Military Review

The last "miracle weapon" of the Third Reich

61
In the evening of September 8, 1944 of the year over the capital of Great Britain there was a powerful rumble that reminded many of the thunder: it was the first German V-2 rocket that fell in the London area of ​​Chezwick. The thunderclap that was heard that day over London announced to the whole world that a new thing had appeared on the battlefields. weapon - ballistic missiles. Despite their small combat capabilities and imperfect structures, these missiles became a fundamentally new means of warfare. These missiles, which the Germans attributed to the Vundervaffe (literally "miracle weapon"), could not change the course of the Second World War, but opened up a new era - the era of rocket technology and rocket weapons.


BBC journalists interviewed a large number of Londoners who survived the first wave of attacks with German V-2 missiles. People who were taken by surprise were shocked and did not believe that the existence of such a radical air weapon was real. In this case, vivid evidence of how the German missiles hit the target, did rarely. Most eyewitnesses spoke of a "luminous ball", the fall of which was accompanied by a "terrible crash." V-2 rockets appeared over London, "like a bolt from the blue".

Londoners were frightened by the fact that when they hit the V-2 with rockets, they did not have a sense of imminent danger and the opportunity to take some measures to defend themselves. There were no air-raid advertisements to which they managed to get used during the war years. The first thing that people were aware of during rocket attacks was the sound of an explosion. Due to the fact that it was physically impossible to declare an alarm on the V-2 rockets, people could not descend to the shelters, all they had to do was hope for their luck and luck.



It is worth noting that the Allies were very much worried about Hitler’s combat use of “weapons of retaliation” at the end of the war, when victory was already very close. Ballistic missiles, missiles and new bombs were a demonstration of the technical power of Nazi Germany in the last hours of its existence, but the new weapon could not change the course of the war. The number of V-2 missiles that were able to hit London and other cities was relatively small, and the damage they inflicted could not be compared with the strategic bombardment of German cities by the Allies.

At the same time, the exact number of victims from Vau-2 rocket attacks is still unknown. These data were not recorded, it is known only about the victims of shelling of the territory of England, where a little less than three thousand people died from this "miracle weapon" of Hitler. At the same time, the very production of these missiles took more lives than their combat use. During the production of missiles, more than 25 thousand prisoners of German concentration camps died. Victims among them also no one exactly counted. The V-2 missiles were assembled near the Buchenwald concentration camp, and their assembly was carried out round the clock. To speed up the process of their graduation, specialists (especially turners and welders) were brought from other German concentration camps. The prisoners were starving, did not see the sunlight, working in underground bunkers, where the production was driven into raids aviation allies. For any fault the prisoners were simply hung right on the cranes of the assembly lines of the missiles.

The problems of the Allies were aggravated by the fact that they did not always and with great difficulty determine the place and time of the launch of German missiles. Unlike the slow-moving Fau-1 projectiles, the V-2 missiles hit targets from very high altitudes and at speeds that exceeded the speed of sound. Even if such a rocket could be detected even when approaching the target, at that time there was simply no effective means of protection against it. The bombing of launching points was also seen as embarrassing. German launch teams V-2 used mobile versions of the missiles, which were delivered to the launch site by trucks.



The first step in the sequence of launching ballistic missiles was their placement on a cunning mobile vehicle, which was invented by German engineers exclusively for operations with V-2. After the rocket was attached to a special cradle, it was hydraulically mounted in a vertical position. After that, the launch platform in the form of a reusable circle, which was placed in a square frame, was brought under the rocket. The launch platform, which was supported by jacks in the 4's corners, took the weight of the V-2, allowing you to remove the carriage that the Germans used to transport the missiles and transfer them from horizontal to vertical position. Each mobile unit required its own team and truck, a variety of vehicles, fuel tank trucks, trailers and personnel transport vehicles - usually on the order of 30 vehicles. As soon as the ground for launching ballistic missiles was determined, the German military blocked the surrounding territory and took all the local residents out of the area. These measures were taken to achieve maximum secrecy. To launch one V-2 rocket, each team needed from 4-s to 6-hours.

Immediately before the launch, the rocket maintenance team carried out a series of actions: installed engine igniters, control equipment and guidance stabilizers, fueled the missiles and placed other components on them. To control the rocket was needed electricity, which was initially supplied from ground sources, and already in flight from batteries on board the rocket. Considering the danger associated with any launch of a ballistic missile (they were not particularly reliable), the calculations carefully checked the ignition system and fuel. The launch team usually consisted of 20 soldiers, who wore special protective helmets and overalls to refuel the V-2.

Directly during the launch, the rocket slowly rose from its metal platform, approximately 4 seconds continued to fly vertically, after which it received a predetermined flight path, controlled by a gyroscopic guidance system on board. The selected angle of the initial flight path - most often 45 ° - accurately set the range of the missile. The disconnection of the V-2 engine occurred approximately 70 seconds after launch. At this point, the rocket was already moving in the sky at an altitude of 80-90 km with an average speed of 1500-1800 m / s. After the engine was turned off, the rocket began to descend, hitting the target 5 minutes after launch. Due to the short flight time, the shelling of London and other cities was unexpected and often destructive. After the missile hit the target, the launch team quickly evacuated all the equipment in order to prevent allies from detecting or responding to an attack.



All that could be opposed to the launch of the V-2 missiles by the allies was air strikes against possible German missile divisions and launch positions. The command of the Royal Air Force of Great Britain for the continuous search and destruction of the launch sites of the missiles allocated special forces of fighter-assault aircraft as part of the 12 th fighter air group. Throughout October 1944 - March 1945, this air group made more than 3800 sorties to the area of ​​The Hague, from where the launches were made. During this time, the group dropped tons of bombs to the vicinity of the order of 1000. But the high mobility of V-2 rocket launchers and urban areas, in which both launch pads and missiles could easily be masked, did not allow Allied aviation to effectively deal with them. In addition, the aircraft inactive at night and in bad weather. The losses of the German missile attackers from air strikes amounted to the entire order of 170 people, 58 vehicles, 48 missiles and 11 tankers with liquid oxygen. At the same time for all the time of the bombing of any V-2 rocket was not lost on the launch pad.

By the fall of 1944, changes had occurred in the organization of ballistic missile units and their control systems. After the unsuccessful assassination attempt on Hitler in July 1944, they were transferred to the command of the SS Gruppenführer Kamler, who became the special commissioner for V-2. He was appointed to this post by Himmler. In August of the same year, on the orders of Kamler, all the Reich missile units, which numbered about 6 thousand people and 1,6 thousand cars, relocated from their permanent bases to the concentration areas that were chosen in Holland and West Germany. At the same time, they were reorganized. Two groups were formed: "North" and "South", each of which consisted of two batteries, as well as a separate 444 training test battery, which was operatively subordinated to the "South" group. At the same time, one battery from each group remained at the test site for the implementation of test and test launches of V-2 missiles.

5 September 1944 of the North Group was in positions in the Hague area in full readiness to launch missiles in London. The South group, with a separate battery assigned to it by the 444, was located in the Eiskirchen district (100 kilometers east of Liege), ready for strikes on cities in France. The 444-I battery was designed to strike directly in Paris. September 6 The 444-I battery made two unsuccessful attempts to launch missiles in the French capital. The first successful launch was made only in the morning of September 8, and it was the only one, since the advance of the Allied forces forced the Germans to leave the starting positions and redeploy to Holland on the island of Volkheren, where the 444-I battery subsequently hit the UK.

The last "miracle weapon" of the Third Reich


The attacks of the V-2 ballistic missiles in England also began on September 8 1944, but in the evening hours. On this day, the North group from the outskirts of The Hague Wassenaar launched two rockets around London. The first of these killed 3 man and injured 17, the second missile did not cause damage. A week later, the 444-I battery joined the strikes in London. The aiming point for the German rocket engineers was the center of London (approximately 1000 meters east of Waterloo Station). But soon the Germans again had to change positions, they were frightened by the Allied airborne troops near Arnhem. This landing operation ended in failure, but the Germans for a time were forced to regroup their missile units, which led to the cessation of attacks on England.

25 September, when it became clear that the Arnhem offensive operation of the Anglo-American forces ended in failure, the 444-I battery was launched in the Stauverin region (north coast of Seider See Bay) with the task of launching rocket attacks on the cities of Ipswich and Norwich, but after several days, she returned to the region of The Hague, where, from October 3, she began to strike again in London. In total, in September 1944, the active operations of the German rocket units armed with V-2 missiles, using 2-3 batteries, lasted only 10 days (September 8-18). During this time, they launched X-VUMX X-VUMX rockets across London, England's 34 missile systems were detected by missile systems: 2 exploded within the city, 27 - in various parts of England, two rockets fell into the sea. The number of casualties and damage caused by explosions of rockets, each of which carried about a ton of explosives, were small. On average, each rocket destroyed 16-9 at home and hit an 2-3 man.

The launch of V-2 missiles repeated the situation that developed at the beginning of V-1 operations. The Germans could not achieve a massive strike. They did not have a strategic surprise, the Allies had information about the capabilities of German ballistic missiles. However, tactical surprise remained throughout the entire period of use of these missiles, since the short approach time did not allow the population to be warned in time, and the large dispersion of the missiles prevented observers from determining the place of their fall.

Implications of the impact of the Fow-2 on London, March 9 1945


In early October, 1944 was launched from ballistic missiles from the regions of The Hague and Stauverin in London, the cities of eastern England and Belgium. But already on October 12, Hitler ordered Fau-2 strikes only on London and Antwerp, the main supply base of US-British troops in Europe. The North group and 444-I separate battery were deployed to the suburbs of The Hague - Gaagishe-Bosch, from where they launched V-27 missiles at London, Antwerp, and later at Brussels and Liege until March 1945.

It is worth noting that the loss by the Germans of the rocket supply system created in Northern France forced the Gruppenführer SS Kammler and his headquarters to quickly create new intermediate points for storing, checking and repairing missiles and warehouses. Germans have created similar warehouses near The Hague in the settlements of Raaphorst, Terhorst and Eichenhorst. The V-2 missiles were transported by the Germans in the strictest secrecy. The rocket trains that departed from the Peenemünde or Nordhausen factories could transport 10-20 ballistic missiles. When transporting the V-2 loaded in pairs. Each pair of missiles occupied the 3 railway platforms, which were well disguised and very carefully guarded. The delivery time of ready-made rockets from factories to warehouses or to Vlizna, where tests were conducted, was 6-7 days.

V-2 ballistic missile launches were made from various points in the vicinity of The Hague. Since the missiles did not require a bulky launcher, as for the V-1 (a catapult with a length of 49 meters was necessary), their starting positions were constantly changing. This circumstance made them almost invulnerable to Allied aviation. V-2 on a special platform was brought directly to the launch site, installed vertically on a concrete or asphalt platform where the rocket was filled with oxidizer and fuel, after which it was launched on a given target.

Consequences of hitting the V-2 rocket in Antwerp


For half a year, despite the 30 multiple air superiority of the allies and the intense bombing of the Anglo-American Air Force, not a single V-2 ballistic missile was destroyed at the start. At the same time, the Nazis managed to increase the intensity of attacks on London. If in October 1944 of the V-32 rocket exploded in the British capital in October, then in November the 2 of the ballistic rocket exploded, in January and February of the 82 of the year in 1945, and in March of the 114. The Germans managed to improve the accuracy of hitting missiles at the target. If in October it was only 112% of the number of missiles that fell on English territory, then from November onwards, more than 35% of the missiles that flew over hit objects within London.

By the end of March 1945, ballistic missile strikes against targets in England and Belgium were stopped. In total, the United States 1115 V-2 missiles were detected by the air defense system of the UK air defense system, of which 517 exploded in London (47%), 537 in England (49%) and 61 rocket fell into the sea. The losses from the impact of these missiles amounted to 9277 people, including 2754 killed and 6523 injured. In total, from September to the end of March 1945, the Germans fired more than 4-x thousand V-2 missiles at London, South England, Antwerp, Brussels, Liege and Remagen, as well as other targets. So in London it was released from 1400 to 2000 missiles, and according to Antwerp, which was the main supply base of the allies in Europe, to 1600 missiles. At the same time, approximately 570 V-2 rockets exploded in Antwerp. A large number of rockets simply exploded when launched on the ground or in the air, or failed in flight.

Despite the imperfection of the design, the strikes of the first ballistic missiles sometimes led to serious casualties among the civilian population and the military. So 1 November 1944, two V-2 rockets killed 120 people, 25 November, 160 was killed and only 108 people were injured by the rupture of just one rocket in London. In the morning of March 8, one of the German missiles hit the London shop, 1945, broke through it and exploded in a subway tunnel under it, the building collapsed completely, and 110 people died. But the greatest number of victims from the use of V-2 rockets by the Germans was 16 December 1944 of the year in Antwerp. On this day at 15: 20, a ballistic missile hit the building of the Rex movie theater, where the film was being shown. During the screening, all 1200 seats were occupied in the cinema. The rocket blast killed a 567 man, a 291 man was injured. The 296 dead and the 194 injured were British, American and Canadian military personnel.

Scene of destruction at Farringdon Road in London after the fall of the V-2 rocket, 1945 year.


The moral effect that V-2 rockets had on civilians was also quite large. This was due to the fact that protection against new weapons simply did not exist, and the Germans could launch missiles at any time of the day. Because of this, the residents of London were constantly in a state of tension. The most difficult psychologically were the night hours, when the Germans carried out shelling of the British capital with Fau-1 “shells”.

Yet, until the end of the Second World War, the Hitlerite command failed to achieve truly massive missile strikes. Moreover, it was not about the destruction of entire cities or individual industrial areas. On the part of Hitler and the leadership of Germany, the effectiveness of the “weapon of retaliation” was clearly overestimated. Rocket weapons of such a technical level of development simply could not change the course of the conflict in favor of Germany and even more so prevent the inevitable collapse of the Third Reich.

Information sources:
Orlov A.S. The secret weapon of the Third Reich. M .: Science, 1975. 160 with.
http://fb.ru/article/163366/fau--raketa---sverhorujie-tretego-reyha
http://deutschewaffe.narod.ru/v2.htm.
http://www.e-reading.by/chapter.php/1022335/9/Hardesti_-_Istoriya_kosmicheskogo_sopernichestva_SSSR_i_SShA.html.
http://www.astronaut.ru/bookcase/article/article46.htm?reload_coolmenus.
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  1. Moore
    Moore 18 January 2016 07: 12 New
    +6
    The order of the combat use of ballistic missiles invented by the Germans was preserved in the 8k64 version, essentially until the second half of the 80s ...
    1. AAV
      AAV 18 January 2016 12: 12 New
      0
      Looking at the photo you presented, I immediately remembered the 1988 training manual for the automotive service of the air defense forces near Sokal (Ukraine). It was located at the location of the missile part. From the rocket launchers there were hangars and these are such platforms, in my opinion about 4 pieces ...
  2. qwert
    qwert 18 January 2016 07: 14 New
    +2
    They would send these funds to anti-aircraft missiles
    1. Mera joota
      Mera joota 18 January 2016 08: 12 New
      10
      Quote: qwert
      They would send these funds to anti-aircraft missiles

      Well, they sent it. The Wasserfall anti-aircraft missile was ready by May 1945. with all the consequences ... And not only her.
      PS: it was precisely the Germans' achievements in the field of creating air defense systems and German brains that allowed the USSR to make a breakthrough in this direction.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 18 January 2016 09: 24 New
        +2
        Do not confuse the pedals ... Redstone is a copy of the V-2 and not the royal R-7, the same with the SAM laughing
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 18 January 2016 11: 39 New
          +5
          Quote: Scraptor
          Do not confuse the pedals ... Redstone is a copy of the V-2 and not the royal R-7, the same with the SAM

          I won’t argue about Redstont, but what about the Royal R-7, are you probably confused? The V-2 descendant was the Royal R-1 and its modifications. Based on Wasserfall, anti-aircraft missiles 205 and 207 of the S-25 complex were created. Another name for the series of missiles B-300. http://fb2.booksgid.com/tehnicheskie/64538-dmitriy-bondar-aviaciya-i-kosmon
          avtika-2002-12.html.And this is a link to the source, although I have a lot of them, plus a service on the S-75 air defense system.
          1. Scraptor
            Scraptor 18 January 2016 12: 43 New
            0
            Probably not, since there is nothing in common. laughing

            Wasserfall (a smaller V-2) is also overcomplicated and is somehow "different" from the S-25. laughing
  3. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 18 January 2016 07: 48 New
    +6
    Other authors provide slightly different data on the victims of a rocket getting into the metro on March 8, 1945. There were much more victims. The missile hit the station, which was jam-packed with people who used it for bomb shelters. Nobody kept accurate records of those who were then in the subway; for obvious reasons, there were a lot of people there during the air raid. As a result of the hit, the station was completely destroyed along with the underground hospital that was there. Data on the victims of this hit vary widely and range from 380 and up to 800 people! At the beginning, a very low figure was published to hide the real number of victims of the tragedy and not to "please" the enemy.
  4. common man
    common man 18 January 2016 08: 35 New
    +2
    Nevertheless, the Nazis, unlike ISIS, were relatively humane. If they had equipped the FAU-2 with a dirty atomic bomb, and I already had such an opportunity, the destructive effect would have been much higher.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 18 January 2016 09: 58 New
      +3
      besides dirty and ordinary one could still put sarin - watch the movie "The Rock" and you will be happy
      It’s just that the USSR would crush them with great victims anyway (like Japan with its bacteriological WMD later) and it would only get worse
      The Angles and Americans took advantage of this to destroy the civilian population of both countries from the air. Then, in the Soviet zone of occupation, no one was injured from starvation, while in the western zone millions of Germans died from it, and they remember this.
      1. zennon
        zennon 18 January 2016 10: 23 New
        +8
        Quote: Scraptor
        besides dirty and ordinary one could also put sarin -

        Hitler banned the use of chemical weapons. Annoying gases have been used. There is information about the use of Wehrmacht irritating gases against partisans in the catacombs in the Crimea and the Balkans. We also used a cartridge with an armor-piercing incendiary chemical bullet BZH, which was a BS- bullet 41 with a capsule filled with tear gas-lacrimator (chloroacetophenone), which was supposed to have a certain effect on the crew when a bullet hit the combat compartment of an armored object, forcing tankers to evacuate from a gassed vehicle with an intolerable concentration of tear gas outside, under aimed fire of infantry. nobody used. Although it was the Germans who developed 3 of the 4 most effective substances. In the mid-30s, Zarin and Zoman, and in 1942 Tabun. Hitler, being a soldier, himself swallowed "mustard gas" in 1918. His they carried him out of the battlefield. He even lost his sight for a while. His eyes hurt his whole life and sweat. He often wore glasses with blue glasses.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 18 January 2016 11: 46 New
          +2
          Quote: zennon
          But no one used chemical weapons. Although it was the Germans who developed 3 of the 4 most effective substances. In the mid-30s, Zarin and Zoman, and in 1942 Tabun.

          Thanks for the detailed and interesting comment.
    2. Riv
      Riv 18 January 2016 10: 34 New
      +6
      And if rubber? :)
      The Germans were not idiots. Hitler was well aware that the Allied response to the use of any type of weapon of mass destruction would be devastating. Their aircraft had much wider delivery capabilities.

      And do not watch the "Rock". Zarin does not act like that at all. The Hollywood movie will not show how a person is sick and vomit. The viewer will not appreciate.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 18 January 2016 12: 49 New
        0
        Who cares? "Soyuznegi" and so massively destroyed the German population.

        Zarin acts a little longer.
    3. opus
      opus 18 January 2016 12: 52 New
      0
      Quote: man in the street
      If they had equipped the FAU-2 with a dirty atomic bomb, but I already had such an opportunity

      did not have:
      1. The deficit of radioactive materials in Nazi Germany: the choice of "heavy water" way
      2. Lack of funds and resources:
      either a Vau-2 bomb or ballistic missile and the creation of the A-9 / A-10 intercontinental missiles and the Silbervogel partially orbital bomber and a number of other projects under the America project.
      If the Germans applied, they would receive a return:
      [i] -Another 40 g in Britain in the event of a German invasion of England provided for the use of toxic substances. Sir John Dill, chief of the British gene. Headquarters, in its memorandum of June 15, 40 g introduced the following:
      “In our defense, we will use gas weapons against Italy and Germany.”
      On June 30, Prime Minister Churchill ordered General Ismai to begin preparations for the use of chemical weapons, explaining this as follows:
      “In my opinion, it will not take us too much time to use these weapons against the enemy.”
      Churchill proposed in April. 1942 to Stalin on the supply of 1000 tons of mustard gas, Stalin refused, he instead wanted 5 tons of chlorine products, from which many substances needed for the war could be made.

      - The USA already in 1943 delivered to Europe a huge amount of mustard gas, which subsequently led to a disaster on the island of Bari. The American merchant ship John Harwey 10617BRT arrived on November 28, 43, under the direction of Captain Edwin F Knowsles from the Baltic Sea, to the southern Italian port of Bari. On board were 540 tons of mustard bombs accompanied by only 7 US soldiers under the leadership of Lieutenant Hoverd Bergström. They themselves did not know what they were taking.
      In the evening, Dec 2 1943 German JU bombers began to bomb transport ships (number 30), which were in the port, resulting in the sinking of 19 ships, 8 were damaged, 5 of them began to sink into the water. Among the wrecks was the ship “John Harwey”), in the explosion of which gas leaked out. Killed all those involved in transportation. The United States was silent about this incident. According to the winners, 628 soldiers and naval personnel died - they became victims of precisely toxic substances, 96 died. The death toll of the civilian population was not disclosed. This refers to victims of burns, bronchitis and pulmonary diseases. Churchill ordered the medical staff to keep silent about the cause of these deaths. Only in 1974 did the British issue acts of publicity related to the incident.

      -After the start of the war, an English scientist from the Chemical Defense Establisment on Gruinard Island near the West Coast of Scotland in 1941 he began experiments on the infection of anthrax. It was strictly forbidden to come there.

      Bombs with such a dangerous weapon called Bacilus antbaracis, Anthrax bombs were to be dropped from 2700 aircraft to the German cities of Aachen, Frankfurt, Berlin, Hamburg and Stuttgart. The death toll was to be up to 3 million. Experts claimed that these cities would be deserted for decades after infection.
      (published by BBC Robert Harris in 1981 - documents confirming plans for bacteriological infection.)
      1. opus
        opus 18 January 2016 12: 52 New
        0
        -For 7 months before joining the USA during the war, an American scientist suggested holding discussions on how to radioactively infect the populations of Japan and Germany so that they die after several weeks of torment. One article in Stanford (California) talked about how prof. History Barton J. Bernstein at the University made a presentation and presented government documents, which spoke about the discussion of the plan for the poisoning of milk and grain with radioactive substances. [/ i]
        Arthur Compton and Robert Oppenheimer with Edward Teller - these 2 groups worked on this topic.
        Oppenheimer "we want to achieve a lot in this project, we can irradiate half a million people"

        Robert Oppenheimer since 1943 required absolute secrecy for this plan
        From 1945 to 47g, 18 people were irradiated in the USA in one of the American clinics.

        From 1946 to 1947, six patients were injected with uranium salt in the kidney, this happened at the American University of Rochester.

        From 1963 to 1965, several people were poisoned with milk from cows that grazed on a polluted pasture near the Idaho reactor. At the same time, 57 people were poisoned in Los Angeles by food, which contained a high content of radioactive manganese.

        From 1963 to 1971, experiments on radioactive radiation were conducted over 131 prisoners in the Washington and Oregon State Prisons. The US Atomic Energy Commission wanted to investigate how long radioactive particles have been killing the human body.
      2. Scraptor
        Scraptor 18 January 2016 13: 15 New
        +2
        1-2 with their "either" - as it is completely incoherent.
        How did the V-2 interfere with the nuclear project? In its design (well, except maybe warheads), uranium is not used. lol
        To create uranium bombs, no, heavy water or any other, reactors are needed. The Germans needed the reactor for their submarines. As if a simple idea - the same ship, only the boiler itself is heated.
        The uranium deficiency was in the USSR and the USA. The richest uranium deposits on the contrary were in Germany.
        With Siberian Siberian - you have rare stuff, the Americans did not have it. On the contrary, a little more, and in the USA, Japan would apply it if the USSR did not occupy the USSR in Manchuria Detachment 731.

        Uh ... well, BBC, well then it’s clear laughing
  5. alex-cn
    alex-cn 18 January 2016 08: 40 New
    +1
    Thank God that the Germans still did not reach the nuclear bomb ... Then these missiles could have done much more serious damage ... Although there is "yellow" information that some tests were probably carried out, probably in 43 ...
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 18 January 2016 09: 07 New
      +5
      The presence of two types of bombs among Americans - plutonium and uranium - leads to certain thoughts. Uranium bomb dropped on Japan without preliminary tests
    2. Fat
      Fat 19 January 2016 03: 48 New
      -2
      By February 1942, the Heisenberg-Deppel uranium machine was operating at the Leipzig Institute (Physico-Chemical Institute of the University of Leipzig. Professor Hein.) R. Deppel informed the Wehrmacht Arms Department that the reactor was operating.
      A little later, this miracle exploded. It is believed that the explosion was thermal and has a chemical nature - the reaction of uranium with heavy water due to leakage of uranium powder. Others believe that the reactor nevertheless reached critical values, the active zone collapsed and a small Fuchsima happened with a stop and a fire. The version that this is the work of the guys of Boris Pash (Pashkovsky) has also the right to exist, he had friends in Germany ... but this is very unlikely.
  6. sa-ag
    sa-ag 18 January 2016 09: 00 New
    +3
    The Germans seemed to have a rocket called A-9, but it never went into production, there wasn’t enough time
    1. opus
      opus 18 January 2016 12: 57 New
      0
      Quote: sa-ag
      The Germans seemed to have a rocket called A-9,

      A9 / A10 (later it was called FAU-3).

      first stage A10 rocket with a height of 20 meters, a diameter of 4.1 m and a launch weight 69 tons.

      the second stage rocket A9, was winged version of the A4 missile (FAU-2) with a sealed cockpit. (length 14.2 m, diameter 1.7 m, total weight 16.3 tons)

      By 1943, ONLY the project and several A-9 launches were ready (range up to 600 km. Flight time 17 minutes, maximum flight altitude was about 80 km ..)

      and a test bench mounted in Peenemuende (was designed for engine thrust of 200 tons).
      ============================================

      The total weight of the two-stage rocket A9 / A10 was more than 90 tons with a length of over 30 meters (for comparison: similar parameters and characteristics were achieved in the Atlas and Titan American intercontinental missiles after only 15 years). The initial version of the A10 consisted of 6 A4 combustion chambers aimed at a single nozzle. Then this option was replaced with one large combustion chamber.
  7. bionik
    bionik 18 January 2016 09: 25 New
    +3
    The developers of German rocket weapons surrender to the 44th American division. Also, the documentation for the development was transferred to the Americans.
    In the summer of 1945, during Operation Paperclip (Paperclip), they were all exported to the United States and continued their work. So the United States acquired its own rocket and space programs. In the center: chief designer of the V-2 rocket, Obersturmbannführer SS Wernher von Braun.
    1. bionik
      bionik 18 January 2016 09: 30 New
      +1
      The fuel pump of the German V-2 rocket, which fell on the East Ham area of ​​London.
    2. Scraptor
      Scraptor 18 January 2016 09: 38 New
      +7
      he probably tied his hand specifically to the tire so that he wouldn’t throw a ridge on the sudden Heilgitler in the American Immigration Service wassat
      https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Синдром_чужой_руки
    3. Alex
      Alex 18 January 2016 19: 47 New
      +2
      Quote: bionik
      In the center: chief designer of the Fau-2 rocket Obersturmbannführer SS Wernher von Braun.

      And to his left with a cigarette in his hand is Major General Walter Dornberger, director of the German jet weapon program.
  8. 31rus
    31rus 18 January 2016 09: 44 New
    +6
    Dear Germans, it’s the Germans who used missiles in large quantities, it was thanks to their evil genius that the missile era began, unfortunately, first of all, to destroy
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 18 January 2016 10: 11 New
      +1
      They were also the first to use gases in WWI, as they constantly forget about it.
      1. common man
        common man 18 January 2016 12: 35 New
        0
        Quote: Scraptor
        They were also the first to use gases in WWI.

        And the states are the first atomic bomb. Do not be shy. And they dropped it like that, without much sense. Just to amuse pride. They knew that there would be no answers. And do not forget about this either. That only answer can stop star-striped from meanness.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 18 January 2016 13: 22 New
          0
          Well that was later ... winked The point was - to spur the entry into the war of the USSR, because the response to half a year of American conventional bombing (like in Tokyo and Toyama) in the form of Japanese bacteriological weapons of mass destruction in large quantities in Detachment 731 in Manchuria just matured, and once such a booze started, it did not it in the United States (and on its own, or in its own Armed Forces) to apply none other than the USSR.
          So at the expense of their star-spoken meanness, even you are completely unaware.
        2. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 18 January 2016 17: 26 New
          +2
          Quote: man in the street
          And they dropped it like that, without much sense. Just to amuse pride. They knew that there would be no answers.

          The meaning was. But such that it would be better if it were not.
          General Leslie Groves, military director of the Manhattan project, voiced this meaning with military bluntness and clarity:
          It was established that targets should be chosen as targets, the bombing of which will most radically affect the determination of the Japanese people to continue the war. In addition, they should be of military importance and be the place of deployment of important headquarters or military groups or be centers of military industry. In order to be able to accurately determine the degree of destruction, these objects should not be heavily damaged by bombing. For a more accurate determination of the power of the bomb, it is desirable that the first target occupy an area exceeding the probable area of ​​destruction.

          And the last factor was almost the most important. That is why Groves insisted on using the product according to Kiyoto.
          However, Kyoto remained attractive to me, mainly because of its large area allowing for an assessment of the power of the bomb. Hiroshima from this point of view did not quite suit us.

          That is, in fact, the Americans simply needed to conduct military tests of a new toy for a typical purpose.
          1. Scraptor
            Scraptor 18 January 2016 17: 53 New
            0
            In fact, by using these weapons he had to transfer the war to an unconventional plane so that the USSR would not be fully prepared for it, and would act swiftly incurring greater losses than it could.
            Quote: Alexey RA
            military tests of a new toy for a typical target.

            no matter how there were troops (except hospitals, which were under the protection of the Red Cross) in these cities, and they measured for the "fat man" still in Alamogordo.
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 18 January 2016 18: 20 New
              0
              Quote: Scraptor
              no matter how there were troops (except hospitals, which were under the protection of the Red Cross) in these cities, and they measured for the "fat man" still in Alamogordo.

              In Hiroshima, there was a defense control center for the entire south of Japan. And Nagasaki in 1945 was the main shipbuilding and metallurgical center of Japan.

              In addition, the military demanded testing for the real purpose. The flat site of the experimental training ground and theoretical calculations of the damaging effects did not suit them - tests were needed for a real target with various types of buildings.
              1. Scraptor
                Scraptor 18 January 2016 18: 39 New
                +1
                In Hiroshima, like in Dresden, there was nothing but hospitals, this GO center was one cripple and 10-15 adjutants with one phone at all in the old castle. There was no one to defend in the south of Japan, only Soviet troops from the north through the straits could attack it.
                There was one small repair shipyard in Nagasaki and that was all, the explosion was far from it.

                Everything was measured at the landfill with all the numbers and types of construction. It is in Japanese cities, measuring devices have not been installed.

                Insolent nonsense all these statements of Groves, as well as Le May that they bomb German residential areas in order to reduce the productivity of Germans in factories because the Germans have nowhere to sleep (instead of just bombing these factories themselves).
                1. Alexey RA
                  Alexey RA 19 January 2016 11: 50 New
                  0
                  Quote: Scraptor
                  In Hiroshima, like in Dresden, there was nothing but hospitals, this GO center was one cripple and 10-15 adjutants with one phone at all in the old castle.

                  What, nafig, center GO?
                  In Hiroshima were:
                  - headquarters and rear areas 2 A, responsible for the defense of southern Japan,
                  - headquarters and rear areas 59 A,
                  - headquarters of the 5th division,
                  - army warehouses and workshops.

                  Among the victims of the bombing of Hiroshima, there are 20 troops.
                  Quote: Scraptor
                  There was one small repair shipyard in Nagasaki and that was all, the explosion was far from it.

                  In the suburbs of Nagasaki, there were Mitsubishi shipyards, on which were built the Musashi, Hyuuga and Kirishima, AV Amagi, Kasagi and Dzunyo, 4 AVE and a crowd of KR and EM.
                  In addition, there were two Mitsubishi military factories in the city itself.

                  Yes, the bomb did not explode over the shipyard, but over the city. But the task of American raids after the arrival of LeMey was to knock out not the industry itself, but its personnel. “If you kill the workers and burn them at home, the factories will drastically reduce production” - the same strategy as the “butcher” Harris against Germany. Actually, a classic example of LeMey's strategy is a blow to Tokyo. And the atomic bombing of cities fit well into it.
                  Quote: Scraptor
                  Insolent nonsense all these statements of Groves, as well as Le May that they bomb German residential areas in order to reduce the productivity of Germans in factories because the Germans have nowhere to sleep (instead of just bombing these factories themselves).

                  So factories are harder to bomb than cities. Even with the Norden, no more than 5% of the dropped bombs fell within the factory fence of the refinery.
                  In addition, as the experience of the Battle of Britain showed, the plant is extremely resistant to raids. They need to be hammered out regularly and methodically, in groups of 300-500 machines.
                  And the bombing of Japanese cities, unlike Europe, turned out to be an effective measure: the Japanese government was forced to begin the dispersal of personnel and factories. And this paralyzed the industry: the division of industries, which were previously unified, created a cloud of “bottlenecks”: for example, the production of propellers for aircraft dropped sharply.
                  1. Scraptor
                    Scraptor 20 January 2016 18: 53 New
                    0
                    Perhaps you are just an American, although you didn’t even see all of this heresy ...

                    There was only one headquarters in Hiroshima, and he was responsible for civil defense. Each city has warehouses, a suburb is not a city. Ships were built in Yokohama, it is difficult to bomb only underground factories, in any factory damage to just one workshop means stopping the entire factory (production line), production in Japan was almost all dispersed, dispersed and started hide the Germans underground in the Alps.

                    These 20 thousand were hospitalized; conventions do not bomb hospitals.

                    When there are a lot of hospitals and there is nothing substantial from the military point of view from the industrial point of view, the Red Cross recognizes the city as a hospital whole. So, Hiroshima and Dresden were recognized as such cities, so for a long time not even a single simple bomb fell on them.

                    For the entire time of the barbaric bombing of Coventry aircraft factories during the entire war, a little more than 500 civilians
          2. Alex
            Alex 18 January 2016 19: 51 New
            +2
            Yes, Kyoto was just lucky: that day there was dense clouds above him, and just above the clouds above Hiroshima (reserve target). That's cynicism of the highest standard.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 18 January 2016 17: 11 New
        +1
        Quote: Scraptor
        They were also the first to use gases in WWI, as they constantly forget about it.

        Ypres chlorine was indeed the first to be used by the Germans. But before that, both sides actively used irritating agents - ethyl bromoacetate and chloroacetone. The first of them was used by the French almost from the beginning of the war.
        In short, the threshold passed gradually - at first, the use of irritating agents became permissible, and then smoothly switched to asphyxiating and skin abscesses. The last substance, by the way, was again used near the Ypres River - by which it got its name.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 18 January 2016 18: 00 New
          +1
          Not smoothly but abruptly, especially near Osovec, after which the “damned tsarism” invented and supplied free-gas masks to the allied people who were sitting in the trenches in 1915.
          and just tear peppers burned in antiquity
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 18 January 2016 18: 23 New
            +1
            Quote: Scraptor
            Not smoothly but abruptly, especially near Osovec, after which the “damned tsarism” invented and supplied free-gas masks to the allied people who were sitting in the trenches in 1915.

            “Smoothly” - this is me about the Western Front, where it all started with annoying, then their concentration increased, and then the Germans turned to stranglers.
            And on our front, it all started really abruptly - right away with chlorine.
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 18 January 2016 18: 52 New
              0
              And what about the western one, and not about ours?

              And sharply and a lot ...
          2. BM-13
            BM-13 18 January 2016 19: 57 New
            +2
            Quote: Scraptor
            Not smoothly but abruptly, especially near Osovec, after which the “damned tsarism” invented and supplied free-gas masks to the allied people who were sitting in the trenches in 1915.

            Actually, not Tsarism, but N.D. Zelinsky. Already he had nothing to do with the imperial family, he worked on his own initiative, he did not receive any awards or preferences.

            More details here:
            http://topwar.ru/61740-smert-iz-probirki.html
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 18 January 2016 20: 06 New
              0
              Actually, he worked creating his gas mask in Tsarist Russia ...
              1. BM-13
                BM-13 18 January 2016 20: 37 New
                +1
                That is, if a person in the 19th century, working in some Sudan or Congo, creates something there, then this is the result of the efforts of the Chuck empire or the colonial administration?
                1. Scraptor
                  Scraptor 18 January 2016 20: 42 New
                  0
                  That is, not the US Congress in any case. States are made up of the deeds and achievements of their subjects.
    2. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 18 January 2016 20: 58 New
      0
      Quote: 31rus
      Dear Germans, it’s the Germans who used missiles in large quantities, it was thanks to their evil genius that the missile era began, unfortunately, first of all, to destroy

      And nuclear weapons are Americans.
      Missiles cannot be classified as inhumane weapons or weapons of mass destruction. Simply weapons
      Of course, bombing cities is not good. But all participants in the war bombed
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 18 January 2016 21: 34 New
        +1
        Quote: Pilat2009
        Of course, bombing cities is not good. But all participants in the war bombed

        Only Anglo-Americans were engaged in the targeted bombing of residential areas in WWII, therefore, this weapon was called in German not a miracle weapon, but a “weapon of the all-Russia”. Even with conventional warheads, they killed them Londoners more than in Blitz in 1940 and with 0 losses of their pilots and aircraft. Just because they no longer made a difference. As can be seen from the article, Agntverpen was attacked all the same for military purposes.
  9. sevtrash
    sevtrash 18 January 2016 10: 26 New
    +1
    It is amazing how many advanced developments were carried out by relatively small Germany. The first cruise missiles, ballistic missiles, anti-aircraft missiles, a breakthrough electric bot - a 21-series submarine, acoustic torpedoes, jet aircraft, infrared sights, etc. etc. Apparently, the consequence of a high level of education for the vast majority of the population, technical and general culture. But the result would be one - the big battalions are always right. At the opponents of Germany, the material and technical base was at least larger, but in terms of advanced developments the United States made the right emphasis - the atomic bomb, although it was not needed in the war with the Germans.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 18 January 2016 13: 01 New
      0
      Actually, work in the USA on the atomic project began after Einstein who had escaped from Germany wrote a letter to Roosevelt.
      1. sevtrash
        sevtrash 18 January 2016 14: 43 New
        +1
        Quote: Scraptor
        Actually, work in the USA on the atomic project began after Einstein who had escaped from Germany wrote a letter to Roosevelt.


        In fact, Einstein signed the letter, and the initiators and authors of the letter were mostly physicists Sylard, also Wigner. Moreover, an explanatory note from Silard was still attached to the letter. Roosevelt created the Uranium Committee, which later became the Manhattan project with the involvement of scientists from the USA, Canada, Europe, including from Germany.
        And, in fact, this does not change the essence - in the United States the atomic bomb was made, which could be a real Wunderwaffe for Germany - a miracle weapon.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 18 January 2016 15: 31 New
          0
          In fact, Einstein, he just had dyslexia and dysgraphia, so it was necessary for someone to edit the letter.
          The bottom line is that work began in Germany earlier and at the end of the war she had it, it just couldn’t stop the advancing Soviet units, therefore they didn’t take revenge on Dresden (165 cities were destroyed), after the failure offensives with the aim of stabilizing the Eastern Front along the Danube in Hungary, stopped resistance on the Western Front, and began to surrender the territory and population to the "allies." Then the population was undersized, they then starved millions, especially the one that fled from the eastern lands, away from the "Soviet barbarians" with their regimental kitchens.
          1. sevtrash
            sevtrash 18 January 2016 15: 53 New
            0
            Quote: Scraptor
            In fact, Einstein, he just had dyslexia and dysgraphia, so it was necessary for someone to edit the letter.

            Actually, the authors of the letter were still Sylard and Wigner, is this a well-known fact, see for yourself, google, or can you have your own vision of the history of the world?

            Quote: Scraptor
            The bottom line is that work began in Germany earlier and at the end of the war she had it

            I wonder how it turned out to be created by the Germans. Do not share the facts, links? And then the whole world history is not aware of such an event. Until now, it was believed that the atomic bomb was originally created by the Americans.
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 18 January 2016 16: 33 New
              0
              Still not. And before (correctly) they wrote that Einstein. And even the fact that he "invented the atomic bomb." laughing
              And the Germans allegedly screwed up because of the persecution of "some kind of physics there." Google about Einstein's dyslexia and dysgraphia.

              In a quite usual way, the Russian Federation still uses the German centrifuge technology (although it did not work out right away), which the Americans could not repeat at all. laughing

              It's just that they are Americans - they like to deceive themselves and at the same time the whole of world history.
              http://www.wearethemighty.com
            2. Scraptor
              Scraptor 18 January 2016 16: 52 New
              0
              The computer, of course, was also originally created by the Americans (ENIAK), only now
              https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Цузе,_Конрад
              and before him it’s not like that.
          2. BM-13
            BM-13 18 January 2016 20: 22 New
            +1
            Quote: sevtrash
            In fact, Einstein signed the letter, and the initiators and authors of the letter were mostly physicists Sylard, also Wigner.

            Quote: Scraptor
            In fact, Einstein, he just had dyslexia and dysgraphia, so it was necessary for someone to edit the letter.


            In the book of W. Lawrence, "People and Atoms," this episode is described in sufficient detail.

            ... The naval officers patiently and politely listened to Fermi and asked to keep them informed in the future. But, as the legend is widespread in scientific circles, Fermi did not have time to leave, as one said to the other: “This Italian is crazy!”
            This froze for several months, during which the possible activities of the Germans caused more and more concern of the five Fermi.
            Finally, at the suggestion of Szilard, the most secular of the five, they decided: in order to force them to act, they must get to the president himself. And only one of them will the president accept and listen with respect - Albert Einstein.
            To this end, a delegation led by Scyllard went to Einstein. Einstein shook his head.
            “I am not familiar with the president, and the president does not know me.”
            “He knows and respects you.” You are the only person he will listen to. For America and the world, it is imperative to do something. You cannot lose a minute.
            Since Einstein nevertheless refused to personally go to the president, they made a compromise and decided to send the president a letter signed by Einstein. However, when the letter was ready for signature, Einstein went on vacation to Long Island.
            So, on August 2, 1939, Dr. Teller *, who had a car, arrived on Long Island with a document that later became historical. The original is kept at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library in Hyde Park. <...>
            Teller, the man who created weapons in about twelve years that made the atomic bomb obsolete, sat silent while Einstein read the letter. Einstein signed the letter and went to the sailing yacht. Teller returned to Princeton.
            -----------
            * The author does not accurately describe the events. Two scientists went with a letter to Einstein: Leo Sdillard and Edward Teller. - Approx. ed.

            As you can see, Einstein himself has a very indirect relation to this letter. This is the official American position, there are no other references to sources.
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 18 January 2016 21: 21 New
              0
              Yes, yes, of course, even the "crazy Italian" understands this much better than the Germans.
              It remains only to find out how Comrade Lawrence found out about all this, and why there is not a word in this episode about Einstein's dyslexia and dysgraphia.

              Hyde Park is such a place in London where crazy people gather.
              1. BM-13
                BM-13 19 January 2016 00: 20 New
                0
                Quote: Scraptor
                It remains only to find out how Comrade Lawrence found out about all this
                Comrade Lawrence is the official biographer of the Manhattan Project, a correspondent for The New York Times.
                Quote: Scraptor
                why there’s not a word about Einstein’s dyslexia and dysgraphia in this episode.
                I have not the foggiest idea. By the way, before your post I did not hear about them either.
                Quote: Scraptor
                Hyde Park is such a place in London where crazy people gather.
                Hyde Park is also Franklin Roosevelt's estate in New York. In June 1939, King George VI and his wife Queen Consort Elizabeth were on a visit there. About this there is the film "Hyde Park on the Hudson" with Bill Murray and Laura Linney.
                1. Scraptor
                  Scraptor 20 January 2016 18: 09 New
                  0
                  Quote: BM-13
                  Comrade Lawrence is the official biographer of the Manhattan Project, a correspondent for The New York Times.

                  Yeah, such a secret ...

                  Then google ...

                  HORRIBLE!!! laughing good and the American men didn’t know.
    2. Scraptor
      Scraptor 18 January 2016 20: 52 New
      -1
      Relatively small Germany didn’t have such a small population that received a good education (but they didn’t have much culture).
      There remains some paradox why they did not and did not use radio fuses (although there is something complicated), and generally added a contact fuse to ordinary antiaircraft shells with a big delay, although this caused the number of “trips” due to direct hits in the tight battle formations of aircraft twice.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 18 January 2016 23: 20 New
        0
        And yet, why is the projectile so complicated in a radio fuse compared to the same SAM?
        There is rather a question in assessing applicability.

        And their culture after progress at the beginning of the 20th century (the Russians in Baden-Baden accidentally brought in a custom to wash) was still such that the ostarbeiters were then surprised - a soldier who came to visit usually got out in the kitchen and cast it at home ...

        Still genuine interest is how their education was enough to collect in the 1960s such a stupid rotary nozzle, even much worse than the American one, which, unlike the Soviet one, constantly exploded. The airships before them in the WWI were really good, but this is mainly due to the secret of duralumin, as well as the WFD / LRE because of the secret of the three-component refractory alloy.
  10. AlexA
    AlexA 18 January 2016 10: 29 New
    +5
    Not quite effective use of these missiles due to the imperfection of the control system. Still, a rocket is an expensive pleasure. And it would make sense to use it to destroy important point targets. But this just did not allow for insufficient control accuracy.
    And the rocket itself served as the basis for the creation of the first Soviet 8A11 (P-1) ballistic missile. It was an almost exact copy of the A-4. Only a number of design and technological measures were taken to increase reliability. Yes, we finalized the control system, increasing accuracy. We studied this at a rocket school. And in our class there was an engine from her - 8d51. And these missiles were in service until the early 60s. And the influence of technical solutions A-4 can be seen in the design of many subsequent products: 8k51, 8k63, 8k64, 8k72. Perhaps, only starting from 8k84 and 8k67 did constructive solutions become fundamentally different.
    So the A-4 is an outstanding technical achievement.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Moore
      Moore 18 January 2016 11: 21 New
      +4
      Quote: AlexA
      We studied this at a rocket school. And in our class there was an engine from her - 8d51.

      And with us - in general from the FAU-2. Moreover, with the stigma in the form of the Wehrmacht emblem in the combustion chamber smile
    3. opus
      opus 18 January 2016 13: 26 New
      +1
      Quote: AlexA
      . And in our class there was an engine from Ney - 8d51

      Layout 8D719 ....

      And this is the TNA LRE Tilya from A-4 (V-2)
      ===========================================
      RD-100


      not much distinguishable from the TREL rocket engine
  11. engineer74
    engineer74 18 January 2016 10: 32 New
    +4
    The book "Fau-2. The superweapon of the Third Reich"-Walter Dornberger
    Look, on the other hand, so to speak - I recommend ...
    (For myself, I concluded: you can relate to the Reich and Hitler as you like, but to the German engineering school - only with great respect.)
    1. Monster_Fat
      Monster_Fat 18 January 2016 11: 33 New
      +1
      Dornberger’s book is not very interesting. Most of the first part of this book is occupied by the praise of the author himself as an “unsurpassed co-constructor and organizer”; Brown is mentioned there in passing as a “upstart” that crawled out due to his “SS-Soviet” patronage. The second part of the book is occupied by the author’s “cry” about how he was gradually “pushed away” from the project and how he, like, “conflicted” with the project curator from SS Kramer. The irony is that, unlike Brown, who “pulled” the entire US space program on his “shoulders,” Dornberger was unable to create anything worthwhile in the USSR, despite the resources provided.
      1. engineer74
        engineer74 18 January 2016 11: 52 New
        +1
        Dornberger in the USSR? belay EMNIP, he, together with von Brown, moved the Lunar Program, and not only it ...
        And, judging by the ranks, he had nothing to do with the SS. hi
        1. Monster_Fat
          Monster_Fat 18 January 2016 11: 56 New
          +1
          I was mistaken about the “USSR”, but the fact that he did not create anything good after the war is true, although he oversaw some projects (missile defense, reusable spacecraft) while in the position of adviser to the US Secretary of Defense.
          1. engineer74
            engineer74 18 January 2016 12: 13 New
            +1
            In this book, I was very interested in the methods of solving administrative problems, in the period when I read it, I came across similar ones (though the project was very much smaller smile ) and the literary syllable is beautiful, in comparison with the memoirs of our commanders and designers, although this is highly dependent on the translation. smile
            And then, he is not a techie, he is an administrator - no one even notices their work even in successful projects, like Beria in the Uranium Project.
            People like the Queen - “two in one”, a rarity ... hi
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 18 January 2016 17: 34 New
              +2
              Quote: engineer74
              I’m very interested in solving administrative problems in this book.

              Oh yes ... one attempt to privatize Peenemuende to get money on a rocket theme was worth it.
              “Colonel,” Hettlage began, “I invited you to discuss the best way to transform an army institution in Peenemuende into a private joint-stock company.”

              It struck me like a thunder. I immediately realized that as a result of Degenkolb’s activities, the battle for Peenemuende entered a new and decisive stage. <...> No one really knew anything, but guessed that our work has promising opportunities. Now they felt that it was time to take Peenemuende's hands. The creation of the A-4, which could be the beginning of a new technical era, should in no case be left in the hands of an army institution. It was supposed to gain another brand. Glory and income lay on the scales. Now I understood what I was facing: the interest of the technical department of the party and industry grew — and they went on the offensive. I had to defend our Peenemuende. It was not so difficult to find out what kind of personalities lie behind the scene, their motives and intentions.

              - We will transform Peenemuende into a limited liability company. Currently, the entire capital of the company remains in the hands of the state. The company itself will be managed by a large concern, which will take on the role of a trustee - for example, General Electric, Siemens, Lorenz or Rheinmetall - and then, after the amortization of the invested capital, the company will become the property of the company.

              “Are you up to date,” I asked innocently, “that the value of Peenemünde, including all the money already spent, amounts to several hundred million marks?” And it is unlikely that such costs can cause a temptation in industry.

              “We have already held a tender,” Hettlage explained, “and we can split the capital into assets of one and two million.”

              - I would like to ask why the transformation is scheduled for this particular moment? I asked.

              “The reason,” answered Hettlage, “is that this enterprise does not meet the requirements for modern, well-organized production, which is controlled by the laws of the economy.”

              An effective manager in all its glory. Privatization of pilot production and testing ground at the height of the war to improve economic efficiency. Yes, for such a Dengenkolb, who led this process (by the way, the Speer’s creature), it was necessary to immediately give the Red Banner, or even the Hero of Socialist Labor. For there was no better way to slow down the Reich missile research.

              As a result, instead of developing missiles, Dornberger and his specialists were forced to spend time repelling the attacks of privatizers.
            2. Fat
              Fat 19 January 2016 03: 30 New
              0
              Well ... Hariton, it’s kind of the same "wow" chief designer ... hi
      2. The comment was deleted.
  12. opus
    opus 18 January 2016 13: 34 New
    +2
    Quote: Author
    Fau-2 rockets flew near the concentration camp Buchenwald, work on their assembly was carried out round the clock

    ERROR


    Complex was part of the Mauthausen concentration camp near the town of St. Georg an der Guzen (in Upper Austria) Its role is indicated by the fact that the building was personally controlled by the SS Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler. The head of the complex was SS General Hans Kammler, who oversaw the development of V-2 missiles (V-2)
    (Prior to this, it was believed that the largest producer of V-2 rockets created at the Peenemunde Missile Center, was the Mittelwerk factory, open at the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp)













  13. gregor6549
    gregor6549 18 January 2016 14: 12 New
    0
    Germany's missile technology was truly a miracle for the time. In any case, neither the United States nor the USSR reached such a level of development of rocket technology in those days. And even having gained a lot of captured equipment and a sizable number of leading German specialists, both the USA and the USSR could reproduce this level only after a few years.
    Everyone was very lucky that Germany, having developed good (for that time) missiles, was unable to complete the development of nuclear weapons. And they were close to this. In any case, without the German precision fuses that were ready by the end of the war, neither American nor Soviet scientists would be able to ensure the completion of the development of nuclear weapons in their countries within the time frame we now know about.
    It can be added that until now a number of technical developments by German scientists and designers are still waiting in the wings
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 18 January 2016 15: 47 New
      0
      Quote: gregor6549
      failed to complete the development of nuclear weapons.

      Quote: gregor6549
      without German precision fuses that were ready by the end of the war, neither American nor Soviet scientists would be able to ensure the completion of the development of nuclear weapons

      Logically, it somehow looks nearby, don’t you?
      1. gregor6549
        gregor6549 19 January 2016 14: 07 New
        0
        I do not understand what you saw the lack of logic. Yes, certain components of the German nuclear bomb were ready, including the indicated fuses without which the synchronous "collapse" or "implosion" of the segments of the explosive necessary to initiate a chain reaction in the bomb was impossible. Moreover, Germany sent a batch of such fuses along with a cargo of heavy water in a submarine to Japan, but the boat was intercepted by the Americans along with the cargo, which helped the Americans carry out the atomic bomb tests in 45 and then the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 20 January 2016 18: 13 New
          0
          not intercepted but she went into New York harbor and surrendered

          they are not required for cannon assembly, it’s strange that you didn’t see it,
          definitely the whole bomb was ready
  14. iouris
    iouris 18 January 2016 18: 54 New
    -1
    The V-2 guidance system is rather not “gyroscopic”, but “inertial” (inertial navigation system, ANN). By the way, I heard, but do not claim, that its development was ANIS-8, which was installed on the MiG-25RB.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 18 January 2016 20: 10 New
      +1
      Program and radio commands, gyroscopes and in bipedal topedoes stood before that.
  15. pimen
    pimen 18 January 2016 21: 30 New
    0
    but, honestly, it’s a pity that the Germans did not work out the FAU2 sea launches. Objectively, the Americans were more dangerous for them than the Angles, and, as you know, then would not have turned much different in History
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 19 January 2016 12: 04 New
      0
      Quote: pimen
      but, honestly, it’s a pity that the Germans did not work out the FAU2 sea launches. Objectively, the Americans were more dangerous for them than the Angles, and, as you know, then would not have turned much different in History

      Would not turn around. The fact is that in order to develop a sea launch, a missile was needed. That is, work could begin no earlier than the second half of 1943, when everything was sad for the Germans at sea.

      And what does it mean "not worked out"? The project "Testbed XII" (towed containers for submarines) was launched just in the autumn of 1943. The trouble was that the V-2 did not fit into the standard submarine in any way, and there was no longer any time to develop a new submarine project.
      Even in peacetime in the USSR, 5 years passed from the beginning of the development of the project to the delivery of the first diesel-electric submarine fleet with the fleet to the fleet. And this is in the presence of a tested missile and serial large diesel-electric submarine, pr. 641.

      Even if the Germans miraculously accelerated the work, their submarines would have reached combat readiness by the end of 1944. Exactly at the time when the Allies could put an APUG PLO with AVE on each submarine.
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 19 January 2016 12: 45 New
      0
      Do you think the Nazis would regret Moscow if their FAU-2
      could fly away?
      1. rubin6286
        rubin6286 19 January 2016 21: 41 New
        -1
        In Germany, I had to talk with the Germans participating in the war, who served in the Luftwaffe. They told me that in late 1944 - early 1945, the Luftwaffe planned an operation to destroy a number of energy facilities on the territory of the USSR in order to stop military production. They said something like this: “We still had bombers and trained crews, fuel and bombs, but this did not come to this. We already knew how Russians behave towards the population on our territory, understood that they had the right to take revenge and were frankly afraid. In response, Stalin could order the destruction of all Germans without exception - from infants to the elderly ... .. Goering, probably also understood this .... "
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 21 January 2016 12: 45 New
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          Did they give orders to those who served at the LuftWaffe headquarters or what? Or did you yourself work in Goebbels headquarters in your last life?

          Stalin did not give this to Dear Churchill to kill or chemically render all German men barren.
          1. rubin6286
            rubin6286 21 January 2016 15: 43 New
            -2
            Son!
            You have convolutions in your brain, like cash registers in a supermarket - work, but not all.
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 21 January 2016 17: 15 New
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              Hutspa, as I understand it, is in your blood, or are analogies not visible beyond your shop? Stalin didn’t shoot you in clandestine (and not so) abortion rooms.
              1. rubin6286
                rubin6286 21 January 2016 18: 11 New
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                Of course, you consider yourself a fairly intelligent and erudite person, but judging by the comments, it looks like you have at least two convictions.
                1. Scraptor
                  Scraptor 21 January 2016 18: 34 New
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                  I'll see you, maybe three bully
                2. Scraptor
                  Scraptor 21 January 2016 19: 57 New
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                  I wonder what they could then (despite such cars) bomb, maybe DneproGES? The cascade of Volga hydroelectric power stations was then only filled with water.
                  1. rubin6286
                    rubin6286 21 January 2016 23: 56 New
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                    DneproGES was destroyed and not yet rebuilt. I can’t say anything about the other objects of the bombing, but the Germans weren’t fools at all. They definitely measured strengths and capabilities. If it were otherwise, the past war would not have lasted so much and would not have led to such enormous casualties. After all, we have more than 30 million laid down, and then every year they still find nameless graves ....
                    1. Scraptor
                      Scraptor 22 January 2016 01: 47 New
                      0
                      They were not fools and therefore lied. Of the 27 + million, only 8 + million were military.
                      If they measured accurately, they would not attack.
        2. mahor
          mahor 22 January 2016 22: 14 New
          -1
          Quote: rubin6286
          In Germany, I had to talk with the Germans participating in the war, who served in the Luftwaffe. They told me that in late 1944 - early 1945, the Luftwaffe planned an operation to destroy a number of energy facilities on the territory of the USSR in order to stop military production. They said something like this: “We still had bombers and trained crews, fuel and bombs, but this did not come to this. We already knew how Russians behave towards the population on our territory, understood that they had the right to take revenge and were frankly afraid. In response, Stalin could order the destruction of all Germans without exception - from infants to the elderly ... .. Goering, probably also understood this .... "

          The Germans made a massive raid on the airfield, where the Americans were based. And none of our aces could stop them ..
  16. rubin6286
    rubin6286 19 January 2016 13: 23 New
    0
    The article is interesting, informative. In the post-war period, the German FAU-2 was studied in sufficient detail at universities of the Strategic Missile Forces, since a sufficient number of missiles, individual structural elements (engines, fuel supply systems, etc., etc.) and various equipment (hoisting and transporting vehicles) were delivered as trophies , refueling, test-starting).
    In a general sense, the Germans managed not only for the first time in the world to create a real ballistic missile, but to develop a fairly simple and reliable launch complex suitable for its combat use.
    I’ll try to clarify the author’s story:
    • The FAU-2 missile, when transported in a lying position on the engine side, was mounted on a special carriage that eliminates damage to the engine nozzle and gas-jet rudders, which is called in the Soviet technical literature a removable table frame.
    • an ingenious mobile tool that was invented by German engineers exclusively for operations with the V-2 - this is the so-called transport trolley towed by a tractor. Its design was completely copied in the USSR and with minor modifications was used not only on the Soviet FAA counterparts - 8Zh38 and 8A11 missiles, but also later 8K51,8K63,8K65.
    • Special cradle. with the help of which the rocket was installed in a vertical position - this is an installer with a hydraulic actuator, a kind of crane with a hydraulic actuator. He was also towed by a tractor.
    • Launch platform in the form of a reusable turntable, which was placed in a square frame, led under the rocket - this is the launch pad, which was supported by jacks at 4 angles, had an aiming device. those. turn in the plane of fire, taking into account the rotation of the Earth.
    • Since after the launch of the rocket its carriages were practically “welded” to the table, there was a special unit for removing the removable frame of the table, outwardly resembling a forklift.
    After the rocket was installed in a vertical position on the launch pad, deployed in the plane of fire and the gun mount bolts were removed, the caps were removed from the neck of the tanks and fueling began with fuel components.
    Immediately before the launch, the missile maintenance team (combat launch calculation) performed a number of actions:
    - took out the technological plug from the engine nozzle and replaced it with an igniter device. designed to start the engine;
    - installed control equipment (airborne sighting prism), guidance stabilizers (gyrohorizontal and gyroverticant) with their adjustment, detonators in the missile head (warhead) using aerial platform;
    Then the voltage was applied to the board (starting the batteries), the launch of the devices providing the supply of fuel components to the combustion chamber of the engine and to the igniters by the “Start” command.
    After start-up, the launch pad was inspected and removed (detached) from the removable table frame using the up-and-down movement of the carriage of a special unit.
    Typically, the launch pad was changed after two launches, the removable frame of the table after launching the rocket was no longer used for its intended purpose.
    To launch one FAU-2 rocket, it was necessary from 4 to 6 hours. Most of the time was occupied by the refueling process.

    . The starting team (combat launch calculation) included about 40 soldiers and officers and about 30 pieces of equipment (various vehicles, fuel tanks, trailers and vehicles for transporting personnel).
    German designers managed, in a general sense, to solve the problem of “rough” guidance of a rocket at a target, but “accurate” guidance did not work for a long period. If this could be achieved, projects of anti-aircraft and cruise missiles would also be successfully implemented.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 21 January 2016 18: 16 New
      0
      Quote: rubin6286
      If this could be achieved, projects of anti-aircraft and cruise missiles would also be successfully implemented.

      Well, they were implemented, and the Loon was copied by the Americans before the war ended.
      https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_JB-2_Loon
      Quote: rubin6286
      In the post-war period, the German FAU-2 was studied in sufficient detail at universities of the Strategic Missile Forces, since a sufficient number of missiles were delivered as trophies,

      The V-2 missiles were training aids because they have a weak degree of component integration - all the tubes are visible, the tanks are not carrying, the equipment is it ... In addition, they had not sat up to senior courses, which also saw their Zionism hit their rotten head. (Russia only copies, although in fact it is usually the opposite), they quit and left for permanent residence in different countries having only access to this captured German equipment, about which all the "partners" and former "refuseniks" already knew.
      There was enough Belenkov - there was one ...
      1. rubin6286
        rubin6286 21 January 2016 23: 48 New
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        It’s difficult for me, as a specialist, to understand why the FAU-2 has a low degree of integration, and, for example, our UR-100 (8K84) missile has a high degree of integration, although in the training classroom both of them have all the tubes and equipment visible in whole and in section . It simply cannot be otherwise, except how to carry out personnel training. The same degree of integration in the armored forces, aviation, in the navy, in a word, wherever people deal with technology. Even when studying the Kalashnikov assault rifle, training weapons, posters and diagrams, and even primitive simulators were used.
        FAU-2 ballistic missiles were not effective enough for a number of reasons, but they were the first. There was experience in combat use, work was carried out to improve the design of units and systems. No one in the world during this period had anything like this before. It was possible to deliver the warhead along a ballistic trajectory with supersonic speed to the target area, located at a distance of about 300 km from the launch site, thereby realizing a “rough” aim at the target (strike on areas). The charge is ordinary and accuracy is out of the question, but if it were nuclear ... ..

        With the accurate guidance of the target FAU-1 and FAU-2, the Germans had problems that they simply did not have time to solve until the end of the war, although the idea worked. Allied bombing literally hammered Germany into the Stone Age, landing in Europe was preparing. Under these conditions, it was possible to create acoustic torpedoes that did not leave a trace, high-speed submarines, rocket torpedoes XSh-293 with a television guidance head, controlled by wire. They were still few, but warships and transports were already successfully drowned. If everything had been done 1-2 years earlier, the war at sea would have been different.
        The Americans copied the FAU-1, but they were able to achieve accuracy of guidance after the war, however, like the Soviet designers led by S.L. Beria.

        The Wasserfall anti-aircraft gun was almost ready, but it was not possible to establish automatic tracking and guidance on the target (the so-called precise guidance). Modified in the USSR after the war, it entered service with the S-75 and worked quite reliably in many local conflicts with a probability close to 80 percent.
        If the Germans were able to bring this missile to mind, the armies of the “Fortresses” and “Libreitors” would have had very hard times over Germany.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 22 January 2016 01: 42 New
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          Because she is the first and therefore naively made.

          Wasserfall was ready, but it was far from the S-75, the armada could hold on to Hungary, and they would have so fussed. For months it was decided, not years.
    2. Scraptor
      Scraptor 21 January 2016 18: 22 New
      0
      It’s one thing when some geeks go to put off their larvae in the courtyard and on the doorstep of the Soviet embassy in Beirut in 1982, another thing is if they leave with data because of which large Soviet cities become within the radius of the Jericho’s radius.
      1. rubin6286
        rubin6286 21 January 2016 23: 49 New
        0
        "Defectors" were, are and will be with everyone and always. They run for various reasons, usually to a place where it is more satisfying, warmer and better. It will become a country like this, they will run to us in droves, no borders can hold ... ...
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 22 January 2016 01: 23 New
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          Yeah, like in Cologne ... And on the way to the embassy everyone will once again run after the same thing.
          1. rubin6286
            rubin6286 22 January 2016 10: 48 New
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            You don’t understand anything. Defectors are literate, educated, and cultured people, and refugees are rabble. The host country provides defectors with completely different guarantees than refugees, because they are interested in them. Belenko, for example, received American citizenship and three million dollars, and some musicians who emigrated to the United States during the period of "perestroika" did not receive from the country's authorities ...
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 22 January 2016 11: 00 New
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              It seems that they themselves did not smell ... Let them get their education in another country at their expense.
  17. Andrey77
    Andrey77 3 February 2016 20: 06 New
    0
    Here I read and it becomes scary. The carrier (FAU-2) is already in the “metal” and flies. It remains to fasten the first "cannon" scheme with uranium. "Baby" in German ...
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 4 February 2016 10: 12 New
      0
      he was German ... just separate negotiations in Switzerland were successful and it was time for them to give up. Against the advancing tank armies, one or two or more kids will not help.