Military Review

America vs England. Part of 18. Dedicated to oblivion ...

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America vs England. Part of 18. Dedicated to oblivion ...

The commander of the Western Front, General of the Army G.K. Zhukov, a member of the Military Council N.A.Bulganin, the Chief of Staff Lieutenant-General V.D.Sokolovsky. Autumn 1941 of the year. Source: http://billionnews.ru/war/1891-foto-vov1.html


With respect to Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II, as a rule, two mutually exclusive options are put forward - either a preemptive attack or a dull defense. Both of these options have the same weak link - the deployment of the Army Group of the Reserve of the Main Command at the turn of the Zapadnaya Dvina-Dnepr River. When attacking, these armies must be in a strike force, in defense - behind the First Strategic Echelon, but not in the depths of Soviet territory. The creation in April of the 1941 of the year at the same time as a purely defensive ptabr and a purely offensive VDK again contradicts both of the most common options. Meanwhile, these discrepancies are easily eliminated assuming that on the eve of the war in the Soviet Union such a defense plan was adopted, which provided for the short-term surrender of part of the USSR territory to the enemy, the defeat of its strike forces on the previously prepared line of the Western Dvina-Dnepr rivers and the subsequent liberation of Europe from the Nazi yoke for 1941 year.

In December 1940, at a meeting of the top commanders of the Red Army, Chief of Staff of the Moscow Military District Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky declared the ability of the defense "to solve not only secondary but also the main task of military actions - the defeat of the main enemy forces. To do this, he suggested not to be afraid of short-term surrender of part of the USSR territory to the enemy, skip his strike groups deep into the country, crush on previously prepared lines, and only then proceed to the task of mastering the enemy’s territory ”(S. Lebedev Soviet strategic planning on the eve of the Great Patriotic War. Part 2. Plan for the defeat of the Wehrmacht on the territory of the USSR // http://topwar.ru/38092-sovetskoe-strategicheskoe-planirovanie-nakanune-velikoy-otechestvennoy-voyny-chast-2-plan-razgroma-vermahta-na-territorii-sssr. html). In early January, 1941, two military strategy games were played on maps. In the first game, Zhukov led the “Western” (Germany), inflicting a short counterstrike at the base of the “Eastern” offensive (USSR), bypassing the fortifications of East Prussia, questioned its effectiveness. In the second game, Zhukov, now heading the "eastern" (USSR), struck south of the Pripyat marshes, quickly defeated the "southern" (Romania), "South-Western" (Hungary) and began a rapid advance into the territory of the "western" (Germany) .

According to the results of the games, Zhukov was appointed the new chief of the General Staff of the Red Army. And it was Zhukov, who misjudged the depth of the German troops' strike against the Western Front, who made fatal adjustments to all subsequent plans to defeat Germany. From now on, the Soviet troops planned to repel the Wehrmacht offensive not on Minsk, as before, but on Baranovichi, which did not correspond to the plans of the German command and was the reason for the defeat of the Western Front troops, the collapse of the plan to defeat the Wehrmacht on the territory of the Soviet Union and the subsequent liberation of Europe from the Nazis in 1941. In turn, Sokolovsky was appointed to the specially created position of the second deputy chief of the General Staff of the Red Army, after which he began to develop a plan for defeating Germany in the depths of the USSR, while Zhukov's first deputy Vatutin began to develop a plan for a preemptive strike against Germany. To implement these plans, “a new mobilization plan was adopted, providing for the transfer of the Red Army in the pre-war period to the staff of 314 divisions (292 divisions were added to the previous 1940 divisions of the October 22 mobilization plan, deployed from 43 tank brigades).

By February 7 the British completely defeated the Italian troops in Libya. However, instead of the complete expulsion of the Italians from North Africa, Churchill 10 February decided to stop the advance of the British forces from El Ageyla and transfer a large and better part of them from Egypt to Greece. Due to the difficult situation, German forces arrived in Libya from 14 on February 1941, immediately were thrown into battle, and on March 24, the German African Corps launched an attack on 1941 in April, expelled the British from Cyrenaica and laid siege to Tobruk. In the meantime, Churchill was not so short-sighted and gave an excellent account of his actions. The fact is that at the beginning of February 11, Germany concluded an agreement with Bulgaria, allowing German troops to enter its territory. In this connection, Churchill got a chance, having rendered a tactical mission to expel the Italians from North Africa, to solve the strategic task of defeating the Nazis together with the Red Army.

In early March, Hitler invaded the Soviet sphere of interest in Bulgaria, which Moscow regarded as nothing less than a declaration of war. To oppose the Nazis, England and the USSR began to coordinate their efforts. 5 March 1941, British troops landed in Greece to open a new Balkan front against the Third Reich. In turn, the 11 of March 1941 in the USSR approved the plan for attacking Germany 12 on June 1941, and the start of the expansion of the Red Army to the 314 divisions was launched. In Lviv, the ledge for the encirclement and defeat of virtually all German troops in the East at the expense of the troops of the South-Western Front and the armies of the RGC was supposed to concentrate the attack force in the 144 division, which were to provide the Red Army with a strike up to the Baltic (Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of the Great World War II. Part of 16. Crossroads stories// topwar.ru/73396-amerika-protiv-anglii-chast-16-perekrestok-dorog-istorii.html).

To counter the threat of the Wehrmacht to the British possessions in the East, in March 1941, in the USSR and England, the development of a plan for the entry of Soviet and British troops into Northern and Southern Iran began. It is noteworthy that during the entry of troops into Iran 25 August 1941, the Soviet Union referred to the 6 article of the Soviet-Iranian treaty of February 26 1921. “Unlike the USSR, Britain had no treaty or agreement with Iran that gave her the right to send troops. ... The actions of the British side with regard to Iran from the standpoint of international law can be described as occupation. ” This in no way stopped the British. “In his memoirs, Winston Churchill explained with undisguised cynicism the position of the British side in these events:“ Inter arma silent leges ”(when he says weapon, the laws are silent - Lat. saying) "(Orishev AB Iranian knot. The scout of intelligence services. 1936 – 1945. / / - M .: Veche, 2009. - C. 167).

26 March 1941 Yugoslavia joined the tripartite alliance, but the very next day a military coup occurred in the country with the support of the British and Soviet intelligence services. Yugoslavia’s entry into the war against Germany would greatly increase the strength of the British and Soviet offensive. In response, 1 on April 1941 in Iraq, Prime Minister Rashid Ali al-Gailani, led the pro-German forces against the British military coup and overthrew the British-controlled government Nuri-Said (Iraq operation // https://ru.wikipedia.org). Although the new government of Rashid Ali-Gailani declared “the intention to abide by the Anglo-Iraqi alliance treaty, Churchill in London tore and threw. Huge reserves of Iraqi oil fell into the hands of the Germans! In addition to all the troubles ... there is a real threat hanging over the Suez Canal, the strategic oil pipeline and the oil fields of Nejd ”(A. Nemchinov. Oligarchs in black uniforms // http://www.litmir.co/br/?b=109219&p=46).

6 April 1941 Hitler invaded Yugoslavia and Greece. "April 11 1941 England offered the Soviet Union to provide direct military support to the enemies of Germany, but the Soviet Union limited itself to publicly condemning Hungary for a joint attack on Germany with Yugoslavia" (S. Lebedev. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part 5. Battle for Bulgaria / / http://topwar.ru/38865-sovetskoe-strategicheskoe-planirovanie-nakanune-velikoy-otechestvennoy-voyny-chast-5-bitva-za-bolgariyu.html). "Despite the difficult situation in Egypt, Churchill ordered the transfer of troops to the borders of Iraq" (Nemchinov A. Ibid.). “On April 16, the government of Rashid Ali was informed that, in accordance with the provisions of the Anglo-Iraq Treaty, Great Britain intends to transfer troops through Iraqi territory to Palestine. There were no official objections, ”but“ April Rashid Ali, on behalf of the Government of National Defense, turned to fascist Germany for military assistance in the event of a war with Britain ”(Iraqi operation, ibid.).

"March 31 German troops in Libya launched an offensive and by April 15 threw British units to the Egyptian border and thus jeopardized the most important artery of the British Empire - the Suez Canal" (Zh.Torchuk Yu.V. So who is to blame for the 1941 tragedy of the year? / / http://www.litmir.co/br/?b=197375&p=69). Meanwhile, for its decisive blow, "Germany could not remove a single division from the Soviet border" (A. Nemchinov, ibid.). In turn, the British finished transporting their troops to Iraq by April 29. “After the British troops landed in Basra, Rashid Ali demanded that they be quickly redeployed to Palestine and not to deliver any new units until those who arrived in Iraq were withdrawn. In this regard, London informed the ambassador in Iraq, Sir Kinahan Cornwallis that Britain is not going to withdraw its troops from Iraq, nor does it intend to inform Rashid Ali about the movement of its troops, since Rashid Ali had come to power illegally as a result of a coup ”(Iraqi operation. ibid.)

17 April 1941 capitulated to Yugoslavia, 30 to Greece. 30 April 1941 of the Year Hitler, in connection with the operation in the Balkans, postponed the completion of the strategic deployment to the East from May 15 to June 22 of the year 1941. In turn, Stalin, after the defeat of Yugoslavia and Greece by Germany, as well as the secondary expulsion of the British from the continent, refused to launch a preventive strike on Germany, instead of him, in case of German aggression, he adopted the plan of Sokolovsky to destroy the Wehrmacht strike forces on Soviet territory at the Zapadnaya Dvina river - The Dnieper, began to improve its relations with Germany, undermined by the events in Yugoslavia, and “demonstrate a markedly loyal stance towards Berlin” (Y. Zhitorchuk, Ibid.). On May 7, the USSR sent diplomatic representatives from Belgium and Norway, on May 8 broke off diplomatic relations with Yugoslavia, and on June 3 with Greece. “On May 12, the USSR recognized the government of Rashid Ali, and on May 18 between the USSR and the at war [with Britain - SL] Iraq established diplomatic relations” (Iraqi operation. Ibid.). “In the course of the Soviet-German consultations on the Middle East, held in Ankara in May, the Soviet side emphasized its readiness to take into account German interests in this region” (Zhiortchuk, Y. Ibid.).

In March, the 1941 divisions were allocated to the border with Iran on the border with Iran - first, it was necessary to assemble a grouping of 13 divisions in the South-Western Front, and secondly, to collect the necessary number of troops on the border with Japan. The ambiguity of the USSR’s relations with Japan required a steady build-up of Soviet troops in the Trans-Baikal and Far Eastern fronts — 144 divisions in terms of 30 August 19, 1940 divisions in terms of 34 September 18, 1940 divisions in 36, October 14, and 1940, and 40 of 11, and 1941, 1941 divisions in the plan from 11, October, 13, and 40. plan from 15 March 15 of the year. In April 27, the Soviet Union concluded a non-aggression pact with Japan, which was immediately used to increase the troops on the border with Iran at the expense of the forces of the Trans-Baikal and Far Eastern fronts. In particular, while in terms of deploying the Red Army from 1941 in March, 30 and 31 divisions were allocated to the border with Iran and Manchuria, in terms of XNUMX in May, XNUMX and XNUMX may already be, and in June, XNUMX of the year is XNUMX and XNUMX. The introduction of Soviet troops in Iran in the event of a German attack on the USSR Stalin wanted to exchange for the opening of a second front by Britain in Europe.


1 table. Grouping of the Red Army outside the western borders of the USSR based on the materials of the pre-war Soviet strategic planning 1938 – 1941. Compiled by: Note NGSHA CA NO USSR K.E. Voroshilov from 24 March 1938 on the most likely opponents of the USSR // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 2 / Supplement No. 11 // www.militera.lib.ru; Note of the USSR BUT and the NGS KA to the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) I.V. Stalin and V.M. Molotov from 19 August 1940 on the basics of the strategic deployment of the USSR Armed Forces in the West and the East on 1940 and 1941 years // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 1 / Document No. 95 // www.militera.lib.ru; Note of the USSR and NGSH SC in the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) to I.V. Stalin and V.Molotov from September 18 of 1940 on the basics of the deployment of the armed forces of the Soviet Union in the West and in the East on 1940 and 1941 years // 1941 . Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 1 / Document No. 117 // www.militera.lib.ru; Note BUT USSR and NGS KA in the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) - I.V. Stalin and V.Molotov from October 5 1940 about the basics of the deployment of the armed forces of the Soviet Union in the West and in the East for 1941 years // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 1 / Document No. 134 // www.militera.lib.ru; Note BUT USSR and NGS KA from 11 March 1941. // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 1 / Document No. 315 // www.militera.lib.ru; Note BUT USSR and NGS KA to the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR I.V. Stalin from 15 in May 1941 with considerations on the strategic deployment plan of the armed forces of the Soviet Union in case of war with Germany and its allies // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 2 / Document No. 473 // www.militera.lib.ru; Information about the deployment of the Armed Forces of the USSR from 13 June 1941 in case of war in the West // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 2 / Document No. 550 // www.militera.lib.ru; Drig E. The mechanized corps of the Red Army in battle: The history of the Red Army armored troops in the 1940 – 1941. - M., 2005; Kalashnikov K.A., Feskov V.I., Chmykhalo A.Yu., Golikov V.I. Red Army in June 1941 of the year (statistical compilation). - Novosibirsk, 2003; Kolomiets M., Makarov M. Prelude to “Barbarosse” // Front-line illustration. - 2001. - No. 4.

“Plans to cover the borders with border military districts, the task assigned to the RGK Army Group set up on 21 on June 1941, and G.K. Zhukov on the construction of a new fortified area on the rear line of Ostashkov - Pochep makes it possible to restore the plan of defeating the enemy on the territory of the USSR, which was conceived by the Soviet military command. It was necessary, firstly, to reliably cover the flanks of the Soviet troops in the Baltic States, Belostok and Lvov ledges, as well as Moldova, placing anti-tank brigades on tank-dangerous areas. Secondly, in the weak center, letting the enemy go to Smolensk and Kiev, interrupt the supply lines of the German units with a concentric strike by the troops of the Western and Southwestern fronts on the Lublin-Radom and crush the enemy on the previously prepared lines in the Western Dvina-Dnieper region. Thirdly - to occupy the area of ​​the Narew River and Warsaw. Fourthly, after graduating from the formation of new armies, to encircle and destroy German troops in East Prussia from the area of ​​the Narew River and Warsaw to the Baltic coast. Fifth, by dropping airborne corps in front of the ground forces of the Red Army, liberate Europe from the Nazi yoke. In the event of a breakthrough of the German troops through the barrier of the second strategic echelon armies, it was planned to create a fortified area at the Ostashkov-Pochep line ”(S. Lebedev. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part 2.).


1 schema. The actions of the Armed Forces of the Red Army in the European theater of operations according to the May plans to cover the border of the border military districts 1941 of the year and the task set in June 1941 to the group of reserve armies. Reconstruction of the author. Source: Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 2. Wehrmacht defeat plan in the USSR // topwar.ru

In April, the 1941 of the year for the implementation of the plan of Sokolovsky in the February mobilization plan made changes - the composition of the Red Army by reducing divisions from 314 to 308 was replenished with 10 anti-tank brigades and 5 airborne corps. Controls of the 13, 23, 27, and later 19, 20, 21, and 22 armies were created. “In the second half of April, 1941 begins the hidden transport of troops from the internal districts to the border districts” (M. Zakharov, General Staff in the pre-war years [Sat]. - M .: AST: LUX, 2005. - C. 398). At the beginning of May, the leadership of the Red Army ordered the border military districts to develop plans to cover the border with their own forces of the First Strategic Echelon, ordering 13 in May 1941 to the armies of the Second Strategic Troops of the Second Strategic Echelon to begin concentrating at the Western Dvina – Dnepr border. 15 May 1941 of the year in case of failure of the plan to defeat the enemy on the territory of the USSR To Stalin to approve his proposal to start the construction of fortified areas on the rear line of Ostashkov - Pochep, and if Germany does not attack the Soviet Union, then to provide for the construction of new fortified areas in 1942 on the border with Hungary.

“On May 27, the command of border districts was ordered to immediately begin construction of field command posts (front-line and army) in the areas outlined by the plan and force the construction of fortified areas. In late May - early June, the call from 793,5 to 805,264 to thousands of military servicemen for Large Training Campus (BEAD) was carried out, which made it possible to complete the 21 division of border districts to the full state of wartime, as well as significantly replenish other units. In addition ... everything was ready for the formation of the beginning of hostilities ”of the Third Strategic Echelon as part of 6 new army directorates (29, 30, 31, 32, 33 and 34), 20 rifle (242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 254, 256 , 257, 259, 262, 265, 268, 272, and 281, and 15 cavalry (25, 26, 28, 30) 33, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 55. (Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 2. Ibid.).

1 May, Iraqi troops began a siege of the British air force base in Al-Habbania. 2 May preventive attack by the British opened the fighting, defeating Iraqi positions in front of their airbase by 6 May. On the same day, General Dents signed an agreement with Germany “on the transfer of military materials, including airplanes, from sealed warehouses in Syria and their delivery to Iraq. France also agreed to allow the transit of German weapons and military materials, and also provided Germany with several air bases in northern Syria. ... From 9 to 31 in May, Syrian airfields arrived near 100 German and 20 Italian aircraft ”(Iraqi operation. Ibid.). 13 May began deliveries of military goods from Syria. “In response, Britain, with 14 in May, 1941 launched bombardment of military facilities in Syria, demanded Free France to start fighting in Syria as soon as possible and provided troops for this operation” (Syrian-Lebanon operation // https: // ru. wikipedia.org).

“May 27 British began their offensive on Baghdad. ... Germany was unable to provide any significant assistance to its allies in Iraq, since its troops were already concentrated to attack the USSR. ... On May 29, the German military mission left Iraq. "On May 30, after a series of minor clashes with the Iraqi militia, the British entered Baghdad. Rashid Ali-Gailani and several of his closest sheikhs fled the country. 31 May 1941 Iraq signed a truce and the British occupied the most important strategic points (Iraqi operation. Ibid.). “The pro-British government has returned to power in Iraq. Then came the turn of the rebellious General Dentz. From the second half of May, the English fleet tightly blocked the Syrian coast. The Royal Air Force destroyed all airfields. General Dents was left to himself, and he had only one thing left - to sell his life at a higher price ”(Nemchinov A. Ibid.).

10 May 1941, Hitler’s deputy to the leadership of the Nazi party, R. Hess flew to England, but his attempt to reach an agreement with the pro-German forces was not successful. 18 May 1941 of the year in its first, and as it turned out the last, campaign went out the most powerful battleship of Nazi Germany "Bismarck". 24 May during the battle with a detachment of British ships, he destroyed the English battleship "Hood", but 27 May itself was sunk by British battleships. 19 May 1941, the British in East Africa 230 surrendered to the thousandth group of Italian troops. In the two centers of resistance separated from each other, only 80 of thousands of Italian soldiers continued to resist.

In the course of the airborne operation of the German army, which lasted from 20 in May to 1 in June 1941, Crete was captured. Impressed by the considerable losses, Hitler permanently excluded the paratroopers from his plans. 8 June British troops and units of the Free French Army entered Syria. “But unlike the fleeting Iraqi campaign, here the British were drawn into protracted hard fighting. Only on July 11 did the Syrian insurgents capitulate ”(Nemchinov A. Ibid.). 15 June 1941, Croatia joined the tripartite pact. June 18 signed a treaty of friendship and non-aggression between Germany and Turkey. 21 June 1941, the English took Damascus.

In the meantime, the Red Army prepared to repel German aggression. 14 June Odessa military district was allowed to allocate control 9-th army. 15 June 1941, the leadership of the border military districts received an order for the withdrawal of the deep corps to the border with June 17. On June 18, the first echelons of covering armies began to enter the field defense districts on the state border, and June 20 launched the withdrawal of the 9 Army, Northwestern and Southwestern Fronts to field command posts. 21 June 1941 of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) decided to create the Southern Front as part of the 9 and 18 armies, Zhukov was entrusted with the leadership of the Southern and South-Western Fronts, Meretskov - the North-Western Front, and 19-20- I, the 21-i and 22-i armies, concentrated in the reserve of the Main Command, were united into a group of reserve armies led by Budyonny. The headquarters of the group was located in Bryansk, and its formation was completed by the end of 25 June 1941.


2 schema. The grouping of the Wehrmacht and the Red Army to the June 22 1941 year. The strategic deployment of troops of the Red Army in the West. The image is clickable. Source: Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 3. The collapse of the plan for the defeat of the Wehrmacht on the territory of the USSR // topwar.ru

During 1941, Stalin repeatedly received information from various sources about Germany’s readiness to attack the USSR. Regarding the warning of Chiang Kai-shek, the Secretary-General of the Comintern Executive Committee G. Dimitrov 21 on June 1941 asked V. Molotov for instructions for the Communist Parties, to which V. Molotov replied: “The situation is not clear. A big game is being played ”(Bezymensky LA, Hitler and Stalin before the fight. - M .: Veche, 2000 // http://militera.lib.ru/research/bezymensky3/27.html). In the evening of 21 June 1941, after long doubts, he agreed to declare full combat readiness in the border districts, and a directive was sent to the troops, which said that during 22-23 June, a sudden attack of German troops on the fronts of these districts was possible, and an attack could start with provocative actions. The Soviet troops were tasked to be on full alert, to meet a possible sudden strike by the enemy, but at the same time not to succumb to any provocations that could cause major complications. In the Baltic, operational readiness number 1 was announced in 23 h. 37. The Black Sea Fleet announced a readiness increase in 1 h. 15. Transfer to Directives No. 1 was completed only in 00.30 minutes 22 in June 1941 of the year and was not implemented everywhere.

Announcing full combat readiness on the night of June 22, the Soviet leadership believed that Germany would start a war with provocative actions and the Red Army had a couple more days to finally deploy and securely cover the state border. At the same time, Germany attacked the Soviet Union on the morning of 22 June 1941 of the year with all its forces and means allocated for aggression, which came as a complete surprise to the Soviet troops covering the state border. At the edge of the invasion of the shock groups of the Wehrmacht, there were huge gaps. In spite of everything, the Soviet leadership greeted the beginning of the war with restraint, calm and in working order, beginning the systematic implementation of a set of measures to transfer the country to a military footing.

22 June 1941 of the year mobilization was announced, the next day the Headquarters of the Main Command of the Armed Forces of the USSR was created. The Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR passed resolutions defining the tasks of the party and Soviet bodies in wartime conditions, fighting paratroopers and saboteurs of the enemy in the front line, guarding enterprises and institutions, and creating fighter battalions. In order to ensure the frontline of the strictest order and the organization of a merciless fight against enemy sabotage groups, the institute of front and army commanders for troop rear protection was introduced. In addition, 25 June 1941 was approved by the directive of the USSR But the need to create an army group of the GDK at the Zapadnaya Dvina – Dnepr line.

On June 22, 1941, Molotov addressed the Soviet people. According to him, the Soviet government gave the Red Army troops the order to repel the attack and expel the German troops from the territory of the USSR and expressed unshakable confidence that the Soviet army, aviation and the fleet will deal a crushing blow to the aggressor. At the same time, the people to defeat the enemy must provide all the needs of the Red Army, fleet and aviation. Thus, “the Red Army and all our people will once again lead a victorious domestic war for their homeland, for honor, for freedom” (V.M. Molotov radio broadcast June 22, 1941 // https://ru.wikipedia.org). In his speech, in fact, Molotov outlined the main milestones of the main version of Sokolovsky’s plan - to defeat the Wehrmacht’s strike units on the territory of the USSR, and then develop a victorious attack on Germany. Since the occupation was planned for a short time, there was no need for a partisan movement or a party underground. Before the decisive blow of the Red Army against Germany, Stalin had to turn to the Soviet people, and the Headquarters of the High Command was deployed to the Headquarters of the High Command.

In response to the help offered by Churchill, the Soviet government declared that "it would not want to accept aid from England without compensation and ... in turn, was ready ... to render aid to England." 27 June 1941 of the Year Molotov, in response to a request from British Ambassador Stafford Cripps, to clarify the scale and amount of assistance that the parties can provide to each other "stated the desirability of a common political line on Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan." 28 Jun. Supply Minister Beaverbrook said that "if the Soviet government would put the question of closer military cooperation to the British government, the British government would be happy to discuss what can be done." According to him, the British government is ready to take all possible measures to ease German pressure on the USSR. As a “personal offer,” Beaverbrook suggested that England could not only further intensify the bombing of West Germany and Northern France, but also send part of its fleet to the region of Murmansk and Petsamo for naval operations against the Germans and even make major raids on the northern French coast, up to the temporary seizure of ports such as Cherbourg or Le Havre (Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 3. The collapse of the Wehrmacht’s defeat plan in the USSR // http://topwar.ru/38337-sovetskoe- stra tegicheskoe-planirovanie-nakanune-velikoy-otechestvennoy-voyny-chast-3-krah-plana-razgroma-vermahta-na-territorii-sssr.html).

Roosevelt was annoyed by Churchill's unchanging desire "that this war should end like others, by expanding the empire." Before him was the goal to destroy Pax Britannica to the ground and to establish the safe unipolar American world of Pax Americana on its ruins. Because for this, it was necessary for America not only to destroy Nazi Germany, but also to weaken the Soviet Union as a member of the Democratic Party, Missouri senator and future US President Harry Truman 23 June 1941, in an interview with The New York Times, offered to help the losing side: “ If we see that Germany wins, then we should help Russia, and if Russia wins, then we should help Germany, and thus, let them kill as much as possible, although I don’t want to under any circumstances Hitler's see the winners. None of them thinks to fulfill their promises ”(Truman, Harry // https://ru.wikipedia.org).

It should be noted that the assistance of America did not mean the inclusion of the USSR into the orbit of a free democratic world. Even during the Great Patriotic War, the USSR for the USA still remained, if not a rogue state - a “rogue state”, a “hooligan state” or a “rascal” then at least taken to a democratic camp for a time of necessity by a totalitarian stranger . “For the United States, the principles and doctrines of the communist dictatorship [were - SL] are just as intolerant and alien as the principles and doctrines of the Nazi dictatorship” and the fact that the Soviet Union fought Germany did not mean “to protect them, fight for or agreement with the principles of international relations ", which the Americans adhere to (Chrestomatiya on the Newest History. In three volumes. Volume 2 // http://historic.ru/books/item/f00/s00/z0000022/st023.shtml). It is noteworthy in this regard, the opinion expressed at the 23 press conference on June 1941 of the year. US Secretary of State S. Welles: "Hitler’s armies are today the main danger for the Americas." In full accordance with the Roosevelt Doctrine after the destruction of the Wehrmacht by the Red Army, the USSR immediately became the main danger for America.

Meanwhile, in the central sector of the Soviet-German front, the 3-I German tank group, moving north of the Soviet 6, 7, and 8, 6, 11, and 17-n, allocated for its destruction, " on the border, the 128 th rifle division and rifle battalions easily advanced to the border 23 th, 126 th and 188 th Soviet rifle divisions easily crossed the 5 th division and under the Alytus 2 rushed to Vilnius, and unhindered rushed to Vilnius, a further to Minsk. In turn, the 6-I tank group, bypassing the Brest Fortress with the 42-th and 28-th SDN-27-C skipped by it, also rushed to Minsk, June 3 reached its southern edge and established connection with the 3-th tank group, burst into the city a day earlier. The remnants of the 10, 13, and parts of the 4 and 3 armies of the Western Front (Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part XNUMX. Decree. Works) were crushed and encircled in the surroundings near Minsk.


3 schema. Expected by the Soviet command and the real direction of attack 3-y tank group. Copied by: Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 3. The collapse of the plan for the defeat of the Wehrmacht on the territory of the USSR // topwar.ru

“3 July 1941 of the Year at the Headquarters of the High Command of the German Ground Forces discussed further plans for the occupation of the industrial regions of the USSR and the advance of the Wehrmacht in the Middle East after the Zapadnaya Dvina and the Dnieper were forcing” (Lebedev S. The Soviet Union’s military and political crisis of 1941 of the year // http: / /regnum.ru/news/1545171.html), and the Chief of the General Staff of the Ground Forces Halder stated in his diary: “In general, we can already say that the task of defeating the main forces of the Russian land army in front of Western Dvina and the Dnieper is completed. I consider it correct to say one captive corps commander that east of Zapadnaya Dvina and Dnieper we can meet the resistance of only certain groups, which, taking into account their numbers, will not be able to seriously prevent the offensive of the German forces. Therefore, it would not be an exaggeration to say that the campaign against Russia was won within 14 days ”(Halder F. Military diary, 1941 – 1942 / Trans. From him. I. Glagoleva. - M .: AST; SPb .: Terra Fantastica, 2003. - C. 76 – 77).

26 June 1941 of the year due to the crisis situation on the Western Front The 16 Army Reserve Command of the South-West direction was ordered to redeploy army units to the Smolensk region. Soon after, the 19 army also received an order for redeployment to the Vitebsk area. 29 June 1941 of the year due to the encirclement of the Western Front, the collapse of the basic version of the Sokolovsky plan and the transition to its fallback option “SNK and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) sent a directive to the party and Soviet organizations of the front-line areas to mobilize all forces and resources to defeat the Nazi invaders. The directive defined the main program of action to organize repulse of fascist Germany, to transform the country into a single military camp under the slogan “Everything for the front! All for the victory ", to mobilize all the forces and means to defeat the enemy."

The directive stated that the purpose of the Nazi attack was to destroy the Soviet system, seize the Soviet lands and enslave the peoples of the Soviet Union. The homeland was in the greatest danger, and the entire Soviet people must quickly and decisively restructure all their work on a military basis. For this it was prescribed to defend every inch of the Soviet land. To subordinate all its activities of the rear to the interests of the front With the forced withdrawal of the Red Army units to evacuate, and if it is impossible to destroy all valuables and property. In the areas occupied by the enemy, create partisan detachments and sabotage groups to fight units of the enemy army. To manage this activity in advance, under the responsibility of the first secretaries of the regional committees and district committees to create from the best people a reliable underground (Directive of the SNK of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) from 29.06.1941 // https://ru.wikisource.org).

Meanwhile, in the Kremlin on the evening of June 29, there was still no detailed data on the catastrophe of the Western Front. Alarmed by the lack of communication with the troops in Belarus, Stalin went to the People's Commissariat of Defense on the spot to deal with the situation found Tymoshenko, Zhukov and Vatutin. First, Stalin calmly tried to clear up the situation at the front of Zhukov for half an hour. But then, not having achieved his goal, Stalin, dejected by the unfortunate course of military operations on the Western Front and the collapse of Sokolovsky’s plan, exploded, shouted at Zhukov and brought him to tears. At the exit from the People's Commissariat, he stated that "Lenin left us a great legacy, we, his heirs, pissed it all ..." and left for his nearest summer cottage. In the evening of June 30, members of the Politburo came to Stalin and declared their intention to create a State Defense Committee headed by Stalin and to transfer to him the full authority in the country. Only after this, Stalin regained control of the country and its armed forces, July 1 1941 returned to his Kremlin office, and July 3 1941 addressed the peoples of the USSR with the main provisions of the Directive of the SNK and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) of June 29 of the year 1941 .

According to Stalin, now the question has already arisen about the life and death of the Soviet state, about whether to be free to the peoples of the Soviet Union or enslave. And the entire Soviet people should now rise to the defense of the Motherland together with the Red Army. It is necessary to immediately rebuild all the work on a war footing, all subjecting the interests of the front and the tasks of organizing the rout of the enemy. The Red Army and all citizens of the Soviet Union must defend every inch of the Soviet land, fight to the last drop of blood for the Soviet cities and villages. In case of the forced withdrawal of the Red Army units, the enemy should not leave any valuables and any property. In the areas occupied by the enemy to create guerrilla groups. Thus, the attempt of Stalin together with Britain to crush Germany during the year 1941 ended in failure. The USSR had the heavy burden of the Nazi horde fighter. Having failed his own plans, Stalin was destined to embody the plans of the United States of America: “Our war for the freedom of our Fatherland will merge with the struggle of the peoples of Europe and America for their independence, for democratic freedoms” (JV Stalin’s speech on the radio 3 July 1941 g. / / https://ru.wikisource.org).

The Soviet government and the Red Army immediately began to implement a reserve version of the Sokolovsky plan. The Soviet troops left, which had become unnecessary overnight, the Lvov salient and in the country began the organization of long-term resistance to the enemy in the territory they occupied. I.V. Stalin was appointed People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR, the General Command Headquarters was transformed into the Supreme Command Headquarters ... Partisan movement and sabotage was organized on the territory occupied by the enemy. The formation of the people's militia divisions began (S. Lebedev. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part 4. The collapse of the Barbarossa, Kantokuen plans and Directives No. 32 // http://topwar.ru/38570-sovetskoe-strateheshesee-planirovanie -nakanune-velikoy-otechestvennoy-voyny-chast-4-krah-plana-barbarossa-kantokuen-i-direktivy-32.html).

July 14 1941 of the year, in full accordance with the May 1941 proposal of the year G.K. Zhukov on the construction of new fortified areas on the rear line of Ostashkov - Pochep, “together with the troops of the 24 and 28 armies, advanced here a little earlier,” the newly created 29, 30, 31 and 32 armies united “In front of reserve armies with the task of taking the line of Staraya Russa, Ostashkov, Bely, Istomino, Yelnya, Bryansk and prepare for a stubborn defense. Here, to the east of the main defensive line, passing along the rivers Western Dvina and Dnieper and already broken by the enemy, a second line of defense was created. 18 July The Stavka decided to deploy another front on the distant approaches to Moscow - the Mozhaisk line of defense - with the inclusion of 32, 33 and 34 armies in its structure ”(Afanasyev N.M., Glazunov N.K., Kazansky P.A. , N. Fironov, “By the roads of trials and victories. The fighting path of the 31 Army” - M .: Voenizdat, 1986. - C. 5).



4 schema. Defensive line Ostashkov - Pochep. Lopukhovsky L. Vyazma catastrophe of the 1941 year. - M .: Yauza, Eksmo, 2007. 11 Schema // www.e-reading.club/chapter.php/1002602/29/Lopuhovskiy_Lev_-_1941._Vyazemskaya_katastrofa.html

"July 12 1941 was signed the Soviet-British agreement" On joint action in the war against Germany. " The agreement obliged the parties to render each other assistance and support of every kind in the war against Hitler Germany, and not to negotiate and conclude a truce or a peace treaty, except with mutual consent. ... Despite the fact that the agreement was of a general nature and it did not indicate specific mutual obligations, it indicated the interest of the parties in the establishment and development of allied relations. ” As before, Stalin once again wanted to link the security of India from the German invasion by Iran with the opening of a second front in Europe and 18 in July. 1941 offered England help in providing security to India and urged the British government to create a front against Hitler in the West in Northern France and in the North in the Arctic "(Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 4. Ibid.).

However, in the circumstances of new force majeure he had to come to terms with that, the entry of Soviet and British troops into Iran was linked by England with the military technical assistance of the USSR. 26 July 1941, the UK Military Cabinet unanimously decided to send Tomahawk fighter jets to Russia as soon as possible. 200 August 25, the Soviet and British troops entered Iran, 1941 August 31, the convoy Dervish (1941 transports and 7 escort ships) received the first British shipments, and the 6 September 8 of the year signed an agreement defining the location of the Soviet and British on the territory of Iran. As a result, the conclusion of a treaty on an alliance against Germany between the Soviet Union and Britain, Stalin had to wait a year - until May 1941, and the opening of a second front in Northern France for three years - until May 1942.

The backup version of Sokolovsky’s plan disrupted the Barbarossa’s plan, did not allow Japan to enter the war on the German side, prevented the complete defeat of the Red Army and the USSR disaster in 1941. Despite this, he, along with the reasons for the failure of the basic version of the Sokolovsky plan, was forgotten and forgotten. All the blame for the failure of his prewar plans Stalin placed on the command of the Western Front. The punishment was quick and extremely harsh. “June 30, front commander, Army General, Hero of the Soviet Union DG Pavlov was removed from command and July 4 arrested. After a brief investigation, Pavlov was sentenced to death. Together with him, 22 of July were shot: Chief of the Front, Major General V.Ye. Major-General A.T. Klimovskiy and the head of front communications Grigoriev. The front artillery commander, Lieutenant-General N.A. The cry and commander of the 14 Mechanized Corps, Major General S.I. Oborin was arrested on July 8 and then shot, the commander of the 4 army, Major General A.A. Korobkov was removed on July 8, the next day July July was arrested and shot 22 (Western Front (Great Patriotic War) // https://ru.wikipedia.org).

Thus, in February 1941, in the General Staff of the Red Army there was a change of milestones. First, the parallel development of Vatutin’s plan to defeat Germany as a result of a preemptive strike and Sokolovskiy on the creation of a giant trap in the territory of the USSR by the Wehrmacht strike forces began. Secondly, the new head of the General Staff, Zhukov, incorrectly assessing the direction and depth of the Wehrmacht’s alleged attack on the troops of the Western Front doomed both plans for a guaranteed failure. At the same time, Churchill thought up having renounced the expulsion of the Italians from North Africa to involve the USSR in the war with Germany and defeat the Nazis for a couple with the Red Army.

In March, Hitler invaded the Soviet sphere of influence in Bulgaria. Churchill immediately sent British troops to Greece for joint operations with the Red Army, while Stalin decided to attack Germany 12 June 1941 and surround the main Wehrmacht units in the East with a blow from the Lvov salient to the Baltic. For the security of British possessions in the East, Britain and the USSR began to work out a plan for the introduction of troops into Iran, and to strengthen their influence on Germany, they carried out a coup in Yugoslavia and overthrew the pro-German government.

In response, the Germans overthrew the pro-British government in Iraq and, defeating Yugoslavia with Greece, expelled the British from the continent. Churchill took over the establishment of order in Iraq, Syria and East Africa, while Stalin, refusing a preventive strike, began to build relations with Hitler, and in case of his aggression he accepted Sokolovsky’s plan for implementation and began deploying the Army Group of the Western Command Reserve Dvina - Dnipro. After Germany’s attack on 22 on June 1941 of the USSR, Molotov, in his address to the Soviet people, announced the imminent return of the occupied territory of the USSR, the defeat of the Wehrmacht and the liberation of Europe from the Nazis, and later offered the British to open a second front in Europe in exchange for joint Soviet and British troops to Iran.

Meanwhile, the basic version of the Sokolovsky plan, as a result of an incorrect assessment of the direction and depth of the Wehrmacht’s alleged attack on the Western Front, encirclement and the rout of its troops, was failed. After that, the implementation of its reserve option began immediately. Turning to the Soviet people, Stalin had already announced a long-term confrontation with Nazi Germany, called to stand for every inch of Soviet land, to deploy a partisan movement and sabotage struggle in the occupied territory. The Western Front was reconstructed from parts of the Second Strategic Echelon, and the Ostashkov-Pochep defensive line was created from the Third in the Moscow direction. Sokolovsky’s plan, despite its role and its significance, was forgotten and forgotten.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Unknown Great War
America vs England. Part of 2. From the Great War to the Great Depression
America vs England. Part of 3. Great break
America vs England. Part of 4. How Dallas and Papen Hitler brought to power
America vs England. Part of 5. At the crossroads
America vs England. Part of 6. The split of the anti-Soviet camp
America vs England. Part of 7. Nazi Drang nach Osten postponed until better times
America vs England. Part of 8. Prolonged pause
America vs England. Part of 9. "She opened the storehouse of the abyss ..."
America vs England. Part of 10. Fight Leviathans
America vs England. Part of 11. “Ukraine is the way to the empire”
America vs England. Part of 12. Sunset of the british empire
America vs England. Part of 13. Moscow Treaty 1939 of the Year
America vs England. Part of 14. Failed revenge
America vs England. Part of 15. Woe to the vanquished
America vs England. Part of 16. Crossroads of history
America vs England. Part of 17. Big bets Big games
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  1. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 7 January 2016 10: 33 New
    -1
    Quotes from the article.

    22.06.1941
    "the Soviet leadership met the beginning of the war restrainedly, calmly ..."

    29.06.1941
    "Meanwhile, in the Kremlin on the evening of June 29, detailed data about the disaster
    Still haven’t had a Western Front. "
    "Stalin, dejected by the unsuccessful course of hostilities in the West
    the front and the collapse of Sokolovsky’s plan exploded, shouted at Zhukov and brought him to tears. "
    1. Lebedev Sergey
      7 January 2016 10: 51 New
      +3
      22.06.1941 the beginning of the war, the Soviet leadership met with restraint, calm ...
      29.06.1941, a week after the start of the war, "Stalin, depressed by the unsuccessful course of military operations on the Western Front and the collapse of Sokolovsky’s plan, exploded, shouted at Zhukov and brought him to tears."
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 8 January 2016 00: 54 New
        +3
        Are we again composted by the brain with an alternative story?

        No one had any illusions about the fact that the "allies" would be in Europe sooner than after German jet aircraft, rocket science. and uranium bomb. Moreover, England alone without France and the USA, and even in 1941 (and through Thessaloniki), had just wound up from there (from Normandy and Norway) in 1940.

        In the entire British Expeditionary Force in France in 1940 there was not a single tank. Not a single one at all! They did not surrender the French for this, following Poland, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia, then to climb to Europe again and not let the Nazis turn around along the borders of the USSR and then watch from behind the Ditch the Germans and Russians annihilate on the continent. And mostly Russians. For the sake of this, everything was conceived, as was the PMV with its strange Sitting in the trenches of 1915 on the Western Front, and subsequent ...
        And since the Germans were killed in WWII both on the front and in the rear, not so many "allies" had to destroy their civilian population by bombing, but in no case did their factories work on the Eastern Front. What was the point of purposefully bombing city blocks?

        In America, there are such Rockefellers, so they through the neutral countries supplied the Germans with oil, motor oils, aviation gasoline, rubber and tungsten for sub-caliber shells, even when the United States became at war, and nothing. The German buna was not suitable everywhere, synthetic gasoline for aircraft engines was not suitable (only for tank engines), then the Germans were not able to do synthetic engine oil at all.
        Otherwise, the Natsiks would have lost the war by losing the blitzkrieg. Without these supplies, Standard Oil would have left only horse-drawn artillery. And when they were stuck in the last drops of motor oil in the depths of Russia, especially in Stalingrad, not reaching the crafts of Baku, then the Anglo-Americans could easily end the war if they were in Berlin, if not at the end of 1941 then in 1942, having reached there on the shortest route after landing through Denmark (and, possibly, Norway, to better provide airfields with a jump much south of Narvik). By the way, they landed in Narvik in 1940 in order to later pass through Sweden and help Finland in the Winter War with the USSR. As soon as it ended, so they hit the road, although before that they defeated the Germans and controlled both the city itself and the north of Norway.

        In 1944, Greece freed itself from the Germans when they evacuated from there under the threat of the Soviet encirclement, after which the British landed there, occupied it, then disarmed and destroyed the Greeks who made it, and did not fight shoulder to shoulder against the Germans on the Eastern Front along with Soviet soldiers let's go.

        Instead (landing in Denmark) they chose the longest path to "meeting on the Elbe" through French Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, Normandy! Closer across Denmark with an airtight bridgehead there for the deployment of its troops, it was completely impossible ... wassat
        1. anew
          anew 8 January 2016 12: 02 New
          -1
          A spare version of Sokolovsky’s plan thwarted the Barbarossa plan,

          As for the "new savior of Sokolovsky" and its insidious "fallback", the author misleads us. In fact, Barbaross’s plan was not frustrated by his plan, but by a large group of German “commanders”. There were a lot of them, a lot of them, and the names are all well known. Leeb, Bock, Guderinan, Gepner and further down the list. They were July 13, 1941. with their own willful decision, they canceled the action of the Barbarossa plan and proceeded to directive planning. Because they went ahead of the schedule of Barbarossa, and she allegedly fettered them, interfered. Those. starting from 13.07.41/XNUMX/XNUMX the German army was one big gang of Old Man Makhno. The acting is not agreed upon, but according to the situation and on a hunch.
          The German "commanders" tried to do something similar in France in 1940. But then Hitler, at the instigation of Keitel and Halder, was able to force them to act according to a previously approved plan. In fact, Hitler, unfortunately, then saved the German company in 1940, but the "German commanders" did not understand this. Then, after the company in France, only the lazy "German commander" didn’t kick him (Hitler) (veiled, of course) for that. Hitler remembered that. And Keitel and Halder, too. Therefore, in the summer of 1941. they preferred to remain silent and the German “commanders” were not pulled back.
          That was the end. Deferred until 08.05.41/8/13.09.41 (the Germans actually signed the surrender on May XNUMX). In early September, the Germans realized that everything was going wrong. And September XNUMX, XNUMX they returned to central planning, i.e. normal way of warfare. But in stages, as there was no time for deep planning. The first phase of the conditional "new Barbarossa" was called the Typhoon plan. During the execution of the Typhoon, plans for other stages of the offensive should have been prepared.
          But even the Germans Typhoon was a failure. Because on it already in the second half of October (no later than the 21st) 1941. Moscow should have been taken. But that did not happen. For two main reasons:
          1. For 2 months of Makhnovism, the German “commanders” squandered a significant part of the Wehrmacht’s forces and assets. They burned them in senseless local fights and battles. Therefore, the Germans were forced to abandon the offensive on a wide front, concentrating the remaining forces and means in one specific direction. And defending in one direction is always easier than on all fronts.
          2. Already 07.10.41g. roads began to turn into a hard-to-go mess. And gradually everything got up. And the Wehrmacht and the Red Army. No, even in these conditions the Wehrmacht crawled to Moscow and even 16.10.41/18.10.41/4. tried to start her capture. But XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX. Heavy rains began and before the frost (November XNUMX), everything had risen completely.
          Further it is no longer interesting. 15.11.41/02.12.41/XNUMX Germans from the last forces nevertheless depicted something similar to an attack on Moscow. But December XNUMX, XNUMX their offensive resource has ended completely. And the Wehrmacht stopped. On this the war in the East (and in general the Second World War) ended for Germany with a complete failure. Further we could only talk about the timing of the defeat of Germany. Or about van der wafers.
          Thus, it can be clearly seen that if it were not for the swindle of the "German commanders" from July 13.07 to September 11.09.41, 05.10.41, the Barbaross plan would have been fulfilled (the planned main date for the end of the "company in the East" October 1942, XNUMX). And the USSR would be pushed beyond the Astrakhan-Arkhangelsk line along the North. Dvina and the Volga. Where is he, devoid of prom and mob. Germany’s potential would no longer be dangerous. And since XNUMX. Germany would come to grips with Britain.
        2. The comment was deleted.
          1. Scraptor
            Scraptor 9 January 2016 09: 53 New
            -2
            Quote: Andrew from Minnesota
            More than three hundred, including the Vickers and Matilda.

            Against the German 3000? Not a single one, not a single one at all ... The entire tank "gimp" was entrusted to the French army (it was hard then to drag the tanks back while dragging over the Channel, and they had to be protected).

            Do not judge by yourself about people - For the rest, except for the rudeness on duty, you certainly had no objections? laughing
            1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
              Andrei from Chelyabinsk 9 January 2016 20: 23 New
              -1
              Quote: Scraptor
              Against the German 3000? Not one, not one at all ..

              Get used to answering your words. Not a single tank - this is not one, but three hundred tanks - this is three hundred.
              Quote: Scraptor
              then the tanks were hard to drag back when dragging over the Channel, and they had to be protected

              Do you even ask how many tanks England had then and where they were located. In fact, the British sent everything they had to the continent. Plus, they had some tank forces in Africa, but they had practically nothing left in the metropolis.
              Quote: Scraptor
              Do not judge people by yourself

              And where does the people?
              Quote: Scraptor
              For the rest, except for the rudeness on duty, you certainly had no objections?

              Why argue? Hunting people to amuse you with their ignorance - will I forbid you? Well, you don’t know the history of France in 1940, you don’t know that it was England that did its best to breathe in at least some attraction to resistance in the French, you don’t know about the proposal of an indissoluble alliance, don’t know about the reasons for the fall of Raynaud’s cabinet, don’t know about Lord Gort’s actions, the British’s attempt to save the situation with the encirclement of the northern armies, you don’t know, finally, where the fuel came from in Germany. Bullshit about the Americans in Berlin in 1942 from Denmark is impossible to read without colic from laughter ... the landing in Denmark ... you don’t know about the American army, you never read what happened when the Americans tried to fight the Germans in Africa, you don’t understand that the Germans beat the Americans even when there were five times more. What to talk about with you? Lecture you on history? So instead of listening to smart people, you start to carry even worse nonsense.
              So there’s no point in discussing with you, and so, poking you in a couple of facts that you shamelessly lied about - why not?
              1. Scraptor
                Scraptor 10 January 2016 00: 02 New
                -1
                Not a single English tank in Europe. This, at the same time, was the justification for the swift drape of this brave army. Because the racial profiling of this people was achieved back in the trenches of the First World War. Now they have even fewer tanks. Because the Germans must fight for them.
                The Netherlands, too, are almost all “sold” and deployed not in Denmark but in Finland.

                Scourge further that "Denmark is nonsense" - you have a golemy Gaponsky nonsense. Have your Americans fled from Algeria from the Germans back to Morocco? And about the motor oil from "Standard Oil" which again did not write anything at all? Which dragged on the war for 3 years? Not among the "some"? Here they are babbling about the fact that Soviet supplies to the Natsiks made war in eastern Europe possible (for 6 months), and then they are babbling about the fact that Romanian and Hungarian horseradish oil were supposedly enough for the war for many years. wassat and that is, one balobolstvo does not interfere with another ...

                How's it going in the native Rockefeller Center? Mikado don’t throw money on articles about Tsushima (about the bad GST of Yakovlev and about SKVPP)? To sanitize the simple fact that Russian gunpowder was soaked "on the advice of the English quartermaster"? On the shitty comments about Seishin that the Soviet Navy allegedly could not land an assault on Hokkaido and all that?
                1. Scraptor
                  Scraptor 10 January 2016 00: 41 New
                  0
                  Quote: Andrew from Minnesota
                  And where does the people?

                  Yes indeed, what do they have to do with it? wassat Just leave here for example this:
                  http://topwar.ru/87293-sovetskoe-uchastie-v-pereustroystve-yaponii.html
                  and this:
                  http://topwar.ru/87711-okeanskiy-b-2-pervye-shagi-zamvolta.html
                  The number of warnings you have (like other trolls on duty) in general, if it grows, then it again comes to a prefined hi-art minimum. laughing
                2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
                  Andrei from Chelyabinsk 10 January 2016 01: 19 New
                  -1
                  In-in. As I wrote
                  Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
                  So instead of listening to smart people, you start to carry even worse nonsense.
                  1. Scraptor
                    Scraptor 10 January 2016 03: 41 New
                    -1
                    Quote: Andrew from Minnesota
                    In-in. As I wrote

                    What you wrote here and through the links people will read and understand.

                    Your hutspes and attempts to bark under this topic - this is not from a great mind, it would be better to say nothing. laughing
                    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
                      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 10 January 2016 18: 21 New
                      -1
                      Quote: Scraptor
                      what are you here and wrote on the links people will read and understand.

                      I'll even throw you some more material - look!
                      The combat effectiveness of the Red Army in 1939
                      http://alternathistory.com/rkka-v-1939-g-nepobedimaya-i-legendarnaya-ili-kakovo-
                      ee-realnoe-sostoyanie-v-eto-vremya
                      By landing on Shumsha
                      http://alternathistory.com/naskolko-vozmozhno-uspeshnaya-vysadka-sovetskikh-vois
                      k-na-khokkaido
                      Come on, scraper, promote my articles to the masses :)))
                      1. Scraptor
                        Scraptor 11 January 2016 05: 29 New
                        0
                        Quote: Andrew from Minnesota
                        alternathistory.com.ua

                        Now we smear and the Red Army? And why in 1939 (in Manchuria?) And not in 1945? laughing According to the previous links, in addition to your next shit, you can also find that you not only respect the Navy but also the USSR Air Force with their Air Battle over Kuban. For you, the Rockefeller basement boy The war on maintenance, with their Island hip-hop, and the Soyuznegs air attack on the Reich, which began after the backlash over the Kuban Air Force of the USSR were halved - that’s all ... wassat
                3. The comment was deleted.
  2. Aitvaras
    Aitvaras 7 January 2016 12: 53 New
    +4
    Recently, there was an article in a Lithuanian magazine about this tank battle near Rasyainiai on 23/06/1941. According to Lithuanian eyewitnesses, powerful tanks, such as KV or T-34, like lighter German tanks rammed in the Middle Ages. Often these were captured Czech tanks and sometimes they even turned over from impact, dropping into a pit or off the road. German tanks were powerless because their guns could not penetrate the armor of Soviet tanks. The explanation for this was here at VO.T. because armor-piercing shells were not delivered on time for the tanks. There was not enough fuel. Due to poor planning, the tank divisions of the spacecraft made too long marches on poor country roads. Heavy HF crashed due to overheating of relatively weak diesel engines. tanks and so went into battle. Carrying huge losses. In the sky dominated by German aircraft. almost all of the Soviet Union, on the first day, was destroyed at airfields in Lithuania. The Germans then, against the KA tanks, effectively used 88 mm anti-aircraft guns.
  3. Jager
    Jager 7 January 2016 16: 16 New
    +1
    The Red Army, in spite of its overwhelming quantitative (on paper) armored vehicles and the Air Force, was not ready by June 41st for any war at all - nor for an offensive, much less defensive. All these thoughtful “plans” of the General Staff were essentially an ordinary piece of paper like a toilet. They were not supported financially and technically. Plus they had a lot of miscalculations in assessing the plans of the Wehrmacht, forces and their alignment.
    Even if the Directive would reach all the units and formations, the Red Army was unable to contain the onslaught of the Wehrmacht. As a result, ALL huge pre-war reserves were burned and crushed in 4 months - the German war machine simply drowned in Soviet mud and the bloodthirsty of its opponents. The fact that the Wehrmacht was broken by a ridge is a merit not of those who took Berlin. And those who threw grenades under the tanks in the summer of the 41st. For seconds, minutes, hours, delaying the advance of the Germans.
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 7 January 2016 18: 36 New
      +4
      Jager
      The Red Army "was ready by June 41st in general for no war - neither for an offensive nor even more defensive."
      Come on. The Wehrmacht was ready for only two local wars. But the USSR is not a walk through the banana republic.

      "Plus they had a lot of miscalculations in evaluating the Wehrmacht plans, forces and their alignment."

      My dear, go down from heaven to the divan General Staff, and answer about the quality of the Wehrmacht’s assessment of the Red Army plans, forces and their alignment. European savages did not even know about the T-34 and KV. But what did Hitler say about the three echelons of defense of the Red Army? And to plan a war with the USSR putting its armed forces below the French Armed Forces is the height of objectivity and common sense. By the way, the Germans are now peeing that there is a military component in the victory in the war, here everything is fine with us, we could win the operations, but there the economy, resources, the General Staff got a headache “dizziness from successes” in France ...

      "who threw grenades under the tanks in the summer of 41. For seconds, minutes, hours, delaying the advance of the Germans."

      And who argues. German generals, units, in their memoirs say that since the Britz Krieg didn’t work, it was necessary to put up.

      "just drowned in Soviet mud and the bloodthirsty of her opponents."

      Well, with bust of dirt, layering of subsequent years. It was dry summer. And then what? Would take Moscow ... well, then PEACE? The coup and Stalin is not. Oil painting. The people stood behind Stalin such a wall, "that you never dreamed of."
      The German genius was so much a genius that he was not interested in the history of campaigns to the east. Napoleon stood for a day on Poklonnka waiting for the keys, and then he scribbled tsedulki in the Kremlin. There is no one to put up with. Total war is not our word, and then not led, and we began the preparation for it first since the creation of the craft. And in Germany, in preparation for the attack in the summer of 1940, they demobilized, sharpen mines and shells. And this is subject to ALL Europe. Therefore, they watered from the belly without looking back, but what's the point?
      As I understand it, there’s nothing for you to do, look at the number of those called for by the Red Army and the SA 1941-1945, take the SA for 1945, people with disabilities, prisoners of war, you look "bloodthirsty" and will dry up. Only the trips to the east not only analyze, but also need to think twice.
  4. midshipman
    midshipman 7 January 2016 19: 12 New
    +7
    My father died in December 1941 on the Leningrad Front. Summer i.e. Since the end of May, my mother and I were resting near Vitebsk, Bychikha village, this motherland of mother and father. I managed to leave there at the end of June. Already on July 3 we were in Leningrad. I write this to the fact that the country did not have public information about the impending threat. I was 3,5 years old, and I remember the bombing at the station Dno, this is when we returned to Leningrad from Belarus. My father was a military man, and that in families where all were working people and collective farmers. The country was not ready for war.
    The same picture emerges now with Syria. For the population, considerations of the Government about the situation and their possible development should be given. This is not worth listening to from political scientists, but it is worth hearing from the lips of the country's leadership. We all have families and we are worried about them. I have the honor.
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 7 January 2016 20: 45 New
      +1
      The bombing at the bottom station, it's scary.
      What "public information about the impending threat", how do you imagine it? The Press: now we are friends with these, then with these, and the air smelled of war, and even the military received directives of the opposite content in batches. It was necessary to think, to send families with children from cities to villages to rest. Yes, you idiots and now enough and in Egypt and Turkey break through. Well, Putin canceled flights, but wouldn’t have canceled them, and would continue to fly on with full planes. And how will the tail be pinched, what the government is thinking!
      Awareness of the population is not a readiness for war, but quite another. And you must admit that the aggressor is always ready for a better war. It is he who determines where, when, how much.
      In an alarming time, you need to put together a family in a heap, not to rely on the country's leadership, but on God.
      1. midshipman
        midshipman 7 January 2016 22: 54 New
        +6
        Dear Mavrikiy, I wrote my comment since I read this article. Clarity and the availability of information helps society to navigate the situation. I had to participate in conflicts according to the profile of my work: in Egypt, 1972; Angola 1986; and in the final stages in Afghanistan. But then we were confident in ourselves and knew what they reckoned with us. We were calm for our families. Now another thing. The country has not yet risen from its knees, where it was lowered. Therefore, I wrote so. If offended you, sorry.
        And I began working at the age of 14, when I entered college. Then he achieved a lot: he became a scientist, Deputy. the head of the research institute, the chief designer of combat systems, the head of the Main Department of the Ministry of Defense, the rector of the Academy. I have the honor.
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 8 January 2016 05: 10 New
          +1
          Dear MICHMAN!
          Excuse me for harsh judgments. Please write off for sloppiness, such a nature. I have no reason to be offended. Yes, your generation got it; in May, my mother was also at the factory from the age of 14. Thank you for a happy childhood (this is not humor, this is a firm conviction)! Egypt, Angola is good, but agree to 2mv probably a little like the consequences for our population. I agree where Syria will lead, it’s already clear, the whole inter is full, but there are official statements on this topic ... Once you are in the system, you should have figured it out for yourself already. Good luck.
      2. midshipman
        midshipman 7 January 2016 22: 54 New
        +3
        Dear Mavrikiy, I wrote my comment since I read this article. Clarity and the availability of information helps society to navigate the situation. I had to participate in conflicts according to the profile of my work: in Egypt, 1972; Angola 1986; and in the final stages in Afghanistan. But then we were confident in ourselves and knew what they reckoned with us. We were calm for our families. Now another thing. The country has not yet risen from its knees, where it was lowered. Therefore, I wrote so. If offended you, sorry.
        And I began working at the age of 14, when I entered college. Then he achieved a lot: he became a scientist, Deputy. the head of the research institute, the chief designer of combat systems, the head of the Main Department of the Ministry of Defense, the rector of the Academy. I have the honor.
    2. anew
      anew 8 January 2016 11: 35 New
      0
      Quote: midshipman
      The country was not ready for war.

      Like this? And with that absolutely wild amount of military equipment, other weapons and personnel, and was not ready? And when could she be ready for her? What else was missing for the “commanders in red pants”?
      Of knowledge. And education. This was not enough for them. It’s one thing for hard-drinking and little-knowing Russian generals to make a civil snow storm. Peasants poison gas. And another thing is to fight with a normal (not even the most powerful) European army. Here the gut was thin. It took a couple of years to master the initial basics. And for this couple of years it was generously paid in blood.
  5. ibirus
    ibirus 7 January 2016 19: 26 New
    +1
    Complete nonsense.
  6. xtur
    xtur 7 January 2016 23: 48 New
    0
    The author’s work has been huge, but the main idea is vicious - everything happened in accordance with the plans of the United States. This RI could lose the WWI due to the fact that it did not take into account such a world factor as the United States and overestimated its indispensability, and the Allies staged a coup precisely after they exhausted Germany from the resources of RI for several years. And then RI was thrown out, replacing it with US potential.

    Therefore, Stalin could not, when planning the alignment, ignore the intentions and potential of the United States initially, even before the outbreak of active hostilities between Germany and the USSR. In many ways, the Soviet General Staff maintained its continuity from the General Staff of the Republic of Ingushetia - in personnel, doctrinal, and informational. So the factor of the USA, the USSR could not but take into account, and in this case, the interests and game of the USA were not at all difficult to understand.

    This means that the USSR’s strategy was much simpler and more error-free, although it was fraught with a lot of difficulties — the USSR did not give a single reason to build an anti-Soviet coalition from Germany, England, the USA, which would destroy the USSR due to multiple superiority over the USSR in material, technical and military resources in the presence of a huge land border with Europe.

    And to exclude such a situation, the USSR needed a US war with Japan, not allowing provocations on the Soviet-German border, as a result of which the USSR could be exposed as an aggressor and the USA could begin to help the enemy of the USSR.

    That is exactly what happened, but the war with Germany that controlled all of Europe turned out to be extremely difficult, since it could not be otherwise. But everything ended exactly as it should have ended.


    Any talk about planning an USSR attack on Germany, in addition to taking into account the state of the armies of these countries, should have taken into account the American potential, should have taken into account who he would eventually join - the USSR or its enemies. And this is a task not even of military planning, but of a higher level, and no General Staff could give an answer to this question. Therefore, any schemes and programs of the General Staff in such conditions should not be overestimated. They should be, but their applicability depended on factors that were beyond the control of the General Staff
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 9 January 2016 09: 10 New
      +2
      Dear xtur!
      I have not read the article yet. I read your brief koment and completely agree with him. Nothing personal, just a struggle for world domination. The United States needed to dismantle the British Empire, which after 1mv closed its markets for them. But the fact that half of Europe fell under the USSR was a big puncture. But they continued to work ... and fixed.
      1. xtur
        xtur 10 January 2016 02: 18 New
        +1
        > The United States needed to dismantle the British Empire, which after 1mv closed its markets for them

        Yes, that’s exactly what I want to say, and such a goal of the USA could not be a secret for literate people
  7. Dimon-chik-79
    Dimon-chik-79 8 January 2016 18: 25 New
    0
    [quote] European savages did not even know about the T-34 and KV. But what did Hitler say about the three echelons of defense of the Red Army? And to plan a war with the USSR putting its armed forces below the French Armed Forces is the height of objectivity and common sense. / quote] These savages in 41 m divisions rolled quantitatively superior red army into boilers, destroyed a huge amount of manpower and equipment! And what were the Germans wrong then? And their allegedly not awareness of what the Red Army is armed with and in general its capabilities looks well, at least naive. Germany had very good chances to win the war with the USSR. But they were stopped, stopped thanks to the courage and self-sacrifice of the citizens of the country. Once again, the people of the country paid with their lives for the recklessness of political leadership!
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 9 January 2016 10: 10 New
      +2
      Dear Dimon-chik-79!
      You read inconspicuously my koment. I just wrote about the categorical impossibility of victory in the war for Germany.
      1. Hitler himself understood the adventure when he said that if he knew about the three lines of defense of the Red Army, he would NEVER attack the USSR. He was not a fool and a swindler. Another thing, Canaris framed him, look what year he was an agent of England, this is not difficult. And whose skin was saved, and how much Churchill cried out cognac until the USSR was drawn into the war.
      2. "But they would not be aware of what the Red Army is armed with and in general its capabilities looks well, at least naive." Yes Yes. About opportunities not in an eyebrow but in a voice. Only now you have something not naive, but I would say a wretched idea of ​​the capabilities of the army, however, as was probably reported to Hitler. Probably, if he had been told the truth about our true possibilities, he would have huddled in hysteria from powerlessness.
      3. It was easy for Canaris to work, Germany has "dizziness from success", and here ... Winter company. The whole world grunted. All analyzed, the results of the war. The conclusion is simple and clear - a colossus with feet of clay. And you have the same correct opinion. Congratulations. By the way, not one army in the world did not conduct front-line operations in such conditions, neither before nor after.
      4. The capabilities of the army is ... look at the Chinese army of 1935-1950, it does not at all look like the army of Japan and deny it the capabilities? Look at the army of Yugoslavia and it is denied opportunities. Partisan, where does snobbery come from? The prospect of preserving the country and all means are good.
      5. Hitler where, with connivance, where, through an oversight, he got under his control the whole of Europe. well swallowed. And could not digest. But Europe, he couldn’t mobilize Germany, he was very humane. The Germans felt sorry for the boys not to the machine, but to teach philosophy, Frau not to work, but to keep the house running. But what, Europe has bent its back, the military-industrial complex of France, the Czech Republic and others like them have given a lot of things, just could not give the soldiers. Thugs-volunteers of the legions of France, Norway and so on. did not solve the problem. And the population of Germany and the USSR was different at times. So the capabilities of the Red Army, read: the quality of weapons, command, preparation of drugs, motivation, raw materials, human resources, territory, allies at the end. Mongolia alone is worth: food, horses, short fur coats ..
      6. Personally, I will give Germany a chance to take Moscow, do you want? reach the Urals. But "victories in the war with the USSR," as they say, become hungry. I repeat: There would be no one to sign a piece of paper with PEACE.
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 10 January 2016 05: 32 New
        +1
        Continuing the previous one.
        "they stopped thanks to the courage and self-sacrifice of the citizens of the country. Once again, the people of the country paid with their lives for the recklessness of the political leadership!"

        Sorry, I dare to propose changing the angry exclamation point to a neutral point. Readers may not have reciprocal emotions.
        The heroism of the "citizens of the country", as you deigned, no one questions. But where did these citizens come from, who brought them up, gave ideology, rallied the crowd into an invincible fighting machine, let me put a thoughtful question mark here?
  8. byrnas
    byrnas 8 January 2016 18: 39 New
    0
    Thank you for a very interesting material.
  9. zenion
    zenion 8 January 2016 18: 53 New
    +3
    If necessary, you can come up with how convenient it is for the one who ordered and paid. Living field marshals, when they wrote memoirs, did not know that they were writing incorrectly and wrote that the USSR was not preparing for an offensive war. If Manstein knew how to write correctly, he would not have written that many defenses were not completed. The USSR believed that Germany would not attack before 1942. Indeed, in Germany, according to the plan, only by this time the German Wehrmacht will be armed. But the USSR did not doze off. In addition, the West drove Hitler, because under capitalism: time is money. The Rothschilds and others wanted money and power, for which huge funds were put into the German car. The faster the return of the spent begins, the better. To do this, read the "Capital" of Karl Marx. He assessed profit there - what can the capitalist do in pursuit of profit. He can go on destroying the planet, although this is not rational.
    1. anew
      anew 8 January 2016 19: 12 New
      0
      Quote: zenion
      In addition, the West urged Hitler

      And where did he push him, if not a secret? And How? Did the word treasured know? Or did he have special kicking boots?
      Do not invent, really. "West", i.e. Anglo-Saxons were on their own. Axis countries themselves. Moreover, since 1939. they were at war.
      Quote: zenion
      The Rothschilds and others wanted money and power, for which huge funds were put into the German car.

      Lord, what nonsense! The Rothschilds actually lived in Britain. God forbid, some kind of jamb in the field of cooperation with Germany, the Britons would have eaten them with shit. Therefore, all this, your fantasies.
      Quote: zenion
      To do this, read the "Capital" of Karl Marx.

      Reading books is not enough. You need to understand what is written there.
      Quote: zenion
      He can go on destroying the planet, although this is not rational.

      Do not focus on paranoiacs like Marx. There are more adequate economists.
  10. samuil60
    samuil60 9 January 2016 11: 35 New
    0
    It’s very easy to wave a pen over paper 70 years after the events, rummaging through piles of paper waste from different countries. And oh, it’s very difficult to make the right decision - and the only possible one - to save the country, over which there is a mortal threat. Even a computer cannot calculate and absolutely correctly compare all factors of a future military conflict of such proportions. People in the leadership of ANY country have their OWN opinion on strategic planning issues, and these opinions often do not coincide, plus the influence of foreign intelligence services (moreover, in a HUGE amount) and, often, sabotage of senior officials related to their political convictions. Well, and a direct betrayal of the interests of the country, of course. Nobody is perfect, and therefore any leader of the country or commander is not immune from mistakes. And then the PEOPLE enters history. HE either courageously defeats the enemy, ignoring losses, or - shamefully surrenders to the mercy of the winner, saving his own skin. OUR people won. What else does the author of the article need? Write, once again about the stupidity of Stalin and the mediocrity of Zhukov and others? If it warms him - let him write. In the USA, they will understand and pay.
    1. Prophetic
      Prophetic 9 January 2016 13: 30 New
      +1
      Quote: samuil60
      what else does the author of the article need? Write, once again about the stupidity of Stalin and the mediocrity of Zhukov and others? If it warms him - let him write. In the USA, they will understand and pay.

      What nonsense is this? Where did you see in the article about Zhukov’s mediocrity and Stalin’s stupidity? Just a brief and competent listing of events. Almost no ratings. Did our leaders make mistakes? Yes. And who did not commit them? That's a strong opponent to make you make mistakes. War is, above all, a struggle of minds, and at all levels. Do not have time to fully prepare? Yes. And who was completely ready for war when? This is life, not lubok. The Germans at that time were the strongest army in the world. That is the heroism that we defeated an army stronger than us, more organized than us, more experienced than us, more educated than us, and richer than us.
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 9 January 2016 18: 25 New
      +3
      PEOPLE is good, that's right, that's right.
      But PEOPLE in itself is a crowd, yes, yes. And the State is a framework that alone can represent a combat vehicle. Not an army, but a state, with all its flaws. It was it that brought up the masses, gave ideology, education, weapons at last. And like it, someone or not like the people rallied around the party and Stalin. And no matter how many errors and defeats there were, this adhesion only grew stronger.
    3. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 9 January 2016 18: 42 New
      +2
      PEOPLE is yes. Our country has halved. PEOPLE has become half as much, consider. But half of the WWII we can now win? We’ll not even get close. Therefore, about the people do not. What is missing now is the state’s framework. And this is what we are expecting from Putin. And then we’re at war, like dorovoltsy in the Boer War.