In the twenty-first century, the intelligence business has become one of the largest enterprises, growing uncontrollably with great speed. Today, no one knows, including the state funding the intelligence services, how much their maintenance costs and how many people work there.
This is because intelligence agencies use such accounting methods, which, being used by ordinary civilian enterprises, would have ended in criminal prosecution. Another reason is that they work in cooperation with other friendly special services and use each other’s personnel, so it’s absolutely impossible to establish the exact number.
The current budget of the Central Intelligence Agency is classified, but it is known that in the 1998 year it was officially amounted to about $ 27 billion; is the same история with the National Security Agency, whose budget for 2014 officially amounted to 45 billion; The FBI in 2014 year mastered only 8,12 billion. Notice that we are talking only about the three secret services, and in the US they are 16!
How many people actually work in these special services? And how many other services controlled by them? And what is the number of their informants? Million, two, ten? This we will never know! One thing is clear: any grouping on such a scale has tremendous power and is very concerned about its survival. And given that such communities live best in a period of international tension, we must admit that any detente is a threat to their existence. Therefore, all US special services 16 are interested in maintaining the temperature of the Cold War in international relations, since it is from this that their careers, salaries, holiday trips to exotic countries, pensions, the highest possible standard of living of their employees and the special services themselves depend.
American intelligence agencies justify their existence in peacetime with the promise of timely warning of the impending threat to national security. And it does not matter at all whether this threat is real or invented, as was the case, for example, with the discovery of US biological intelligence weapons mass destruction in warehouses of Iraq.
The US secret services protected themselves and their ambivalence from the normal common reaction of the homegrown world community, shrouding their activities with a dense veil of secrecy, which makes it possible to nip any criticism at its root with a simple remark that cannot be challenged: “You are mistaken because you do not know that happened in reality, and we can not tell you, because it is a secret. "
“And yet there is hope,” said Philip Knightley, a recognized authority among researchers of the activities of the secret services, “the community of special services may eventually outgrow itself. Being already beyond the control of governments, it can go beyond its own control. Now the special services supply such a mass of information, papers, photographic materials and computer data that the number of intelligence officers capable of understanding and summarizing all this is rapidly decreasing. Soon, they too will drown in the flow of information. And the super-fast supercomputer will not help. The NSA already has certain difficulties in extracting the necessary materials from its computers. ”
FROM Fragmentation - Towards Coordination
In December, the United States Congress, at the suggestion of President George W. Bush and at the insistence of a commission investigating the causes and circumstances of the September 2004 tragedy, approved the assignment of interdepartmental status to the National Center for Combating Terrorism - before that it was only an integral part of the CIA.
In view of the adaptation of the US intelligence community to the pressing problems of combating terrorism, all 16 intelligence services were required to share information with each other and with law enforcement agencies in the field - this was previously prohibited in order to preserve the notorious privacy secrets of Americans. In other words, the legal divide between intelligence and counterintelligence, military and civilian intelligence services, as well as between the surveillance of United States citizens and secret intelligence operations abroad, was destroyed. The named partitions operated since 1974 after the Watergate scandal and the removal of President Nixon from power.
"NOMENCLATURE KING OF EXPLORATION"
Congress subordinated the special services to a single center of interagency coordination (along with maintaining their departmental subordination) and put the "nomenclature king" at the head of the new system - the American intelligence officers pasted such a label to its director. In April 2005, career diplomat John Negroponte became her first “king." When he left the throne in January 2007, he was taken by Michael McConnell, a retired vice admiral and former head of one of the key US intelligence agencies, the National Security Agency. He ruled the “intelligence kingdom” for two years, and in January 2009 he was replaced by another sailor - the “full” admiral fleet Dennis Blair Today, at the head of HP is Lieutenant General James Klepper.
The powers conferred by the director of national intelligence are extremely limited. It can redistribute financial resources between special services only within 5% of each budget, and can transfer personnel from one service to another only in coordination with their management.
A large degree of autonomy remained only with the Pentagon’s intelligence services. Which is quite logical: in 2004, when they passed the law on intelligence reform, its owner was the powerful Donald Rumsfeld, who defended a number of privileges for his sinecure. Thanks to him, the National Security Agency and a number of other special services remained in the structure of the Ministry of Defense, and the special forces of the Ministry of Defense, in general, can conduct covert operations on the territory of foreign states without the consent of the Director of National Intelligence.
The activities of the “intelligence kingdom” are monitored by the intelligence committees of both chambers of congress - the House of Representatives and the Senate, and budgets are approved by the House committees for budgetary appropriations. In general, the dope is still enough, and there is still something to deal with!
JOKER IN THE WHEEL OF AMERICAN SPECIAL SERVICES
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Established in 1947 by decision of President Harry Truman. It is an independent agency that is not part of any ministry. Up until the emergence of a single “intelligence kingdom” in 2004, the director of the post ex officio was the interdepartmental head of the American intelligence community, and at the same time he is subordinate to the “intelligence king”.
The CIA provides intelligence to the highest authorities of the state and the US military command from abroad, coordinating the efforts of other agencies to gather intelligence abroad.
The management obtains information both through its extensive agent network, and with the help of various technical means, the development and implementation of which is carried out by its Department of Science and Technology, called by tsarereushniki "shop of magicians".
Since the 21st century, management has been making a special stake in obtaining intelligence information on strengthening the role of the human factor. And all because the September 11 attack and subsequent events - the war in Iraq and Afghanistan - revealed the weakness of the CIA’s intelligence position abroad, especially in Muslim countries. At present, the recruitment of agents in the countries of the Middle East is underway. However, not only there, because the leadership of the CIA believes that there are enemies and unfriendly regimes nearby - in the underbelly of the United States: in Cuba, in Venezuela, in Bolivia, in Nicaragua.
The CIA is, of course, not only and not so much intelligence. He is entrusted with the task of conducting the so-called psychological warfare, 90% of the multibillion-dollar resources of this monster goes to her. Psychological warfare in the directives of the CIA is defined as follows: “Coordination and use of all means, including moral and physical, by means of which the will of the enemy to victory is destroyed, undermines its political and economic possibilities for this; the enemy loses the support, help and sympathy of his allies and neutrals; the support of neutrals and the “fifth column” in the enemy’s camp is acquired and increased. And espionage is a derivative phenomenon subordinate to this goal. ”
Assessing this passage, issued to the mountain by CIA analysts, it can be concluded that the edge of the “psychological war” that the White House is waging with the hands of the CIA is directed against Russia. This is the meaning of the existence of this organization, which has no precedent in the entire history of human civilization. In broad terms, the CIA is one of the most important and sharpest tools for the US ruling elite to retrace the world according to the American model, planting orders in it that please Washington ...
From the CIA's directive documents obtained by the Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation it is known that today when recruiting candidates, more and more importance is attached to the ideological factor: their political reliability, loyalty to American ideals and values. Those who have a tendency to profit and alcohol, sex and political adventures or domestic intrigues should be eliminated uncompromisingly.
The headquarters of the CIA is in Langley (in the professional jargon of "Company", "Langley", "Firm"), in the Washington suburb of Mac-Lin, Virginia. Since March, 2013, the head of this special service - John Owen Brennan.
CATCH THE SPY, DESTROYING DRUGS!
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). An autonomous unit of the US Department of Justice. Its creation in 1908 was a revolutionary event: never before in the United States were there national federal law enforcement agencies, and police and investigative functions were performed by municipal and state police.
The FBI is the federal police, which detects and thwarts crimes falling under federal jurisdiction, and there are more than 200 articles. More than a century of the FBI’s history is a chronicle from the robbers Bonnie and Clyde to the terrorist bin Laden.
Currently, the FBI has 56 regional branches in major cities, as well as more 400 offices in rural areas and smaller cities in America. The FBI (in the USA they are called “agents” or “G-men”, that is, “state man”, “serviceman”, from the English. G-man, Governmentman) work abroad as part of US embassies, consulates and other foreign missions . There, they perform counterintelligence functions, acting as “legal attaches” with diplomatic passports, which is not at all different from those of employees, “under the roof” of the American embassy engaged in intelligence.
Today, the FBI combines two main areas in its work: law enforcement and anti-terrorism. By fighting corruption, the so-called white-collar crime on a particularly large scale, violations of civil rights, etc., the FBI simultaneously carries out counter-intelligence and intelligence activities to protect the US from outside and inside out a terrorist threat. The bureau is also tasked with combating espionage on American territory.
There are two major differences between the FBI and the CIA. First, FBI agents are considered law enforcement officers and are entitled to detain and arrest. Tseerushnikov not have these powers. Secondly, the FBI works only on the territory of the United States, the CIA - all over the world, except for its own country - is, in any case, declared in its regulations.
Despite the role of a leading counterintelligence service, the FBI until some time did not have a monopoly in the United States to fight espionage. Other members of the “club of interests” also engaged in counterintelligence and sometimes (!) Did not even consider it necessary to dedicate the FBI to their operations. This brought confusion and uncertainty in the activities of the central apparatus, and especially in the work of field staff. They lost their independence and, in most cases, were afraid to take any practical steps towards the suspects. What if the spy is already “led” by a subcontractor - a related US intelligence agency - or by the staff of the central office? Suddenly, this is an operation in which local workers did not consider it necessary to devote? What if the suspect is an American working under control as a double agent? Or an employee of the Foreign Intelligence Service of Russia, who is “fed misinformation” or who they plan to convert?
In addition, in 1991, a special list of “threats to US national security” was drawn up at the central office of the bureau, where industrial spying was given most attention. The top FBI top espionage is traditional for the sake of industrial espionage overshadowed. As a result, some FBI employees began to interpret the concept of “counterintelligence” in a very peculiar way, and in accordance with their vision of this kind of activity, they got into the habit of visiting libraries and questioning their employees, finding out whether readers with Russian or Eastern European names ordered books on American industry and technology? It all ended with the fact that library employees, tired of stupid polls, turned to the presidential administration with a complaint, and the search for spies in the reading rooms stopped.
When the FNI’s 21 in February XRUMX arrested Aldrich G. Ames, a CIA counterintelligence officer who had been acting in favor of Moscow for nine years, discussions began in the American media about what Ames could have figured out earlier, but this was prevented by poorly established interaction between the security services in general and between the FBI and the CIA in particular (the traditional rebuke of these two departments).
To put an end to the altercations, President Clinton issued a directive in which he entrusted all responsibility for conducting counterintelligence to the FBI, and put his representative at the head of the national Counterintelligence Council.
By the way, the council’s charter states that every four years, FBI, CIA, and special services of the US Department of Defense will be appointed to the post of its chairman.
The rapid development of new technologies in the field of communications could not but affect the electronic equipment of the FBI and its reorganization. To counteract computer espionage, the National Computer Crime Prevention Group was created in the bureau.
The FBI is conducting scientific and theoretical work, for example, on the phenomenon of betrayal. The result is the term “spy decade”, which the bureau designated the 80s of the last century, when a particularly large number of Americans, mostly military, were arrested on charges of espionage or serious offenses. Only within the walls of the Ministry of Defense there were more than 60 people.
The FBI experts concluded that, starting from the 1970-ies, primitive greed became the driving force of espionage: "Self-serving espionage is based equally on the client's desire to receive information and on the recruited agent's desire to get cash." The political and ideological motives that guided the members of the Atomic Spy Group: Robert Oppenheimer, Enrico Fermi, Klaus Fuchs, David Greenglas, Bruno Pontecorvo, Alan NunMay, or members of the Cambridge Five, Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Donald McLean, John Kernkross and Donald McLean, John Kernkross and Donald McLean, John Kernkrosse and the Cambridge Five Blunt, with the passage of the Cold War, almost disappeared.
Appoints the FBI Director for 10-year term is not the Minister of Justice, but the US President himself, with subsequent approval by the Senate. Today, the FBI runs James Brian Komi, who replaced Robert Muller.
By the way, Mueller, appointed to the post of director in 2001 by George W. Bush, got an unenviable legacy: the FBI missed September on 11, at its core 15 years, first in favor of the USSR, and then in favor of the RF, Robert Hansen, etc. Under Müller, the Bureau has undergone a significant restructuring: it has expanded the scale of its operations, has increased staff (officially now - 35 thousand employees).
Drug control intelligence service. Investigates drug smuggling issues, drug trafficking, etc. It conducts operations on a large scale outside the United States. Its staff is (officially) almost 11 thousand employees working in 86 offices in 62 countries.
PENTAGON IN THE RETAIL BOUQUET
National Security Agency (NSA). Created in 1952 year as an autonomous unit of the Pentagon. The most numerous, but also the most secret American intelligence service, about which many legends are made up in the West. In the US, pranksters spell out the abbreviation NSA as “No Such Agency”, that is, “There is no such agency,” the second option is “Never Say Anything,” that is, “Never say anything”. Witnesses from the Operational and Technical Directorate of the KGB of the USSR called the name of the NSA as “Agency Not Dumpty!”.
The NSA is headquartered in Fort Meade, Maryland, about halfway between Washington and Baltimore. From there comes the control of the entire NSA global listening network, armed with satellites, aviation, ships and ground interception and tracking stations. They completely control the radio, telephone lines, computer and modem systems, and systematize and analyze the radiations of fax machines, as well as the signals emanating from radars and missile guidance systems around the globe.
More than 20 thousand specialists work in the Maryland NSA structures (officially), which makes this organization the largest state employer. More than 100 thousand troops dispersed at bases and stations of the NSA around the world. The administration of the agency recommends that all its employees upon entering a question “Where do you work?” Recommend answering: “In the Ministry of Defense”.
The NSA is dealing with an incredibly huge influx of information. According to his experts, if we proceed from the fact that there are about 1 quadrillion bits of information in the collections of the US Library of Congress, then “using the technologies that the agency has, you can completely fill these funds every three hours.”
In fact, the NSA keeps its achievements in the strictest confidence, but sometimes, based on the principle of "beat your own people so that they are afraid of others," they are leaking information to the lured media. For example, in the Washington Post 1980, allegedly criticizing the agency’s vulnerability, she published the conversation of General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Leonid Brezhnev with Sovmin’s Chairman Alexei Kosygin, who they conducted by radio from their ZILs on the way to country dachas; in 1988, the information that led to the identification of Libyans involved in the bombing of a Pan American plane in the sky over Scotland, killing 270 people; in 1994, a reportage, as with the help of “bugs” installed by the agency’s technicians, it was possible to locate the Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar.
There are other facts that could not be attributed to the category of leaks: as a result of agent and operational-technical measures taken by the KGB of the USSR, it was found out that in the middle of 1990-xNNXX equipment installed on the roof of the US embassy on the Garden Ring, experts allowed NSA to listen to all the talks that were conducted by members of the Moscow government from their fixed telephone sets.
Intelligence Agency of the Ministry of Defense (RUMO). Created in 1961 by decision of President Kennedy at the suggestion of Pentagon chief McNamara. This special service in its profile corresponds to the GRU of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Her staff is (officially) 16,5 thousand "bayonets", and during the war she becomes the leading intelligence agency as part of the United Intelligence Center, which includes special services of the most diverse departmental subordination. This was the case, for example, during Operation Desert Storm in a Kuwaiti-Iraqi theater in 1990 – 1991.
In 1992, the autonomous intelligence services entered into the RUMO: the Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center and the Rocket and Space Intelligence Center.
RUMO employees are dispersed in 140 countries, they present their conclusions and recommendations in a wide range of areas not only to military commanders and executive authorities, but also to the congress represented by committees for armed forces.
RUMO, which, according to skeptics from Langley, “is aware that it is acting in the shadow of a more powerful CIA,” has a traditional rivalry with this department, since their functions overlap in many directions.
The director of the RUMO is traditionally the lieutenant-general, which corresponds to the Russian military rank of colonel-general. Today is Michael Flynn.
Ground Forces Intelligence Corps. In the US Army, ground reconnaissance units appeared at the dawn of American history - in the George Washington Continental Army, which was formed in 1775 year. Today, the Ground Forces Intelligence Corps is 12 reconnaissance brigades and one military intelligence unit; Each of these compounds includes from one to five intelligence battalions.
Intelligence Agency of the Navy. Created in 1882, the naval intelligence seriously declared itself only in 1898, when the United States declared war on Spain after the attack of the Spaniards on the battleship “Men” in the harbor of Havana. This intelligence service reached its heyday in World War II. And although after the war, the US Navy underwent a significant reduction, fleet admiral Chester Nimitz, using his unquestioned authority as a fighting sea wolf, managed to maintain a high level of naval intelligence.
Directorate of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance of the air force. In its current form, this intelligence service appeared in the middle of 2007. Its personnel is dispersed on 72 air bases, both in the United States and abroad. The administration includes several tactical aviation wings, the National Center for Aerospace Intelligence (based on the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio) and other components.
Marine Intelligence Agency. Interacts with the intelligence services of the US Navy and the Coast Guard. The Marine Corps is the most modest in number, but the most combat-ready type of the US Armed Forces: (officially) 200 thousand troops and 40 thousand reservists. Beginning with the American War of Independence, the marines have been widely used in hostilities, as well as for the protection of military facilities and government agencies - from the White House to US embassies abroad.
National Geospatial Intelligence Agency. He has specialists in geodesy, cartography, oceanography, computer and telecommunications engineering. It was this intelligence service, armed with the most advanced electronic technology in those days, that took pictures of Soviet missiles in Cuba in 1962, provoking a Caribbean crisis.
National Aerospace Intelligence Agency. Coordinates the collection and analysis of intelligence from spy aircraft. This intelligence service is a product of the American-Soviet rivalry in space exploration: President Eisenhower approved the concept of its creation following the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite by the Soviet Union in 1957. As such, the administration was in 1961, shortly after a spy plane piloted by Gary Powers was shot down over the USSR.
DIFFICULT DIPLOMATS WITHOUT EXPLORATION ...
Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the State Department. Analyzes information from abroad, affecting the formulation of US foreign policy. It officially employs two or three hundred elderly analysts who have considerable experience in scientific and diplomatic work. However, age is not an obstacle for going abroad at the request of CIA residencies located in foreign capitals. The State Department's Bureau of Intelligence readily delivers (of course, without compensation!) The achievements of its employees to all “intelligence kingdom” subjects, as well as to foreign state institutions.
The bureau is headed by one of the undersecretary of state.
AND RELATED TO "BREAK-ON-UKRAINE" MEMBERS ...
The Department of Homeland Security, whose function is to comprehensively prevent terrorist attacks in the United States, is a gigantic “echo” formation created following the events of September 11.
The departments included in it are customs, immigration, border guards, etc. - 225 officially has thousands of employees.
Office of Intelligence and Analysis Minbeza. Its task is to contribute to ensuring the security of the border and its infrastructure, preventing epidemics of infectious diseases and terrorist acts, including from homegrown radicals.
Coast Guard Intelligence Agency. It is designed to promote the security of seaports, the fight against drug trafficking and illegal immigration, as well as the preservation of biological resources in the territorial waters of the United States.
Intelligence Agency of the Ministry of Energy. Conducts analysis of the state of foreign nuclear weapons, problems of their non-proliferation, as well as issues of US energy security, storage of nuclear waste, etc.
Financial Intelligence Agency of the US Treasury. Collects and processes information of interest to US financial policy, as well as related to the financing of terrorist activities, financial enterprises of hostile rogue states, financing the smuggling of weapons of mass destruction, etc.