Military Review

Cavalry advances without noticing water obstacles.

42
During World War I, the most maneuverable and mobile units in the Russian army were cavalry units. But even after the end of the First World War and the Civil War in Russia, the cavalry did not give up their positions. Already as part of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army (RKKA), cavalry continued to play a very important role in the conduct of maneuver warfare, despite the appearance on the battlefield of armored vehicles and tanks. One of the important aspects that gave cavalrymen an advantage over motorized units was the ability to quickly wade across water obstacles or even swim where mechanized units could not.


Although the number of cavalry in the Red Army all the prewar years was steadily declining, it was too early to write off the cavalry from the accounts, which the Great Patriotic War clearly demonstrated. Back in 1938, the Red Army had 32 cavalry divisions and 7 corps directorates, but it entered the war, having already only 13 cavalry divisions and 4 corps. At the same time 4 of these divisions were mountain cavalry and had a lighter composition. The revival of cavalry was largely facilitated by the outbreak of war, unsuccessful for the Soviet Union.

After the 1941 summer of the year, as the snow under the bright sun, the Soviet mechanized corps literally melted in the tragedy of the border battles, the Red Army was almost deprived of the most important tool of warfare - mechanized units. The only real substitute for mech joints, although inferior to them in mobility, was cavalry. At the same time, the tactics of the battle of the Soviet cavalrymen differed little from the tactics of the battle of the motorized infantry. Motorized infantry used cars and armored personnel carriers as a transport, entering into battle in a hurried manner. The cavalrymen acted similarly. Horses were used only to transport soldiers to the battlefield; the cavalrymen themselves fought in infantry chains. Attack in the equestrian system was very rare. According to the military regulations of the cavalry, such attacks could be carried out only under favorable conditions, when shelters allowed, and also the weakness or absence of enemy fire.



By the end of 1941, the Red Army included 82 cavalry divisions, albeit of a light type of 3447 personnel. In the pre-war states, the cavalry division numbered 8968 manpower. The cavalry divisions reached their maximum number in February of the 1942 year, when they already had 87 in the army. Then the number of divisions began to decline again. So on 1 in May 1943 of their year was already 26, however, the number of these compounds grew, there were 238 968 people and 226 816 horses in them.

Unlike road transport, horses as a means of transportation and a corpulent force had a number of advantages - they moved better on conventional roads and off-road, were not dependent on fuel supplies (a serious problem in wartime conditions), could live on ordinary pasture, and often themselves became food, saving people from starvation. In the spring of 1942, many Soviet cavalry divisions that had fallen into the encirclement partially ate the existing horses, but managed to break free from the grip of the Nazis.

The cavalry was highly mobile, and at the initial stage of the war these units could easily hide from the German dominant in the sky aviation in large forests. As you know, with cars and tanks you can’t go far into the forest. The cavalry succeeded and it was better to ford numerous water barriers. It is worth noting that the issue of river forcing was described in great detail in the military guiding documents of the cavalrymen, first the tsarist, and then from the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army. Approaching the water barrier, the cavalrymen first of all organized a thorough reconnaissance. In this case, there were several types of river crossing horse units: on bridges, on special watercraft (rafts, boats, ferries), ford and swim. The last way to overcome the water barrier was a distinctive feature of this kind of troops.



The passage of cavalry units on the bridges was carried out on foot. Riders at the same time moved along the edge of the bridge, holding the horses in the direction closer to its central part. Horsemen cavalrymen drove horses under the bridles. In quadruple sleds, the harness horses, when crossing, were reeled off, they were led separately. At the same time, the distance during the passage of bridges between divisions increased, and the stops of divisions on the bridge were strictly prohibited. The only possible reason for the column to stop was the swinging of the bridge to the extent of the loss of stability of the horses.

At the same time, one of the very common and often found in cavalry ways to force water barriers was fordings. The presence of a ford on the river was determined by a number of signs: the presence of paths and field roads to the river (the most obvious sign), the broadening of the river on straight sections of the current, islands visible above the water surface, shallows and rifts, low-lying banks. The table below shows the permissible depths and speeds of the current, clearly confirming the advantage of cavalry when fording rivers:

Cavalry advances without noticing water obstacles.


When organizing forcing water obstacles ford, it was necessary to carry out preliminary exploration: determine the depth, nature of the shore and bottom soil, the speed of the river flow, cut off steep descents to the water and eliminate other obstacles. The width of the ford was marked with the help of fixed milestones. With the rapid flow of the river across, they tried to pull the rope that connected the wagons filled with stones or other cargo. Were forwarded by closed formations, as the cavalrymen leading in front smashed the bottom, complicating the rear movement. At the quad carriages of machine-gun carriages, the straightening horses, like during the movement on the bridges, were retracted and carried on separately. At the same time, during the crossing for the separate horsemen without a special team it was categorically forbidden to stop in the river and water the horses. The watering hole was organized by the entire composition of the units above the ford along the river while they were waiting for their turn to make the transition.

Crossing of the cavalry units across the river by swimming was carried out in three possible ways:
- With a small width of the river (30-50 meters) riders crossed the river with full equipment and weapons;
- When the width of the river is more than 50 meters, riders removed uniforms and weaponwhile fastening it to the saddle, the weapon needed to be bored upwards.
- In the presence of ferrying means riders were transported across the water barrier light. Their weapons and uniforms were collected and transported on rafts or boats, and then handed out back.

For crossing the river, swimming columns were used one by one, two by one, and columns of links. The recommended intervals between riders in this case were equal to 3-6 meters, and the distance - to 8 meters. Until the moment when the horse was under the horse’s bottom, the horseman was riding, but as soon as the horse lost the bottom, the horseman had to slip into the water and swim next to the horse, holding the mane with one hand. At the same time it was recommended to let the most experienced and courageous horses go ahead. If the horse refused to sail and rushed to other horses, it was among the last to be shipped. At the same time, if already during the crossing some animal escaped and started to swim away, they did not try to catch it, in order not to disturb the general construction and not to lose the given crossing rate. The escaped horse was caught on the shore, to which she sailed alone.



At the same time, cavalry units had the advantage of crossing water obstacles not only in the summer months, but also in winter. The cavalry crossing over the frozen ice was allowed with ice thickness: for individual riders - 13 cm; for open order - 16 see


Before the start of the ice crossing, reconnaissance was also carried out:
- ice thickness;
- depth of snow cover on the ice and on the banks of the reservoir;
- the state of ice off the coast;
- indicated the boundaries and directions of the crossings in width, polynyas, ice holes and fissures were enclosed;
- descents and exits to the reservoir, determined the availability of materials (straw, boards, brushwood), which could be used to strengthen the ice;
- continuous monitoring of the ice cover was conducted.

Crossing cavalry on the ice was carried out in a hurried manner. Riders led the horses about, moving in wide open formations. At the same time, wagons and artillery guns moved non-stop, spreading out as many paths as possible. After the battles, the condition of the ferries was clarified. Wormwood appearing on reservoirs from shell explosions and mines enclosed. Thus, the ability of cavalry units to quickly force various water barriers remained one of those factors that allowed it not to lose its relevance until the victorious conclusion of World War II.



The cavalry of the Red Army took part in all major battles, from the very first tragic days of the war to the last operations in Europe in the spring of 1945. The Soviet cavalry divisions played a very important role during the counteroffensive at Stalingrad, where they formed the external front of the encirclement of the German group. In January 1943, the 7 Cavalry Corps passed 6 km almost without rest on 280 days and January 15 captured Valuyki station, creating an outer ring of the environment of the enemy-Russian rossoshanskoy grouping. The result of the Ostrogozhsk-Rossosh operation was the liberation of the Soviet territory with a total area of ​​22,5 thousands of square kilometers, the capture of 86 thousands of prisoners. During the operation, the 2-I Hungarian Army, the Italian Alpine Corps, the 385-I and 387-I German infantry divisions, as well as a separate division group, Fogelein, were defeated.

Cavalry units were also successfully used in the 1944 year in Belarus, especially in wooded and swampy areas, as part of the offensive operation Bagration. The cavalry was part of cavalry-mechanized groups, acting in close cooperation with tank units. By forcing the Berezina, the 3-th Guards Corps corps managed to create a bridgehead on the river bank, preventing the Germans from turning the water barrier into a line of defense to restore the front line. Later, by cutting off the Minsk-Vilnius railway, the cavalry units of the Red Army deprived the enemy's Minsk grouping of the most important escape routes to Vilnius and Lida.

About how Soviet cavalrymen fought, says the fact that 7 8 from the corps that existed at the end of the war had the honorary title of the Guards. At the same time, part of the cavalry was represented by fighters recruited on the Don and Kuban - the most real Soviet Cossacks. During the Great Patriotic War, two cavalry corps were officially called "Cossack". So in 1945, the 4-th Guards Kuban Cossack Corps liberated the capital of Czechoslovakia - Prague, and the 5-th Guards Don Cossack Corps reached Fighting Vienna.



And on April 26, 1945, in an assault on the city of Brandenburg, located 40 kilometers west of Berlin, the 7 Guards Cavalry Corps took part in the final offensive operation of that war, closing the encirclement around the capital of the Third Reich. All in all, in the Berlin operation, the Red Army used 12 cavalry divisions, in which almost 100 served thousands of soldiers and officers. Contrary to the myths common today, the cavalry proved to be an effective and full-fledged participant in that terrible war from the first to the last of its day. Thus, the Second World War was not only the first major war of engines, but also the last great war of cavalry and horsepower.

Information sources:
http://warspot.ru/1820-perehodim-etu-reku-vbrod
http://rusplt.ru/wow/add/velikaya-otechestvennaya--poslednyaya-voyna-kavalerii-16619.html
http://fablewar.ru/2012/01/commons
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  1. fleks
    fleks 22 January 2016 07: 11
    +9
    The article plus is very interesting, but we were thrown in that our cavalrymen in a horse formation with sabers German tanks attacked in the open area - what are supposedly Russian idiots. Budyonny was compared with Tukhachevsky.
    1. Alex_59
      Alex_59 22 January 2016 07: 49
      11
      Quote: fleks
      -We were sucked in that our cavalrymen in a horse formation with drafts German tanks attacked

      I have never heard such a thing. There was such a bike about the Poles, who in the 39 year somewhere went on the attack on horseback against German tanks. But almost certainly the situation with the Poles is somewhat embellished. Most likely the tanks and cavalry met suddenly, and the Poles simply did not have time to dismount, as a result of which the Germans had the impression that they were fighting a cavalry.

      And the article is interesting and useful. Nowadays, too little attention is paid to the old technologies of the past. Meanwhile, the horse in certain conditions and now has serious trump cards against the car. In the naval business, they completely forgot about the sail in vain - anti-submarine sailing ships may well be useful, because They do not distort the underwater environment with their noise and can spend at sea for many days without refueling.
      1. andj61
        andj61 22 January 2016 08: 09
        13
        Quote: Alex_59
        There was such a bike about the Poles, who in the 39th year somewhere went on the attack on horseback against German tanks.

        There are plenty of tales. That's just the reality they are not very consistent. Here is a link to this: ankfront.ru/polska/in-action/szarza_pod_krojantami.html
        Soviet official opinion:
        - Polish commanders are the standard of stupidity and recklessness, they shed the blood of innocent soldiers and in general, this indicates that the Poles are not ready for war.
        The German opinion voiced by Guderian:
        - The Polish Pomeranian cavalry brigade, due to ignorance of the design data and methods of operation of the tanks, attacked them with knives and suffered terrible losses.
        The Poles present this as an example of the heroism of Polish soldiers.
        In fact, everyone lies.
        Polish cavalrymen attacked the resting Germans, successfully dispersed them, and then, upon the arrival of German armored vehicles, armed with machine guns, withdrew. Those. there were no tanks at all, and the Polish commanders did not give any stupid and merciless orders, and even losses: out of 250 people attacking from the Polish side, 25 were killed, and the Germans, 11 people in general. Those. there was no peak or sabers on the Krupp armor, and I do not see any monstrous losses, as well as heroism when attacking the enemy at a halt, in my opinion, no. And here is the picture drawn after this "legendary" attack of the Polish Pomor lancers near Kroyantany. The same fairy tales are depicted here.
        1. Alex
          Alex 22 January 2016 12: 11
          +6
          Quote: andj61
          The German opinion voiced by Guderian:

          Well, this glorious descendant of one baron and two brothers still didn’t tell such tales.

          Not so long ago, there was an article at VO, in which a rather detailed analysis of a similar situation was given. As far as I remember, a truly unique situation occurred there: the horse detachment unexpectedly ran into a resting tank unit (both sides were rather few). Cavalrymen immediately attacked (on horseback) tankers having lunch in the lap of nature. The beating that had begun rather quickly stopped, as soon as the tankmen took cover under the armor. What they did to the Poles after that, I think, is clear without words.

          Subsequently, each side began to dramatize this situation, but each for its own part: the Poles - the first part, the Germans - the second. And all the rest - who wanted what, depending on the political situation.
        2. RUSS
          RUSS 23 January 2016 23: 32
          0
          Quote: andj61
          Here are the same tales.

          According to this drawing, no one, including the Poles, argues that this is an invention.
      2. Ami du peuple
        Ami du peuple 22 January 2016 08: 12
        +4
        Quote: Alex_59
        In the naval business, they completely forgot about the sail in vain - anti-submarine sailing ships may well be useful, because They do not distort the underwater environment with their noise and can spend at sea for many days without refueling.

        Yes, and in vain they forgot about rowing vessels - they are generally independent of the wind and can spend many days at sea, limiting themselves only to supplies for the crew. laughing
        1. Alex_59
          Alex_59 22 January 2016 10: 41
          +1
          Quote: Ami du peuple
          Yes, yes, and in vain they forgot about rowing ships - they don’t depend on the wind at all and can spend many days at sea, limiting themselves only to supplies for the crew

          You are laughing in vain. Everything can turn out to be quite workable and real.
          https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Турбопарус
          https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maltese_Falcon
        2. Alf
          Alf 22 January 2016 21: 56
          0
          Quote: Ami du peuple
          limited only to supplies for the crew.

          Why limiting? You can fish. True, by the end of the raid the crew will glow from phosphorus and will grow over with scales, but this is his problem.
      3. avt
        avt 22 January 2016 09: 49
        +3
        Quote: Alex_59
        I have never heard such a thing.

        It was in the 90s, "historians", "historians" of the brewery of the Vanidze brewery were blowing in their ears.
        Quote: Alex_59
        . Nowadays, too little attention is paid to the old technologies of the past.

        In contrast to the motorized Germans of the spill of 1941, which hundreds of thousands and with carts took horses for infantry - tanks to catch up.
        Quote: Alex_59
        . There was such a bike about the Poles, who in the 39th year somewhere went on the attack on horseback against German tanks. But almost certainly the situation with the Poles is somewhat embellished.

        Also a real case was translated ... and the German propagandists into an anecdote. Lyakhi uhlans caught the German infantry at a halt and began to chop off shells, but they were very unlucky - German tanks were not far away, well, and then cunning propagandists brought correspondents and told how "stupid", wild "and, racially inferior Slavic the barbarians "rushed to chop the armor of iron tanks with their sabers.
      4. fleks
        fleks 22 January 2016 10: 55
        +4
        about the attack of the cavalry on tanks he sinned very much with this in the 90s, the Korotich Spark magazine often mentioned the name of Marshal Kulik if I’m not mistaken
      5. castle
        castle 22 January 2016 12: 45
        +2
        And yet, you can do without supplementing with drinking water, food and you can go to the toilet by hanging your ass overboard. Acoustics, really hear how ... a ram falls into the water. Someone may say that if the submarine is equipped with sailing rigging, it will be the most innovative and unparalleled. It's me that the sailboats are very noisy. Rigging, masts, etc. like strings, and the body of a sailboat, like the body of a piano. A lot of resonance. A lot of noise in the water.
        1. 2news
          2news 22 January 2016 13: 56
          +2
          Quote: hrad
          Someone may say that if the submarine is equipped with sailing rigging, it will be the most innovative and unparalleled. It's me that the sailboats are very noisy.

          However, there was a case of using the periscope as a mast and sail during the 2MB. In the Northern Fleet.
          1. Alex
            Alex 22 January 2016 18: 20
            +3
            Quote: 2news
            However, there was a case of using the periscope as a mast and sail during the 2MB. In the Northern Fleet.

            This is when she has no progress left. Or will we switch to sailing equipment everywhere?
        2. Alf
          Alf 22 January 2016 21: 58
          0
          Quote: hrad
          Acoustics, really hear how ... a ram falls into the water.

          Perceived as deep bombs. Then they will be ashamed to come up, those who meet will shy away from the smell. laughing
      6. 2news
        2news 23 January 2016 23: 51
        0
        Quote: Alex_59
        I have never heard such a thing.

        They didn’t go to tanks, but in general they went on horseback attack. For example, on the morning of November 17, 1941, near the village of Musino (near Moscow), cavalrymen from the 44th Cavalry Division attacked the positions of the German 106th Infantry Division on horseback. Two waves. The Germans (3rd battery of the 10th artillery regiment) used shrapnel shells. Then in a few minutes about 700 cavalrymen perished. After this, the attacks stopped.
    2. Siberian1965
      Siberian1965 22 January 2016 11: 41
      0
      In my opinion about the Poles, I have not read about ours.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 22 January 2016 07: 57
    +6
    World War II - swan song of the cavalry ... Thank you ..
    1. igordok
      igordok 22 January 2016 09: 05
      +2
      Quote: parusnik
      World War II - swan song of the cavalry ... Thank you ..

      Who knows who knows? Maybe in the fourth world war without cavalry will not do. soldier
      1. lysyj bob
        lysyj bob 22 January 2016 10: 12
        +2
        After the third world, the surviving cockroaches mutate and will fight on horseback on mutated ladybirds ...)))
        1. Alf
          Alf 22 January 2016 22: 00
          0
          Quote: lysyj bob
          ladybugs.

          On rats. No infection takes these.
      2. Siberian1965
        Siberian1965 22 January 2016 11: 46
        0
        First you will have to domesticate these mutants, then invent a saddle, etc. And before that, learn how to mine metal.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 22 January 2016 13: 40
          +3
          Quote: Siberian1965
          First you will have to domesticate these mutants, then invent a saddle, etc. And before that, learn how to mine metal.

          What metal ?! Horse breeding -> wheel - and go ahead: quickly build chariots and capture foreign cities with one militia. smile
          Then the processing of bronze - and build the phalanx.
  3. bionik
    bionik 22 January 2016 08: 08
    +4
    When I read the article, I remembered the name of Hero of the Soviet Union Dovator Lev Mikhailovich. (February 20, 1903 - December 19, 1941)
    1. bionik
      bionik 22 January 2016 10: 02
      +5
      During the Great Patriotic War, cavalry troops remained, and not only survived, but also successfully fought, led by their heroic commanders. One of these commanders was Lev Mikhailovich Dovator.
      Anen machine-gun burst. In August 1941, Dovator was appointed to the post of commander of a separate cavalry group, formed from the 50th and 53rd cavalry divisions. From August 14 to September 2, a group under the command of L. M. Dovator raided the enemy rear in the Smolensk region, and in September - October took part in heavy defensive battles on the Mezhe River and along the Lama River. In October, a cavalry group participated in defensive battles on the Bely-Rzhev highway, covering the retreat of infantry formations in the Volokolamsk direction, and then conducted a series of offensive battles in the area of ​​the Istra Reservoir and Solnechnogorsk.

      November 20 A separate cavalry group was transformed into the 3rd Cavalry Corps, which on November 26 was transformed into the 2nd Guards Cavalry Corps.

      On December 11, the corps under the command of L. M. Dovator was relocated to the Kubinka area and, after a raid on the enemy’s rear, by December 19 went to the Ruse river, where the advanced units of the 2nd Guards Cavalry Corps (22nd and 103rd Regiments of the 20th cavalry division) went to the area of ​​the village of Palashkino (Ruzsky district, Moscow region), where there were the 2nd battalion of the 472nd infantry regiment, the 3rd battalion of the 7th infantry regiment and the 9th battery of the 252nd artillery regiment 252nd Wehrmacht Infantry Division (Silesia, Oak Leaf emblem). When binoculars examined the enemy’s positions before the battle, Major General Dovator was mortally wounded by a machine gun burst. (Dovator from the right, General Pliev with him in a row).
  4. Stas57
    Stas57 22 January 2016 09: 03
    +2
    half a year before the war, the importance of cavalry was assessed soberly
    As regards, comrades, yesterday’s previous reports, there were debates and talks in the aviation reports that the air force, the Polish air force, and also the French one could not resist for one reason or another. And also there are a lot of questions lately - there are no large cavalry forces, there are no such examples after the civil war.
    I answer this question as I understand it, especially taking into account those cases when a whole state like Poland is liquidated in 16 - 18 days, a powerful state like France is liquidated in 45 days.
    Therefore, I consider the main thing - air forces. The great forces of the cavalry, with all their desire, at least seven stars in the forehead, as they say, can do nothing.
    In addition, I have such an answer to the question: how will the large forces of the cavalry be used in modern warfare. Recently, I have developed a look at this question and so I answer, because when the German armored striking forces moved through the Netherlands and Belgium, at that moment air superiority was on the German side. If air superiority was on the side of the Allies, these German armored forces could hardly move so freely. Then motorized vehicles moved along roads and highways. I believe that cavalry under such conditions can move not along the highway, but through forests and other ways.
    Therefore, in the modern situation, in connection with the growth, as it was in the West, of the cavalry units, it must be assumed that superiority will be on the side that has superiority in the air. With this superiority, any kind of troops can move, fight and carry out [the task]. If this superiority is not in the air, then any kind of troops will not be able to move and will not fulfill its tasks.


    25-31.12.1940
    Gorodovikov O. I., Colonel General, Inspector General of the Red Army Cavalry
    RGVA, f. 4, op. 18, d. 58, l 60 - 65.
  5. surrozh
    surrozh 22 January 2016 09: 10
    +6
    We can add that the Germans also had cavalry units: a reconnaissance detachment of 310 people, 214 horses, 9 cars and 2 motorcycles at each infantry division. Cavalry brigades, SS cavalry divisions, and individual regiments also participated in the battles. At the end of the war, as with us, there were several times more cavalry units than at the beginning. In long raids, sadly, the horse was not only driven by fighters. but also fed in the literal sense, providing good mobility of the compound.
  6. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 22 January 2016 09: 42
    +9
    I live in the homeland of Dovator. He was a great man and we respect the Cossacks, even though he himself is not a Cossack. Thank you for the article!
    1. RoTTor
      RoTTor 22 January 2016 20: 36
      -1
      Jewish Bolshevik Cossack.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  7. nivander
    nivander 22 January 2016 10: 01
    +4
    "... any Russian cavalry division is capable of covering more than 100 km per day in full force with standard weapons, and even outside the axis of communications." G. Guderian "Tanks forward!"
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 22 January 2016 11: 55
      0
      "... any Russian cavalry division is capable of covering more than 100 km per day in full force with standard weapons, and even outside the axis of communications." G. Guderian "Tanks forward!"

      unfortunately this quote is googled only by your message, the same is not in the book, could you give a full link to the scoundrel Guderian
    2. 2news
      2news 22 January 2016 12: 02
      +1
      Quote: nivasander
      "G. Guderian" Tanks forward! "

      I don’t know if Guderian wrote it or not. But I recommend treating his statements more carefully. He was still a talker and a dreamer. And his knizhentsiya is something, so it’s generally something with something.
      1. Stas57
        Stas57 22 January 2016 14: 20
        +1
        Quote: 2news
        I don’t know if Guderian wrote it or not. But I recommend treating his statements more carefully. He was still a talker and a dreamer. And his knizhentsiya is something, so it’s generally something with something.

        however had an impact
        For the first time I heard the name of the German general Guderian in 1938. Then his book “Attention, tanks!” Caused heated debate in the military environment. Guderian acted as an apologist for tanks and believed that they had to decide the fate of future battles.
        Lelyushenko D.D. Moscow-Stalingrad-Berlin-Prague. Notes of the commander. - M .: Science 1987.


        regarding lies or truths, one must look at specific facts.
        1. 2news
          2news 22 January 2016 14: 53
          0
          Quote: Stas57
          regarding lies or truths, one must look at specific facts

          Memoirs, this is generally a specific genre. Something like unscientific fiction. It differs only in a wealth of imagination. Guderian will be richer with this.
          1. Stas57
            Stas57 22 January 2016 23: 43
            0
            Well, let's take a look at the scoundrel in more detail
        2. The comment was deleted.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  8. 2news
    2news 22 January 2016 10: 16
    +1
    The Red Army almost lost its most important instrument of warfare - mechanized formations. The only real substitute for mechanical connections, albeit inferior to them in mobility, was the cavalry.

    Well, what kind of mechanical connections? Mechconnection, these are tanks + motorized infantry. And cavalry is just something like a motorized infantry. Only without the need for a supply of gasoline and with its live feed in case of an environment or something similar.
  9. bionik
    bionik 22 January 2016 10: 17
    +6
    Issa Alexandrovich Pliev (November 12 (25), 1903 - February 6, 1979) Twice Hero of the Soviet Union. Hero of the Mongolian People's Republic. From July 1941, he commanded the 50th Cavalry Division (from November 1941 - the 3rd Guards Cavalry Division), from August to December 1941, it raided the rear of Army Group Center in the Smolensk region and in the Moscow Region. From December 1941, he commanded the 2nd Guards, from April 1942, the 5th, from July, the 3rd Guards, and from November 1943, the 4th Guards Corps. October 3, 1944 led a horse-mechanized group consisting of: 4th and 6th Guards Cavalry and 7th Mechanized Corps in order to participate in the Debrecen operation on the territory of Hungary. Since November 1944, Pliev headed the full-time horse-mechanized group (1st KMG, from January 26, 1945 - the 1st Guards KMG), which took part in the Budapest operation. During the Soviet-Japanese war, he commanded the horse-mechanized group in Hingano The Mukden operation of 1945. For success in defeating the Kwantung Army, he was awarded the second Golden Star medal.
  10. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 22 January 2016 11: 10
    0
    Proletarians on horseback !!! soldier
  11. rus_ak_93
    rus_ak_93 22 January 2016 13: 32
    +4
    Fight at the village of Kushchevskaya

    On August 2, 1942, Cossacks of the 13th Kuban Division in an equestrian system attacked German troops near the village of Kushchevskaya.

    Having occupied Rostov-on-Don on July 23, 1942, the German Army Group A launched an attack on the Kuban. On July 30, 1942, the mountain rifle reconnaissance detachment, marching at the head of the 4th Wehrmacht mountain rifle division, went to the Eya River west of Kushchevskaya. At the bridge, the reconnaissance battalion of the 94th Mountain Infantry Regiment lay down, waiting for the approach of the 91st Infantry Regiment. The subsequent attack of this regiment was repulsed by the fire of Soviet troops. Meanwhile, the main forces of the 4th Mountain Rifle Division, without success, tried to expand the captured bridgehead at Leninsky. The German command decided to use the bridgehead near Kushchevskaya, held by the formations of the 73rd and 125th divisions.

    July 31, fighting at Kushchevskaya continued. On the morning of July 31, the Wehrmacht infantry launched an attack on the positions of the 12th Kuban and 116th Don Cavalry divisions, defending the villages of Shkurinsky and Kanelovskaya. The Cossacks launched a counterattack and managed to push the enemy back, but the neighboring 18th Army continued to retreat. On July 31, the 216th Infantry Division, which was part of it, left Kushchevskaya. With the onset of night, the 15th Cavalry Division tried to drive the enemy out of the village, but could not. It was then that the command decided to bring into the battle the 13th Cossack cavalry division of Colonel Millerov. part of the 17th Kuban Cossack Corps. This corps was formed from Cossacks and by the Cossacks themselves with Cossack funds.
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 23 January 2016 23: 34
      0
      Quote: rus_ak_93
      Fight at the village of Kushchevskaya
  12. rus_ak_93
    rus_ak_93 22 January 2016 13: 32
    +3
    Cossacks of the 13th Kuban Cossack Division, 1942.

    The division consisted of three cavalry regiments and an artillery division.

    Cossack squadrons, using high Sudanese, corn and sunflowers, who approached Kushchevskaya with a green wall, on the night of August 1 and 2 secretly took their starting position for the attack. In the morning, when the Nazi soldiers reached the kitchens for breakfast, the horse-drawn division units suddenly attacked the enemy and burst into the village. The enemy’s panic was terrible, and while the crews of the tanks tried to get to the cars and organize an attack, the Cossacks slaughtered more than a thousand German soldiers and officers, and captured about 300 Fritz.

    Konstantin Nedorubov May 9, 1975 on the day of the 30th anniversary of Victory


    Recovering, the Nazis launched a counterattack, launching motorized infantry and tanks on the cavalry. It was then that the time came to operate the cannons of the anti-tank fighter division of Captain Chekurdy. 45 tanks moved on the Cossacks, Chekurda ordered the cannons to be rolled out for direct fire. And as soon as the tanks approached, a flurry of fire fell on them. The first counterattack cost the Nazis four armored vehicles that flared with torches. The rest turned back. After the second counterattack, the Germans missed another seven tanks.

    During the third counterattack of the enemy, cavalry rushed into the oncoming battle. The Cossack avalanche, unfolding two kilometers along the front, sparkling with blades, marched on the Germans. This also exerted strong psychological pressure on the enemy. The Cossacks were approaching very closely approaching the tanks and at a gallop they threw them with grenades and Molotov cocktails.

    In this battle, about 1800 fascist soldiers and officers were chopped up and crushed, the rest scattered across the fields and hid in corn.

    Only a squadron of senior lieutenant Konstantin Nedorubov destroyed more than 200 Nazis, of which 70 Nedorubov personally destroyed. For this battle, he was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. I must say that Nedorubov at that time was 53 years old, and he was no longer subject to draft. During the imperialist war, Nedorubov became a complete cavalier of St. George. He fought for the civilian for whites, for which he was sentenced to 1933 years in 10, but in 1936 he was released for hard work in the construction of the Moscow-Volga Canal.

    However, without finishing the Germans in World War I, Nedorubov joined the Red Army as a volunteer, bringing with him a hundred Cossacks of the village of Berezovskaya, including his 17-year-old son Nikolai. In this battle, Nikolai went missing, and everyone considered him dead, but as it turned out later, he was wounded by the distant relatives of Nedorubov, who went out and hid him from the Germans. After the liberation of the region, Nikolai Nedorubov returned to duty.

    In 1964, a monument was erected at the entrance to the village of Kushchevskaya.
    1. semirek
      semirek 22 January 2016 20: 11
      +1
      Nedorubov didn’t fight for the whites - there are archives and a documentary about him. And it thundered on the White Sea-Baltic canal: at that time he was the chairman of the collective farm in his homeland, a lean year to somehow support the villagers - gave out to the poor grains - they immediately reported sexots, then you know everything. By the way, the hero’s star and St. George’s crosses are stored in the panorama museum of the Battle of Stalingrad in Volgograd, I was in this museum.
    2. RUSS
      RUSS 23 January 2016 23: 35
      0
      Quote: rus_ak_93
      Cossacks of the 13th Kuban Cossack Division, 1942.
  13. rus_ak_93
    rus_ak_93 22 January 2016 13: 44
    0
    sorry I can’t insert photos
  14. a housewife
    a housewife 22 January 2016 13: 51
    +4
    My husband’s grandfather, a Cossack, fought in the Cossack division, was in Stalingrad. He reached Poland, was wounded, sent to the rear for treatment. On the territory of Ukraine went missing, Volyn region. I read his letters - almost nothing about the fighting - censorship. It is only clear that it is very difficult.
  15. Kostya Andreev
    Kostya Andreev 22 January 2016 18: 12
    0
    We are all a little horses. (O)
  16. semirek
    semirek 22 January 2016 20: 32
    +1
    The article is very interesting and informative. The cavalry is a mobile infantry. But we must not forget: the horse is the main draft force in the Second World War, remember "battalions are asking for fire" cannons carried horses.
    I believe that the horse also contributed to the Great Victory.
  17. RoTTor
    RoTTor 22 January 2016 20: 35
    +1
    THANKS! And those who do not understand the devil in military affairs, they all scoff at the "backward conservative cavalrymen."

    Grandson of a cavalryman
  18. moskowit
    moskowit 23 January 2016 10: 22
    0
    Very informative and interesting. Thank you very much! Article corresponding to the topic of the site.
    In general, the pre-war "cavalry theme" is very interesting. Especially it began to be covered in a negative way during the rehabilitation of the victims of "unfounded Stalinist repressions" among the military. What sins the "horsemen" were not accused of ... They added and agreed even to the point that Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny was declared an enemy and enemy of the mechanization of the Red Army, attributing to him immense advocacy for the preservation and expansion of cavalry. The main accusation was the words of the glorious marshal about measures to strengthen the development of horse breeding, taken out of the context of the speech delivered by Budenny at the congress of horse breeders and completely unrelated to the "cavallerization" of the Red Army ...
  19. moskowit
    moskowit 23 January 2016 10: 30
    0
    There is a very interesting book by Vladimir Uspensky about the actions of the Soviet cavalry during the Great War, based on the memoirs of the Great Cavalryman Pavel Alekseevich Belov, "A Campaign Without Rest".
  20. moskowit
    moskowit 23 January 2016 10: 40
    0
    And the memoirs of the glorious equestrian, later the army general, Stuchenko Andrey Trofimovich, are also very interesting. Written very truthfully, with some rather harsh assessments of the actions of the senior management. Therefore, most likely, they were published once in the 1968 year. For those interested, I highly recommend it. Her (book) is easy to find on the Internet ...