Military Review

Northern convoys. Part I

Northern convoys. Part I

1 September 1939, Germany attacked Poland. Three days later, Great Britain and France declared war on the Germans. However, they did not undertake combat operations on land: a lull was lasting for nine months - a “strange war”. Only on the seas and oceans were battles associated with the breakthrough of the mutual blockade.

In April 1940, German troops launched a widespread offensive in the West, as a result of which most of continental Europe came under German control. Only island Britain desperately resisted the fascist raids aviationgetting ready to repel the landing.

16 July 1940, the year Hitler announced the preparation of Operation Sea Lion - the invasion of England. Until now, it is not known whether he planned it for real or whether it was an element of misinformation. But in any case, during this period the massive bombing of British cities and ports intensified. The sea blockade has become hardened: the German submarines blocked all the ways of supplying food and raw materials to the metropolis. The military and economic potential of Great Britain was severely damaged, the population was demoralized.

Suddenly, the situation has changed dramatically. 22 June 1941 g. Fascist troops crossed the border of the USSR. Fighting began on the eastern front.

In the book of V. Thompson, the personal bodyguard of English Prime Minister Winston Churchill, it is noted how this event was perceived in his immediate environment: extremely joyful for all of us. " E. Hughes writes directly that “Hitler’s decision to attack the USSR was for Churchill literally the gift of the gods. This was certainly the best news Churchill received over a long period of time. ” With the outbreak of hostilities in Germany on the eastern front of the UK received a reprieve. The main theater of the war became the Russian-German front.

On the day of the attack on our country, Winston Churchill delivered a speech on English radio. He made a decisive policy statement: "We will provide all the help we can to Russia and the Russian people." However, another part of his speech made one doubt the sincerity of these statements. The English PM recalled: “Over the past quarter century, no one has been a more consistent opponent of communism than I am. And I'm not going to take back a single word about him. ”

In the United States, which have not yet entered the war, there were also quite a few anti-Soviet politicians. Senator G. Truman, who later became president, spoke, for example, like this: “If we see that Germany is winning, then the US should be helped by Russia, if Russia will be victorious, then we should be helped by Germany, that is, by doing so so they kill as much as possible. "

In the first weeks of World War II, Soviet-British government negotiations began. July 12, 1941 in Moscow, the signing of a joint Agreement on Mutual Assistance - the first official document that laid the foundation for the formation of the anti-Hitler coalition. And on the eve of October, in Moscow, a conference of three powers was held; USSR, England and the USA. She declared their unity in the struggle against fascism, and questions of military-economic assistance were examined at it. As a result of the negotiations, it was established that from October 1, 1941, the Allies will monthly supply 400 aircraft to our country, 500 tanks, 2 thousand tons of aluminum, 1 thousand tons of armor for tanks, etc. In addition, it was planned to send 152 anti-aircraft guns and 755 anti-tank guns. The Soviet Union pledged in response to supply US and UK strategic raw materials.

The Soviet Union invited the Western allies to begin hostilities in Europe. Under public pressure, Britain and the United States were forced to commit themselves to opening a second front in 1942. However, under various pretexts they postponed the start of military operations. The second front was never opened either in the promised 1942, or in the next 1943, or at the beginning of the 1944 year.

Britain traditionally preferred to fight with someone else’s hands, and the leaders of this country wanted to limit their assistance to the USSR by military supplies. The leaders of the United States also adhered to this tactic. Cargo delivery to our country was possible in three ways: across the Atlantic, past Norway, to the northern ports of Arkhangelsk and Murmansk, across the Pacific Ocean to the Far Eastern port of Vladivostok, across the Indian Ocean to the Iranian ports of the Persian Gulf and further by land to the USSR border.

The first sea route was the shortest, besides from the Soviet northern ports to the front was just closer. He was elected principal - the time of delivery of goods, especially in the first months of the war, was of paramount importance. The fierce battles on the Soviet-German front demanded a large amount of weapons and ammunition. The severity of the situation was aggravated for our country by the fact that part of the defense and industrial enterprises evacuated to the East at that time.

The shortest northern route was the most dangerous. Possible sea routes lay along the coasts of Norway, whose bases became the basis for the concentration of German surface ships and submarines, there were also airfields based on the Luftwaffe. Ensure reliable protection of the caravans of ships was not easy. The task was complicated by the fact that during the summer period there was a non-setting sun over these northern areas, while in winter the ice was complicated by movement.

The People's Commissar of the Navy N. Kuznetsov recalled how Supreme Commander-in-Chief I. Stalin called him to the Kremlin: “You need to urgently head to the Northern Fleet. I am not sure whether everything is properly prepared there for the meeting of the Allies. ” Arriving in Arkhangelsk, the People's Commissar specified with the commander of the North fleet A. Golovko all practical issues relating to the escort of convoys and interaction with the British. The possibility of approaching the vessels not only to the Arkhangelsk berths of Bakaritsa and the Left Bank, but also to the Economy, as well as the port of Molotovsk (Severodvinsk) was discussed.

However, the British with the Americans were in no hurry to begin to fulfill their obligations. In a conversation with the Soviet plenipotentiary at the beginning of September 1941, the British Prime Minister declared that Britain would not be able to render the USSR any serious assistance - not by opening a second front, or by starting a wide supply of the necessary supplies for our army weapons.

The task of forming the convoys was assigned to the operational management of the British Admiralty. Headed this job captain 3 rank P. Edvardc (PQ Edwards). It was his initials that formed the name of the convoys heading eastward, receiving the “PQ” index, and the return convoys had the “QP” index. The first trial convoy under the symbol "РQ-0", called "Dervish", left 21 August 1941 of the year from Iceland to Arkhangelsk as part of 6 transports. The escort consisted of two destroyers and seven other warships. Before the entrance to the White Sea, he was also accompanied by covering forces: two cruisers and an aircraft carrier. On board the transports to our country were 64 aircraft, 3840 depth charges and sea mines, 10 thousand tons of rubber and other military goods. In the Barents Sea, the passenger ship Impress of Canada, accompanied by the cruiser Nigeria and three destroyers, joined the convoy. On the liner, more than two thousand workers who worked in the mines of Spitsbergen, the Soviet miners and their family members were evacuated.

On the last day of August 1941, an allied convoy “PQ-1” arrived in Arkhangelsk. It consisted of 5 transports. On October 11, the convoy PQ-2 arrived in the White Sea. Ships were unloaded in Arkhangelsk and Molotovsk. They brought tanks, fighters, guns, shells and ammunition. Each caravan was accompanied by a cruiser, 2 destroyers and 3-6 minesweepers.

The coming winter was very harsh. Heavy ice bound the White Sea and Dvina. Even icebreakers could not provide safe wiring. The Soviet government ordered the Allied convoys to be sent to the ice-free port of Murmansk. This required urgent restoration work, since after heavy bombardments the wharves and the city itself were badly damaged.

The authorized representative of the State Defense Committee I. Papanin, British representatives of the Ministry of Military Transport and the military mission arrived in Murmansk. 21 December 1941 of the year, for the first time, an Allied caravan entered the Kola Bay and stood up for unloading in Murmansk. In total, until the end of 1941, the Allied convoys arrived in the northern ports of the USSR. They all passed without loss.

According to the agreements, escorting convoys "to the north of Russia" (this expression was common among the Allies) was provided by British warships. On the meridian of Fr. Bear to the British joined the ships of the Soviet Northern Fleet.

The first allied caravans totaled 5-12 ships, then their composition increased to 30-35. Lined them up in a specific order (order) on 6-8 wake columns. Above the ships of the caravan often raised small balloons barrage and air box snakes.

Armed vessels were sent to the caravans. Each vehicle usually had a pair of 4-6 inches, two or four Bofors anti-aircraft guns (40 mm) and eight to ten Oerlikon automatic guns (20 mm). Rocket launchers firing parachutes with hanging cables, depth charges and smoke screen drafts were also placed on ships. The ships were equipped with anti-mine demagnetizing windings, spies and paravanes, additional liferafts on the cables, searchlights and signal lamps. Before the military flight to the Arctic, the team received warm uniforms: jackets on fur, woolen knitted hats, boots, mittens.

In the initial period of the war, caravans were made up of ships of various types. Later, the caravans began to create a serial "empire" of English construction, "Ocean" and "Liberty" - the American, "forts" - Canadian. The most massive military transport was "Liberty" - "ships for one flight." In total, in the United States of these fairly large ships, with a displacement of the order of 10 KT, 2710 copies were built. Their main advantage was cheapness. They were built according to a simplified project and generally met the requirements of wartime.

Throughout the war, the Allies had an acute shortage of personnel for the merchant ships. A lot of random people were tempted by the high salary (500 dollars per month plus military risk premium). The forced shipbuilding program provided replenishment of the fleet, sailors did not have time to prepare. Even worse was the deal with military training. She was led on the coastal courses, but between the dangerous flights none of the sailors wanted to deprive themselves of rest and spend their free time for study. The problem was somewhat alleviated when, after the end of the course, the sailors, along with the certificates of the “royal gunner”, began to receive an award.

The British Admiralty, following the general political sentiment, was enthusiastic about forming and sending convoys to our country. The first sea lord, D. Pound, explained this point of view: “Convoys to Russia are for us a stone constantly hanging on our neck. This is the most unreliable operation in which danger lurks at every turn. ” Unfortunately, such views were not uncommon at the highest levels of British power. Naturally, such attitudes were reflected in the quantity and quality of supply.

Until the end of 1941, our Western allies did not fulfill their obligations. From the 800 aircraft promised by England, 669 was actually sent, thousands of tanks instead of 1 - just 487, tankettes instead of 600 - only 330. US for 9 months, starting in October, 1941 from 900 bombers supplied 267, from 900 fighters - 278, from 2250 tanks - 783, from 85 thousands of vehicles - 16,5 thousand. Part of the armament was outdated technology: Hurricane fighters, for example, instead of Spitfires and Aerocobr.

In terms of the quality of supplies, I. Stalin, in a letter to President F. Roosevelt of 8 in November 1941 of the year, was forced to note: them in broken form. "

When unloading the first convoys, it turned out that many cargoes were placed on ships in disarray, incomplete. Porters had to spend several days to find, for example, boxes with equipment for mines, radio equipment and instructions for assembling aircraft. There were no important details for acoustic trawls, depth charges.

On the eve of 1942, the Hitlerite command reviewed the situation in the Northern theater of operations. Speaking at the December 29 meeting, Hitler instructed: "All battleships should be transferred there, which, among other things, should be used to fight the Arctic convoys."

The Germans concentrated in the fjords of Northern Norway the battleship Tirpitz, the cruisers Admiral Hipper, Admiral Scheer, Lutz, Prince Eugen, Nuremberg, near 30 submarines, more than 400 aircraft. However, their actions, at first, did not bring tangible results. By the spring of 1942, of the 103 transports carried out in the Allied convoys, only one was lost.

The decisive battle the Nazi command decided to give in the beginning of March 1942, the convoy "RQ-12". The most powerful German battleship Tirpitz, accompanied by three destroyers, entered the sea. The Allied Caravan was saved by stormy and foggy weather. After a three-day walk, and nowhere without finding a convoy, the squadron turned to the base. On the way back, she was suddenly attacked by torpedo bombers from an English aircraft carrier. The German battleship only miraculously escaped death.

After negotiations with the fascist fleet commander Admiral Raeder 14 in March 1942, Hitler in the wolf lair issued the first order to begin an active struggle against the convoys heading for Murmansk, which, in his opinion, up to this point had not been countered.

While preparing for a powerful blow to the convoys by the forces of the linear fleet, the Hitlerite command intensified the activity of its destroyers, submarines and aircraft. At the end of March, the PQ-13 convoy was subjected to a combined attack. From 19 transports 5 was sunk. Received damage, however, from the explosion of his own torpedo, the English cruiser Trinidad.

The Nazis regarded this raid as "significant success." 13 March 1942, Hitler reiterated that the fight against convoys going to Murmansk is currently the main task.

In April 1942, President Roosevelt reminded Churchill that there were 107 in America and England, already loaded or under load, and he would like to send them in May for their intended purpose. But Churchill, faithful to his line of procrastination, replied: "We are unable to execute your proposal." Referring to the loss of the PQ-13 convoy, he tried to delay the dispatch of convoys, at least until the end of the polar day, that is, for half a year.

In May, the British Navy suffered two heavy losses. The cruiser Edinburgh, which escorted the convoy QP-456 to Murmansk from England, was damaged by two torpedoes of the fascist U-11 submarine. The steering wheel and propeller ship screws were damaged. Escort ships tried to tow the cruiser back to Murmansk. However, the submarine managed to report on its success to the command. It immediately sent four Luftwaffe planes and four destroyers to the battlefield. The wounded cruiser desperately fired, maneuvered, hid behind a smoke screen. The flagship enemy destroyer Hermann Shoeman was sunk. But the cruiser got another torpedo. The commander of the convoy, Rear Admiral S. Bonham Carter, gave the order to leave Edinburgh. There were about 800 people on board the ship: the crew and the sailors returning to their homeland from the dead ships. The escort ships took off about 750 people, the rest died. After the evacuation of people, the English destroyer "Forsythe" finished off the cruiser. The ship went to the bottom, taking with it about 5,5 tons of gold. It was intended to pay for military supplies to the Soviet Union.

13 May from Murmansk, temporarily eliminating previously received damage, came the cruiser "Trinidad". The next day, he was attacked by fascist aviation. Bombs smashed the cruiser and it sank. The loss of two cruisers led the British Admiralty to conclude that the sending of convoys to the USSR should be stopped. Churchill was of the same opinion, but under pressure from many circumstances, he was forced to send the following memorandum to the chiefs of staff committee, which indicated the need to continue the delivery of military supplies to the USSR. The next convoy was scheduled to be sent on May 18, while Churchill pointed out: "The operation will be justified if at least half of the ships reach the destination."

20 May 1942, the next convoy "PQ-16" went east. It consisted of 35 transports - it became the largest caravan since the beginning of the war. During the transition, during the 6 day he was continuously subjected to the strongest air strikes. Fascist aviation made 245 sorties. 22 May Caravan attacked 108 bombers and torpedo bombers flying at different altitudes. In the Soviet zone, while guarding the caravan, the famous polar fighter pilot, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, B. Safonov, died. As a result of the raids, 5 transports were lost, 3 damaged. The convoy ships delivered the 321 tank, the 124 aircraft, the 2507 vehicles and thousands of tons of other military cargo.

The convoy included the American steamer Carlton. Much to the team's dismay, he began his flight from the Philadelphia 13 number on Friday. After coming to Iceland, the steamship joined the convoy, following to Russia. During one of the raids on transport dived a German plane. Literally in a few meters from the side, three or four bombs fell. Bombs disappeared under water, and then exploded. The old transport threw up "like an egg-shell", it received serious damage, lost its turn. The escort destroyers were ordered to remove people and flood vehicles. But the captain, Norwegian Hansen, refused such help and asked the trawler to take it in tow. A few days later, the wounded ship, reflecting a few more raids by fascist aviation, was towed back to Iceland. Later it went east with an escort of "PQ-17" in order not to return ... But this is in the next part.

Suprun M. Lend-Lease and the Northern Convoys. 1941-1945 M .: St. Andrew's flag, 1996. C. 13-26, 43-57, 92-127.
Koryakin V. War in the Arctic. 1941-1945.M .: Veche, 2013. C. 32-56.
Puzyrev V., Suprun M., Bogatyrev S, Larintsev R., et al. Northern Convoys. M .: Science, 1994, S. 4-32.
Ivanov K. Konvoi to the north of Russia // Sea Fleet. 1986. No.6. C. 50-52.
Roskill S. Fleet and war. M .: Voenizdat, 1967. C. 128-132.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 15 October 2015 06: 39
    Good article, thanks to the author, look forward to continuing ....
  2. Gunxnumx
    Gunxnumx 15 October 2015 06: 55
    Thanks to the simple allied sailors. A lot of them died.
  3. V.ic
    V.ic 15 October 2015 07: 56
    There is a book by Valentin Savvich Pikul "Requiem for the PQ-17 caravan". Good book. Good author.
    1. igorka357
      igorka357 16 October 2015 10: 42
      Only not "by the caravan" but "Requiem for the caravan PQ-17". An excellent book, I read it three times and I think I will read it again! I would also recommend the book "Boys with bows" about the school of boys!
  4. googlof
    googlof 15 October 2015 08: 49
    The Soviet Union pledged to supply the United States and Great Britain with strategic raw materials.

    This "strategic raw material" was simply called "cannon fodder". The Bolsheviks of the Anglo-Saxons did not deceive, they supplied "strategic raw materials" in full.
    “Hitler’s decision to attack the USSR was literally a gift from the gods for Churchill. This, of course, was the best news Churchill received over a long period of time. "

    Of course. Anglo-Saxons knocked down, looking for cannon fodder for Europe. And then it climbed into her hands. What is not happiness for them?
    After all, their main and backup options in this regard, both flew. Poles, they didn't shmogli. And the cunning Franks showed them "the famous combination of three fingers." The situation was critical. Up to the point that they would have to "lay" their fellow citizens, which for the Anglo-Saxons had already been unacceptable for a couple of centuries. And here such luck. The mustachioed eastern ghoul was in a quandary and was ready to do anything to keep his power. The Anglo-Saxons immediately took advantage of this. We did everything right. It would be foolish to refuse.
    Senator G. Truman, who later became president, spoke, for example, like this: “If we see that Germany wins, the United States should help Russia, but if Russia wins, then we should help Germany, that is, do so so that they kill as much as possible "

    Exactly. Everything is fair here. And in the end, they fought Nazism. But if the spacecraft in the summer of 1941. rushed to Berlin, then they would have fought against communism. The hands of the Nazis. And then, weakening the debilitating war of Nazism could no longer be fought. He would be compliant and obedient. Like the USSR after the war.
    Raking in heat with the wrong hands is an art. And the Anglo-Saxons (that Britons, that the Yankees) mastered it perfectly. You need to learn from them. Learn and take an example. Only in this case can any country achieve anything in this world. How did the Anglo-Saxons reach.
    1. igorka357
      igorka357 16 October 2015 10: 41
      Yeah, the USSR became more accommodating after the war, why are you writing that !? The Americans were only afraid that ours would not stomp hotly before the Channel! After the war, the USSR gained such strength that Mama Do not Cry! Poles were weak to oppose something to the Wehrmacht, the French did not point three fingers, but stupidly surrendered because of cowardice! And how did this "cannon fodder climb" in your opinion, did the USSR attack Germany? You called Stalin a mustached eastern ghoul? If it were not for him and his generals ... you would do not knock right now on the clave denigrating the Soviet people, headed by its leader! Shame on you, and your parents who brought up this, forgive g ... but!
    2. rubin6286
      rubin6286 17 October 2015 00: 02
      It seems to me that you should study the history of the Second World War in more detail before writing such comments on the VO website. Clausewitz wrote that “war is the continuation of politics by other, violent means,” but for any state, war is always an extreme means when there is no other choice.
      Why talk today about “smart Anglo-Saxons”, “mustache ghoul”, “pragmatic” Truman, etc.

      In the early 30s of the last century, it became clear that Germany could restore its influence in the world only by unleashing a new war in Europe. She had no other choice. For the “smart” British empire, war was one of the ways to maintain colonial rule, which was already bursting at the seams in India, Iraq. The Soviet Union, in the event of a war in Europe, would inevitably be drawn into it under one pretext or another. The question was only about one: “When? In 1938, 1939,1940 or later ... ”The economic situation of the USA was such that participation in any military conflict on foreign territory contributed to the growth of industrial production, profit and improved well-being of all sectors of society. All of this, in general terms, led to the Second World War, which claimed more than 50 million human lives.
  5. googlof
    googlof 15 October 2015 08: 49
    However, under various pretexts, they delayed the start of military operations. The second front was never opened either in the promised 1942, nor in the next 1943, nor in the beginning of 1944.

    I wonder if there was even one fool who assumed that the second front would be opened even before Germany lost faith in her victory? Except for "exposing Soviet writers" who are paid money for such "reproaches", of course.
    The first test convoy under the index "PQ-0", called "Dervish", left August 21, 1941 from Iceland to Arkhangelsk in 6 transports.

    On October 11, the PQ-2 convoy arrived in the White Sea.

    The first convoy was "ideological". Real convoys started only in mid-October 1941. When it became clear that the Germans were gaining the upper hand. It would be the other way around, the convoys would go to Germany. And the Anglo-Saxons are difficult to blame for this. They did everything right. Everything for the good of our people. Well done, the Bolsheviks should learn from them how to think about their people. And not about hicks from all over the world.
    Each transport, as a rule, had a pair of 4-6 inch guns, two to four Bofors automatic anti-aircraft guns (40 mm), and eight to ten Oerlikon automatic anti-aircraft guns (20 mm)

    Also interesting information. Each civilian transport in general was better armed in terms of air defense than any cruiser of the RKKF. Is it any wonder that the Baltic Fleet was destroyed from the air, and the Black Sea Fleet was defeated and driven into southern Georgia to suck?
    The ship sank, taking with it about 5,5 tons of gold. It was intended to pay for military supplies to the Soviet Union.

    This is not for Lend-Lease deliveries. These were other purchases of the USSR. Payment for trading operations. Trade did not stop during the war either. Lend-Lease deliveries were free of charge, subject to their return after the war. Also payable was the Lend-Lease that survived the war, but was not returned to the Anglo-Saxons.
    1. googlof
      googlof 15 October 2015 23: 20
      That's how much stupid things can be * for the (really, extremely unreasonable) website owners to offer a natural thing in general? Left the body a comment, has the right to vote. Did not leave, resting. And it turns out like this, a pimple 14-15 year old body has nothing to object to. But he does not like the text. "Patriotism" is not enough. Well, he still didn’t try to eat without hands and without a jaw, he really wants to try in the future. Therefore, this organism, and it, like the Serpent Gorynych in 10 heads, extinguishes you with the minuses. As a result, you cannot say anything. And the organism which * your ram is not worth it soaked you. No one named Nothing.
      Such is the "site policy". Oriented with pimples zasr * tsev. My condolences.
      1. Was mammoth
        Was mammoth 15 October 2015 23: 37
        Quote: googlof
        ... stupid * uh ...

        Quote: googlof
        ... boob ...

        Quote: googlof
        ... pimple zasra * tsev ...

        Are you surprised by the minus? Without explaning the reason?
        I tried to explain.
        Quote: googlof
        ... a pimple 14-15 year old body has nothing to argue ...

        If you do not understand, then from a person who has already exchanged 6th decade
        Quote: googlof
        My condolences.
        With the choice of site.
        PS One minus mine.
        1. googlof
          googlof 15 October 2015 23: 48
          Old that small. On the subject of objection is that you are our minuser?
          1. igorka357
            igorka357 16 October 2015 10: 54
            I there googlofroll above you answered on a subject!
      2. igorka357
        igorka357 16 October 2015 10: 48
        You don’t like the policy of the site, well, you are welcome to leave here! Everything is correct, the site is military-patriotic, purely Russian, what surprises you? You have told nasty things about our Motherland and are trying to make excuses, nonsense ... you have brains in your head to march with a pea Sorry if offended!
    2. igorka357
      igorka357 16 October 2015 10: 44
      This is what the troll drew, no offense of course, but such nonsense ..)))!
  6. The comment was deleted.
  7. AAV
    AAV 15 October 2015 10: 25
    Quote: V.ic
    There is a book by Valentin Savvich Pikul "Requiem for the PQ-17 caravan". Good book. Good author.

    I want to add to the above that there is also a feature film of the same name.
    1. AK_TriGGeR
      AK_TriGGeR 15 October 2015 18: 48
      The film is shit. There is also a book by A. Maklin "Polar Convoy" aka "The Cruiser of Her Majesty Ulysses"
      1. Tourist Breakfast
        Tourist Breakfast 16 October 2015 19: 33
        There is also such a good book: Dudley Pope - "New Year's Fight".
  8. qwert
    qwert 15 October 2015 11: 18
    Quote: googlof
    Also interesting information. Each civilian transport in general was better armed in terms of air defense than any cruiser of the RKKF. Is it any wonder that the Baltic Fleet was destroyed from the air, and the Black Sea Fleet was defeated and driven into southern Georgia to suck?

    Quote: googlof
    I wonder if there was even one fool who assumed that the second front would be opened even before Germany lost faith in her victory? Except for "exposing Soviet writers" who are paid money for such "reproaches", of course.

    Judging by your comments, you want to say more about the wretchedness of the RKKF and the USSR as a whole and its leadership. It's just not clear how all this "squalor" hoisted its flag over Berlin, and, if desired, could over Paris.
    If we talk about poor equipment, then we can take, for example, the American tank "General Lee" or their own rifles or the Thompsan submachine gun, or the English Harikkein. Without going into details, I will say that the American Tesmins lost to all their classmates in a naval battle. Everything was delivered for the sake of panic fear of aviation. And most importantly, our people were better.
    Quote: AAV
    There is a book by Valentin Savvich Pikul "Requiem for the PQ-17 caravan". Good book. Good author. To what has been said I want to add that there is also a feature film with the same name.

    Better book. They put a maniac-nkvdeshnik in the film and many other filthy moments for the sake of today, which Pikul did not write and could not write, for the reason that he did not lie. hi
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 15 October 2015 12: 42
      Unfortunately, I don’t remember the author’s surname and the book’s name. But it was a Soviet edition of the English author. And there the author writes how he served on English escort ships. The book is almost documentary, and indeed these people went from where they went to the ports of destination and put them monuments to the heroes who knew what they were going on, and deliberately went into more than one such transition.
      1. Andy
        Andy 15 October 2015 14: 29
        you probably mean alistair macklin cruiser uliss. alas, a science-fiction author (guns of the island of Navaron). historical menche than Pikul. although the picture is plausible
        1. AK_TriGGeR
          AK_TriGGeR 15 October 2015 18: 58
          Yes, A. McLean "The Polar Convoy" is a work of art with collective images. But it is written well. By the way, the plot of the same notorious "Cannons of Navaron Island" was based on the special operation of Soviet sailors to destroy a battery of long-range guns, and the author says this himself.
        2. AK_TriGGeR
          AK_TriGGeR 16 October 2015 10: 44
          The author is not a science fiction writer. He himself took part in two polar convoys in 1943. aboard the cruiser "Royalist". About the "Cannons of the Isle of Navaron" clarification: the plot was based on the operation of the Northern Fleet sailors to seize batteries in Lihamari.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    2. Andy
      Andy 15 October 2015 14: 26
      enchanting. I haven’t seen such stupidity for a long time.
      Quote: qwert
      in the naval battle, the American destroyers lost to all classmates. Everything was set for the sake of a panic fear of aviation.

      that is, a well-armed ship can only be from cowardice ?? But about the fleets of the OWL. UNION-yes, no air defense and hollowed them from the air. read the losses of the Baltic Fleet from the beginning of the war to the transition to Kronstadt. how many destroyers died from air raids ... and what is the Tallinn crossing worth? By the way, the Germans and Finns blocked the gulf with the full dominance of the Baltic Fleet at sea! and on June 21, the Germans put under the nose of the Baltic Fleet and no one saw anything and to top it off to understand what I'm writing about google-a monument on Cape Yuminda. just look at the photo, maybe you will understand ...
      1. Denis_469
        Denis_469 15 October 2015 19: 35
        And I did not see such nonsense as you wrote. And for a very long time. During the Chinese Civil War, 3 former US destroyers were sent by Taiwan not to intercept the Project 7 Chinese destroyer that he received from the USSR. But even before the battle, American ships were recalled by American advisers to the base as having no chance of winning the battle. In the West, they don’t write about that war.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. googlof
      googlof 15 October 2015 15: 26
      Quote: qwert
      or Thompson's submachine gun

      PPC. And so he took it, and in one fell swoop he scribbled one of the most ingenious designs in the field of army small arms. No, well, why talk when you just have to chew?
      Thompson's PP is the very first example of an individual automatic small arms with a THEORETICAL effective range of 420 m. True, in order to get such a range in practice, I had to try hard to adjust the scope. Because the direct shot range for the growth figure was 205 m. And above it and up to 420 m everything was not easy, rather theoretically. Those. in PP format (!!!), the Americans made a problem-free submachine gun and a problem ADVANCED automatic rifle !!! Already! At the dawn of the 20th century.
      Can you name one more such weapon? And this despite the fact that more than any of the PP models in the world (except for the Hungarian Danuvia P. Kirali) even pulled a full-fledged submachine gun. The idol of the Soviet leadership of Suomi was simply ridiculous.
      The next generation of such weapons (already a problem-free automatic rifle, and its ADVANCED version was called M16A2) was created by them only in 1962. and was called M16A1. After getting acquainted with the results of its "work", the USSR abandoned its AK-47 (the heir to the German assault rifle, an assault rifle, a weapon of another class) and made its own version of this class of weapon - the AK-74. Those. AK-74 to AK-47, despite some structural and external similarity, have nothing to do with each other. These are weapons of different classes.
      And until 1962. PP Thompson, which was called "poor" just above, was completely exclusive. And no competitors were even on the horizon.
      You, qwert, are not looking for samples of technical wretchedness there. They are in other places. More available to you.
      1. Black Colonel
        Black Colonel 16 October 2015 17: 42
        What a spiteful member of the forum, pouring fakhtami, like from a cornucopia, without bothering to get acquainted in detail with the design features of small arms. Or trying to pour muddy water on an anti-Soviet (anti-Russian) mill. "What misery!" negative
  9. ilyaches
    ilyaches 15 October 2015 12: 23
    Thank you for the article. Continuation would be soon.
  10. uncle
    uncle 15 October 2015 15: 05
    I wonder where the front would be in the winter of 1941 if there were no such supplies.
    1. alovrov
      alovrov 15 October 2015 16: 44
      Everything is there. You will sort out the chronology. Compare the dates of the posting of the first large convoys and the date of the beginning of the counteroffensive near Moscow - December 7.
      1. uncle
        uncle 15 October 2015 17: 33
        Not even much help saved the front. How many planes and tanks were in the USSR and Germany in the autumn of 1941
        1. alovrov
          alovrov 15 October 2015 19: 05
          Not at all. In 41, help did not play in any way, from a word in general, because. reserves from the Far East were advancing. Help played a full-scale offensive spacecraft campaign in the winter of 42 of the year - in three directions at once. With a more favorable combination of circumstances, the German front could collapse even then.
          1. googlof
            googlof 15 October 2015 19: 29
            Quote: alovrov
            With a more favorable combination of circumstances, the German front could collapse even then.

            By whom? Who could he have collapsed? Soviet commanders? Where did they come from in 1942?
            And what about "collapsed", it's you over the edge. He even in 1945. would not be brought down. They squeezed out superior forces, yes. But there was no collapse as such.
            1. igorka357
              igorka357 16 October 2015 10: 59
              Nobody pays attention to you even besides me ..)))!
              1. Black Colonel
                Black Colonel 16 October 2015 17: 43
                I repent. I spent a little time on this unworthy ghoul. wassat
                1. KakoVedi
                  KakoVedi 16 October 2015 23: 51
                  But he is trying! Hearty ... A couple of minutes will not decrease!
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Denis_469
      Denis_469 15 October 2015 19: 37
      I would be there too. In the winter of 1941, the share of allied supplies fluctuated around 1 percent of the total number of troops at the front. More or less active deliveries began only after the victory of the USSR at Stalingrad, when it became clear who would win the war.
  11. creak
    creak 15 October 2015 16: 12
    If the author claims to be objective coverage of events, then he should not speak so dismissively of the Hurricanes. Great Britain supplied aircraft out of stock, i.e. from what the British Air Force pilots fought on. So, in particular, a significant part of UK fighter aircraft during the so-called the Battle of Britain in 1940 was armed with Hurricanes, and not Spitfire .. This circumstance did not prevent the British from repelling the attacks of German bombers ...
    In addition, the British air group, based at the Vaenga airfield near Murmansk in 1941, also fought precisely on the Hurricanes, together with SF fighters ...
    PS And yet, one should not forget what the situation was with aircraft in the Soviet Air Force by the fall of 1941 after losses incurred in the initial period of the war. As they say road spoon for dinner ...
  12. alovrov
    alovrov 15 October 2015 16: 38
    It would be better if the author did not write the preamble. Firstly, land operations during the strange war were, we look at least the Saar operation. Secondly, it is quite clear that the Sea Lion was prepared, for this it is enough to read Halder's work diaries. The question is how much Hitler was determined to carry out this operation, let us recall at least Hess, but this is not related to practical training.

    Well, it is obvious that Churchill and Roosevelt did not at all strive for a quick victory over Germany. Otherwise, instead of a titanic pale of resources for senseless air terrorism, they prepared a landing operation in Europe in the 42 year. Therefore, the fate of the Arctic convoys was sadder than it could be.
  13. Technical engineer
    15 October 2015 17: 53
    Quote: alovrov
    It would be better if the author did not write the preamble. Secondly, it is absolutely clear that the Sea Lion was prepared, for this it is enough to read Halder’s working diaries.

    Even if you just type "Operation Sea Lion Disinformation" on the Internet, you can see that there are many books and works that prove this version. You have the right to choose the opinion that she was preparing quite seriously. I, as the author, considered it necessary to point out that ". Until now, it is not known for sure whether he really planned it or whether it was an element of disinformation." At the same time, I did not even begin to express my personal opinion regarding the purpose of this operation: an attack on England? Disinformation? Pressure on the British to conclude a peace beneficial to Germany? I think it was more correct on my part, especially since the main topic of the article is not about that. Although I agree, Operation Sea Lion is worthy to be told about it on Topvar and to devote a separate article. I myself would love to read about all its nuances.

    About the Saar operation. The Germans lost in it killed 196 soldiers, wounded 356 and missing 114. By the end of the fighting, they counted the 11 lost planes. This is of course somewhat more than a border conflict. But all the same, in my opinion, there are some strange losses for the present collision of two most developed and strong European powers. In general, as you correctly put it, in the preamble I did not plan to dwell too much on the initial stage of the Second World War. If I take up that period of history, I will surely take into account your opinion.
    1. alovrov
      alovrov 15 October 2015 19: 00
      Thank. By the way, the French lost more than 2 thousand only killed, if not mistaken. As for the Sea Lion, we have no more reliable sources for Halder's diaries. If you give yourself the trouble to read them, which is not easy, then there is no doubt in practical military training. The only question is Hitler’s political intentions, but here you can write a hundred volumes and all this will be fortune-telling on coffee grounds.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  14. uncle
    uncle 15 October 2015 18: 20
    The Allies could not open a second front in 1942 because they still fought in Africa and retreated to Asia. Opened in 1943 in Italy. Then the great offensive of the Soviet army began.
    1. alovrov
      alovrov 15 October 2015 19: 09
      What kind of mess in your head is it? The Allies landed in Sicily in 43, at a time when it was obvious that the Citadel was not reaching its goal because the Model was buried on the northern ledge of the Kursk Bulge. Nothing has changed in the operational situation, from the fact that the tank divisions went to Italy, and not to the rear of the eastern front.
      1. uncle
        uncle 15 October 2015 20: 29
        Sicily is Italy! Soon after the landing in Sicily, Italy withdrew from the 1943 war. Why did the USSR not declare war on Japan when it attacked the United States and waited until 1945.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Turkir
      Turkir 15 October 2015 23: 49
      The Allies could not open a second front in 1942 ... Opened in 1943 in Italy.

      Not true, the Second Front was opened in 1941 in New Zealand.
      Everyone knows this, even Obama.
      One has to look in books before writing comments.
  15. kvs207
    kvs207 15 October 2015 20: 11
    Quote: ranger
    As they say road spoon for dinner ..

    Naturally. Production is being evacuated, the losses of the Red Army in technology are significant, and here, of course, you will be delighted with everything.
  16. KakoVedi
    KakoVedi 16 October 2015 23: 54
    Why is the penultimate photo for this article? There, both time and place, and the "fire victim" himself have nothing to do with the topic.