Military Review

AFAR for PAK FA: tests show excellent results

37
Yuri Bely - about the latest developments of the NIIP. V.V. Tikhomirov


The principal feature of the Advanced Frontline Aviation Complex aviation - the fifth generation T-50 fighter created by the Sukhoi company is the use of a multifunctional integrated radio-electronic system with active phased antenna arrays (AFAR) as part of its airborne equipment, which is designed to solve a wide range of problems of search and detection of air and ground targets, ensuring application weapons, navigation, mapping, electronic countermeasures, etc. This system with AFAR develops NIIP them. V.V. Tikhomirova is the leading domestic enterprise for the creation of radar systems with phased antenna arrays for aviation and military air defense systems. Experienced AFAR for the PAK FA Institute has already demonstrated at previous air shows MAKS. Since then, work on them has progressed substantially. On the eve of MAKS-2015, we met with the Director General of the NIIP. V.V. Yury Belym Tikhomirov and asked him to tell how the AFAR is tested on the fifth-generation Russian fighter, what results have already been achieved and what new we can see at the current exhibition.

Yury Ivanovich, what are you planning to show what's new at the MAKS-2015 air show?

At previous exhibitions of MAKS we have already demonstrated experimental and experimental samples of AFAR for PAK FA - in 2009 we first showed AFAR of X-band front view, in 2013, side-end AFAR (BO), and earlier - wing AFAR L-band. So far, we have presented them separately, and now it has been decided to show the entire PAK FA antenna system, in combination, approximately as it will be installed on the aircraft. Secondly, we are not standing still, and over the past years, the work on AFAR has advanced significantly: we have updated design documentation, AFAR of both front and side view became lighter, their equipment is more compact, and the potential is higher. These are the advanced AFAR, made by more advanced technology, we will show this time on MAKS-2015.

This improved technology is the result of several years of bench testing and flight tests. For three years our AFAR has been flying aboard the PAK FA. I note here that for the entire time of the flight tests there were not any significant failures of our equipment, the characteristics of AFAR do not degrade - when during the tests we are given the opportunity to remove it from the aircraft, check on the stand, compare it with the original condition and see that the parameters remain normal. Therefore, there is confidence that we are on the right track, and the fifth generation fighter with our AFAR, when it enters into service with the domestic Air Force, will meet all the requirements for it.

Please tell us about the preliminary test results?



The first flight of a prototype PAK FA (third flight specimen) with the inclusion of our AFAR forward review took place at Zhukovsky 26 on April 2012. In the summer of the same year, we began intensive flight tests of AFAR on board the aircraft. By now, the stage of preliminary tests has already been passed, and in April of this year we presented AFAR PO for state joint tests as part of the aircraft.

I can say that during the preliminary flight tests almost all of the specified characteristics in the main air – air and air – surface modes have already been confirmed, now we are starting to mate with the weapon and will check the interaction of AFAR with weapons. In Akhtubinsk, two airplanes are currently under test - the third and fourth flight copies of the T-50, both of which are undergoing tests of our AFAR. At the same time, as we predicted on the basis of bench tests, the potential of AFAR on the fourth aircraft increased, compared with the third, on the fifth it will be even higher. We consistently increase the characteristics of our equipment to the requirements of the specification.

Separately, I would like to note the reliability of the AFAR. It is no secret that in the early stages of development we were faced with the fact that part of the transceiver modules supplied to us had to be rejected - this is a natural process for such an innovative technology in the initial period of its development. Today I can state with satisfaction that the level of reliability of MRP has dramatically improved. If at the first AFAR, at the stages of assembly and testing, we had to sort out the antenna several times, replacing the faulty modules, then the AFAR manufactured today is almost without failure.

Let me remind you that in actual operation of the AESA, the failure of approximately up to 10% of its modules, especially if they are scattered around the antenna web, has practically no effect on its characteristics. And today we practically fit into these tolerances. But even at our first AFAR, in which the level of health of the microwave modules was lower, we practically didn’t repair, but focused specifically on testing, which we didn’t have before, when working with our previous radars (then, at first, we had to deal more with failures than, in fact, lead the test). This is another important advantage of active phased antenna arrays.

AFAR shows a very good test on flight tests. On the third flight of the PAK FA today performed about 120 flight with a working AFAR software, and such failures that the machine came from a flight with an unfulfilled task - literally units. In accordance with the approved test program, the fourth prototype of the AFAR has been flying a little less (he has, so far, other tasks, first of all), but those flights with the station turned on are basically all successful.

How many have already made AFAR?


The first two AFARs of the forward review pass bench tests: one at the stand of the chief designer at our institute, the other at the Sukhoi Design Bureau. They are working out new modes, introducing constructive and software improvements. Two are now flying aboard the third and fourth prototypes of the T-50. This summer, in Komsomolsken-Amur, the fifth prototype will be put to the test after the repair, and it is also already equipped with our AFAR. The sixth antenna has passed preliminary laboratory tests, both autonomously and as part of a complex, and will soon be presented for ground inter-agency tests that will be conducted at the NIIP. The next one went to the sixth flight model of the aircraft, which should join the tests before the end of this year. It will already have a complete set of our system, including both a front-view AFAR, and side and wing. At the output from the production of two regular antennas (one is already on the test bench, the second is on the assembly), and the production of two more leads the serial enterprise - Ryazan State Instrument Plant. Recently, I was in Ryazan and noted with satisfaction that the first AFAR assembled there already stands on the stand and is successfully setting up and testing. These are two prototypes of the antenna, which are assembled at the GRPP and then will go on board the next aircraft, will become a kind of prologue for the planned mass production of AFAR in Ryazan.

Can you, at least qualitatively, compare the AFAR with your already known BARS and Irbis HEADLIGHTS, used on Su-30 and Su-35 series fighters?

While we fly with AFAR on those modes that have already been implemented at our previous stations, and it shows itself in terms of performance is no worse, and in terms of reliability (compared to the similar stage of the development of LAMP), it is much better. But AFAR has a lot of regimes that can not be implemented on traditional phased arrays and which will give the aircraft, as an aviation combat complex, fundamentally new opportunities. Their working out is still ahead. At the same time, it is well known that our “Irbis” can rightly be considered as a kind of apex of the development of radar technology with PAR - there are no equal in the world in terms of the potential and detection range of air targets exceeding 400 km. Recently, we have prepared materials in which we showed how to increase the potential of AFAR, bringing it closer to what Irbis has. It is up to the customer, because it requires a transition to new technologies, new materials, new element base. They have yet to be mastered by our industry, and these are quite substantial costs, both financial and temporary. But this must be done, especially in the conditions of the current policy of import substitution.

By the way, since we are talking about import substitution, how strong is your dependence on supplies from abroad? Did Western sanctions affect your work?

We practically do not feel sanctions. Microwave modules - the basis of our radar - we have domestic, the raw materials for their production is available, and the rest of the electronic "stuffing" - so to speak, widespread use, so some special problems, I do not see. Of course, ideally, I would like everything to be “ours”. But the domestic industry, which is able to supply us with the necessary raw materials and element base, was actually destroyed in the post-Soviet years and is now at the restoration stage, which will take some time. And so far, much of what our manufacturer can actually offer us turns out to be noticeably more expensive than imports from the same Southeast Asia, and the delivery times are called much longer. I hope that in a few years the situation will change, and we will be able to switch to a competitive domestic element base. But now, I repeat, we do not see any particular problems and do not feel that the sanctions somehow seriously affected our work.

How will your complexes with AFAR develop further?

It is not a secret that our institute is defined as the head contractor of work on the complex of on-board electronic equipment with AFAR for the Advanced Aviation Complex of Long-Range Aviation - PAK DA. Now we are working closely on the preliminary design of the complex for the PAK DA, we offer various options for AFAR. Before the end of the year, a draft technical design must be defended, both in our unit and in the aircraft as a whole. Based on the results of this protection, a decision will be made on the dates and stages of the full-scale development work. Recently, Deputy Defense Minister Yury Borisov said that PAK DA should go into the series "soon after 2023." But, despite the fact that until this period is almost ten years, the pace of work on OCD cannot be reduced. It is necessary not to delay the transition to the stages of production of working design documentation, construction of prototypes, their testing. After all, before adopting a system, there must be a tremendous amount of mining and testing.

When developing a complex for PAK DA, of course, we will use all the experience that we received when creating AFAR for PAK FA. But we need to clearly understand that the foundation for the current AFAR we began to create 13 years ago, and to apply in a pure form the existing technology and technical solutions for the complex, which is to enter service only in the middle of the next decade, is unwise. Therefore, we will use all the experience we have, the entire scientific and technical groundwork for AFAR for the PAK FA, but the complex for the PAK DA should be more perfect - both in terms of design solutions and the element base. Then we will apply similar improvements to the modernization of the PAK FA complex - in this way, we will ensure the “flow” of the very best and progressive from one project to another. Thereby, we’ll work for the PAK DA, and then it will be implemented in the envisaged modernization of the PAK FA.
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http://www.take-off.ru/component/content/article/123-interview2012/1019-beliy2015-08-31
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  1. PlotnikoffDD
    PlotnikoffDD 22 October 2015 14: 23 New
    +5
    at the air show MAKS-2015

    Article is very fresh))))
    1. marlin1203
      marlin1203 22 October 2015 14: 38 New
      +7
      When will there be production samples in the troops? Testing is good. But the air supremacy plane is needed already "yesterday" soldier
      1. Lt. Air Force stock
        Lt. Air Force stock 22 October 2015 14: 41 New
        +5
        Quote: marlin1203
        When will there be production samples in the troops? Testing is good. But the air supremacy plane is needed already "yesterday"

        So I wonder if stealth coverage is planned for PakFa or those prototypes that fly already with serial skin, so to speak?
        Is something similar to that skin expected on F-22 (photo clickable) on our PakFa?
        1. dvg79
          dvg79 22 October 2015 14: 52 New
          10
          I hope not, we do not need such hemorrhoids. stop
          1. Lt. Air Force stock
            Lt. Air Force stock 22 October 2015 15: 07 New
            -12
            Quote: dvg79
            I hope not, we do not need such hemorrhoids.

            Then I don’t understand what the stealth will be?
            1) Stealth will not be covered
            2) Engines with flat nozzles will not be (at least until 2020 year)
            3) There will be no S-shaped ducts (S-duct)
            4) The engines protrude from the bottom of the PakF, which also increase the EPR from below (all F-22,35, F-117, B2 aircraft have a flat "belly")
            1. Falcon
              Falcon 22 October 2015 15: 39 New
              32
              Quote: Lt. air force reserve
              Then I don’t understand what the stealth will be?
              1) Stealth will not be covered
              2) Engines with flat nozzles will not be (at least until 2020 year)
              3) There will be no S-shaped ducts (S-duct)
              4) The engines protrude from the bottom of the PakF, which also increase the EPR from below (all F-22,35, F-117, B2 aircraft have a flat "belly")


              1) will be. It is even on the Su-35. It is an absorbent paint. Even at Mig-21, radar absorbing paint was developed. It reduces the EPR in 4 + aircraft



              2) Flat nozzle - more IR range. The t-50 engines are spaced apart at an angle, which allows more efficient heat dissipation. - compromised between maneuverability and heat.



              3) Why - they are s-shaped



              4) EPR is a dynamic characteristic - determined experimentally, and depends on the direction of the angles and wavelengths of the emitter. There is no simple recipe for reducing it

              1. samara-58
                samara-58 23 October 2015 07: 38 New
                +6
                Cool answer !!! good
              2. TT62
                TT62 23 October 2015 08: 38 New
                +2
                That's right Falcon! First, children need to explain what a "globe" is, and only then what they want is put on it. The aircraft will not be immediately made invisible, but for every poison there is an antidote.
              3. Lt. Air Force stock
                Lt. Air Force stock 23 October 2015 21: 42 New
                -2
                Quote: Falcon
                1) will be. It is even on the Su-35. It is an absorbent paint. Even at Mig-21, radar absorbing paint was developed. It reduces the EPR in 4 + aircraft

                Why is it that when you look at F-22,35, B2 is more likely to believe in the presence of stealth coverage, and when you look at our Su, a vague suspicion creeps in that it is ordinary paint?
                Quote: Falcon
                2) Flat nozzle - more IR range. The t-50 engines are spaced apart at an angle, which allows more efficient heat dissipation. - compromised between maneuverability and heat.

                A flat nozzle shields the heat thus reducing the ESR of the aircraft. Look at the F-22, its flat nozzles are completely covered with a stealth coating, and we have not covered anything.
                Quote: Falcon
                3) Why - they are s-shaped

                In the photo that you bring, you can draw a straight line and understand that the S-shaped duct does not completely cover the engines.
                Quote: Falcon
                4) EPR is a dynamic characteristic - determined experimentally, and depends on the direction of the angles and wavelengths of the emitter. There is no simple recipe for reducing it

                The EPR also depends on the protruding parts, why did rockets on 5th generation aircraft be placed not under wings, but inside the aircraft? To lower the ESR. For the same reason, the 6th generation aircraft are going to be created without vertical rudders. Ideally, it should be an airplane wing.
              4. Lt. Air Force stock
                Lt. Air Force stock 23 October 2015 21: 48 New
                -2
                Quote: Falcon

                1) will be. It is even on the Su-35. It is an absorbent paint. Even at Mig-21, radar absorbing paint was developed. It reduces the EPR in 4 + aircraft

                Can not see!
              5. Skifotavr
                Skifotavr 24 October 2015 22: 34 New
                0
                Quote: Falcon
                Quote: Lt. air force reserve
                Then I don’t understand what the stealth will be?
                1) Stealth will not be covered
                2) Engines with flat nozzles will not be (at least until 2020 year)
                3) There will be no S-shaped ducts (S-duct)
                4) The engines protrude from the bottom of the PakF, which also increase the EPR from below (all F-22,35, F-117, B2 aircraft have a flat "belly")


                1) will be. It is even on the Su-35. It is an absorbent paint. Even at Mig-21, radar absorbing paint was developed. It reduces the EPR in 4 + aircraft



                2) Flat nozzle - more IR range. The t-50 engines are spaced apart at an angle, which allows more efficient heat dissipation. - compromised between maneuverability and heat.



                3) Why - they are s-shaped



                4) EPR is a dynamic characteristic - determined experimentally, and depends on the direction of the angles and wavelengths of the emitter. There is no simple recipe for reducing it


                Engines spaced apart at an angle, on the contrary, increase angles, in the limit of which the aircraft can be detected in the infrared and thermal ranges, and they are made on the PAK FA to ensure stability as compensation for the small size of the keels. As for flat nozzles - firstly they have a considerable loss of traction, and secondly they are unable to deviate all-vector - and therefore they are certainly hemorrhoids for a fighter.
        2. Sashka
          Sashka 22 October 2015 17: 09 New
          +7
          P ... dicks, nevertheless, they adopted from the Russians a trouble-free bolt unscrewing system !!!
          We realized that their outdated electronic screwdriver could fail at any time ... laughing
        3. prostofily
          prostofily 22 October 2015 19: 36 New
          0
          Now why.
        4. Talgat
          Talgat 22 October 2015 20: 26 New
          +4
          Quote: Lt. air force reserve
          Does stealth coverage go to PakFa or those prototypes that fly already with serial skin, so to speak?
          Is something expected similar to the skin on the F-22


          I both read and watched. that PAK Fa is not made of duralumin like all airplanes. but from composites. as amerovskie stealth all

          I watched a report on TV, it looks like a sewing enterprise - these are fabrics - which are impregnated with something - it turns out something like carbon fiber - I'm not an expert - but I see it and transmit it (like akyn :))
      2. Odysseus
        Odysseus 22 October 2015 15: 02 New
        +4
        Quote: marlin1203
        But when will there be serial models in the troops?

        Not soon. Be patient. The complex is very complex and there are many problems.
      3. NEXUS
        NEXUS 22 October 2015 15: 15 New
        +9
        Quote: marlin1203
        But when will there be serial models in the troops?

        At the exit, I think we’ll get not a fifth generation fighter, but a 5+ generation fighter.
        Also, if I am not mistaken, in 97 we had a 5th generation fighter, even two are MIG1.44, and the Su-47 "Berkut" made for sea basing. But the PAK FA surpasses them in many ways.
        I think our designers want to be ahead of the curve and move forward a bit in this race. But the question of 5th generation LFI remains relevant. And it seems that the Mikoyanites, though on their own initiative, took out old materials on MIG1.44 and finalized everything taking into account modern requirements and technical level.
    2. GSH-18
      GSH-18 23 October 2015 10: 23 New
      0
      AFAR for PAK FA: tests show excellent results

      good I'm really looking forward to the army release of the PAK FA and its acceptance into service with the Russian Air Force. I think hysterical screams from our "partners" -RUSSIANS are coming! and this time cannot be avoided lol
      And the plane is just handsome! Three times pah, so as not to jinx it.
  2. Lt. Air Force stock
    Lt. Air Force stock 22 October 2015 14: 33 New
    0
    It is important that the function of low probability of interception of radar radiation is realized. Although there probably already are means of warning about exposure and similar modes of operation of the radar.
  3. Lt. Air Force stock
    Lt. Air Force stock 22 October 2015 14: 38 New
    +6
    It was necessary to ask whether in the future they plan to install AFAR Belka during modernization and on the Su-30,34,35 in order to increase the performance characteristics of aircraft.
    1. Andrey NM
      Andrey NM 22 October 2015 15: 39 New
      +1
      I also wanted to ask this question. And the second - how much will the capabilities of Sushki with AFAR increase? It is clear that they will not say this now, but still ...
      1. NEXUS
        NEXUS 22 October 2015 16: 06 New
        +2
        Quote: Andrew NM
        I also wanted to ask this question. And the second - how much will the capabilities of Sushki with AFAR increase? It is clear that they will not say this now, but still ...

        At times. Moreover, the AFAR is being improved and the latest development will probably be installed on the production machine. The more visually our PAK FA will be, the more effective it will be in essence. A powerful arsenal is not all, you need to see the adversary well at different distances.
        1. Garris199
          Garris199 22 October 2015 16: 59 New
          0
          Quote: NEXUS
          Factor of.

          I would not say that.
          Recently, we have prepared materials in which we have shown how to increase the potential of AFAR, bringing it closer to the one that Irbis has.
          1. NEXUS
            NEXUS 22 October 2015 17: 30 New
            +2
            Quote: Garris199
            I would not say that.

            Do you really believe that they will show and tell you everything and announce the real characteristics of our AFAR?
        2. TT62
          TT62 23 October 2015 08: 43 New
          0
          Stronger is the one with a longer and heavier club.
  4. rubidiy
    rubidiy 22 October 2015 14: 44 New
    10
    I read an article on the AFAR element base. Coming to the transition to other materials in the production of microwave modules. I hope that we will succeed. Now this technology is one of the key to the country's defense.
    1. Just BB
      Just BB 23 October 2015 06: 47 New
      0
      We also read: "
      By the way, since we are talking about import substitution, how strong is your dependence on supplies from abroad? Did Western sanctions affect your work?

      We practically do not feel sanctions. Microwave modules - the basis of our radar - we have domestic, the raw materials for their production is available, and the rest of the electronic "stuffing" - so to speak, widespread use, so some special problems, I do not see. Of course, ideally, I would like everything to be “ours”. But the domestic industry, which is able to supply us with the necessary raw materials and element base, was actually destroyed in the post-Soviet years and is now at the restoration stage, which will take some time. And so far, much of what our manufacturer can actually offer us turns out to be noticeably more expensive than imports from the same Southeast Asia, and the delivery times are called much longer. I hope that in a few years the situation will change, and we will be able to switch to a competitive domestic element base. But now, I repeat, we do not see any particular problems and do not feel that the sanctions somehow seriously affected our work.

      A-abydna, yeah
  5. Asadullah
    Asadullah 22 October 2015 14: 45 New
    +1
    Pure gold gratings. Although, this does not affect the total price of the car.
  6. Alexey-74
    Alexey-74 22 October 2015 15: 34 New
    +2
    There are many difficulties and costs of course .... but in the end we will get an excellent combat aircraft that plugs any American, Chinese, etc. into the belt. I hope we will see the T-50 in the sky and in the troops in the near future.
  7. Denis Skiff
    Denis Skiff 22 October 2015 15: 54 New
    +2
    Quote: Lt. Air Force stock
    Quote: dvg79
    I hope not, we do not need such hemorrhoids.

    Then I don’t understand what the stealth will be?
    1) Stealth will not be covered
    2) Engines with flat nozzles will not be (at least until 2020 year)
    3) There will be no S-shaped ducts (S-duct)
    4) The engines protrude from the bottom of the PakF, which also increase the EPR from below (all F-22,35, F-117, B2 aircraft have a flat "belly")
    any stealth can be shot down on the cheapest plane with good headlights. we do not have the task of penetrating enemy territory on stealth. lifted a couple of twinks, found, started, left. the aggressor burns out.
  8. aviator1913
    aviator1913 22 October 2015 15: 58 New
    0
    And what is the percentage of failures of AFAR elements in Western aircraft? They seem to have already installed their AFARs on F-15 and F-18, not like on F-22 or 35 ... And the TTX comparison is at least approximate with Western models.
    1. Longmire
      Longmire 22 October 2015 19: 30 New
      +3
      there is nothing to compare, all that is in the public domain is disinformation, the most protected secrets are precisely the technical characteristics of radio electronics ....
  9. over
    over 22 October 2015 16: 26 New
    +1
    Interestingly, the author of the article and the director of the enterprise are the namesake or the same person?
  10. prostofily
    prostofily 22 October 2015 19: 41 New
    0
    Considering that if the real (war) begins, the life span of each will be measured in tens of minutes,
    then the slipping function can be increased, it’s good.
    1. Kapralwdw
      Kapralwdw 22 October 2015 21: 00 New
      0
      if they cling to us it will be the last war on earth !!! alas !!! angry
  11. Kapralwdw
    Kapralwdw 22 October 2015 20: 58 New
    -2
    Russia is power !!!!! good
  12. Massik
    Massik 22 October 2015 22: 30 New
    -2
    As long as this PAK FA in the amount of at least one link to the Air Force arrives, the Americans F ~ 40 will put on the conveyor.
    1. NEXUS
      NEXUS 23 October 2015 01: 12 New
      +1
      Quote: Marssik
      As long as this PAK FA in the amount of at least one link to the Air Force arrives, the Americans F ~ 40 will put on the conveyor.

      Yes you! laughing They can’t give birth to F-35s at all. They will make F-40 to our MIG-100 and SU-150. The amers have no alternative to Lightning and when there will be a very big question. And as for the Raptors ... so excuse me, they are real no one saw the battle, and what kind of performance characteristics there are a lot of questions. I will not say anything about the price.
      As for the stupid vyser of the type, they can print money as much as they want, I’ll answer. ANY PRINTING HAS ITS OWN LIMIT AFTER WHICH EVERYTHING IS SPEAKING. And the Americans have closed the production of the Raptors for one reason, EXPENSIVE. Moreover, to this day he has not all diseases cured and they were safely transferred to Lightning.
      1. Massik
        Massik 23 October 2015 18: 53 New
        +1
        Someone saw our PAK FA in a real battle ??? Or do you think we have no childhood diseases ??? Maybe they will cost like SU 27 ??? Yes, in relation to F 35 it is cheaper, but our budget is several times smaller than the US budget.
  13. S-cream
    S-cream 23 October 2015 00: 07 New
    0
    What about the engines ???
    1. over
      over 23 October 2015 01: 30 New
      0
      Quote: S-cream
      What about the engines ???

      Sawing ... Until they finish, they won’t go into the series. And I would like to look at max 20 .. What is he doing in the air with new engines good
  14. Mentat
    Mentat 23 October 2015 15: 36 New
    0
    Quote: Garris199
    Quote: NEXUS
    Factor of.

    I would not say that.
    Recently, we have prepared materials in which we have shown how to increase the potential of AFAR, bringing it closer to the one that Irbis has.

    And then read on? It says that in this AFAR there will be several new modes of operation that are impossible on Irbis.
  15. Buffalo
    Buffalo 27 October 2015 14: 02 New
    0
    NIIP radars were actively hunted by one Swedish office, on instructions from the United States.
    - Failed, this time the spies, they got caught. The trick of Adolf Tolkachev, who revealed the secrets of the latest Soviet aviation equipment (watch the movie "Ampoule with Poison" on YouTube, from the "Spies and Traitors" series), this time failed ...