At the origins of the navigator service. Navigation School
The School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences, opened by Peter the Great, became the first military educational institution to train specialists for the Russian Navy, as well as artillerymen and military engineers for the army. The school was located in Moscow, in the Sukharev Tower and was originally subordinate. Armory Chamber of the Pushkar Order, which was led by Field Marshal Fedor Golovin (1650-1706). The school was headed by Jacob Wilimovich Bruce (1669-1735). In fact, his name was James Daniel Bruce, he was a Scottish by birth, a representative of the noble Scottish clan Bruce, whose representatives have lived in Russia since 1647. Jacob Bruce himself received a home education, then in 1683 he enrolled in the Fun regiment, then gradually grew up in the ranks in the army. Bruce accompanied Peter on his trip abroad in 1697. In 1700, on the eve of the opening of the school, he already had the rank of major general of the Russian service. To organize the educational process, highly qualified foreign teachers were invited to the school, but Russian officers who had experience in the artillery and engineering service also worked in the school.
Among the first teachers of the school are the Englishman Henry Farvarson, a professor at the University of Aberdeen, a mathematician and astronomer; Englishmen Stefan Gwin and Richard Grace, famous Russian mathematician Leonty Filippovich Magnitsky - author of the first Russian encyclopedia in mathematics "Arithmetic, in other words, numeral science from different dialects into the Slavonic language translated ..." published in 1703, in the School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences, focus was devoted to the preparation of students in mathematics, engineering, artillery and marine sciences. Graduates of the school were sent to the army and the navy, but also to the civil service — teachers to other schools, construction engineers, architects, officials in various departments. The school was divided into lower and upper schools. The lower school was taught reading, writing, arithmetic, geometry and trigonometry. The upper school was taught German, mathematics and special disciplines - marine, artillery and engineering. Children of noblemen, clerks, clerks, from the homes of noblemen and other officials between the ages of 11 and 23 years were admitted to school. Naturally, in this unique school at that time, representatives of many of Russia's most distinguished families, Volkonsky, Dolgoruky, Golovins, Khovansky, Sheremetyevy, Urusovy, Shakhovsky and many others, hurried to give their children. By 28 September, 1701 was recruited by 180 people, by 19 in November, 1701 was - 250 people, by 1 in April, 1704 was - 300 people. The term of study at the School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences was approximately 10-15 years. At the same time, students had practical training in the army, in powder and gun factories, in the navy and abroad. Those students who did not show much zeal and were distinguished by low academic performance were given to artisans, sailors, soldiers, gunners, and so on. In 1706, after the death of Fyodor Golovin, the school was reassigned to the Order of the Navy, and in 1712, the Admiralty Office. During this period, the school was controlled by Admiral General Count Fyodor Apraksin (1661-1728).
16 (27) January 1712. Peter the Great signed a decree expanding the school by creating additional engineering and artillery classes: “... Multiply engineering school, namely Russian students who learned tsifir or Sukharev tower, and send this exercise, when they finish arithmetic, teach geometry as much as is necessary before engineering; and then give the engineer to teach fortification and always keep the total number of 100 people or 150, of which two-thirds or out of need were from noblemen ... ”(Peter I decree, January 16 1712 year). However, already in the same year 1712 students of artillery and engineering classes were transferred to St. Petersburg, where engineering and artillery schools were established as independent military schools. The development of the navy of the Russian Empire required the improvement of the quality of training officers and specialists for ships and ground services. In 1715, the navigational classes were, as well as the artillery and engineering classes, transferred to St. Petersburg, where the Naval Academy was established on their basis. The School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences itself, whose captain Brunts was appointed as the head of 1717, turned into a preparatory school at the Maritime Academy. In 1753, the School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences was abolished. In parallel with the development of naval education, the service of navigators in the fleet was also improved. Back in 1701, Peter the Great introduced the position of captain over navigators, whose competence included general management of hydrographic and pilotage services. At the same time, Peter the Great ordered and carefully monitor the behavior of the navigators, with which he was very suspicious of observing discipline: “Do not let go of the navigators in the taverns, because they, boorish spawn, do not hesitate to get drunk and arrange a brawl” or “Navigators during the battle not to let go to the upper deck, for they upset the whole battle with their foul look. ” In 1768, Catherine II issued the “Regulations on the Management of Admiralties and Fleets”, which also provided for the position of captain above navigators. In 1797, the new Navy Charter was approved, according to which the position of a professor of astronomy and navigation, who was aboard the fleet chief commander, appeared in fleet headquarters, control all navigators and midshipmen training, calculate the fleet location, harbors, straits, monitor tides , changing the magnetic needle, etc.
In 1715, as we noted above, the Maritime Academy was established, located in St. Petersburg - in the house of A.V. Kikina on the bank. Not you. Currently, there is the building of the Winter Palace. Pupils of the Moscow School of Mathematics and Navigation and the Narva School of Navigation that existed by that time were transferred to St. Petersburg to study at the Maritime Academy. Basically, it was a youth from noble families, officially in the military service and sent to the academy to improve their knowledge in the maritime business. Thus, the Maritime Academy became the first purely naval school in Russia (the mathematics and navigation school trained personnel for the fleet, for the land army, and for industry and the civil service). It is noteworthy that the list of disciplines of the Maritime Academy was compiled by the emperor Peter the Great. The structure of the Maritime Academy was militarized. The cadets were united in 6 teams of 50 people in each. The brigade commanders appointed experienced officers seconded from the guards regiments. Assistants helped them - one or two officers and two sergeants per brigade. Also in each brigade were assigned several "uncles" - old experienced soldiers, distinguished by positive personal qualities. Their duties included ensuring discipline among the students of the Academy. By the way, many students did not live in the barracks of the Academy, but in private apartments. The Academy was managed by a director, who was appointed to the post of Lieutenant General Baron P. Sent = Iler. Henry Farvarson, who previously taught at the Moscow Mathematical-Navigational School, directly supervised the learning process itself. The basic structure of the Maritime Academy teachers was also transferred from the mathematics and navigation school. However, in February 1717, Lieutenant General Saint-Hilaire replaced Count Andrei Artamonovich Matveev (1666-1728) as director of the Maritime Academy (1719-1706) - a famous Russian diplomat and politician, former envoy of the Russian Empire in Vienna, at the court of the Holy Roman Emperor. However, already in XNUMX, Matveyev was transferred to the post of senator and president of the Justits College, and Captain Grigory Skornyakov-Pisarev, who had previously taught artillery sciences at the Naval Academy and the Moscow Mathematical Navigation School, became head of the Maritime Academy. “It was a stern, strict man, a vivid example of which is at least the fact from the time of his youth that the only escape that was in XNUMX in a bombing company was made by a young soldier for fear that“ he lost his lieutenant's cane ” ; in the service, he was a cold and pedantic performer of duty, a lover of all kinds of ceremonies and formalities, ”contemporaries recalled Gregory Skornyakov-Pisarev.
The Maritime Academy trained specialists for the Russian fleet in the field of navigation, ship building, fortification, and ship artillery. The training of surveyors, topographers and cartographers also began in 1718. For a long time at the Maritime Academy there was no fixed period of study as in modern educational institutions. Duration of study depended on the individual knowledge and abilities of each individual student. During his studies at the academy he was to master mathematics, trigonometry, astronomy, navigation, artillery sciences and a number of other disciplines. In 1732, the empress Anna Ivanovna gave a large stone house for the needs of the Maritime Academy at the corner of the embankment of the Great Neva and the 3 line.
Naval Cadet Corps - from Elizabeth to Revolution
By the middle of the XVIII century, the training of specialists for the navy of the Russian Empire was already carried out by three educational institutions - the Maritime Academy, the Navigational School and the Gardemarinsk company. Nevertheless, the question of improving the officer training system for the fleet continued to be discussed. Ultimately, Empress Elizaveta Petrovna agreed with the position of Vice-Admiral Voin Yakovlevich Rimsky-Korsakov, who proposed to create one school for the fleet with a broader program - the type of landowners corps, who prepared junior officers for the ground forces. 15 December 1752. Elizaveta Petrovna signed a decree creating the Naval Cadet Corps on the basis of the Marine Academy. After that, the Navigatsky school and the Gardemarinsky company were abolished. Only persons of noble origin, who took a course in military and civil sciences and received a naval rank, could enter the Naval Cadet Corps of the Sea.
Like the Maritime Academy, the corps was organized on a militarized basis. Cadets and midshipmen (cadets were called students of the second and third grades, and midshipmen - students of the first grade) were reduced to three companies, in the academic respect, identical to the three classes. In 1762, ten years after its creation, the corps was renamed simply the Naval Cadet Corps. After the 1771 fire, he was transferred to Kronstadt, having been placed in the building of the Italian Palace, where the school was located until December 1796, when it was transferred back to St. Petersburg. The decree on the transfer to St. Petersburg was signed by Emperor Paul I, who was convinced that the naval educational institution should be located in close proximity to the command of the fleet. Alexander I also adhered to this line. He agreed with the opinion of the authors of the report of the Navy Education Committee, dated 1804 year, and argued the need to control the quality of training navigators, encourage further education navigators after graduating from the Naval Cadet Corps, organizing practical training for midshipmen trained in navigational specialty, inviting as teachers experienced and educated navigators.
Gradually, the number of students grew in the corps, the organization of the educational process was improved. So, in 1826, 505 cadets and midshipmen studied in the corps. In 1827, at the corps, Officer classes were created, in 1862, transformed into an Academic course in marine sciences. In 1877, on the basis of the Academic course of marine sciences, the Nikolaev Naval Academy was created (now the Naval Academy). As early as 1827, Emperor Nicholas I approved the “Regulations on the Corps of Naval Navigators”. In accordance with this provision, the position of inspector of the Naval Navigator Corps was approved, which was held by the general hydrograph (in 1837, the Office of the General Hydrograph was transformed into the Geographical Department). Two fleet inspectors, the Black Sea and Baltic, obeyed the inspector of the Naval Navigator Corps. On the Caspian and Okhotsk flotillas, the duties of the navigator service inspectors were performed by senior navigator officers of the flotillas. April 13 1827 was approved staff complement Corps naval navigators - General 1, 4 colonel, lieutenant 6, 25 captains, 25 schtabs captains, lieutenants 50, 50 lieutenants, ensigns 50, 186 conductors. Training for the navigator corps was carried out in Nikolaevsk and Kronstadt navigator schools. In 1853, the Maritime Regulations ordered the chief navigators to be at the headquarters of the commander-in-chief of the fleet. However, already in 1857, the entire management of the navigator service was transferred to the level of fleets and flotillas. In 1885, the navigator corps was abolished, after which the navigator activity turned from a special service of the fleet into the activity of naval specialists of ships and flotillas.
In 1860-s. The naval cadet corps has undergone major new changes. It was renamed the Marine School and introduced a new charter. However, already in 1891, the former name of the school was returned - the Naval Cadet Corps. So he was called until 1906, when he was renamed His Imperial Highness, heir of the Tsarevich Naval Corps. 1916 to 1918 the corps was again called the Maritime School. In 1861, new rules were established for the admission of pupils to the Marine Corps, initiated by General-Admiral Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich. In accordance with these rules, young men aged from 14 to 17 were accepted into the corps - children of nobles, honorary citizens, honored army and navy officers, civilian officials. In the corps, corporal punishment was abolished in order to raise the awareness of the personnel of the cadets and cadets.
By the beginning of the twentieth century. the corps was managed by a director (he was also the head of the Maritime Academy), the number of cadets and midshipmen was determined in 320 people reduced to 6 classes - 3 junior (general) class and 3 senior (special) class. The younger general class could be entered by young men who owned knowledge at the level of the first three classes of a real school. For admission it was required to pass an entrance exam on a competitive basis. Children of naval officers enjoyed the pre-emption right to enter the school. After the end of the full theoretical and practical course, the midshipman corps received the military title of midshipman. In 1906, compulsory ship practice was introduced on existing ships of the Russian fleet. The graduates of the corps, who were sent to the ships, received the title of ship's midshipman, and only after passing one-year practice did they pass the examinations and receive the military title of midshipman. Those who could not pass the practical examinations and demonstrated unsuitability for service on the ship, were dismissed from the naval service with the assignment of the rank of second lieutenant in admiralty or civil rank 10-th class. Over the years of the existence of the Naval Cadet Corps, thousands of officers of the Russian Navy have been trained in it, among its graduates are practically all the key figures in stories Russian fleet XVIII - early XX centuries. At various times, Admirals Fedor Ushakov and Mikhail Lazarev, Alexander Kolchak and Pavel Nakhimov, Vice Admirals Vladimir Kornilov and Andrey Lazarev, Rear Admirals Vladimir Istomin and Alexey Lazarev, the future Soviet Vice Admiral Alexander Nemitts and many, many others graduated from the Naval Cadet Corps. outstanding naval commanders and heroes of sea battles.
Higher Naval School. Mv Frunze
After the revolution, radical changes came in the life of the Naval Cadet Corps, which, at first glance, did not promise anything good for him. In 1918, the cadet corps was closed, and in its place opened the Courts of the fleet commanders. The courses were designed for 300 students recruited from professional sailors - the Soviet government planned for 4 a month to prepare them for their duties as commanders and specialists. But soon it became obvious to the Soviet leadership that for the full functioning of the country's naval forces it was necessary to create a full-fledged system of naval education, and at the same time the development of the navigational service. After 3 on June 1919, in accordance with the order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the RSFSR, the headquarters of all naval, river and lake armed forces of the Republic was created, and the position of flagship navigator was introduced to it, which N.F. Rybakov. But in 1921, this post was canceled. As for the training of the naval navigator, for this purpose in 1919. Navy command staff courses were transformed into the Fleet Command School with a training period of three and a half years. The school was divided into the naval department, which trained navigators, artillery commanders and miners, and the technical department, where mechanics, electrical mechanics and radio telegraph operators were trained. The rules of admission to the school were also improved - now, unlike the courses, not only sailors of the RKKF, but also civilian young people got the opportunity to enter there. The age of applicants was determined for civilian youth - 18 years, for sailors - 26 years. Applicants were required to have a secondary education and successfully pass the entrance exams. 18 June 1922 was the first graduation school. The Workers 'and Peasants' Red Fleet received 82 new commander and specialist. In the same 1922, military engineering specialties were withdrawn from the school - from that time engineers, mechanics and electrical engineers began to be trained at the Naval Engineering School (now the Military (Polytechnic) Institute of the Admiral Fleet Naval Academy) Soviet Union N. G. Kuznetsova). In the autumn of 1922, the Fleet Command School was renamed the Naval School, training in which provided for the training of fleet commanders without division into specialties. Graduates of the school could command ships up to the 2 rank ships, further knowledge was supposed to be improved and strengthened at the Command Enhancement Courses (then Higher Special Officer Classes of the Navy) and at the Naval Academy.
In 1926, the growing need of the RKKF for qualified navigator personnel led, on the one hand, to the further improvement of the navigational education system, and on the other hand, the restoration of the flagship navigator position in the Soviet military fleet. KA was appointed flagship navigator of the RKKF. Migalovsky (the position was soon renamed inspector of the navigational service). In 1926, the Fleet Command School received the name that remained until 1998, for more than seventy years it was called the Naval School. Mv Frunze (from 1939 - Higher Naval School named after MV Frunze). The school was formed 4 department - navigator, hydrographic, artillery and mine-torpedo. As in tsarist Russia, in the Soviet Union, higher naval education became extremely prestigious. In the 1940 year, 300 applications for applicants were received on 3900 cadet places. In 1930, the leadership of the navigator service and the supervision of the training of navigators were assigned to the Hydrogeographic Department. A permanent navigator commission was created during the administration. In 1934, the position of the head of the navigational service of the Naval Forces Administration of the Red Army was introduced.
In 1937, the People's Commissariat of the Navy was created, in which, as part of the combat training department, the post of flagship navigator was introduced. In 1938, Mr. Philip Bulykin (1902-1974) was appointed to this position. A graduate of the Naval Academy. Mv Frunze 1928 year of release, Philip Bulykin began service as a navigator of the cruiser "Comintern", then moved as a navigator to the submarine "Politruk", where he served until 1930. In 1930, Bulykin became the junior navigator of the battleship "Paris Commune", and two years later was promoted and appointed commander of the navigational sector. In 1934-1935 Bulykin held the position of navigator of a special battalion of destroyers of destroyers, in 1935-1936. - the flagship navigator of the brigade of cruisers. In 1936-1937 Philip Fedorovich commanded the squadron destroyer "Independent", and in August 1937, Captain 3 of the rank Bulykin, was appointed flagship navigator of the Black Sea Fleet. From this position, he was promoted to flagman navigator in the General Staff of the RKKF USSR. Naval Naval Service (navigator inspection, inspection of navigator service, inspection of navigator training) Bulykin headed in 1938-1947, in 1943-1947. He served as chief naval officer of the USSR Navy, where he received a shoulder strap of a rear admiral at 1946, and then was removed from his post and transferred to the shipboarding department of the Higher Special Officer Classes as a senior lecturer. Since August, 1949 Bulykin headed the Department of Navigation Navigating Faculty of the Higher Naval School. Mv Frunze. In 1954, he retired for health reasons.
War and post-war periods
After the conversion of the combat training department in May 1939 into the Combat Training Directorate of the RKKF, a navigator inspection was established (since 1942 was called the navigational service inspection), which was supervised by the inspection chief as the chief navigator of the Combat Training Directorate of the RKKF. Actually, the position of chief navigator was introduced in 1943, and in 1945, the inspection of navigator training was reorganized into the department of navigational training of the Combat Training Directorate of the USSR Navy. It should be noted that while in 1943-1945. as part of the Navy, there was the Department of diving, his staff was the senior navigator of scuba diving, and in 1954-1960. the staff had the position of chief navigator of scuba diving. Underwater navigation is considered one of the most difficult, therefore, underwater navigators can be safely attributed to the elite of this maritime profession. After the introduction of the position of chief navigator in 1943, the range of his official duties was determined. The chief navigator of the Navy was a senior specialist in leadership in the field of navigator affairs. In a special regard, the flagship navigators of the fleets, flotillas and the head of the navigational department of the Higher Special Classes of the Navy were subordinate to the chief navigator of the Navy. The main navigator’s competence included: controlling the level of navigational training and ship navigation in fleets and flotillas, inspecting navigational service and combat training of ships and formations, controlling the material security of fleets and flotillas by means of navigational equipment, over the distribution of navigational equipment among fleets, flotillas and ships. He was also responsible for organizing the training of navigators at the Higher Special Classes of the USSR Navy, inspecting naval educational institutions for control of the navigator training. From then until now, the official competencies of the chief navigator of the USSR Navy (later - the Russian Federation) remained generally unchanged.
The direct training of navigators in the period under review, as before, was carried out in the VVMU them. Mv Frunze. During World War II the school was evacuated to Astrakhan. Graduates of the school took an active part in defending the Soviet country against the aggression of Hitler's Germany and its allies. 52 graduate school during the Great Patriotic War were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, the school cadets took part in the Victory Parade on Red Square. In the postwar years, continued further improvement of naval education. At the beginning of the 1960's Higher Naval School. Mv Frunze switched to a command-engineering profile, a faculty system was introduced, and the term of study rose to 5 years. 1959 to 1971 the school included a faculty of political composition, which trained officers with higher military-political education and the qualifications of a ship navigator. In 1967, a separate Kiev Higher Naval Political School was established on the basis of the faculty of political composition. In the same 1967, the rocket and artillery faculty of the VVMU named after Mv Frunze was transferred to Kaliningrad, where he began to work a branch of the school, later transformed into the Kaliningrad Higher Naval School (now - FF Ushakov Baltic Naval Institute).
Not only in the Higher Naval School. Mv In the post-war years, Frunze trained the navigator of the USSR Navy. So, in 1947, the Koenigsberg conquered from the Germans, renamed Kaliningrad, was transferred to the Baku Naval Preparatory School, renamed the Kaliningrad Naval School in 1948, then - to the Baltic Higher Naval School of Diving. During this period officers and navigators and hydrographs for the Soviet submarine fleet were trained at the engineering-hydrographic and navigational faculties. In 1954, the 1967 fleet officer courses for training commanders of naval combat units and chiefs of the RTS missile boats and small rocket ships that were created instead of the school were renamed the branch of the Leningrad Higher Naval School named after MV Frunze as part of the navigator and artillery faculties. 58 April 7 was formed by the Kaliningrad Higher Naval School, which at that time included two faculties - artillery and navigator. That is, the navigators, in addition to Leningrad, were trained in the Kaliningrad College. In 1969, the Kaliningrad Higher Naval School was renamed the Baltic Naval Institute, which was named after Admiral FF in 1998. Ushakov.
Another naval educational institution, where in 1951 began the preparation of navigators for the USSR Navy, was the Pacific Higher Naval School (TOVVMU). Its history began in 1937, when, in accordance with the decision to establish a naval school in the Far East, the Third Naval School (3rd VMU) was established, located in the city of Vladivostok. The first course of the school was formed by freshmen of the Naval School named after M.V. Frunze, sent from Leningrad to the Far East to continue further training. On May 5, 1939, the school was renamed the Pacific Naval School (TOVMU), and in 1940 it was given the status of a university, after which the word "higher" was added to the name of the school. In September 1951, the navigational and mine-torpedo faculties were opened at the school, in 1969 the faculty of radio engineering, in 1978 the faculty of radio communications, and in 1985 the faculty of coastal troops and naval weapons aviation. In 1998, the school was renamed the Pacific Naval Institute named after S.O. Makarov, but in 2014 it was again returned the name of the Pacific Higher Naval School named after. S.O. Makarova. At present, the school retains the main faculties - navigational, mine-torpedo, radio engineering, radio communications, coastal troops and naval aviation weapons, but in addition, a school of technicians operates under it. Future midshipmen of the Russian Navy are trained in it, including those who are to serve in the navigational warhead and work with navigation devices.
In parallel with the modernization of the naval education system, the improvement of the navigational service of the Soviet Navy continued. Thus, in 1952, the charters of the navigational service were revised and refined, and new navigation and ammunition facilities were supplied to the fleet. In 1975, then-Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Navy Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union S.G. Gorshkov (1910-1988) introduced fleet navigation departments in fleets headed by flagship naval navigators and subordinate to fleet chiefs of staff. The chief navigator of the USSR Navy was subordinated to the apparatus, consisting of officers, navigators and engaged in the organization of the navigator service. The innovations of Admiral Sergey Gorshkov were aimed at improving the service of navigators and were explained, among other things, by the fact that the admiral himself knew firsthand about the navigator service. At the end of the Naval Academy. Mv Frunze in 1931, Sergey Gorshkov began his service as a fleet officer precisely in navigator positions - first navigator of the destroyer Frunze in the Black Sea Fleet, then in the Pacific Fleet, navigator of the minelayer 2 Tomsk, the flagship co-pilot of the troubles, in the marines, in the flagship team of the brigade, in the marines destroyer, marine brigade.
Service and training navigators in modern Russia
1 November 1998 as a result of the merger of the Higher Naval School named after MV Frunze and the Higher Naval Scuba Diving School named after the Lenin Komsomol, a new naval higher education institution, the St. Petersburg Naval Institute, was created. 25 January 2001, in honor of the 300 anniversary of the founding of the School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences, which initiated military education in Russia, the St. Petersburg Naval Institute received a new twofold name - the Marine Corps of Peter the Great - St. Petersburg Military Maritime Institute. Currently, the institute trains officers of the Navy of the Russian Federation in the following faculties: 1) navigator (surface ships), 2) navigator (submarines), 3) hydrographic, 4) anti-submarine and trailing armament of surface ships, 5) missile submarine armament, 6) anti-submarine, torpedo and mine submarine armament. Enroll in the school and become a naval officer have the opportunity to graduates of secondary schools in the age of 16-22 years and military personnel of fixed-term and contract service before the age of 24 years. Graduates of the institute receive the military rank of "lieutenant" and, in addition to the military, also civilian specialty in the field of navigation, hydrography, automated control systems, electronics and automation of physical installations. Thus, the Peter the Great Marine Corps - St. Petersburg Naval Institute remains one of the main military educational institutions of the Russian Federation engaged in the training of navigators for surface and submarine ships of the Russian Navy.
At present, the navigator service performs the most important functions in the organization of the combat control of the Navy of the Russian Federation. It closely cooperates with all the central control bodies of the Navy, primarily with the Hydrographic Service of the Navy - the Main Directorate of Navigation and Oceanography of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. The navigator service performs important tasks to ensure the maintenance, maintenance, proper operation of navigation equipment. In addition, the navigator service organizes special training for the personnel of the navigator combat units. Many prominent figures of the Russian fleet began their military careers as navigators on ships of various ranks. The navigators make a great contribution to the improvement of the management of the Russian fleet and to ensuring its daily activities at the present time. Therefore, on January 25, the command of the Navy of the Russian Federation congratulates all navigators and veterans of the navigator service on their professional holiday, and we can only join these congratulations and wish all the best to Russian acting, reserve and retired navigators, success to those who study or are only going to enroll in training institution, to join the ranks of the representatives of this wonderful and necessary profession.