sophia, Wisdom of God, in Novgorod - a symbol of the republic

The threat from the West

While Prince Alexander Yaroslavich was growing up, on the borders of the Novgorod land it became more and more alarming. In the Baltics, the German knights of the Crusaders behaved aggressively, who did not hide their far-reaching plans for Russia. Catholic Rome and its instrument, the “knight dogs,” considered Russians to be fake Christians, heretics, almost pagans, who must be “baptized” anew with fire and sword. In addition, Western feudal lords dwelt on the rich Russian lands. The neighboring Polotsk principality increased the frequency of the raids of the Lithuanians, who, creating their own statehood and joining the struggle with the Crusaders, invaded the Russian border lands. On the lands of the Finnish tribes that were under the administration of Novgorod, the Swedish feudal lords began to hike.

Novgorod prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, to secure the north-western borders of the Russian land, made a series of successful campaigns - in 1226, against the Lithuanians, and in 1227 and 1228, to Finland against the Swedes. But he conceived a campaign against the German knights-crusaders broke. In support of the Novgorod army, he led the Vladimir squad. However, the Pskov and Novgorod boyars saw in this the strengthening of the princely power and refused to participate in the campaign. Vladimir residents returned home. Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, quarreling with the people of Novgorod, went with his wife to Pereyaslavl, giving the citizens time to come to their senses. Sons Alexander and Fedor remained in Novgorod. But soon there began to be unrest, and in February 1229, the boyar Fyodor Danilovich and Tiyun Yakim secretly took the princes to the father's night.

However, things went bad for Novgorod. Novgorod had to make peace with the prince and again return it. Yaroslav Vsevolodovich promised the townspeople to rule according to the old Novgorod customs. 1230, the year the Novgorod Republic called upon Prince Yaroslav, he, after spending two weeks in Novgorod, planted Fyodor and Alexander to rule. Three years later, at the age of thirteen, Fedor died unexpectedly. Alexander had to enter the army early. The father, preparing himself a shift and successor of the princely family, was constantly keeping young Alexander with him. He began to learn the princely science to manage the land, to maintain diplomatic relations with foreigners and to command the squads.

Meanwhile, a terrible threat arose on the borders of Novgorod. Following the lands of the Latvians, the Crusaders captured the lands of the Estonians. In the year 1224 fell Yuriev (Dorpat). The fortress defended the Russian-Estonian army led by the Russian prince Vyacheslav (Vyachko). The defenders of the city in a fierce battle fell one and all. Encouraged by the success of the Order of the Sword in 1233, a sudden blow took the Russian border fortress Izborsk. Pskov army knocked out the crusaders from the captured town. In the same year, German knights raided Novgorod lands. To repel aggression, Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich leads the Pereyaslav squads to Novgorod. It is joined by Novgorod and Pskov rati. The combined Russian army, led by Yaroslav and Alexander, went on a campaign against the Knights of the Sword and in 1234, approached Yuriev. Knight army came forward. In a fierce battle, the German army suffered a crushing defeat. Overthrown by Russian warriors, it was driven into the ice of the Embach River. The ice broke and many knights went to the bottom of the river. The surviving Germans fled in panic and shut up in the fortresses. The Sword-bearers urgently sent ambassadors to Yaroslav Vsevolodovich and he “took the world with them in all his truth”. The Order began to pay tribute to the Novgorod prince and promised solemnly not to attack the possessions of Veliky Novgorod anymore. It is clear that this was a feigned promise, no one canceled aggressive plans in relation to the Russian lands.

Participation in the campaign to Yuriev-Dorpat and the battle on the Embach River made it possible for fourteen-year-old Alexander Yaroslavich to get acquainted “in action” with German knights. A brave young knight-prince grew out of the lad, attracting people with courage and intelligence, beauty and military skill. Reticent in judgments, courteous in dealing with people of different social strata, not violating the ancient customs of Veliky Novgorod, the young prince liked simple Novgorod people. We appreciated him not only for his intelligence and well-read, but also for his courage and military skill.


Facial Chronicle (Volume 6 p. 8) image of Alexander Yaroslavovich; the caption under it: “As soon as God and the honor of the earthly kingdom are honored by God, and my brother and prizhi prizhi, but the humble wisdom of the tie-up is more than all people, even great age, the beauty of his face is seen as Joseph the Beautiful, but his strength is as part of the strength of Samsonov, as he heard it as a trumpet in the people "

Novgorod Prince

In 1236, Yaroslav left Novgorod to reign in Kiev (from there in 1238, to Vladimir). Since that time, began an independent military-political activities of Alexander. Alexander Yaroslavich became the military ruler of the vast Novgorod land, which was threatened by the Swedes, German knights and Lithuanians. It was during these years that Alexander's character developed, which later won him fame, love and respect of his contemporaries: fury and at the same time caution in battle, ability to navigate in a complex military-political situation and make the right decision. These were features of a great statesman and commander.

The formidable 1237 of the Horde troops invaded Russia. Having defeated Ryazan and Vladimir, Baty moved an army to Novgorod. The young prince Alexander was preparing to defend Novgorod. The impact of the army of Batu heroically took over Torzhok. For two weeks, there was an unequal, fierce slash (February 22 defense - March 5 1238). Residents of a small town fought off violent attacks of the enemy. However, the walls collapsed under the blows of rams. Novgorod's rich elite refused to send troops to help its border suburbs. The prince was forced to deal only with preparing Novgorod itself for defense.

A terrible threat bypassed Novgorod. From the tract Ignach-cross, the steppe men turned sharply to the south. It is not known exactly why the Horde did not go to the rich Novgorod. Researchers have several reasons:

1) came spring thaw, snow melted in the forests, frozen northern marshes threatened to turn into swamps, impassable for a large army;

2) Batu's army suffered serious losses, and a partisan movement spread in the rear. Khan knew about the numerous and warlike troops of Novgorod, the strength of its fortifications. He saw an example of the defense of a small Torzhok. Batu did not want to risk;

3) it is possible that the process of establishing contacts between Batu and some of the Russian princes, including Father Alexander - Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, was already under way.

A year has passed since the departure of the hordes of Batu. An important event took place in Russia - the grand-ducal congress. In Novgorod arrived messengers from Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. He ordered his son to appear in Vladimir. Alexander's path lay through the devastated land to the ancient Vladimir burned out by the conquerors, where his father gathered the surviving Russian princes, the descendants of Prince Vsevolod, the Big Nest. It was necessary to elect the Grand Duke of Vladimir. The assembled princes named them Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. Alexander returned to Novgorod. So, Yaroslav Vsevolodovich inherited Vladimir for his brother Yuri, and Kiev was taken by Mikhail of Chernigov, concentrating in his hands the Galician principality, the Kiev principality and the Chernigov principality.

Grand Prince Vladimir of Yaroslav added Alexander possessions, highlighting more Tver and Dmitrov. From now on, the eighteen-year-old prince fell to the defense of the western Russian frontiers. And the danger of war already visibly approaching Russia from the West. European rulers were preparing for a new crusade against the Slavs and the Baltic peoples. 12 May 1237, the head of the Catholic Church approved the union of the Teutonic and Livonian Orders (the former Order of the Sword-bearers). The master of the Teutons became a grand master (grand master), and the Livonian master who entered his subordination took the title of master of the region (land master). In 1238, the Pope of Rome and the Master of the Order signed an agreement that provided for a trip to the lands of pagans - Izhoryan and Karelians, who were part of Novgorod Russia. Pope Gregory IX called on German and Swedish knighthood to conquer pagan Finnish tribes by force of arms. In June 1238, the Danish king Waldemar II and the united order master Hermann Balk agreed on the division of Estonia and military actions against Russia in the Baltic states with the participation of the Swedes. A joint campaign was being prepared, the purpose of which was to seize the northwestern Russian lands. The troops of the Crusaders were bound to the borders. Rome and the Western feudal lords were planning to take advantage of the weakening of the Russian principalities, exsanguinated by the Batu invasion.

In 1239, Alexander built a number of fortifications to the south-west of Novgorod along the Shelon River and married Princess Alexandra, the daughter of Bryachislav Polotsky. The wedding took place in Toropets in the church of St. George Already in 1240, the prince's firstborn was born in Novgorod, named Vasily.


The Savior Transfiguration Cathedral (XII century) and a monument to Prince Alexander Nevsky (middle of the XX century). Pereslavl-Zalessky

To be continued ...
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  1. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 3 February 2016 06: 53
    +4
    Military victories on the western borders of the country and skillful politics in the east, he predetermined the fate of Novgorod and Vladimir Russia for two centuries. He showed the need for a fierce, uncompromising confrontation with the West and allied relations with the East, the Horde kingdom.

    In truth so.
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 3 February 2016 10: 06
      +8
      Quote: Mangel Alys
      Military victories on the western borders of the country and skillful politics in the east, he predetermined the fate of Novgorod and Vladimir Russia for two centuries. He showed the need for a fierce, uncompromising standoff with the West and allied relations with the East , The Horde kingdom.

      In truth so.


      The allies do not take the label of reign. It was a thin forced world with a strong enemy that had just ravaged northeastern Russia. In order to fight with another, closer
      1. devastator
        devastator 3 February 2016 13: 51
        0
        Quote: Aleksander
        The allies do not take the label of reign. It was a thin forced world with a strong enemy that had just ravaged northeastern Russia. In order to fight with another, closer

        Do not forget that the ruin of a number (far from successive, but by analysis) of the principalities was, in principle, fair - both from the point of view of the Horde and from the modern point of view. The princes who ruled these principalities were scum (from both points of view) - at least stained themselves with the murder of ambassadors.
        And more sensible princes, including Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, promptly established an alliance with the new strong state, albeit with shades of vassality. Wherein:
        1. There was no occupation - nowhere in the Russian cities did the Horde garrisons stand, satraps were not appointed.
        2. The Horde did not demand to pay "tribute with swords" - the Horde did not force to send troops for its campaigns.
        3. The exit (tribute) up to the great jam was extremely moderate.
        4. There was no religious persecution or coercion.
        5. At least some order was finally established - the feuds were practically completely stopped.
        6. The Horde pledged to protect its "vassals" in the event of a large-scale war with the West.

        Yes, the Horde could approve or disapprove of the prince's candidacy. And some of the princes could even chop off their heads - and usually deservedly, for treachery (more precisely, for rubbing shoulders with the "civilized West").
        Despite the pogrom perpetrated during the campaign, in the historical sense, the entry of Russia into the orbit of the Horde played an extremely positive role for Russia - only this science allowed us to eventually become Russia.
        1. Heimdall47
          Heimdall47 3 February 2016 20: 20
          +1
          The princes who ruled these principalities were scum (from both points of view) - at least stained themselves with the murder of ambassadors.

          Heresy what))
          How is it? On their land, they could even gobble up these ambassadors alive. Nobody called them there. If someone puts his hand in the jaws of a chain dog in a strange yard, then let him be ready to be bitten off.
          There was no occupation - nowhere in the Russian cities did the Horde garrisons stand, satraps were not appointed.

          Satraps - in Persia. And the Basques lived in Russian cities until a certain period. And because of this, there were constant conflicts.
          In 1262, many Russian cities spoke out against the farmers of the Horde tribute - the Besermens. Besermens were expelled, the princes themselves began to collect and take the tribute to the Horde. And in the first quarter of the XIV century, after repeated uprisings in Rostov (1289,1320) and in Tver (1327), the Russian principalities also left the Basques
          The Horde did not demand to pay "tribute with swords" - the Horde did not force to send troops for its campaigns.

          Again a lie. Forced and Russia supplied people to the service. As part of the Golden Horde troops invading Lithuania, Poland, etc. attended by Russian princes with their squads. Khan Nogai, for example, was killed by a Russian warrior.
          The exit (tribute) up to the great jam was extremely moderate.

          Well, this is a controversial statement - if you take, for example, a million rubles a year, then from the point of view of Abramovich this will be moderate.
          4. There was no religious persecution or coercion.

          After Uzbek, not everything was so rosy.
          5. At least some order was finally established - the feuds were practically completely stopped.

          The strife in Russia until the time of Ivan the Terrible continued. The point is the scale of course.
          1. shasherin.pavel
            shasherin.pavel 3 February 2016 23: 21
            0
            In Russia, in Russia .. in which Russia? Do not forget that these were different principalities, which means different states and each was free in the decision to accept ambassadors and pay tribute or kill ambassadors, which was considered both then and now a call to war. Novgorod took the tribute and the Tatars moved away from it. You will study the map of Batu's campaign and ask yourself the question, the cities of which principalities were destroyed? Why weren't many cities of other principalities, through which the Tatars passed, burned or destroyed? Torzhok, Velikiye Luki, Smolensk principality, Novgorod-Seversk principality, Pereyaslavl principality, Polotsk principality, Turov-Pinsk principality. The Tatars came to Polotsk two years after Batu, apparently there were those who decided not to pay tribute. Khazars were paid tribute, then another prince came, Khazarov forced tribute, four years have passed Khazars came, start paying tribute to us. The prince of Novgorod-Seversky received a label from Batu and came to Moscow, fed the survivors, and helped rebuild the houses. Moscow at that time was not the whole of Russia, but only the Vladimir-Suzdal principality. Why did the northern peoples pay tribute to Novgorod for "sable from smoke" and nothing, you do not call it the Novgorod yoke? There are already people who have written and calculated and determined that the Horde tribute was equal in current prices to two loaves of black bread a year from smoke.
            1. Heimdall47
              Heimdall47 4 February 2016 08: 31
              -1
              In Russia, in Russia .. in what Russia? Do not forget that these were different principalities, which means different states and

              Russia as a confederation with a certain hierarchy of princes quite existed even under the Golden Horde.
              Almost every prince of a separate principality coveted the great reign of Vladimir - that is, seniority over other princes of Russia. He abandoned his "separate state", went to the Horde, extorted the label there in various ways, at the risk of his life.
              You study the map of Batu’s campaign and ask yourself the question, which cities of the principalities were destroyed?

              During Hitler’s campaign, ask yourself which cities in the USSR were destroyed? Those who actively resisted. Wasn’t it necessary?
              Why did the northern peoples pay tribute to Novgorod for "sable from the smoke" and nothing, you do not call this the Novgorod yoke,

              Because these northern peoples did not take shape in a separate state. education and do not have their own historical school. As a result, they were Russified and look at past events through the prism of the Russian Historical School. Well, we will not blame ourselves, right? Objectively speaking, it was a yoke.
              Already there are people who wrote and calculated and determined that the Horde tribute was at current prices equal to two loaves of black bread a year from smoke.

              What kind of people? Please provide names and links to their work with these calculations?
              1. shasherin.pavel
                shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 17: 53
                -1
                Quote: Heimdall47
                Because these northern peoples did not take shape in a separate state. education

                You are a small and silly boy: At least you could hear about the campaigns of the Ladozhtsy and Novgorodians on Bjarmia and Ugra, and how many squads did not return from these campaigns. Notice the robbers of the flight, but the warriors of the princes. Normans and Murmans, Swedes and all were beaten with them, only the Novgorod squads managed to force the people of Bjarmia to move to the Norwegian lands of Finmark and Kholugaland by the 1240 year. Can you find them on the map? In the 15th century, Yugra continued to repulse everyone who came to them.
                All Russia in the 14 century paid tribute in 5 000 rubles. With the population of 5 000 000 it turns out 0.1 penny per person. 1 penny cost a pound of bread. Pood -16 / 10 = 1600 grams per penny, which is equal to 2 loaves of our bread. (S. Kashtanov. "Finances of medieval Russia"). From Vereya 22.5 rub., From Sukhodol, Smolyany and Skirmen freedom for 9 rub., From Zvenigorod and volost 167 rub., From Kolomna and volost 342 rub., And all from the Moscow principality 960 rub. After the list of cities, the phrase follows: “If God changes the Horde, my children cannot give an outlet (tribute) to the Horde, but which of my sons will take tribute in their inheritance, then it will be so.” The Union of Russia and the Horde concluded the Board of Khan Batu until 1256 year.
                Drew attention to (S. Kashtanov. "The finances of medieval Russia"). Only I'm afraid it won't help you, because people like you "are afraid of breaking the computer" all indulge in links. For some time now, this request has been drawing a minus to "V.O"
                1. Heimdall47
                  Heimdall47 4 February 2016 20: 48
                  0
                  It was not about who could defeat whom or could not, but that those northern peoples — Izhora, Votyaks, etc. (with the exception of course), from whom the Novgorodians took tribute, as a result, remained in the orbit of the Russian state and they did not take shape in state formations (and Yugra, too), therefore they did not form their historical assessment of the past.
                  Everything else for you is a muddy stream of consciousness that is irrelevant. I'm not at that age to react to all sorts of crap smile
                  As for the assessment of tribute - interesting, but doubtful
                  Thanks for the link to the author.
                  And if God changes the Horde, my children cannot give an outlet (tribute) to the Horde, but which of my sons will take tribute in their inheritance, then it will be so

                  You are considering the era of Dmitry Donskoy, who owns these words, but this is a completely different scenario. After the Battle of Kulikovo Field, the “exit” of tribute to the Horde took place on a much smaller scale.
                  According to the results of the last Horde census in the north-east of Russia, held in 1275, the tribute was half a hryvnia from the plow. Based on the standard weight of the ancient Russian silver hryvnia of 150-200 grams, historians have calculated that in that year Vladimir-Suzdal Russia paid the Horde about one and a half tons of silver. The amount for a country that did not have its silver mines is huge.
                  . The Union of Russia and the Horde concluded the Board of Batu Khan until 1256.

                  Is it based on your exuberant imagination or something else?
  2. magician
    magician 3 February 2016 07: 01
    +3
    In Nizhny Novgorod, at the confluence of the Oka with the Volga, there is a beautiful temple named after Alexander Nevsky
    1. Voice of the Mind
      Voice of the Mind 3 February 2016 07: 47
      +1
      on the ice of the Embach River. The ice broke and many knights went to the bottom of the river.

      Somewhere I already heard it)
      1. igordok
        igordok 3 February 2016 08: 03
        +4
        Quote: Voice of Mind
        on the ice of the Embach River. The ice broke and many knights went to the bottom of the river.

        Somewhere I already heard it)

        So foreigners do not learn from their mistakes. If they entered Russia, they will certainly step on the rake.
        1. alex-cn
          alex-cn 3 February 2016 12: 23
          +3
          Probably, it would be more correct to assume that Russia always skillfully substituted this rake ...
  3. with
    with 3 February 2016 07: 19
    10
    Western "strategists" all try on the strength of the tidbit that the eye sees, but the tooth does not. Now - "soft power", psi-weapons, defeatists, Judas.

    Wednesday candles and evening prayers,
    Wednesday military trophies and peace fires,
    Lived book children who did not know the battles,
    Languishing from their small disasters.

    Children are always annoyed at their age and way of life
    And we fought to abrasions, to mortal insults
    But the clothes were patched by our mothers on time,
    We swallowed books, getting drunk with lines.

    Lipli hair to us on sweating foreheads,
    And sucked under the spoon is sweet from phras.
    And our heads wore the smell of the womb,
    From the pages of yellowing flying to us.

    And we who didn’t know wars tried to comprehend
    For a war cry that took a howl
    The secret of the word "picaz", the appointment of boundaries,
    The meaning of the attack and the clash of war chariots.

    And in boiling cauldrons of previous wars and unrest
    So much food for our little brains
    We are on the roles of traitors, truses, judas
    In children's games, enemies were appointed.

    And the villain was not allowed to cool,
    And the most beautiful ladies promised to love.
    And calming friends and loving others,
    We, as heroes, introduced ourselves.

    Only in dreams can’t you run away completely,
    A short century of fun, so much pain around.
    Trying to open the palms of the dead
    And take a gun out of a strained hand.

    Test, taking possession still warm sword,
    And wearing armor, how much, how much.
    Understand who you are - the trus or the chosen one of fate,
    And try to taste the real wrestling.

    And when a wounded friend crashes nearby
    And you will howl over the first loss, regret
    And when you are left without skin suddenly
    Because they killed him, not you.

    You will understand that you recognized, distinguished, found
    He took a grin - he grinned for death,
    Lies and evil, look, as their faces are lips,
    And always behind the crow and coffins.

    If you didn’t eat meat from a knife
    If the hands are folded, watched down,
    And in the battle did not come with a scoundrel, with the executioner,
    So, in life you were neither with anything, nor with anything.

    If the path is broken with his father's sword,
    You are wound with salty tears,
    If in a hot fight I experienced that how much,
    So you read the right books as a child.
    V.Vysotsky
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 3 February 2016 07: 38
    0
    Novgorod land since ancient times was famous for its fleet... There is a version that Novgorodians went to Alaska ...
    1. shasherin.pavel
      shasherin.pavel 3 February 2016 23: 32
      +2
      Quote: parusnik
      There is a version that Novgorodians and before
      Yenisei arrived, fought with Ugra (Khanty-Mansiysk sovr.)
      1318 summer. Rooks and ears went to the Abo-Aland skerries and along the "Full River" - Aurajoki ascended to the city of Abo (now the city of Turku) - the then capital of Finland. Was captured by the Vatican church tax, collected over 5 years. As it is said in the chronicle, “I came to Novgorod in good health” (the author of the “chronicle” is the military pseudohistorian Shirokorad Alexander Borisovich).
      1320 and 1323 l. Ushkuyniki, led by Ignat Molygi, make a trip from the Northern Dvina River to Murman, attacked northern pirates who did not let Russian merchants around Scandinavia, ravaging the Finn-Mark region.
      Who did not pay attention: in the 1380 battle on the Kulikovo field.
      1321 summer the prince of Moscow stops paying tribute to the Horde, moves to Novgorod and rules from there. He makes trips to the Ugra and against the Swedes (Swedes).
      Subsequently, the raid on the Swedes forced to speed up the signing of the Swedes of the Orekhov peace with Novgorod. The Swedish war for the lands of Veliky Novgorod temporarily stopped. Novgorodians lay on the island called Orekhov, at the mouth of the Neva, the Oreshkom fortress, because of which historical passions flared up: the capture of the fortress by the Swedes
      1323 l 12 Aug Orekhov Peace (Orekhovets Peace, Notberg Peace) - the first peace treaty on the establishment of borders between Novgorod and the Kingdom of Sweden. Imprisoned in Orekhovets fortress, after 30 years of military operations. According to the Orekhov peace treaty, the western part of the Karelian Isthmus and the neighboring region of Savolaks were transferred to the Kingdom of Sweden, the eastern part of the isthmus with Korela remained in the Novgorod land. For the first time, the borders between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Novgorod Republic were officially established, passing from the Gulf of Finland along the Sestra River, in the north to Lake Saimaa and then in the northwest to the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia.
      So much for the yoke in all of Russia! They beat Murman, they beat Norgov, they went to Ugra, the Swedes were forced to sign the world! there were a lot of things to do while the Tatars were under the yoke.
      1. Rivares
        Rivares 4 February 2016 01: 08
        +1
        Quote: shasherin.pavel
        there were a lot of things to do while the Tatars were under the yoke.

        Back in the days of the yoke, most domes of temples were covered with gold.
        1. shasherin.pavel
          shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 18: 03
          0
          In general, if you look deeper, then at first Moscow bought the Horde for silver, and made its economy completely dependent on Russia, which is why in many battles before the Battle of Kulikovo the Tatars had already participated on the side of the Russian army, the capture of Kazan can even be "a civil war of the Tatars "to name, the number of Tatars defending Kazan and Tatars storming was approximately equal, as well as with the Nogais and other peoples, at the same time Kazan was defended by about a thousand Russians.
  5. igordok
    igordok 3 February 2016 08: 10
    +4
    The title photo shows a monument to Alexander Nevsky on Mount Sokolikh near Pskov.
  6. Volzhanin
    Volzhanin 3 February 2016 08: 24
    +7
    I don’t know about Alaska, but they went to small Britain as if to my home.
    A very worthy article, a well-deserved plus. Only with Batu is somehow inaudible ... Because the situation was somewhat different. The rest is nothing to complain about.
    1. shasherin.pavel
      shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 18: 07
      0
      Quote: Volzhanin
      here in small britain

      It's even a shame: 80 years after the arrival of Russian merchants in England, Chandler sails along their path and "opens" Russia to England, and the Frozen Sea, along which Ladozhians went in 437 for a "fish tooth", now turned out to be Barents Sea.
  7. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 3 February 2016 08: 36
    +5
    Quote: wizard
    In Nizhny Novgorod, at the confluence of the Oka with the Volga, there is a beautiful temple named after Alexander Nevsky
    1. igordok
      igordok 3 February 2016 09: 05
      +5
      I will add.
      The military church of the Holy Blessed Grand Prince Alexander Nevsky in Pskov. Built in 1907 — 1908 for the 96 Omsk Regiment.

  8. Belousov
    Belousov 3 February 2016 10: 49
    +1
    Here it was really a statesman.
    1. KBR109
      KBR109 3 February 2016 11: 24
      +4
      This is yes. It was important to feed the Tatar tumens to Russia. Let's call it hospitality. From the point of view of the church - yes, ideal. "Ally" was religiously tolerant until the 15th century and he himself often converted to the right faith. He tried not to touch the clergy of all religions.
    2. Darkness
      Darkness 3 February 2016 12: 46
      +1
      Yeah. Cleverly suppressed any riots against the Horde.
      I hope to continue to fully reveal this
      1. shasherin.pavel
        shasherin.pavel 3 February 2016 23: 38
        -1
        The riots of the pagan magi were suppressed against the princes of the Orthodox. Often they incited riots, those who decided, Tatars would come, they would cut off the prince’s head and I’m here with gifts and a princely place. Prince of Moscow also had to punish Novgorod for calling for conversion to Catholicism.
        1. Rivares
          Rivares 4 February 2016 01: 13
          +1
          Quote: shasherin.pavel
          The riots of the pagan magi were suppressed against the princes of the Orthodox.

          There were no "Orthodox princes" in those days. There were Christian orthodox princes. The Orthodox were "pagans" because Praised to rule. The era was called two-faith (officially Christianity, at home Orthodoxy). Around 1500, Nikon carried out a reform, the essence of which was to rename orthodox Christians into Orthodox Christians and rewrite church books.
          1. shasherin.pavel
            shasherin.pavel 4 February 2016 18: 23
            0
            The faithful princes became influenced by the Muslims of the Horde, it is not for nothing that Nikitin's "March across the Three Seas" ends with phrases in the Muslim language. But Askold was baptized into Orthodoxy in Byzantium, it was for Constantinople that it was fixed during the division of the Roman Empire into Eastern and Western, the supreme ruler of Byzantium was originally "August" from this and the "august person", Western and Eastern parts were ruled by "Caesars" from this "crown prince" ... Saint Vladimir in Kherson was also baptized into Orthodoxy. And not to know about it ... Askold was killed by the pagan Oleg the Prophet, Igor's uncle, Igor's son Vladimir was baptized in the Crimea, with his grandmother Princess Equal to the Apostles Olga, who was baptized in Byzantium, in Constantinople, they baptized not only Kiev, but all of Russia to Novgorod. Only he was baptized by a bishop whose teaching was condemned in Constantinople at the third ecumenical council. It was with this teaching that Nikon began to struggle.
  9. Lanista
    Lanista 3 February 2016 18: 57
    0
    Great article, from me a fat plus.
    Malyuyusenkaya such correction:
    They called it Zalessky because in the old days a wide strip of dense forests seemed to enclose and protect the city from the steppe.

    That's not why. But because Pereyaslavl was also in the Kiev principality. And Pereyaslavl, which is the birthplace of Alexander, was in the so-called "Zalesskaya Rus", that is, the territory of Rus that was located behind the vast forests of the present Bryansk region. To distinguish the two Pereyaslavl from each other, located in Zalesskaya Rus began to be called Zalessky.
  10. Stilet
    Stilet 3 February 2016 20: 08
    +2
    Nobody said better than Gumilyov about Nevsky. Nevsky knew with whom you can get along nearby (Tatars) drinks , and with whom not (Teutonic) am .
  11. allexx83
    allexx83 3 February 2016 22: 50
    +2
    The beginning of the article is a reprint of an old Soviet book, I read as a child). Alexander is an example of not only an outstanding military leader, but also a far-sighted politician. You cannot blame him for receiving a label from Batu. Fighting on two fronts is a futile occupation. I had to choose the least evil. "Tatars", at least, did not try to destroy Russia as a state formation.