The commander of the Western Front, General of the Army G.K. Zhukov, a member of the Military Council N.A.Bulganin, the Chief of Staff Lieutenant-General V.D.Sokolovsky. Autumn 1941 of the year. Source: http://billionnews.ru/war/1891-foto-vov1.html
With respect to Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II, as a rule, two mutually exclusive options are put forward - either a preemptive attack or a dull defense. Both of these options have the same weak link - the deployment of the Army Group of the Reserve of the Main Command at the turn of the Zapadnaya Dvina-Dnepr River. When attacking, these armies must be in a strike force, in defense - behind the First Strategic Echelon, but not in the depths of Soviet territory. The creation in April of the 1941 of the year at the same time as a purely defensive ptabr and a purely offensive VDK again contradicts both of the most common options. Meanwhile, these discrepancies are easily eliminated assuming that on the eve of the war in the Soviet Union such a defense plan was adopted, which provided for the short-term surrender of part of the USSR territory to the enemy, the defeat of its strike forces on the previously prepared line of the Western Dvina-Dnepr rivers and the subsequent liberation of Europe from the Nazi yoke for 1941 year.
In December 1940, at a meeting of the top commanders of the Red Army, Chief of Staff of the Moscow Military District Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky declared the ability of the defense "to solve not only secondary but also the main task of military actions - the defeat of the main enemy forces. To do this, he suggested not to be afraid of short-term surrender of part of the USSR territory to the enemy, skip his strike groups deep into the country, crush on previously prepared lines, and only then proceed to the task of mastering the enemy’s territory ”(S. Lebedev Soviet strategic planning on the eve of the Great Patriotic War. Part 2. Plan for the defeat of the Wehrmacht on the territory of the USSR // http://topwar.ru/38092-sovetskoe-strategicheskoe-planirovanie-nakanune-velikoy-otechestvennoy-voyny-chast-2-plan-razgroma-vermahta-na-territorii-sssr. html). In early January, 1941, two military strategy games were played on maps. In the first game, Zhukov led the “Western” (Germany), inflicting a short counterstrike at the base of the “Eastern” offensive (USSR), bypassing the fortifications of East Prussia, questioned its effectiveness. In the second game, Zhukov, now heading the "eastern" (USSR), struck south of the Pripyat marshes, quickly defeated the "southern" (Romania), "South-Western" (Hungary) and began a rapid advance into the territory of the "western" (Germany) .
According to the results of the games, Zhukov was appointed the new chief of the General Staff of the Red Army. And it was Zhukov, who misjudged the depth of the German troops' strike against the Western Front, who made fatal adjustments to all subsequent plans to defeat Germany. From now on, the Soviet troops planned to repel the Wehrmacht offensive not on Minsk, as before, but on Baranovichi, which did not correspond to the plans of the German command and was the reason for the defeat of the Western Front troops, the collapse of the plan to defeat the Wehrmacht on the territory of the Soviet Union and the subsequent liberation of Europe from the Nazis in 1941. In turn, Sokolovsky was appointed to the specially created position of the second deputy chief of the General Staff of the Red Army, after which he began to develop a plan for defeating Germany in the depths of the USSR, while Zhukov's first deputy Vatutin began to develop a plan for a preemptive strike against Germany. To implement these plans, “a new mobilization plan was adopted, providing for the transfer of the Red Army in the pre-war period to the staff of 314 divisions (292 divisions were added to the previous 1940 divisions of the October 22 mobilization plan, deployed from 43 tank brigades).
By February 7 the British completely defeated the Italian troops in Libya. However, instead of the complete expulsion of the Italians from North Africa, Churchill 10 February decided to stop the advance of the British forces from El Ageyla and transfer a large and better part of them from Egypt to Greece. Due to the difficult situation, German forces arrived in Libya from 14 on February 1941, immediately were thrown into battle, and on March 24, the German African Corps launched an attack on 1941 in April, expelled the British from Cyrenaica and laid siege to Tobruk. In the meantime, Churchill was not so short-sighted and gave an excellent account of his actions. The fact is that at the beginning of February 11, Germany concluded an agreement with Bulgaria, allowing German troops to enter its territory. In this connection, Churchill got a chance, having rendered a tactical mission to expel the Italians from North Africa, to solve the strategic task of defeating the Nazis together with the Red Army.
In early March, Hitler invaded the Soviet sphere of interest in Bulgaria, which Moscow regarded as nothing less than a declaration of war. To oppose the Nazis, England and the USSR began to coordinate their efforts. 5 March 1941, British troops landed in Greece to open a new Balkan front against the Third Reich. In turn, the 11 of March 1941 in the USSR approved the plan for attacking Germany 12 on June 1941, and the start of the expansion of the Red Army to the 314 divisions was launched. In Lviv, the ledge for the encirclement and defeat of virtually all German troops in the East at the expense of the troops of the South-Western Front and the armies of the RGC was supposed to concentrate the attack force in the 144 division, which were to provide the Red Army with a strike up to the Baltic (Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of the Great World War II. Part of 16. Crossroads stories// topwar.ru/73396-amerika-protiv-anglii-chast-16-perekrestok-dorog-istorii.html).
To counter the threat of the Wehrmacht to the British possessions in the East, in March 1941, in the USSR and England, the development of a plan for the entry of Soviet and British troops into Northern and Southern Iran began. It is noteworthy that during the entry of troops into Iran 25 August 1941, the Soviet Union referred to the 6 article of the Soviet-Iranian treaty of February 26 1921. “Unlike the USSR, Britain had no treaty or agreement with Iran that gave her the right to send troops. ... The actions of the British side with regard to Iran from the standpoint of international law can be described as occupation. ” This in no way stopped the British. “In his memoirs, Winston Churchill explained with undisguised cynicism the position of the British side in these events:“ Inter arma silent leges ”(when he says weapon, the laws are silent - Lat. saying) "(Orishev AB Iranian knot. The scout of intelligence services. 1936 – 1945. / / - M .: Veche, 2009. - C. 167).
On March 26, 1941, Yugoslavia joined the tripartite alliance, but literally the next day a military coup took place in the country with the support of British and Soviet intelligence. The entry of Yugoslavia into the war against Germany would greatly increase the strength of the British and Soviet offensives. In response, on April 1, 1941, in Iraq, Prime Minister Rashid Ali al-Gailani, at the head of the pro-German forces, carried out a military coup against Great Britain and overthrew the British-controlled government of Nuri Said (Iraqi operation // https://ru.wikipedia.org). Although the new government of Rashid Ali-Gailani declared “its intention to abide by the Anglo-Iraqi treaty of alliance, Churchill in London was torn and thrashed. The huge reserves of Iraqi oil fell into the hands of the Germans! In addition to all the troubles ... a real threat looms over the Suez Canal, the strategic oil pipeline and the oil fields of Najd "(A. Nemchinov. Oligarchs in black uniforms // http://www.litmir.co/br/?b=109219&p=46).
6 April 1941 Hitler invaded Yugoslavia and Greece. "April 11 1941 England offered the Soviet Union to provide direct military support to the enemies of Germany, but the Soviet Union limited itself to publicly condemning Hungary for a joint attack on Germany with Yugoslavia" (S. Lebedev. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part 5. Battle for Bulgaria / / http://topwar.ru/38865-sovetskoe-strategicheskoe-planirovanie-nakanune-velikoy-otechestvennoy-voyny-chast-5-bitva-za-bolgariyu.html). "Despite the difficult situation in Egypt, Churchill ordered the transfer of troops to the borders of Iraq" (Nemchinov A. Ibid.). “On April 16, the government of Rashid Ali was informed that, in accordance with the provisions of the Anglo-Iraq Treaty, Great Britain intends to transfer troops through Iraqi territory to Palestine. There were no official objections, ”but“ April Rashid Ali, on behalf of the Government of National Defense, turned to fascist Germany for military assistance in the event of a war with Britain ”(Iraqi operation, ibid.).
"On March 31, German troops in Libya went on the offensive and by April 15 threw back the British units to the Egyptian border and thereby endangered the most important artery of the British Empire - the Suez Canal" (Zhitorchuk Yu.V. So who is to blame for the tragedy of 1941? / / http://www.litmir.co/br/?b=197375&p=69). Meanwhile, for its decisive blow, "Germany could not remove a single division from the Soviet border" (A. Nemchinov, ibid.). In turn, the British completed the transport of their troops to Iraq by April 29. “After the landing of British troops in Basra, Rashid Ali demanded that they be quickly redeployed to Palestine and that no new units be delivered until those who had already arrived in Iraq were withdrawn. In this regard, London informed the Ambassador to Iraq, Sir Kinahan Cornwallis, that Britain is not going to withdraw its troops from Iraq, nor does it intend to inform Rashid Ali about the movement of its troops, since Rashid Ali came to power illegally as a result of the coup. " operation Ibid).
17 April 1941 capitulated to Yugoslavia, 30 to Greece. 30 April 1941 of the Year Hitler, in connection with the operation in the Balkans, postponed the completion of the strategic deployment to the East from May 15 to June 22 of the year 1941. In turn, Stalin, after the defeat of Yugoslavia and Greece by Germany, as well as the secondary expulsion of the British from the continent, refused to launch a preventive strike on Germany, instead of him, in case of German aggression, he adopted the plan of Sokolovsky to destroy the Wehrmacht strike forces on Soviet territory at the Zapadnaya Dvina river - The Dnieper, began to improve its relations with Germany, undermined by the events in Yugoslavia, and “demonstrate a markedly loyal stance towards Berlin” (Y. Zhitorchuk, Ibid.). On May 7, the USSR sent diplomatic representatives from Belgium and Norway, on May 8 broke off diplomatic relations with Yugoslavia, and on June 3 with Greece. “On May 12, the USSR recognized the government of Rashid Ali, and on May 18 between the USSR and the at war [with Britain - SL] Iraq established diplomatic relations” (Iraqi operation. Ibid.). “In the course of the Soviet-German consultations on the Middle East, held in Ankara in May, the Soviet side emphasized its readiness to take into account German interests in this region” (Zhiortchuk, Y. Ibid.).
In March, the 1941 divisions were allocated to the border with Iran on the border with Iran - first, it was necessary to assemble a grouping of 13 divisions in the South-Western Front, and secondly, to collect the necessary number of troops on the border with Japan. The ambiguity of the USSR’s relations with Japan required a steady build-up of Soviet troops in the Trans-Baikal and Far Eastern fronts — 144 divisions in terms of 30 August 19, 1940 divisions in terms of 34 September 18, 1940 divisions in 36, October 14, and 1940, and 40 of 11, and 1941, 1941 divisions in the plan from 11, October, 13, and 40. plan from 15 March 15 of the year. In April 27, the Soviet Union concluded a non-aggression pact with Japan, which was immediately used to increase the troops on the border with Iran at the expense of the forces of the Trans-Baikal and Far Eastern fronts. In particular, while in terms of deploying the Red Army from 1941 in March, 30 and 31 divisions were allocated to the border with Iran and Manchuria, in terms of XNUMX in May, XNUMX and XNUMX may already be, and in June, XNUMX of the year is XNUMX and XNUMX. The introduction of Soviet troops in Iran in the event of a German attack on the USSR Stalin wanted to exchange for the opening of a second front by Britain in Europe.
1 table. Grouping of the Red Army outside the western borders of the USSR based on the materials of the pre-war Soviet strategic planning 1938 – 1941. Compiled by: Note NGSHA CA NO USSR K.E. Voroshilov from 24 March 1938 on the most likely opponents of the USSR // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 2 / Supplement No. 11 // www.militera.lib.ru; Note of the USSR BUT and the NGS KA to the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) I.V. Stalin and V.M. Molotov from 19 August 1940 on the basics of the strategic deployment of the USSR Armed Forces in the West and the East on 1940 and 1941 years // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 1 / Document No. 95 // www.militera.lib.ru; Note of the USSR and NGSH SC in the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) to I.V. Stalin and V.Molotov from September 18 of 1940 on the basics of the deployment of the armed forces of the Soviet Union in the West and in the East on 1940 and 1941 years // 1941 . Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 1 / Document No. 117 // www.militera.lib.ru; Note BUT USSR and NGS KA in the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) - I.V. Stalin and V.Molotov from October 5 1940 about the basics of the deployment of the armed forces of the Soviet Union in the West and in the East for 1941 years // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 1 / Document No. 134 // www.militera.lib.ru; Note BUT USSR and NGS KA from 11 March 1941. // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 1 / Document No. 315 // www.militera.lib.ru; Note BUT USSR and NGS KA to the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR I.V. Stalin from 15 in May 1941 with considerations on the strategic deployment plan of the armed forces of the Soviet Union in case of war with Germany and its allies // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 2 / Document No. 473 // www.militera.lib.ru; Information about the deployment of the Armed Forces of the USSR from 13 June 1941 in case of war in the West // 1941. Collection of documents. In 2 pr. Prince 2 / Document No. 550 // www.militera.lib.ru; Drig E. The mechanized corps of the Red Army in battle: The history of the Red Army armored troops in the 1940 – 1941. - M., 2005; Kalashnikov K.A., Feskov V.I., Chmykhalo A.Yu., Golikov V.I. Red Army in June 1941 of the year (statistical compilation). - Novosibirsk, 2003; Kolomiets M., Makarov M. Prelude to “Barbarosse” // Front-line illustration. - 2001. - No. 4.
“Plans to cover the borders with border military districts, the task assigned to the RGK Army Group set up on 21 on June 1941, and G.K. Zhukov on the construction of a new fortified area on the rear line of Ostashkov - Pochep makes it possible to restore the plan of defeating the enemy on the territory of the USSR, which was conceived by the Soviet military command. It was necessary, firstly, to reliably cover the flanks of the Soviet troops in the Baltic States, Belostok and Lvov ledges, as well as Moldova, placing anti-tank brigades on tank-dangerous areas. Secondly, in the weak center, letting the enemy go to Smolensk and Kiev, interrupt the supply lines of the German units with a concentric strike by the troops of the Western and Southwestern fronts on the Lublin-Radom and crush the enemy on the previously prepared lines in the Western Dvina-Dnieper region. Thirdly - to occupy the area of the Narew River and Warsaw. Fourthly, after graduating from the formation of new armies, to encircle and destroy German troops in East Prussia from the area of the Narew River and Warsaw to the Baltic coast. Fifth, by dropping airborne corps in front of the ground forces of the Red Army, liberate Europe from the Nazi yoke. In the event of a breakthrough of the German troops through the barrier of the second strategic echelon armies, it was planned to create a fortified area at the Ostashkov-Pochep line ”(S. Lebedev. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part 2.).
1 schema. The actions of the Armed Forces of the Red Army in the European theater of operations according to the May plans to cover the border of the border military districts 1941 of the year and the task set in June 1941 to the group of reserve armies. Reconstruction of the author. Source: Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 2. Wehrmacht defeat plan in the USSR // topwar.ru
In April, the 1941 of the year for the implementation of the plan of Sokolovsky in the February mobilization plan made changes - the composition of the Red Army by reducing divisions from 314 to 308 was replenished with 10 anti-tank brigades and 5 airborne corps. Controls of the 13, 23, 27, and later 19, 20, 21, and 22 armies were created. “In the second half of April, 1941 begins the hidden transport of troops from the internal districts to the border districts” (M. Zakharov, General Staff in the pre-war years [Sat]. - M .: AST: LUX, 2005. - C. 398). At the beginning of May, the leadership of the Red Army ordered the border military districts to develop plans to cover the border with their own forces of the First Strategic Echelon, ordering 13 in May 1941 to the armies of the Second Strategic Troops of the Second Strategic Echelon to begin concentrating at the Western Dvina – Dnepr border. 15 May 1941 of the year in case of failure of the plan to defeat the enemy on the territory of the USSR To Stalin to approve his proposal to start the construction of fortified areas on the rear line of Ostashkov - Pochep, and if Germany does not attack the Soviet Union, then to provide for the construction of new fortified areas in 1942 on the border with Hungary.
“On May 27, the command of border districts was ordered to immediately begin construction of field command posts (front-line and army) in the areas outlined by the plan and force the construction of fortified areas. In late May - early June, the call from 793,5 to 805,264 to thousands of military servicemen for Large Training Campus (BEAD) was carried out, which made it possible to complete the 21 division of border districts to the full state of wartime, as well as significantly replenish other units. In addition ... everything was ready for the formation of the beginning of hostilities ”of the Third Strategic Echelon as part of 6 new army directorates (29, 30, 31, 32, 33 and 34), 20 rifle (242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 254, 256 , 257, 259, 262, 265, 268, 272, and 281, and 15 cavalry (25, 26, 28, 30) 33, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 55. (Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 2. Ibid.).
1 May, Iraqi troops began a siege of the British air force base in Al-Habbania. 2 May preventive attack by the British opened the fighting, defeating Iraqi positions in front of their airbase by 6 May. On the same day, General Dents signed an agreement with Germany “on the transfer of military materials, including airplanes, from sealed warehouses in Syria and their delivery to Iraq. France also agreed to allow the transit of German weapons and military materials, and also provided Germany with several air bases in northern Syria. ... From 9 to 31 in May, Syrian airfields arrived near 100 German and 20 Italian aircraft ”(Iraqi operation. Ibid.). 13 May began deliveries of military goods from Syria. “In response, Britain, with 14 in May, 1941 launched bombardment of military facilities in Syria, demanded Free France to start fighting in Syria as soon as possible and provided troops for this operation” (Syrian-Lebanon operation // https: // ru. wikipedia.org).
“May 27 British began their offensive on Baghdad. ... Germany was unable to provide any significant assistance to its allies in Iraq, since its troops were already concentrated to attack the USSR. ... On May 29, the German military mission left Iraq. "On May 30, after a series of minor clashes with the Iraqi militia, the British entered Baghdad. Rashid Ali-Gailani and several of his closest sheikhs fled the country. 31 May 1941 Iraq signed a truce and the British occupied the most important strategic points (Iraqi operation. Ibid.). “The pro-British government has returned to power in Iraq. Then came the turn of the rebellious General Dentz. From the second half of May, the English fleet tightly blocked the Syrian coast. The Royal Air Force destroyed all airfields. General Dents was left to himself, and he had only one thing left - to sell his life at a higher price ”(Nemchinov A. Ibid.).
10 May 1941, Hitler’s deputy to the leadership of the Nazi party, R. Hess flew to England, but his attempt to reach an agreement with the pro-German forces was not successful. 18 May 1941 of the year in its first, and as it turned out the last, campaign went out the most powerful battleship of Nazi Germany "Bismarck". 24 May during the battle with a detachment of British ships, he destroyed the English battleship "Hood", but 27 May itself was sunk by British battleships. 19 May 1941, the British in East Africa 230 surrendered to the thousandth group of Italian troops. In the two centers of resistance separated from each other, only 80 of thousands of Italian soldiers continued to resist.
In the course of the airborne operation of the German army, which lasted from 20 in May to 1 in June 1941, Crete was captured. Impressed by the considerable losses, Hitler permanently excluded the paratroopers from his plans. 8 June British troops and units of the Free French Army entered Syria. “But unlike the fleeting Iraqi campaign, here the British were drawn into protracted hard fighting. Only on July 11 did the Syrian insurgents capitulate ”(Nemchinov A. Ibid.). 15 June 1941, Croatia joined the tripartite pact. June 18 signed a treaty of friendship and non-aggression between Germany and Turkey. 21 June 1941, the English took Damascus.
In the meantime, the Red Army prepared to repel German aggression. 14 June Odessa military district was allowed to allocate control 9-th army. 15 June 1941, the leadership of the border military districts received an order for the withdrawal of the deep corps to the border with June 17. On June 18, the first echelons of covering armies began to enter the field defense districts on the state border, and June 20 launched the withdrawal of the 9 Army, Northwestern and Southwestern Fronts to field command posts. 21 June 1941 of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) decided to create the Southern Front as part of the 9 and 18 armies, Zhukov was entrusted with the leadership of the Southern and South-Western Fronts, Meretskov - the North-Western Front, and 19-20- I, the 21-i and 22-i armies, concentrated in the reserve of the Main Command, were united into a group of reserve armies led by Budyonny. The headquarters of the group was located in Bryansk, and its formation was completed by the end of 25 June 1941.
2 schema. The grouping of the Wehrmacht and the Red Army to the June 22 1941 year. The strategic deployment of troops of the Red Army in the West. The image is clickable. Source: Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 3. The collapse of the plan for the defeat of the Wehrmacht on the territory of the USSR // topwar.ru
During 1941, Stalin repeatedly received information from various sources about Germany’s readiness to attack the USSR. Regarding the warning of Chiang Kai-shek, the Secretary-General of the Comintern Executive Committee G. Dimitrov 21 on June 1941 asked V. Molotov for instructions for the Communist Parties, to which V. Molotov replied: “The situation is not clear. A big game is being played ”(Bezymensky LA, Hitler and Stalin before the fight. - M .: Veche, 2000 // http://militera.lib.ru/research/bezymensky3/27.html). In the evening of 21 June 1941, after long doubts, he agreed to declare full combat readiness in the border districts, and a directive was sent to the troops, which said that during 22-23 June, a sudden attack of German troops on the fronts of these districts was possible, and an attack could start with provocative actions. The Soviet troops were tasked to be on full alert, to meet a possible sudden strike by the enemy, but at the same time not to succumb to any provocations that could cause major complications. In the Baltic, operational readiness number 1 was announced in 23 h. 37. The Black Sea Fleet announced a readiness increase in 1 h. 15. Transfer to Directives No. 1 was completed only in 00.30 minutes 22 in June 1941 of the year and was not implemented everywhere.
Announcing full combat readiness on the night of June 22, the Soviet leadership believed that Germany would start a war with provocative actions and the Red Army had a couple more days to finally deploy and securely cover the state border. At the same time, Germany attacked the Soviet Union on the morning of 22 June 1941 of the year with all its forces and means allocated for aggression, which came as a complete surprise to the Soviet troops covering the state border. At the edge of the invasion of the shock groups of the Wehrmacht, there were huge gaps. In spite of everything, the Soviet leadership greeted the beginning of the war with restraint, calm and in working order, beginning the systematic implementation of a set of measures to transfer the country to a military footing.
22 June 1941 of the year mobilization was announced, the next day the Headquarters of the Main Command of the Armed Forces of the USSR was created. The Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR passed resolutions defining the tasks of the party and Soviet bodies in wartime conditions, fighting paratroopers and saboteurs of the enemy in the front line, guarding enterprises and institutions, and creating fighter battalions. In order to ensure the frontline of the strictest order and the organization of a merciless fight against enemy sabotage groups, the institute of front and army commanders for troop rear protection was introduced. In addition, 25 June 1941 was approved by the directive of the USSR But the need to create an army group of the GDK at the Zapadnaya Dvina – Dnepr line.
On June 22, 1941, Molotov addressed the Soviet people. According to him, the Soviet government gave the Red Army troops the order to repel the attack and expel the German troops from the territory of the USSR and expressed unshakable confidence that the Soviet army, aviation and the fleet will deal a crushing blow to the aggressor. At the same time, the people to defeat the enemy must provide all the needs of the Red Army, fleet and aviation. Thus, “the Red Army and all our people will once again lead a victorious domestic war for their homeland, for honor, for freedom” (V.M. Molotov radio broadcast June 22, 1941 // https://ru.wikipedia.org). In his speech, in fact, Molotov outlined the main milestones of the main version of Sokolovsky’s plan - to defeat the Wehrmacht’s strike units on the territory of the USSR, and then develop a victorious attack on Germany. Since the occupation was planned for a short time, there was no need for a partisan movement or a party underground. Before the decisive blow of the Red Army against Germany, Stalin had to turn to the Soviet people, and the Headquarters of the High Command was deployed to the Headquarters of the High Command.
In response to the help offered by Churchill, the Soviet government declared that "it would not want to accept aid from England without compensation and ... in turn, was ready ... to render aid to England." 27 June 1941 of the Year Molotov, in response to a request from British Ambassador Stafford Cripps, to clarify the scale and amount of assistance that the parties can provide to each other "stated the desirability of a common political line on Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan." 28 Jun. Supply Minister Beaverbrook said that "if the Soviet government would put the question of closer military cooperation to the British government, the British government would be happy to discuss what can be done." According to him, the British government is ready to take all possible measures to ease German pressure on the USSR. As a “personal offer,” Beaverbrook suggested that England could not only further intensify the bombing of West Germany and Northern France, but also send part of its fleet to the region of Murmansk and Petsamo for naval operations against the Germans and even make major raids on the northern French coast, up to the temporary seizure of ports such as Cherbourg or Le Havre (Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 3. The collapse of the Wehrmacht’s defeat plan in the USSR // http://topwar.ru/38337-sovetskoe- stra tegicheskoe-planirovanie-nakanune-velikoy-otechestvennoy-voyny-chast-3-krah-plana-razgroma-vermahta-na-territorii-sssr.html).
Roosevelt was annoyed by Churchill's unchanging desire "that this war should end like others, by expanding the empire." Before him was the goal to destroy Pax Britannica to the ground and to establish the safe unipolar American world of Pax Americana on its ruins. Because for this, it was necessary for America not only to destroy Nazi Germany, but also to weaken the Soviet Union as a member of the Democratic Party, Missouri senator and future US President Harry Truman 23 June 1941, in an interview with The New York Times, offered to help the losing side: “ If we see that Germany wins, then we should help Russia, and if Russia wins, then we should help Germany, and thus, let them kill as much as possible, although I don’t want to under any circumstances Hitler's see the winners. None of them thinks to fulfill their promises ”(Truman, Harry // https://ru.wikipedia.org).
It should be noted that the assistance of America did not mean the inclusion of the USSR into the orbit of a free democratic world. Even during the Great Patriotic War, the USSR for the USA still remained, if not a rogue state - a “rogue state”, a “hooligan state” or a “rascal” then at least taken to a democratic camp for a time of necessity by a totalitarian stranger . “For the United States, the principles and doctrines of the communist dictatorship [were - SL] are just as intolerant and alien as the principles and doctrines of the Nazi dictatorship” and the fact that the Soviet Union fought Germany did not mean “to protect them, fight for or agreement with the principles of international relations ", which the Americans adhere to (Chrestomatiya on the Newest History. In three volumes. Volume 2 // http://historic.ru/books/item/f00/s00/z0000022/st023.shtml). It is noteworthy in this regard, the opinion expressed at the 23 press conference on June 1941 of the year. US Secretary of State S. Welles: "Hitler’s armies are today the main danger for the Americas." In full accordance with the Roosevelt Doctrine after the destruction of the Wehrmacht by the Red Army, the USSR immediately became the main danger for America.
Meanwhile, in the central sector of the Soviet-German front, the 3-I German tank group, moving north of the Soviet 6, 7, and 8, 6, 11, and 17-n, allocated for its destruction, " on the border, the 128 th rifle division and rifle battalions easily advanced to the border 23 th, 126 th and 188 th Soviet rifle divisions easily crossed the 5 th division and under the Alytus 2 rushed to Vilnius, and unhindered rushed to Vilnius, a further to Minsk. In turn, the 6-I tank group, bypassing the Brest Fortress with the 42-th and 28-th SDN-27-C skipped by it, also rushed to Minsk, June 3 reached its southern edge and established connection with the 3-th tank group, burst into the city a day earlier. The remnants of the 10, 13, and parts of the 4 and 3 armies of the Western Front (Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part XNUMX. Decree. Works) were crushed and encircled in the surroundings near Minsk.
3 schema. Expected by the Soviet command and the real direction of attack 3-y tank group. Copied by: Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 3. The collapse of the plan for the defeat of the Wehrmacht on the territory of the USSR // topwar.ru
“3 July 1941 of the Year at the Headquarters of the High Command of the German Ground Forces discussed further plans for the occupation of the industrial regions of the USSR and the advance of the Wehrmacht in the Middle East after the Zapadnaya Dvina and the Dnieper were forcing” (Lebedev S. The Soviet Union’s military and political crisis of 1941 of the year // http: / /regnum.ru/news/1545171.html), and the Chief of the General Staff of the Ground Forces Halder stated in his diary: “In general, we can already say that the task of defeating the main forces of the Russian land army in front of Western Dvina and the Dnieper is completed. I consider it correct to say one captive corps commander that east of Zapadnaya Dvina and Dnieper we can meet the resistance of only certain groups, which, taking into account their numbers, will not be able to seriously prevent the offensive of the German forces. Therefore, it would not be an exaggeration to say that the campaign against Russia was won within 14 days ”(Halder F. Military diary, 1941 – 1942 / Trans. From him. I. Glagoleva. - M .: AST; SPb .: Terra Fantastica, 2003. - C. 76 – 77).
26 June 1941 of the year due to the crisis situation on the Western Front The 16 Army Reserve Command of the South-West direction was ordered to redeploy army units to the Smolensk region. Soon after, the 19 army also received an order for redeployment to the Vitebsk area. 29 June 1941 of the year due to the encirclement of the Western Front, the collapse of the basic version of the Sokolovsky plan and the transition to its fallback option “SNK and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) sent a directive to the party and Soviet organizations of the front-line areas to mobilize all forces and resources to defeat the Nazi invaders. The directive defined the main program of action to organize repulse of fascist Germany, to transform the country into a single military camp under the slogan “Everything for the front! All for the victory ", to mobilize all the forces and means to defeat the enemy."
The directive stated that the purpose of the Nazi attack was to destroy the Soviet system, seize the Soviet lands and enslave the peoples of the Soviet Union. The homeland was in the greatest danger, and the entire Soviet people must quickly and decisively restructure all their work on a military basis. For this it was prescribed to defend every inch of the Soviet land. To subordinate all its activities of the rear to the interests of the front With the forced withdrawal of the Red Army units to evacuate, and if it is impossible to destroy all valuables and property. In the areas occupied by the enemy, create partisan detachments and sabotage groups to fight units of the enemy army. To manage this activity in advance, under the responsibility of the first secretaries of the regional committees and district committees to create from the best people a reliable underground (Directive of the SNK of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) from 29.06.1941 // https://ru.wikisource.org).
Meanwhile, in the Kremlin on the evening of June 29, there was still no detailed data on the catastrophe of the Western Front. Alarmed by the lack of communication with the troops in Belarus, Stalin went to the People's Commissariat of Defense on the spot to deal with the situation found Tymoshenko, Zhukov and Vatutin. First, Stalin calmly tried to clear up the situation at the front of Zhukov for half an hour. But then, not having achieved his goal, Stalin, dejected by the unfortunate course of military operations on the Western Front and the collapse of Sokolovsky’s plan, exploded, shouted at Zhukov and brought him to tears. At the exit from the People's Commissariat, he stated that "Lenin left us a great legacy, we, his heirs, pissed it all ..." and left for his nearest summer cottage. In the evening of June 30, members of the Politburo came to Stalin and declared their intention to create a State Defense Committee headed by Stalin and to transfer to him the full authority in the country. Only after this, Stalin regained control of the country and its armed forces, July 1 1941 returned to his Kremlin office, and July 3 1941 addressed the peoples of the USSR with the main provisions of the Directive of the SNK and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) of June 29 of the year 1941 .
According to Stalin, now the question has already arisen about the life and death of the Soviet state, about whether to be free to the peoples of the Soviet Union or enslave. And the entire Soviet people should now rise to the defense of the Motherland together with the Red Army. It is necessary to immediately rebuild all the work on a war footing, all subjecting the interests of the front and the tasks of organizing the rout of the enemy. The Red Army and all citizens of the Soviet Union must defend every inch of the Soviet land, fight to the last drop of blood for the Soviet cities and villages. In case of the forced withdrawal of the Red Army units, the enemy should not leave any valuables and any property. In the areas occupied by the enemy to create guerrilla groups. Thus, the attempt of Stalin together with Britain to crush Germany during the year 1941 ended in failure. The USSR had the heavy burden of the Nazi horde fighter. Having failed his own plans, Stalin was destined to embody the plans of the United States of America: “Our war for the freedom of our Fatherland will merge with the struggle of the peoples of Europe and America for their independence, for democratic freedoms” (JV Stalin’s speech on the radio 3 July 1941 g. / / https://ru.wikisource.org).
The Soviet government and the Red Army immediately began to implement a reserve version of the Sokolovsky plan. The Soviet troops left, which had become unnecessary overnight, the Lvov salient and in the country began the organization of long-term resistance to the enemy in the territory they occupied. I.V. Stalin was appointed People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR, the General Command Headquarters was transformed into the Supreme Command Headquarters ... Partisan movement and sabotage was organized on the territory occupied by the enemy. The formation of the people's militia divisions began (S. Lebedev. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part 4. The collapse of the Barbarossa, Kantokuen plans and Directives No. 32 // http://topwar.ru/38570-sovetskoe-strateheshesee-planirovanie -nakanune-velikoy-otechestvennoy-voyny-chast-4-krah-plana-barbarossa-kantokuen-i-direktivy-32.html).
July 14 1941 of the year, in full accordance with the May 1941 proposal of the year G.K. Zhukov on the construction of new fortified areas on the rear line of Ostashkov - Pochep, “together with the troops of the 24 and 28 armies, advanced here a little earlier,” the newly created 29, 30, 31 and 32 armies united “In front of reserve armies with the task of taking the line of Staraya Russa, Ostashkov, Bely, Istomino, Yelnya, Bryansk and prepare for a stubborn defense. Here, to the east of the main defensive line, passing along the rivers Western Dvina and Dnieper and already broken by the enemy, a second line of defense was created. 18 July The Stavka decided to deploy another front on the distant approaches to Moscow - the Mozhaisk line of defense - with the inclusion of 32, 33 and 34 armies in its structure ”(Afanasyev N.M., Glazunov N.K., Kazansky P.A. , N. Fironov, “By the roads of trials and victories. The fighting path of the 31 Army” - M .: Voenizdat, 1986. - C. 5).
4 schema. Defensive line Ostashkov - Pochep. Lopukhovsky L. Vyazma catastrophe of the 1941 year. - M .: Yauza, Eksmo, 2007. 11 Schema // www.e-reading.club/chapter.php/1002602/29/Lopuhovskiy_Lev_-_1941._Vyazemskaya_katastrofa.html
"July 12 1941 was signed the Soviet-British agreement" On joint action in the war against Germany. " The agreement obliged the parties to render each other assistance and support of every kind in the war against Hitler Germany, and not to negotiate and conclude a truce or a peace treaty, except with mutual consent. ... Despite the fact that the agreement was of a general nature and it did not indicate specific mutual obligations, it indicated the interest of the parties in the establishment and development of allied relations. ” As before, Stalin once again wanted to link the security of India from the German invasion by Iran with the opening of a second front in Europe and 18 in July. 1941 offered England help in providing security to India and urged the British government to create a front against Hitler in the West in Northern France and in the North in the Arctic "(Lebedev S. Soviet strategic planning on the eve of World War II. Part of 4. Ibid.).
However, in the circumstances of new force majeure he had to come to terms with that, the entry of Soviet and British troops into Iran was linked by England with the military technical assistance of the USSR. 26 July 1941, the UK Military Cabinet unanimously decided to send Tomahawk fighter jets to Russia as soon as possible. 200 August 25, the Soviet and British troops entered Iran, 1941 August 31, the convoy Dervish (1941 transports and 7 escort ships) received the first British shipments, and the 6 September 8 of the year signed an agreement defining the location of the Soviet and British on the territory of Iran. As a result, the conclusion of a treaty on an alliance against Germany between the Soviet Union and Britain, Stalin had to wait a year - until May 1941, and the opening of a second front in Northern France for three years - until May 1942.
The backup version of Sokolovsky’s plan disrupted the Barbarossa’s plan, did not allow Japan to enter the war on the German side, prevented the complete defeat of the Red Army and the USSR disaster in 1941. Despite this, he, along with the reasons for the failure of the basic version of the Sokolovsky plan, was forgotten and forgotten. All the blame for the failure of his prewar plans Stalin placed on the command of the Western Front. The punishment was quick and extremely harsh. “June 30, front commander, Army General, Hero of the Soviet Union DG Pavlov was removed from command and July 4 arrested. After a brief investigation, Pavlov was sentenced to death. Together with him, 22 of July were shot: Chief of the Front, Major General V.Ye. Major-General A.T. Klimovskiy and the head of front communications Grigoriev. The front artillery commander, Lieutenant-General N.A. The cry and commander of the 14 Mechanized Corps, Major General S.I. Oborin was arrested on July 8 and then shot, the commander of the 4 army, Major General A.A. Korobkov was removed on July 8, the next day July July was arrested and shot 22 (Western Front (Great Patriotic War) // https://ru.wikipedia.org).
Thus, in February 1941, in the General Staff of the Red Army there was a change of milestones. First, the parallel development of Vatutin’s plan to defeat Germany as a result of a preemptive strike and Sokolovskiy on the creation of a giant trap in the territory of the USSR by the Wehrmacht strike forces began. Secondly, the new head of the General Staff, Zhukov, incorrectly assessing the direction and depth of the Wehrmacht’s alleged attack on the troops of the Western Front doomed both plans for a guaranteed failure. At the same time, Churchill thought up having renounced the expulsion of the Italians from North Africa to involve the USSR in the war with Germany and defeat the Nazis for a couple with the Red Army.
In March, Hitler invaded the Soviet sphere of influence in Bulgaria. Churchill immediately sent British troops to Greece for joint operations with the Red Army, while Stalin decided to attack Germany 12 June 1941 and surround the main Wehrmacht units in the East with a blow from the Lvov salient to the Baltic. For the security of British possessions in the East, Britain and the USSR began to work out a plan for the introduction of troops into Iran, and to strengthen their influence on Germany, they carried out a coup in Yugoslavia and overthrew the pro-German government.
In response, the Germans overthrew the pro-British government in Iraq and, defeating Yugoslavia with Greece, expelled the British from the continent. Churchill took over the establishment of order in Iraq, Syria and East Africa, while Stalin, refusing a preventive strike, began to build relations with Hitler, and in case of his aggression he accepted Sokolovsky’s plan for implementation and began deploying the Army Group of the Western Command Reserve Dvina - Dnipro. After Germany’s attack on 22 on June 1941 of the USSR, Molotov, in his address to the Soviet people, announced the imminent return of the occupied territory of the USSR, the defeat of the Wehrmacht and the liberation of Europe from the Nazis, and later offered the British to open a second front in Europe in exchange for joint Soviet and British troops to Iran.
Meanwhile, the basic version of the Sokolovsky plan, as a result of an incorrect assessment of the direction and depth of the Wehrmacht’s alleged attack on the Western Front, encirclement and the rout of its troops, was failed. After that, the implementation of its reserve option began immediately. Turning to the Soviet people, Stalin had already announced a long-term confrontation with Nazi Germany, called to stand for every inch of Soviet land, to deploy a partisan movement and sabotage struggle in the occupied territory. The Western Front was reconstructed from parts of the Second Strategic Echelon, and the Ostashkov-Pochep defensive line was created from the Third in the Moscow direction. Sokolovsky’s plan, despite its role and its significance, was forgotten and forgotten.