Military Review

Nuclear era. Part 3

48



USSR and Russia

Contrary to the prevailing stereotype, work to create a nuclear weapons in the USSR began long before the Soviet leadership became aware of the "Manhattan Project" in the United States. Back in January, 1922, on the initiative of Academician V.I. Vernadsky in our country the Radium Institute was established, here in 1937, the centrifugal method for the separation of uranium isotopes was first used. Pre-war research in the field of nuclear physics was also carried out at the Ukrainian Physical-Technical Institute and the Institute of Chemical Physics. At the end of the 30s, Soviet scientists independently theoretically substantiated the possibility of a uranium fission chain reaction. In 1940, the staff of the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology proposed the project of the first Soviet atomic bomb.

Unfortunately, at that time this proposal did not meet with understanding on the part of the authorities, and the technical implementation of such a project required enormous expenditures with unclear prospects at that time, but in 1941, all surveys conducted in the USSR in this area were classified. The outbreak of the Great Patriotic War greatly slowed down the research of nuclear physicists, the majority of scientists switched to topics more relevant to the front. Nevertheless, work on this issue continued even in the most difficult time for our country. After receiving intelligence on the development of nuclear weapons in the United Kingdom and the United States, the Uranium Commission was established at 1942 at the USSR Academy of Sciences. In February, 1943 was adopted by the State Defense Committee on the commencement of practical work on the creation of a uranium bomb.

In the 1945 year, shortly after the completion of the assembly of the first nuclear charge in the United States, Soviet intelligence was able to obtain a detailed description of its structure. The characteristics of the first test explosion at the White Sands test site, near the city of Alamogordo in New Mexico, were also transferred to the USSR. Because of this, the acquisition of the US “nuclear baton” did not come as a surprise to I.V. Stalin.

Shortly after the nuclear bombing of Japanese cities, a resolution of the State Defense Committee signed by I.V. Stalin on the establishment of the Special Committee, which was entrusted with the leadership of all work in the nuclear field. A committee with broad powers was headed by L.P. Beria, who proved himself as a talented organizer. The end of the war allowed freeing up production facilities and human resources and directing them to the creation of the Soviet atomic bomb. Along the way, the tasks of creating and setting up production of special alloys, materials, instruments and equipment were solved. Uranium ore came from the countries of Eastern Europe and the Leninabad Mining and Chemical Combine in Tajikistan. In the Southern Urals, construction began on a plant to obtain weapons-grade plutonium, and in the Middle Urals, a plant for the diffusion enrichment of uranium. At the end of 40-x - the beginning of 50-x were laid scientific and production nuclear centers, which later became "Arzamas-16" (Sarov) and "Chelyabinsk-70" (Snezhinsk).

At the cost of tremendous efforts and considerable sacrifices, our country managed to eliminate its lag in the nuclear field. During 1946-1947, the technical details, the design of the main units were worked out and the drawings of the plutonium and uranium bombs were approved. In August of the year 1949, after receiving parts from high-purity plutonium from a chemical and metallurgical plant, the assembly of the first Soviet nuclear charge began.

29 August 1949 ended the US monopoly on the possession of nuclear weapons. The test nuclear explosion was successfully carried out at the test site in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan. The power of the first Soviet stationary nuclear explosive device was within 22 kt. According to its characteristics and constructively, the Soviet plutonium RDS-1 bomb was close to the American “Fat Man”, but when it was created, components and equipment of Soviet development were used. In addition, it differed more perfect in aerodynamic terms, the body shape.

Nuclear era. Part 3

Photo of the first Soviet nuclear explosion


The methodology for conducting nuclear tests in Kazakhstan is also largely based on the American experience. The nuclear charge was set on top of the 37-meter steel tower. In preparation for the tests, various fortifications and residential buildings were built in the district; spans of railway and highway bridges were installed.


Destroyed concrete pillbox a few hundred meters from the site of the first Soviet nuclear explosion


In order to test the vulnerability to the damaging factors of nuclear weapons at different distances from the point of the explosion, weapons were installed, aviation, automotive and armored vehicles. Experimental animals were placed in trenches and shelters.


Google Earth snapshot: test site of the first Soviet atomic bomb


The Soviet leadership tried to conceal the fact of nuclear testing until a sufficient number of atomic bombs were accumulated in the USSR. It was believed that information about the successful testing of an atomic bomb in the USSR could provoke the United States to launch a preemptive nuclear strike. However, it was not a long time to keep secret the fact of conducting a nuclear test. Air samples taken at the beginning of September by an American B-29 aircraft near Kamchatka revealed the presence of radioactive isotopes in the atmosphere, which could only appear as a result of a nuclear explosion conducted in the Soviet Union. It took the American leadership nearly a month to reflect on this shocking fact. Prior to that, the United States believed that before the 1953, the atomic bomb in the USSR would not appear. Only 23 of September, President G. Truman made a public statement on nuclear testing in the USSR.


RDS-1


In the 1951, in the USSR, 29 RDS-1 atomic bombs were manufactured, but these were still quite “raw”, requiring lengthy preparation for using the device. To saturate parts of long-range aviation, atomic bombs with acceptable service and operational characteristics were needed.



September 24 The 1951 of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site successfully tested an RDS-2 bomb. In the new bomb, a number of new constructive-technical solutions were worked out, and its power was almost doubled compared to the RDS-1. The nuclear charge this time already in the body of the bomb was, as in the first case, installed on the 37-meter tower, but the signal to activate the detonation machine came from a Tu-10 bomber flying at an altitude of 4 km.

In total, the USSR collected 59 RDS-2. Part of the RDS-2 bombs obtained by reworking the RDS-1. Another RDS-2 atomic bomb was detonated on 14 on September 1954 at the Totsk training ground during tactical military exercises with real-world use of nuclear weapons. During the exercise, the 32 bomb with a height of 8000 m dropped the Tu-4 bomber. The bomb exploded at an altitude of 350 m with a deviation from the aiming point of 250 m.

These exercises involved 45000 military personnel, led by Marshal G.K. Zhukov. The purpose of the exercise was to test the impact of a nuclear explosion on a previously prepared defense site, and also to work out measures to protect and deactivate personnel and military equipment in conditions as close as possible to combat.

Currently, the level of radioactivity in the area where the explosion occurred, is slightly different from the natural background values. In place of which a bomb was exploded, in memory of the “atomic exercises” that took place here, during which many servicemen received significant doses of radiation, a memorial sign was set.

October 18 1951 at the Semipalatinsk test site for the conditional goal was carried out test dumping of an atomic bomb RDS-3 42 kt power. It was the first real atomic bomb dump in the USSR from a bomber. Tests have shown that with an air explosion at a height of several hundred meters, the level of radioactive contamination of a locality is more than 100 times less than at ground level.

A distinctive feature and difference of the RDS-3 from previous models was the use of a combined core filling in the 1: 3 ratio (25% plutonium to 75% uranium), which saved scarce plutonium and increased the number of atomic bombs produced in the Soviet Union.

The first Soviet atomic bomb, the carriers of which could be front-line bombers, became RDS-4 with a beautiful female we have "Tatiana". Its successful tests were carried out on 23 August 1953, when the atomic bomb of 1200 kg mass was dropped from the Il-28 jet bomber flying at an altitude of 11 km. The power of the explosion at the height of 600 m amounted to 28 kt.


RDS-4 "Tatiana"


Besides IL-28, other front and long-range aircraft could be carriers of the RDS-4. But the bomb itself, for several reasons, was not exploited for long. In production, it was soon replaced by a much lighter and more compact 8У49 "Natasha" with a power of 40 kt. The weight of the bomb has been reduced to 450 kg. Initially, “Natasha” could be hung up under the low-volume bombers Yak-26, but later the list of carriers was significantly expanded.


8U49 "Natasha"


Back in 1946, Soviet scientists began to work on the creation of a thermonuclear bomb. Unlike the first American stationary thermonuclear device, which weighed tens of tons and measured the size of a three-story house, the Soviet thermonuclear charge was initially created in a version suitable for practical use. For the first time in world practice, the “dry” thermonuclear fuel was used in a two-stage RDS-6 bomb, which significantly reduced its size and made it possible to store it for a long time.


RDS-6


The RDS-6 bomb passed 12 August 1953 tests at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. The explosion occurred at an altitude of 30 meters, on the site of a specially built tower. The TNT equivalent was about 400 kt. Brick buildings were destroyed within 4 km, and the span of a railway bridge weighing 100 and installed in 1 km from the point of the explosion was dropped almost 200 meters. Due to the fact that the explosion was almost ground, part of the landfill was heavily contaminated with radiation. Until now, the radiation background in this place is much higher than normal.

Information in open sources about whether the RDS-6 was adopted, could not be found, but it is known that the weight and size models were dropped from long-range aircraft bombers during training flights. The dimensions of the RDS-6 thermonuclear bomb allowed it to be placed in the bomb bay of the Tu-16 bomber. In an improved version of the bomb, lithium-6 deuteride should have been used instead of deuterium, which made it possible to bring its power to 1 MT.

The first thermonuclear bomb dropped from the Tu-16 bomber in the USSR was the RDS-27. By design, it was very similar to RDS-6с. The power of the test explosion 6 produced on November 1955 was 250 kt.

The two-stage thermonuclear bomb, in which the 1 MT energy release threshold was exceeded, was RDS-37. The estimated amount of energy released was in the 3 area of ​​MT. However, for security reasons, the power of the charge during the tests limited 1,6 MT.

The first test reset attempt, scheduled for November 20 1955, was unsuccessful. Due to the loss of visibility and the out-of-sight radar sight, the Tu-16A bomber with a suspended hydrogen bomb was forced to return to the airfield. Thus, the first in the USSR, although not planned, landing of a bomber with thermonuclear weapons on board took place.


The time of reset RDS-37


A retry of 22 on November 1955 of the year was successful. The RDS-37 thermonuclear bomb exploded at an altitude of 1500 meters, at the time of the explosion the bomber was at a safe distance of 15 km.

As a result of the explosion, an unprecedented amount of energy was released. Observers located at a distance of 35 km, felt a strong influx of heat, and the sound of the explosion was similar to the close thunderclap. In a radius of up to 200 km, windows flew out of the houses, two people died as a result of landslides and partial destruction of buildings, more than thirty people were injured of varying degrees of severity.



At the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site from 1949 to 1989. produced 616 nuclear explosions. Including 125 atmospheric tests (26 ground, 91 air, 8 high altitude) and 343 underground explosions (of which 215 in galleries and 128 in wells).


Google Earth snapshot: Semipalatinsk nuclear test site


As a result of large-scale releases of radioactive substances, the territory of the landfill in some places is still heavily polluted, and the radiation background reaches 10-20 millirentgen per hour. Despite this, in the areas adjacent to the landfill, economic activity is conducted. After the collapse of the USSR, the landfill was left almost unguarded, and its areas were used for cattle grazing. The local population actively collected scrap metal contaminated by radiation from nuclear tests. Until 2006, the territory of the nuclear test site was not fenced and in no way marked on the ground.


The funnel remaining after the explosion of a tactical charge with power 10 CT


In 2012, a secret, joint operation to collect and seize fissile materials suitable for building nuclear weapons and dirty bombs took place at the site. Representatives of Russia, Kazakhstan and the United States took part in the operation. The event was financed by the American side. During the operation, about 200 kg of radioactive material, mainly plutonium, was collected. According to expert estimates, this plutonium would be enough to create several dozen nuclear bombs. According to unconfirmed data, at the site in the wells there are still unused nuclear charges.

Another major Soviet nuclear test site where air, underwater, surface, ground and underground nuclear explosions were carried out was a nuclear test site on the Novaya Zemlya archipelago. The landfill occupied about half of the entire island. The first underwater nuclear test conducted here is September 21 1955.

In 1961, the AN602 thermonuclear bomb (RDS-202), also known as “Tsar Bomb” or “Kuzkina Mother”, with a TNT equivalent of MTN was blown up on the test site of the Dry Nose Peninsula. Initially, the design capacity of the bomb was 58 MT, but for security reasons it was reduced by half.


AN602


To test the AN602 bomb weighing more than 26000 kg and 8000 mm in length, a specially prepared Tu-95В bomber was isolated, on which the bomber hatch flaps were dismantled. Otherwise, the bomb was simply impossible to hang under the plane.

The thermonuclear bomb actually turned out to be ready for testing already in 1959, and several inert models were dropped from the Tu-95В during training tasks. But N.S. Khrushchev, not wanting to aggravate relations with the United States, did not give the command to begin full-scale tests.

The situation has changed after the new round of the Cold War. Khrushchev, in his report 17 October 1961, at the XXII Congress of the CPSU announced the upcoming tests of a powerful hydrogen bomb. Thus, nuclear weapons once again became an element of military-political pressure in the “cold war”.

October 30 1961, the Tu-95В, with a bomb aboard taking off from the Olenya airfield in the Murmansk region, headed for Novaya Zemlya. In 11 hours 33 minutes by command of a barometric sensor, a bomb dropped from 10500 m exploded at 4000 m. The fireball during an explosion exceeded the radius 4 km, it was prevented from reaching the ground surface by a powerful reflected shock wave that threw the fireball off the ground.

A huge cloud formed as a result of the explosion reached an altitude of 67 km, the diameter of the “mushroom stem” is estimated at 95 km. With a shock wave, the carrier plane dropped to a height of 8000 m, and for some time after the explosion, the Tu-95В was out of control.

Unlike the American test of the hydrogen bomb Castro Bravo, the explosion of the Kuz'kin Mother on Novaya Zemlya was relatively “clean.” The test participants arrived at the point above which a thermonuclear explosion occurred, after two hours already, the radiation level in this place did not pose a great danger. This was affected by the design features of the Soviet bomb, as well as the fact that the explosion occurred at a sufficiently large distance from the surface.


Google Earth snapshot: entrance to the test galleries in Novaya Zemlya


1955 to 1990 135 test nuclear explosions were performed at the test site. These include 87 in the atmosphere, including 84 air, 1 ground, 2 surface, 3 underwater and 42 underground. The coastal waters of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago prior to the start of the 90's were used to discharge liquid and dump solid radioactive waste. Currently, Novaya Zemlya is engaged in research in the field of nuclear weapons (the object is Matochkin Shar). It was reported that, if necessary, underground nuclear tests on the island can be resumed, but this will happen only if the United States leaves the moratorium on nuclear tests. In the meantime, our nuclear specialists are costing mathematical models based on the experience of those who have been tested. The use of supercomputers to simulate the processes occurring during uncontrolled nuclear chain reactions, saves resources and improves safety.

This year, in the New Earth, the anti-aircraft cover lost at the beginning of 90's was restored. At the southern tip of the island, the positions of the modernized C-300PM2 positions are deployed - this demonstrates the importance our military-political leadership attaches to the landfill and defense of the northern borders.

Before the introduction of the moratorium in the USSR, 969 explosions of nuclear devices were carried out. In addition to the Semipalatinsk and the landfill on Novaya Zemlya, from the middle of the 50-x to the beginning of the 60-x at the Kapustin Yar test site at least 11 test nuclear explosions in the air were carried out.

In addition to military nuclear tests in the USSR, as well as in the United States, "peaceful" nuclear explosions were carried out for research and national economic purposes. The geography of these explosions was quite wide, they affected almost the entire territory of the USSR from the east to the west, from Yakutia to Turkmenistan and Ukraine. Only in Yakutia, seven nuclear charges were blown up in 70. The champion in this area was the Kazakh SSR; here, 80 “peaceful” nuclear explosions thundered around.

With the help of nuclear explosions, they tried to create artificial underground cavities for the storage of oil, gas and the burial of toxic wastes, to silence emergency oil and gas wells, to erect dams and artificial reservoirs. About a third of the “peaceful” explosions were made for seismic sounding. Some explosions were abnormal and there was a leak of radioactive substances after them.

The explosion in Kazakhstan, produced by 15 in January 1965 of the year during the implementation of the Chagan project, was best known. His goal was to create an artificial lake. Unlike the similar American project “Storaks Sedan”, the yield of radioactive products in the 170 CT explosion was several times smaller. After the explosion, a crater with a depth of 100 meters and a diameter of 430 meters remained.


Snapshot Google Earth: Lake Chagan (Atomic Lake)


Even taking into account that the charge was made as “clean” as possible, the radiation contamination during the release of 10,3 million tons of soil was significant. The radioactive cloud has affected 11 settlements with a population of more than 2000 people.

In the spring of 1965, the channel of the Chagan River was connected by an artificial channel with a funnel, as a result of which a reservoir was formed with an area of ​​mirror 0,14 km², volume 7 million m³. The level of radioactive contamination after six months at the edges of the funnel reached 150 milli-rentgen / hour. Currently, the level of radiation around the lake in some places reaches 2-3 milli-roentgen / hour, and it is not safe to use its water for commercial purposes.

Until the second half of the 60, long-range bombers were the main Soviet means of delivering fusion warheads to the US. Given that the airspace of North America was controlled by a continuous radar field and was protected by numerous fighter-interceptors and anti-aircraft missile systems, in the event of a war, the probability of a breakthrough of Soviet bombers was small.

The situation began to change after the creation of intercontinental ballistic missiles with megaton combat units in the USSR. And although the accuracy of hitting the first Soviet ICBMs was small, the circular probable deviation of several kilometers with the power of a nuclear warhead in 3 Mt in the case of use in large American cities did not matter much. At the same time, the first domestic ICBMs (P-7, P-16, P-9А) required a lot of time to prepare for launch.

At the same time, in 60, strategic missile submarines of the 658 / 658М avenue with ballistic missiles on board took up combat patrols. The Soviet boats in a number of parameters were inferior to the American nuclear submarine missile carriers “George Washington”, but they fulfilled their role in nuclear deterrence at a certain stage.

For a long time, the United States had a significant superiority over the USSR in the field of strategic nuclear weapons and means of delivery. In addition, the Soviet Union was surrounded by a large number of US military bases, and the attempt to deploy medium-range missiles in Cuba almost led to the beginning of a nuclear war.

Parity with the United States was reached in the middle of the 70s. With the P-36, UR-100, RT-2 ICBMs on duty, the US attempts to achieve unilateral nuclear superiority were finally buried. At the price of tremendous efforts in the USSR, a powerful grouping of the Strategic Missile Forces was deployed, not inferior in terms of the quantitative and qualitative composition of the American grouping of intercontinental ballistic missiles.


Google Earth Snapshot: RT-2PM2 ICBM Mine Launcher Topol-M in the Saratov Region


Nuclear-nuclear parity for a long time implied that the United States and Russia did not seek to acquire the possibility of a first disarming strike, maintaining balance. Since the destabilization of equilibrium and the achievement of strategic superiority can provoke the other side to launch a preemptive nuclear strike.

The destabilizing factor is the US withdrawal from the ABM Treaty and the beginning of the deployment of the National Missile Defense System. One way or another, our country will have to answer this challenge, otherwise it is fraught for us with a complete loss of the ability to make independent political and economic decisions.

At present, the strategic nuclear forces of Russia are based on the mine and mobile missile systems of the Strategic Missile Forces: Р-36М2, УР-100Н УТТХ, РТ-2ПМ2 "Topol-М", PC-24 "Yars". As of the year 2014, there was an 390 MBR in the Strategic Missile Forces capable of delivering nuclear charges to the 1190.

In the very near future, deliveries to the troops of the latest mobile missile system PC-26 "Rubezh" should begin. It is a further option for the development of a mobile soil missile complex with an intercontinental ballistic missile - RS-24 "Yars". It is expected that the Irkutsk Guards RVSN will be the first to receive new strategic missiles.

In the next 10 years, the service life of the mine-based missiles R-36М2, UR-100Н УТТХ that were made in the Soviet Union, will expire. Shortly before the collapse of the USSR, the heavy P-36М3 ICBM was successfully tested, but due to well-known events, it was not mass-produced. However, due to the US withdrawal from the ABM Treaty, there is currently an urgent need for such a rocket. As it became known, work is underway in Russia to create a new 100-tonne silo-based liquid rocket. According to the plans, the new heavy ICBM, known as "Sarmat", should be put into service within 10 years.

By 2005, in our country all the combat railway missile systems RT-23 UTTH “Molodets” were destroyed and destroyed. Time has shown the fallacy of this hasty decision. Not so long ago, the intention to develop and adopt a new BZHRK with ICBM RS-26 "Frontier" was announced.

The Russian Navy has 11 SSBNs of the 667BDRM Dolphin Ave., 667BDR Kalmar Ave. and 955 Borey Ave. Their missiles are capable of carrying around 500 warheads. In the near future, it is expected to put into operation another boat, 955 Ave.


Snapshot Google Earth: SSBN Ave. 955, etc. 667BDRM on the column in Hajiyev


Until recently, the basis of the Russian marine component of the nuclear triad was 9 SSBNs, Project 667BDRM and Project 667BDR. The latest strategic submarine missile carrier, pr. 667BDRM K-407 Novomoskovsk the fleet in 1990. Other boats of this project were built in the mid - late 80s. One boat of this project - K-64 "Moscow Region", which entered service in 1986, was converted into a carrier for deep-sea underwater vehicles BS-64.

Each of the six boats of the 667BDRM Ave. is armed with 16 R-29RMU2 “Sineva” liquid-propellant ballistic missiles or “P-29RMU2.1“ Liner ”, on which up to 10 warheads with individual guidance can be installed. The range of the P-29RMU2.1 missiles ranges from 8300 to 11500 km, depending on the weight of the warhead. According to American naval analysts, missile salvo SSBN Ave 667BDRM, in the event of a strike on major American cities, is on average capable of destroying about 6 million Americans. All boats of the 667BDRM Ave are concentrated in the Northern Fleet, and are expected to remain in service until the 2020 of the year.

So far, formally, the Pacific Fleet has three SSBNs of the 667 BDR Avenue with the 16 SLBM R-29Р with a launch range in the monoblock version up to 8000 km. It is expected that in the near future the boats of the pr. 667 BDR, built in the 1980-1982, will be replaced on the Pacific Fleet by submarine rocket carriers of the 955 av. A total of 7 SSBNs of 955 Ave and 955A are planned with the 16 SLBM of the P-30 "Bulava".

The aviation part of the Russian nuclear triad includes the X-NUMX bombers Tu-14 and 160 Tu-2 and 160 Tu-40 bombers. Aircraft of long-range aviation are deployed at the Engels airbase in the Saratov region and at the Ukrainka airbase in the Amur region. Long-range bombers are capable of carrying cruise missiles in addition to free-falling nuclear bombs as part of the tasks of strategic deterrence. In the future, it is planned to resume production of the upgraded Tu-95М160.

Currently, Russian long-range aviation does not fly with nuclear weapons on board. At the same time, as recent events in Syria have demonstrated, Russian long-range aviation is a very flexible tool and is capable of delivering effective high-precision strikes by air-based cruise missiles not in nuclear equipment.

At the expanded collegium of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, December 11 of December 2015, Defense Minister S. Shoigu reported to the country's leadership that the share of modern weapons in strategic forces is 51%. This year, the 35 ICBM was put into service, the 2 SSBN of 955 Ave was put into the permanent readiness forces, the upgraded bomber 9 was transferred to XNUMX long-range aviation.

In the field of tactical nuclear weapons, Russia has a significant advantage over the United States. According to foreign expert estimates, our armed forces have approximately 2000 tactical nuclear weapons. This includes combat units for A-135 anti-missile systems, anti-aircraft missiles, torpedoes, depth charges, operational-tactical missile systems, and tactical nuclear bombs for Su-24М, Su-34 and Tu-22М3 bombers. Most of the Russian tactical nuclear charges are stored at the facilities of the nuclear-technical divisions of the 12-GUMO and will be supplied to the troops during the “threatened period”. But testing the delivery of Russian TNW to troops and preparation for combat use takes place annually.

Since its inception, nuclear weapons have played an important role in ensuring the security of our country, being a powerful deterrent to potential aggressors. Largely due to the presence of nuclear weapons in the Russian armed forces, our country has managed to maintain independence and territorial integrity and has not been subjected to violent "democratization."

Based on:
Nuclear tests in the USSR. Volume I. Sarov. RFNC-VNIIEF
Nuclear tests in the USSR. Volume II. Sarov. RFNC-VNIIEF
https://translate.googleusercontent.com
http://www.vniief.ru/vniief/museum/weapon/weapon2.html
http://nvo.ng.ru/armament/2005-06-10/1_bombs.html
Author:
Articles from this series:
Nuclear era. Part 1
Nuclear era. Part 2
48 comments
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  1. AlNikolaich
    AlNikolaich 31 December 2015 07: 30 New
    +7
    Thanks for the article series! Only here about a tactical nuclear weapon for some reason not a word. But Point, Iskander did not disappear anywhere ...
    And the artillery shells with the special forces in service are in service!
    Although, maybe the author will voice in the following articles?
    1. Bongo
      31 December 2015 13: 02 New
      +7
      Quote: AlNikolaich
      Thanks for the article series! Only here about a tactical nuclear weapon for some reason not a word. But Point, Iskander did not disappear anywhere ...
      And the artillery shells with the special forces in service are in service!
      Although, maybe the author will voice in the following articles?

      You are welcome! But apparently you did not read too carefully request , TNW of the Russian Federation in the publication is mentioned. Another question is that this information is “closed” in our country, and even if I had the details, I would not write about it. As for domestic OTR, according to foreign expert estimates, about 200 charges are deployed on them. Most of the Russian nuclear weapons are in peacetime in the repositories of the 12 GUMO. Not so long ago there was a publication: "Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Europe", http://topwar.ru/83603-takticheskoe-yadernoe-oruzhie-v-evrope.html - here a little more detail is said about domestic nuclear weapons.
    2. Locksmith
      Locksmith 3 January 2016 19: 45 New
      +1
      Quote: AlNikolaich
      Only here about a tactical nuclear weapon for some reason not a word

      And DO NOT! Let this be our secret, so to speak unpleasant moment, of a pleasant pastime of a penguin politician. laughing
  2. igordok
    igordok 31 December 2015 10: 15 New
    +3
    Once upon a time, either in the Technique for Youth or in the Young Technique discussed the use of nuclear charges to create underground cavities for storing oil or gas. As a boy, it was interesting about the use of nuclear weapons for peaceful purposes.
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet 31 December 2015 11: 48 New
      0
      In the period from 1965 to 1988, 124 peaceful nuclear explosions were carried out in the USSR ...
      (cry)
      1. Ajjh
        Ajjh 31 December 2015 14: 27 New
        +2
        124 peaceful nuclear explosions ...

        Nevertheless, it will be more correct - nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes ...
      2. Lord of Wrath
        Lord of Wrath 2 January 2016 15: 56 New
        0
        Quote: Bayonet
        124 peaceful nuclear explosion was carried out in the USSR ...

        On your map, even Chernobyl is marked as a peaceful nuclear explosion
        1. Lord of Wrath
          Lord of Wrath 3 January 2016 04: 39 New
          +1
          Hello) Minus then why? The card is not true. For example, in the relative proximity of the city of Moscow, only one explosion was in the 71 year near Kineshma.
          And in Ukraine 2. On the territory of Georgia and Azerbaijan was not at all. Etc
          Here is the correct seismic map
        2. Lord of Wrath
          Lord of Wrath 3 January 2016 04: 45 New
          +1
          but industrial. For example, near Astrakhan there were already 17 explosions at the Halit site. Cavities in rock salt did
        3. Lord of Wrath
          Lord of Wrath 3 January 2016 12: 58 New
          +1
          and your card is an integrated map of the camps of the Gulag system that existed from 1923 to 1967
          http://www.karty.by/2013/10/11/integralnaya-karta-lagerej-sistemy-gulag-sushhest
          vovavshix-s-1923-po-1967-gody /
  3. AUL
    AUL 31 December 2015 10: 46 New
    +5
    I would also like to read about the history of development and the state of nuclear weapons of other nuclear countries.
    Many thanks to the author! Many points were previously unknown to me.
    1. Bongo
      31 December 2015 13: 03 New
      +8
      Quote: AUL
      I would also like to read about the history of development and the state of nuclear weapons of other nuclear countries.

      Publications about nuclear weapons in the UK, France, China, and others will be released shortly. hi
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. gjv
      gjv 31 December 2015 13: 06 New
      +1
      I read such a rather interesting book in childhood Toldeshi Yu., Kenda M. Radiation: a threat and hope, M.: Mir, 1979, 415 p. Look, maybe there is a network.
  4. Ajjh
    Ajjh 31 December 2015 12: 25 New
    +3
    Impressive! waiting for the continuation!
    I watched one show about the history of the creation of nuclear weapons in the USSR. Some kind of scout was speaking (alas, I don’t remember the name). So it turned out that American scientists almost poured data on the bomb openly. If I find then I will throw off the reference. In general, I hope to see an article here on this subject too
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 31 December 2015 14: 20 New
      +6
      So it was. Almost all US nuclear scientists of the time were
      the Jews. Most are refugees from the Nazis. And almost all of them -
      communists or sympathizers. Except, Edward Teller, perhaps.
      The Manhattan project succeeded so quickly because
      physicists and engineers knew - they would drop a bomb on Hitler's lair - Berlin. And they
      plowed enthusiastically without days off, for days.
      When they didn’t have time with Berlin, the enthusiasm faded. They did not consider Japan
      blood enemy like the Nazis.
      And Stalin was considered the savior of Europe. Therefore, willingly and for free
      (often on their own initiative) passed on project secrets to Soviet agents
      intelligence. Sometimes counterintelligence caught them. Several hit the electric
      a chair for treason. But many technologies flowed into the USSR.
      1. Ajjh
        Ajjh 31 December 2015 20: 40 New
        +5
        When they took the family of spies (forgot their names, and look for laziness :)) they said that they helped not because of love for the communists, but because they understood that if the union did not get a bomb, then there would be war again. I think the rest of the scientists understood the situation the same way. and acted more in the name of peace than out of love for the Communists
        But this is IMHO :)
        1. Alex
          Alex 1 January 2016 14: 39 New
          +7
          Quote: Ajjh
          When they took the family of spies (I forgot their last names, and look for laziness :))

          Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed in 1953.
      2. Sergey-8848
        Sergey-8848 1 January 2016 16: 37 New
        0
        Such a hope was that Leo Szilard was an ordinary Hungarian! What the hell! Why such disappointments in his declining years! wink
    2. andrewkor
      andrewkor 1 January 2016 12: 14 New
      0
      Mostly German scientists escaped from the Nazis to Britain, and then transferred to the United States. Klaus Fuchs is the most prominent of the scientists who worked with our intelligence from ideological considerations!
  5. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan 31 December 2015 13: 27 New
    -1
    Of course, it is interesting to read about the priority of our country in the development of nuclear weapons, but it is strange that Kurchatov was engaged in the demagnetization of ships during the war, and Flerov in general commanded a battery at the front ... When did they manage to put experiments in such an entirely unknown field as nuclear power? And why the first bomb was so similar to the American one. Probably because there was such a comrade Koval, who served juicy at the training ground. In Nevada.
    1. Bongo
      31 December 2015 13: 51 New
      +7
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      it’s just strange that Kurchatov was engaged in the demagnetization of ships during the war, and Flerov generally commanded a battery at the front ...

      Then in the USSR it was not until the creation of the atomic bomb, nuclear research would not have helped stop the Germans near Moscow ...
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      When did they manage to set up experiments in such a completely uncharted field as nuclear power?

      For the most part, our physicists were engaged in other applied research in the interests of the front, in addition, do not forget that the United States was practically not affected by the war. The best scientists and experts from Europe moved there, who had at their disposal almost unlimited resources, funding and French uranium from Africa.
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      And why the first bomb was so similar to the American one.

      The publication says this ...
    2. Alex
      Alex 1 January 2016 14: 55 New
      +9
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      Of course, it is interesting to read about the priority of our country in the development of nuclear weapons, but it is strange that Kurchatov was engaged in the demagnetization of ships during the war, and Flerov generally commanded a battery at the front ...

      My dear, before you write crap, you at least read Wikipedia, or what.

      Flerov Ivan Andreevich - commander, commander of the first separate experimental rocket artillery battery in the USSR Armed Forces, captain. 7 October 1941 year, Captain Flerov, being surrounded and seriously wounded, blew himself up with the main launcher. He had nothing to do with nuclear physics and could not deal with these problems because he died much earlier than this.

      Flerov Georgy Nikolaevich - Soviet nuclear physicist, co-founder of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, academician. He began to study nuclear physics at the end of the 1930-s, in 1940-m together with Peterzhak he discovered a new type of radioactive decay - spontaneous fission. During the Second World War, 1941 was drafted into the army and sent as a lieutenant technician to the 90 reconnaissance aircraft squadron of the Air Force Academy of the South-Western Front, with which he was evacuated to Yoshkar-Ola and enrolled in a school for training in the electrical service of combat aircraft. In 1942, after graduating from college, he was sent to the air regiment of the army, but was soon seconded to the USSR Academy of Sciences.

      Now about the game Vasilyevich Kurchatov. He began to study the physics of the atomic nucleus at LFTI in the 1932 year (one of the first in the USSR) under the leadership of A.F. Ioffe. 1937 launched the first cyclotron in Europe, on which work was done to split the atomic nucleus. Work on the demagnetization of ships of the Navy began to be engaged only in August 1941 (together with A.P. Aleksandrov), from September 1942 he headed the work on a nuclear project.

      Stalin was not an empty dreamer, as the efforts of the Academy of Sciences in the most difficult time were aimed at the survival of the country. But as soon as the severity of the problem was removed, all nuclear scientists returned to their interrupted work.
    3. Scraptor
      Scraptor 6 January 2016 05: 45 New
      -1
      Scientists from the USSR participated in the Manhattan project, and in large quantities. Kurchatov is not a scientist, he was the organizer.
      1. Fat
        Fat 12 January 2016 06: 02 New
        +1
        For safety reasons, even Einstein was not allowed to the Manhattan project, what Soviet scientists are there ... George Gamow? Georgy Antonovich advised "in the dark," an excellent theoretician, from 1933 to 1938 a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences ... and a "defector" from 1934 ... But Edward Teller Gamova signed for the hydrogen bomb, he got permission.

        The USSR is called the country of murderers and boors.
        No wonder. Here is an example: the Soviet guy Gamow.
        What do you want from such people ?!
        Already reached the atom, Likhody!
        Millions of atoms at the tip of a needle!
        And he - after all, what a mechanic is cunning! -
        In a separate atom I got to the core!
        Demian Bedny

        But Igor Kurchatov is still a scientist, physicist. Scientific director of the atomic problem in the USSR, academician since 1943. Not a theorist, though - ORGANIZER.
        PS all information from wikipedia
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 12 January 2016 06: 24 New
          0
          Bullshit ... and why didn’t they allow such a brain to him? With a letter to the American Prezik, this project began after he arrived from Germany and wrote to him in detail that the Germans plan to make a uranium bomb? laughing
          1. Fat
            Fat 12 January 2016 15: 14 New
            +1
            Einstein in the United States since 1933 worked at Princeton and was "unknowing." Information was owned by Leo Sylard in 1939 - the letter is his initiative. Einstein's authority was enormous, so that he had to write. Eugene Wigner translated pmsmo into English. The authority put in a visa, the letter was sent. It was read two months after delivery to the president, when the 2nd World War was already on. What were the “details” there?

            Sir!
            Some of the recent works by Fermi and Silard that have been reported to me in the manuscript make me expect that uranium can be turned into a new and important source of energy in the near future. Some aspects of the situation appear to require vigilance and, if necessary, quick action by the government. I consider it my duty to draw your attention to the following facts and recommendations.
            Over the past four months, thanks to the work of Joliot in France, as well as Fermi and Silard in America, the possibility of a nuclear reaction in a large mass of uranium has become possible, as a result of which considerable energy can be released and large quantities of radioactive elements can be obtained. It can be considered almost reliable that this will be achieved in the near future,
            This new phenomenon can also lead to the creation of bombs, and possibly - although less reliably - exceptionally powerful bombs of a new type. One bomb of this type, delivered on a ship and detonated in the port, will completely destroy the entire port with the adjacent territory. Although such bombs may be too heavy for air transportation.
            The United States has only a small amount of uranium. Its valuable deposits are in Canada and Czechoslovakia. Serious sources are in the Belgian Congo.
            In view of this, would you not consider it desirable to establish permanent contact between the government and a group of physicists who are investigating chain reaction problems in America. For such contact, you could authorize a person who is your trust to informally perform the following duties:
            a) liaise with government agencies, inform them of research, and give them the necessary recommendations, especially regarding the provision of uranium to the United States;
            b) help accelerate the experimental work now being carried out at the expense of the internal resources of university laboratories by attracting individuals and industrial laboratories with the necessary equipment.
            I know that Germany has now stopped selling uranium from captured Czechoslovak mines. Such steps may become understandable if you consider that the son of the Deputy German Minister of Foreign Affairs, von Weizsacker, was seconded to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, where the American work on uranium is being repeated.
            Yours sincerely, Albert Einstein
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 12 January 2016 16: 01 New
              0
              What else is again "not in the know"? When he supposedly only waved, he didn’t even read what? They wrote a letter with Szilard, simply because Einstein suffered from dyslexia. In Germany, at the University of Berlin, Einstein saw drawings of a uranium bomb and not he. And the Americans repeated after the Germans after these two comrades ran there and not vice versa.

              Sure you read the same thing that the American president read? wassat
              1. Fat
                Fat 12 January 2016 19: 07 New
                0
                I'm sure not the same as it is a translation tongue The letter had another fourth co-author - Edward Teller. Einstein did not leave the states since 1933, and uranium fission is not his topic. But in 1934 he was invited to the White House, where he even spent the night, where he had a cordial conversation with F.D. Roosevelt.
                Thus, out of four, Sylard, Wigner, Einstein, Teller turned out: Two emigre friends who cooked a silent refrigerator at the University of Berlin in the late 20s. Szillard owns all the available information and theoretical justification of the chain reaction of fission of uranium nuclei (he himself justified). Einstein "has a paw" in government. (Both Jews who carry the anti-Aryan heresy, as their former German colleagues said). Two Americans are the same American physicists who are “conducting research.”
                1. Scraptor
                  Scraptor 13 January 2016 09: 37 New
                  0
                  Maybe I’m sure that the real pictures of these products in the context show you? lol
                  The Germans discovered radioactivity as did the fission of uranium nuclei and much earlier than this is attributed to Leo Szilard or Sklodowska Curie. And the interwar term "uranium bomb" is German, the Americans then began to change the way to "atomic", in the USSR to "nuclear". And the Manhattan project was called "plutonium."
                  Einstein left and reported, and Heisenberg was left to compost the brain of the Germans. And about dyslexia and dysgraphia of Einstein google ... laughing
                  1. Fat
                    Fat 14 January 2016 08: 11 New
                    0
                    In December 1938, Otto Gahn and Fritz Strassman first artificially split the nucleus of a uranium atom.
                    At the end of April, P. Hartek and V. Grot send a letter to someone at the top of OKV. The letter is handed over to Kurt Dibner from the scientific department of the Arms Directorate. Without waiting for a decision, the management of the Administration exempts Dibner from everything except the atomic topic.
                    In June 1939, Kurt organized the construction of Germany’s first reactor assembly at the Kunnersdorf training ground near Berlin.
                    In 1939, A. Esau's group on the issue of nuclear energy at the Reich Education Ministry pushed through a law banning the export of uranium from Germany.
                    A large amount of uranium ore was urgently purchased from Union Miniere in Congo.
                    September 26, 1939 at a meeting of the Army Armed Forces was approved
                    "Uranproject kernvaffenproekt" (uranium project), were invited: P. Hartek,
                    G.V. Geiger, W. Bothe, K. Dibner, K.F. von Weizsacker and W. Heisenberg.
                    Participants considered it possible to create nuclear weapons in 9-12 months.
                    In Germany, there were 22 scientific organizations directly related to the nuclear
                    project.
                    1. Scraptor
                      Scraptor 17 January 2016 06: 28 New
                      0
                      All this was purely scientific much earlier, by 10-15 years. The fact that uranium, like radium, was known to be radioactive with PMV. The military, as well as the V-2, became seriously interested closer to the war, more precisely, to the failure of the blitzkrieg. Before Le May’s “exploits”, conventions were respected, and this weapon is much less suitable for the battlefield than for the destruction of cities.
                      The Germans did not need to carry uranium from Congo - the richest deposits of uranium were in Germany in the Iron Ore Mountains.
                      A nuclear reactor is not needed for a uranium bomb, isotopes are simply separated and a gas centrifuge is a German technology. The Germans were interested in the reactor theme to increase the stealth and autonomy of submarines.

                      At any moment of the war, up to the surrender of Germany, shelling from the V-2 Netherlands occupied by the Germans with warheads stuffed with waste from the German nuclear program could make the south of England (or rather more than half of its territory) uninhabited, and even the BBC admits this in "Secret Weapons of the 3rd Reich. "
                      1. Fat
                        Fat 17 January 2016 10: 50 New
                        0
                        I admit, you are right. However, the first attempts by the Germans to separate uranium isotopes failed, they got metallic uranium rather late, and after the saboteurs blew up the heavy water plant in 1943, the Wehrmacht Armed Forces Department lost interest in the uranium bomb, but work continued anyway. in 1945, the B VIII nuclear reactor was exported to the United States. The Germans never reached ec-osmium - 239, i.e. plutonium - 239.
                        The remains of metallic uranium, Czech uranium ore and scientists of the uranium project captured throughout Germany were exported to the USSR. Something like this smile
                      2. Scraptor
                        Scraptor 17 January 2016 11: 53 New
                        0
                        The first attempts to separate isotopes according to German technology in the USSR ended in failure. Uranium metal is not metallic hydrogen; it, like any metal, is obtained by the usual chemical reduction reaction.
                        Heavy water is not needed to produce uranium bombs ...
                        After the war, almost everything except the gas centrifuge separators went to the Americans, they have not repeated this technology until now, although Pakistan even has it through the Netherlands.
                      3. Fat
                        Fat 18 January 2016 03: 55 New
                        0
                        Well, yes, yes ... Groves, Pasha and Co. worked very well, and there is little to reproach Beria for the nuclear project. Heavy water - it was required for the reactor, the Germans did not use graphite for a long time because of the “Bothe error”.
                        It seems to me that you should not go further into the "wilds". This is a beautiful, interesting detective story, with a bunch of speculation and legends, only ... it is not interesting to everyone.
                      4. Scraptor
                        Scraptor 18 January 2016 11: 23 New
                        0
                        In the USA, centrifuges have not been and are not used.
                        The Germans had both a graphite and a heavy water reactor. They are not needed for the production of uranium bombs (see above, no further). It is difficult to use a graphite reactor as a power plant. laughing
                      5. Fat
                        Fat 18 January 2016 12: 54 New
                        +1
                        In experimental B VIII, both graphite and heavy water were used. There wasn’t enough heavy water ... As they say: "For lack of a maid, you have to use a janitor." laughing
                      6. Scraptor
                        Scraptor 18 January 2016 14: 09 New
                        0
                        Neither graphite nor heavy water is needed for the production of uranium bombs. laughing The Uranium-235 isotope is not produced in reactors.
                        For lack of heavy water, we had to do electric bots, and this is for the better.
  • zenion
    zenion 31 December 2015 16: 01 New
    +3
    Nice to read about the security of Russia!
  • voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 31 December 2015 17: 11 New
    +3
    "At the same time, the first domestic ICBMs (R-7, R-16, R-9A) demanded enough
    a lot of time to prepare for launch "////

    The R-7 proved to be well-suited for launching satellites into space -
    there the time for preparing the rocket for launch is not particularly limited.
    But for military purposes, the speed of preparation for launch is critical.
    To launch the R-7 ICBMs, whole "military spaceports" had to be made. There were only 4 of them.
    A salvo of 4 missiles, then a long preparation of the next 4.
    And missiles by the time of the Caribbean crisis (1962) - 30-40 pieces.
    Those. launching all of them would stretch out for weeks, if not months.
    Only by the end of the 60s there was a series of missiles in mines with faster
    preparation for launch.
  • Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 31 December 2015 18: 26 New
    +2
    I would like to read about a "clean" bomb. About 10 years ago, they published information that there is ammunition with relatively little infection after the explosion.
    1. Bongo
      1 January 2016 03: 43 New
      +9
      Quote: Zaurbek
      I would like to read about a "clean" bomb. About 10 years ago, they published information that there is ammunition with relatively little infection after the explosion.

      Absolutely "pure" nuclear charges do not exist request Of course, much depends on the design and type of charge, for example, the three-stage American thermonuclear bomb Castle Castle was very "dirty." That is, the larger the amount of fissile and fissile material present in the charge that participates in the nuclear reaction, the “cleaner” the charge. The greatest amount of radioactive fallout is formed in the case of a ground explosion and contact of fission products during a chain reaction with the ground. With an air explosion of the same type of charge, the level of radioactive contamination of the area can be hundreds of times lower than that of a ground explosion.
  • Kibl
    Kibl 31 December 2015 22: 43 New
    +4
    The author is well done, he discovered many interesting things!
  • Alex
    Alex 1 January 2016 14: 57 New
    +6
    Thank you so much Sergey! I read the entire cycle with interest, I enjoyed it a lot!
    1. Bongo
      1 January 2016 14: 59 New
      +4
      Quote: Alex
      Thank you so much Sergey! I read the entire cycle with interest, I enjoyed it a lot!

      Glad I liked it, but it's not over yet. hi
  • Sergey-8848
    Sergey-8848 1 January 2016 16: 33 New
    +4
    One can only praise the author for the series of articles. True, it looks somewhat concise. It seems that this is a kind of educational program for the newly elected deputies and politicians of various ranks in general, who, once in power, by the will of fate should be involved in these aspects of our lives. But once again I say - the articles are informative.
  • 5234
    5234 2 January 2016 00: 16 New
    -12
    The author, do not call the WEAPON what is not such ...
    The article, to put it mildly, is simply reprinting and blind copying of long-known facts, just-as it were, under your own name ...
    What for?)))
    RDS is not a weapon.
    This is an explosive device, not accepted for service. Therefore, the weapon of the army, which is not.
    There is also such a fabulist-ripple ... you are very similar to him ...)))
    A lot of letters, and nothing new ...
    I have a suggestion: give, the name of the author of the article, as is customary, in serious publications, to make at the beginning, and not at the end of the article that he publishes!)
    Well, so as not to waste time))) ...
    1. Bongo
      2 January 2016 03: 57 New
      +7
      Quote: 5234
      The author, do not call the WEAPON what is not such ...

      Those. how is not? Do you think the atomic bomb is a New Year clapperboard for fun? fool In the USSR there were many samples that were not officially adopted for service, which did not prevent them from being successfully operated.
      Quote: 5234
      The article, to put it mildly, is simply reprinting and blind copying of long-known facts, just-as it were, under your own name ...

      All publications before going to VO are checked for originality, reprints are not allowed.
      Quote: 5234
      There is also such a fabulist-ripple ... you are very similar to him ...)))
      A lot of letters, and nothing new ...

      In this case, please us with your article, something in your profile I did not see them ... however, you look like a troll who do not live for a long time. no
      Quote: 5234
      I have a suggestion: give, the name of the author of the article, as is customary, in serious publications, to make at the beginning, and not at the end of the article that he publishes!)
      Well, so as not to waste time))) ...

      Write your wish to the moderators, or immediately to Vadim Smirnov. For some reason, it seems to me that they already have experience with you. laughing
    2. Locksmith
      Locksmith 3 January 2016 19: 56 New
      +3
      Quote: 5234
      The article, to put it mildly, is a simple reprint and blind copying of long-known facts,

      What is the problem? Take and write the BEST ARTICLE-we will only be glad to such LIKBEZU. wink
  • Pvi1206
    Pvi1206 2 January 2016 23: 57 New
    +4
    After reading a series of articles on this topic, all the problems of an individual’s private life seem like dust.
    The country's leadership had to make decisions regarding our entire planet. Perhaps the only one in the Universe on which life is at least somehow warming.
    Each person knows the burden of responsibility for making a decision.
    The decision is easy to make. It is difficult to disentangle its consequences.
    It is not easy to be the head of the family. It is difficult to be the leader of an enterprise or region.
    At 1000 it’s more difficult to be the leader of a country. Not everyone can adequately bear this yoke.
    Only he who does nothing is not mistaken. Another thing is the consequences of erroneous decisions.
    Everyone imagines himself a strategist, watching the battle from the side. That’s the trouble with all the critics.
    We will remember this!
    1. Bongo
      3 January 2016 01: 26 New
      +5
      Quote: Pvi1206
      It is not easy to be the head of the family. It is difficult to be the leader of an enterprise or region.
      At 1000 it’s more difficult to be the leader of a country. Not everyone can adequately bear this yoke.

      The meaning of your comment is not clear. request If you are about those people who led the USSR when the nuclear missile shield was created, then in my opinion, the independence of our country is largely their merit. I will not comment on the actions of the current government, so as not to cause squabbles ... negative
      1. Ruslan67
        Ruslan67 3 January 2016 01: 29 New
        +5
        Quote: Bongo
        I will not comment on the actions of the current government, so as not to cause squabbles ...

        And it is right yes Let's drink better drinks
        1. Bongo
          3 January 2016 01: 32 New
          +4
          Quote: Ruslan67
          And that's right. Let's drink better.

          With a good man, why not have a drink? drinks Only since the morning I have been on duty on duty! On holidays, there are no high commanders, so I got out on the Internet. soldier
          1. Ruslan67
            Ruslan67 3 January 2016 01: 44 New
            +3
            well i'm already retired request Therefore, the time frame is not connected sad Well, for those who are in the service drinks
            1. Bongo
              3 January 2016 01: 49 New
              +5
              Quote: Ruslan67
              Well, I'm already retired. Therefore, the time frame is not connected

              I have already earned a pension, you can quit and move to the south smile But the conditions of service are satisfactory, and it’s very difficult to find a civilian working with such a level of payment, so that is still in service. soldier
              Quote: Ruslan67
              Well, for those who are in the service

              Thank you! drinks
              1. Ruslan67
                Ruslan67 3 January 2016 01: 52 New
                +2
                Quote: Bongo
                it’s very difficult to find a citizen at a job with such a pay level, so while

                Caught two heart attacks to 45 and out of order fuck request Now, on the maintenance of the family that he managed to create fellow grandson is five years old yes
                1. Bongo
                  3 January 2016 01: 56 New
                  +3
                  Quote: Ruslan67
                  Caught two heart attacks to 45 and out of order fuck

                  Not only you have one such problem, a couple of years ago the direct commander in 43 of the year such a disaster happened. request
                  Quote: Ruslan67
                  Now, on the maintenance of the family that his grandson managed to create for five years

                  My younger one is only 8 years old, married late. In 90, in connection with the general mess, everything was not clear at all, and the conditions did not allow to adequately support the family.
                  1. Ruslan67
                    Ruslan67 3 January 2016 01: 59 New
                    +3
                    Quote: Bongo
                    My youngest is only 8 years old, married late

                    I'm at 19 recourse 30 years this year crying 4go we go with the grandson to the Artillery
                    1. Bongo
                      3 January 2016 02: 03 New
                      +3
                      Quote: Ruslan67
                      I'm at xnumx this year xnumx years

                      Seniority worthy of respect! wink
                      Quote: Ruslan67
                      4go we go with the grandson to the Artillery

                      Great! good Good luck to you! It was nice to talk! Well, I need to work ...
                      1. Ruslan67
                        Ruslan67 3 January 2016 02: 06 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Bongo
                        It was nice to talk! Well, I need to work ...

                        Mutually drinks Good luck in job laughing soldier
      2. Pvi1206
        Pvi1206 3 January 2016 23: 34 New
        0
        Big is seen from afar. It takes some time for the meaning of current events to become clear. Not enthusiastic about modern reformers in Russia. Definitely. Not even having the fullness of information.
        In all power there is an internal opposition. And Stalin throughout the entire period struggled with that, not for life, but for death. There were victories and defeats. But, in the end, he was poisoned.
  • Massik
    Massik 3 January 2016 04: 18 New
    +1
    And this is how you are astonished at the might of the Union, it hurts already with us the conditions with the USA were different in this matter.
  • lilian
    lilian 3 January 2016 16: 03 New
    +2
    I am not superstitious, but sometimes I am drawn to be interested in the opinions of different foretellers there. What do they think about the future of Russia or whether the USSR will be reborn.

    I do not care about the standard of living, I would like to live in a country where there are great ideas, outstanding personalities and great daring.

    In old books, scientists attempted to use thermonuclear energy for peaceful purposes, they wanted to put nuclear engines on space rockets, they planned to fly to Mars by the year 2000. And now, what are they planning in Russia? One concern: the ruble exchange rate, the price of oil.
  • db1967
    db1967 4 January 2016 09: 17 New
    +1
    Dear author, why did Ozersk (Chelyabinsk40) offend? laughing
    Plutonium then on the first bombs - all from there.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Fat
    Fat 12 January 2016 20: 09 New
    0
    Get well. E. Teller and J. Wigner are also Hungarians by origin, emigrants.
  • Fat
    Fat 14 January 2016 21: 59 New
    0
    Summary: Before the start of World War II, the "leading" powers in nuclear research went, as they say nose-to-nose. As soon as secrecy and regimen appeared, everyone understood the danger of being late in the "race" that had begun gradually, only the "front-line realities" could slow down or speed up the process.
    1. Until 1940 - the “Axis countries” Germany and Italy (E. Fermi - a member of the fascist party of Mussolini, until fleeing Sweden to the USA)
    2. The Allies ... Great Britain, the USSR, the USA (in turn, who entered the world massacre) ... As always, the USA was lucky with its remoteness from the theater of war ...
    “Meanwhile, the manager of the Belgian company Union Minière du Haut Katanga, Edgar Senje, roamed the corridors of the US State Department. He was politely listened and sent home. Uranium ore, packed in steel containers and transported from the Katanga province of Belgian Congo, was stored in the warehouse on Island Island in Stayton in the New York area. "
    “Groves got in touch (through his assistant Lt. Col. Nichols) with businessman Senje in the fall of 1942. What was the general’s surprise when he found out that 1,25 thousand tons of uranium ore are nearby, in New York! The ore was already enriched by manual sorting, and the level of uranium oxide in it reached 65%. (The ore on the market from Canada and South Africa at that time contained, at best, tenths of a percent of uranium oxide.) "
    Neither the USSR nor Great Britain, every minute losing the best in battles, in the sky, at sea - could not have expected such a "setup", and nuclear projects were, perhaps even unmatched by the USA
  • skrabplus.ru
    skrabplus.ru 19 January 2016 14: 44 New
    +1
    Quote: Bayonet
    In the period from 1965 to 1988, 124 peaceful nuclear explosions were carried out in the USSR ...
    (cry)

    tin ...