The readers of the weekly MIC weekly are presented with a report by Igor Ashurbeyli, Chairman of the Presidium of NP WEC EKO, at the general meeting of Council members 28 February 2014 of the year Results and Prospects of the VES WKO NP in Creating the Aerospace Defense of the Russian Federation.
Considering the results of the analysis of the strategic situation and threats, in 2004, leading scientists and designers were the creators weapons air defense, missile defense and aerospace defense, as well as former senior leaders of the Russian Federation Armed Forces, united by their desire to increase Russia's security in the field of aerospace defense, on a proactive basis created 20 on February 2004 of the year officially registered the non-commercial partnership on aerospace defense issues. "
The council was meant to:
- for consideration and preparation of recommendations and expert opinions on the most important issues of military-technical policy in the field of prevention and repulse of an aerospace enemy attack, protection of public and military control systems, industrial areas, administrative-political centers, population, groups and deployment areas of the Armed Forces from attacks of aerospace assault (SVKN);
-for the consideration of political, organizational, military-theoretical, scientific-technical and design-technological problems of the creation, deployment and operation of the aerospace defense of the Russian Federation;
on the basis of scientific analysis and expert assessment of reports and recommendations on rational ways and methods of solving the issues of creation, deployment and functioning of the East Kazakhstan region, arising from the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, for the country's military-political leadership and the leadership of the Armed Forces.
At that time, the council had 25 members. The Presidium was co-chaired by Boris Vasilyevich Bunkin, General Designer of Almaz Scientific Production Association (1968 – 1998), Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Twice Hero of Socialist Labor, Scientific Leader of Almaz-Antey GSBC, and Kornukov Anatoly Mikhailovich - Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force (2002 – 2010), Army General, Advisor to the General Director of OAO Almaz-Antey.
Over the past decade, the council has grown, matured, turned into an elite interdepartmental expert community able to conduct comprehensive and qualified expertise of the effectiveness of the proposed scientific, technical, organizational, economic and other solutions aimed at creating an aerospace defense system of the Russian Federation.
In January, 2012 of the year at an extraordinary general meeting of the members of the EECE wind farm, changes were made to its charter, significantly expanding the goals and objectives of the wind farm EKO. The positions of co-chairmen of the Presidium were abolished, and the post of Chairman of the Presidium was introduced. A new Presidium of the EECE EEC was elected, the Chairman of the Presidium was elected, an executive director was appointed.
At present, the EECE WEC includes more than 130 people, including five Academicians of the Russian Academy of Sciences, two Heroes of Socialist Labor, 48 doctors of science, 50 candidates of science, 41 general. The council includes 64 organizations, including 33 of the leading defense industry enterprises, 11 military schools and institutions of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, four civilian educational institutions, 12 academies and research institutes, four public organizations. The combined scientific potential is over 20 000 employees.
In addition, we have concluded 15 general agreements on cooperation and cooperation with leading specialized public and scientific organizations, such as the Academy of Military Sciences, the Russian Academy of Cosmonautics, the Military Academy of Aerospace Defense, the Academy of Engineering Sciences, the Union of Veterans of the Air Defense Forces, and others.
Main results of WEC EKO
The moment when the results of the analysis of the strategic situation and the threats of the Russian Federation made by members of the council and submitted to the leadership of the country, the Ministry of Defense, the General Staff received approval and were used as the basis for 5 approved by 2006 on April XNUMX of the Russian Federation Concepts of the aerospace defense of the Russian Federation "as a single system, based on centralized control under the unified leadership of all forces and means, all resources attracted to solving problems of aerospace defense.
Important for us was the fact that the development of the “VKO Concept” with our direct expert participation in the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by 5 February 2010, was first said about the priority of improving the air defense system and creating an aerospace defense system of the Russian Federation.
The long-awaited event, a creation of 1 December 2011, the year of a new kind of military - the Aerospace Defense Forces, which was given the overall leadership and responsibility for the country's aerospace defense and organization of combat duty, became a logical continuation.
One of the important results of our joint work with the Academy of Military Sciences and the Council of Veterans of the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region was that in 2013, the decision of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and the Russian government to secure the presence of the Marshal of the Soviet Union Aerospace Defense Academy K. Zhukov.
Just a few years ago, the Presidium of the EECE East Economic Region adopted an initiative decision on the need to adopt a federal law “On the aerospace defense of the Russian Federation”, which defines the legal basis for the creation, operation and combat use of forces and facilities of the East Kazakhstan region, structure and composition, rights and obligations government and military authorities, their responsibility for violation of the legislation of the Russian Federation on the issues of aerospace defense, as well as other norms relating to aerospace defense. The draft law was submitted to the relevant Committees on Defense and Security of the Council of the Federation, the State Duma and approved in November 2013 at a closed parliamentary hearing "On ways and problems of improving the combat capabilities of the Aerospace Defense Forces."
In 2013, the EKR EEC participated in the work of the Council of the Federation Committee on Defense and Security together with the State Duma Committees on Defense and Industry, on preparing materials for the report “The State of Legislative Support for the Development, Testing and Serial Production of High-Precision Weapons ".
In the same year - in the Expert Council under the chairman of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation on legislative support of the defense-industrial complex and military-technical cooperation on the theme “The state and problems of legal regulation of public-private partnership in the defense-industrial complex of the Russian Federation”.
With the participation of the EEC of the East Kazakhstan region, a round table was held in the State Duma of the Russian Federation on the subject “State, problems and prospects of development of the Aerospace Defense Forces”
Priority in the activities of the Council is given to participation in specialized scientific and technical forums, conferences, "round tables". Such in the reporting period was more than ten.
In particular, the conference dedicated to the 60 anniversary of the formation of the Military Academy of the Republic of Belarus; 38-th meeting of the Coordination Committee on Air Defense at the Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS member-states and the corresponding training and methodological meeting with the commanders of the East Kazakhstani Army (Air Force and Air Defense); a scientific and practical conference on the theme “Military Security of Russia: XXI Century”, organized by the Council of the Federation Committee on Defense and Security, the State Duma Committee on Defense, the Science-XXI Foundation for the Promotion of Security Studies; 42-I military-scientific conference "Problems of the creation and use of troops and forces of the East Kazakhstan region", which was held at the Military Academy of the East Kazakhstan region named after Marshal of the Soviet Union G. K. Zhukov; 21-I military-scientific conference "Problems of the theory and practice of the development of air defense forces of the Soviet Armed Forces in modern conditions" on the basis of the Military Academy of military air defense named after Marshal of the Soviet Union A. M. Vasilevsky in the city of Smolensk; All-Russian Conference "Radio-electronic means of obtaining, processing and visualizing information"; the traditional XXXIX expanded military-scientific conference, held at the SIC Air Defense of the 4 Central Research Institute of the Russian Ministry of Defense in the city of Tver; the first Russian-Belarusian scientific and technical conference "Element base of domestic radio electronics" dedicated to the 110 anniversary of O. V. Losev, on the basis of NI Lobachevsky State University in Nizhny Novgorod; a number of military-scientific forums of the Academy of Military Sciences and others.
Participated WEC EKO, also in specialized television and radio programs, in particular on the problem of the Chelyabinsk meteorite.
The Council has been the general sponsor and one of the organizers of the annual All-Russian (with international participation) conferences “Radioelectronic devices and systems for infocommunication technologies”, held in Moscow by the Russian scientific and technical society of radio engineering, electronics and communications named after A. Popov.
During the activities of the EECE EEC and during the reporting period, the board scientists have prepared a number of books and monographs. In particular, “Production Corporations: Problems of Formation and Management”; “Complex electronic weapons systems. Planning and Creation Management; "The experience and lessons of the combat use of troops and weapons of air defense in local wars and armed conflicts," the authors of which became laureates of the AM Prokhorov Prize of the Academy of Engineering Sciences AM Prokhorov; "Theoretical aspects of the integral assessment of the professional level of military specialists of the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region"; "Infrastructure of small spacecraft"; "Small spacecraft information support"; “Aerospace activities. Interdisciplinary analysis "; "The community of astronauts"; “Automation of aerospace defense command and control. The basic principles and methods of improving the management of air defense ".
Much attention is paid to the promotion of the creative heritage of the outstanding designer and scientist in the field of radio engineering, one of the founders of the Soviet engineering school of anti-aircraft guided missile system developers Academician Alexander Andreyevich Raspletin, studying the experience of the combat use of air defense systems and systems, which he stood at.
In 2013, two monographs devoted to Raspletin were released at once: “Alexander Andreyevich Raspletin. 1908 – 1967 ”and“ Alexander Andreyevich Raspletin and his inner circle ”.
Another important event is the development of a series of lectures on topical issues of aerospace defense: “History Airspace in the 20th Century ”,“ Current Status of Aerospace Attack and Aerospace Defense ”,“ Prospects for the Aerospace Defense Formation of Russia and the World’s States in the 21st Century ”,“ Some Issues of Reforming European Security Architecture in the 21st Century century "," Aerospace as a sphere of protection of the planet Earth ".
The Presidium of EECE EEC, the executive directorate carry out a wide and diverse editorial and publishing activities aimed at highlighting and popularizing the scientific achievements of its members and the industry as a whole. Articles, reviews, and analytical materials are regularly published on the pages of the weekly Military-Industrial Courier, in the main print organ of the council, the magazine Aerospace Defense and on the official website of the EEC VKO.
In 2012, the Center for Licensing, Certification and Protection of State Secrets of the Federal Security Service of Russia, the EES East-Kazakhstan Electric Networks for a period of five years issued a license to carry out work related to the use of information constituting state secrets.
In 2013, the EECE WEC issued a Certificate of Conformity that meets the requirements of the voluntary certification system “Military Register” and certifies that the quality management system of the board complies with the requirements of GOST ISO 9001.
These are the main results of the work of NP "VES EKO" for the reporting period.
The main tasks of the EEC in the 2014 year
1. To continue the work of the EECE EEC members as part of the expert councils of the State Duma and the Federation Council, the Ministry of Defense and other federal authorities and scientific organizations.
2. In cooperation with the Defense Committees of the State Duma and the Federal Assembly, to promote the draft law "On the East Kazakhstan Region of the Russian Federation."
3. To carry out examinations and assessments in the field of aerospace defense in the interests of the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Industry and the Military Industrial Commission under the Government of the Russian Federation, and other government bodies. Perform research under contracts with the general customer and as a co-performer with scientific organizations and defense enterprises.
4. Create a scientific and technical council of EECE EKD, academic council and graduate school.
5. Conduct organizational work in conjunction with the Council of Veterans of the Air Defense Forces and the Ministry of Defense to celebrate the 100 anniversary of the creation of air defense.
6. To continue the work on recruiting new members of NP “VES EKR” and clarifying the organizational structure taking into account newly emerging tasks and the scientific potential of the organization.
7. To participate in the creation of a unified system of aerospace defense of the Russian Federation and a unified integrated structure of aerospace defense in industry.
8. To develop cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences and its institutions in the field of fundamental research in the interests of creating the East Kazakhstan region.
9. Initiate the creation of the first museum of the history of air defense-pro-EKR of Russia and the Soviet Union.
10. To give EEC EKO International status by accrediting it with the UN ECOSOC in Vienna.
Construction of the East Kazakhstan region
Understanding that this is an exclusive prerogative of the Ministry of Defense and the General Staff, I would nevertheless like to note the following.
The current state of the aerospace defense of Russia can be characterized as transitional.
Once a single system of aerospace defense (air defense) today, as never before, is divided into separate components without a single command, and the withdrawal from the composition of air defense units is fighter aviation deforms the base of the air defense system, based on a triad of anti-aircraft missile forces, fighter aircraft and radioengineering forces. This can lead to unpredictable consequences in the matter of solving the tasks of the country's aerospace defense.
In connection with this decision of the Presidium of the EECE EEC from 25 December 2013, an appeal was sent to the Minister of Defense, including a number of proposals to improve the construction of the EKR RF, in particular:
1. To transform already existing as a type of Army of the East Kazakhstan region into an independent type of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
2. To entrust the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of East Kazakhstan region with personal responsibility for the construction of the East-Kazakhstan region system, strategic planning, the use of troops (forces) of the East Kazakhstan region, combat duty on the East-Kazakhstan region throughout the country, the preparation of the East-Kazakhstan oblast troops and so on.
3. To determine the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region as the sole leader of the creation of the East-Kazakhstan region system with direct subordination to the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation
4. Having formed in accordance with paragraphs 1, 2 a unified leadership of the East-Kazakhstan oblast (EPO) in the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, it is necessary to create a single system of East-Kazakhstan oblast (EU East-Kazakhstan oblast) as an integrated system of modern and advanced weapons and military equipment of the East Kazakhstan region. To do this, it is necessary to form a systemically linked, consolidated, vertically integrated cooperation of developers and manufacturers of the defense industry complex of the Russian Federation - the Unified Center of the East-Kazakhstan Region (EC EKO).
5. To ensure that, under the unified leadership, effective system research and military scientific support work on the construction of the East Kazakhstan region, restore the 2 Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation in the city of Tver, where the main scientific potential of the East Kazakhstan region is concentrated and on its basis and base the Military Academy of East Kazakhstan region (Tver) Head Research Center of the Ministry of Defense of the East Kazakhstan region.
6. On these proposals, signed by the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, a positive response was received that, I quote, “your point of view on the problems in the East Kazakhstan region coincides with the position developed by the Russian Defense Ministry”. The first confirmation of this is the creation from March 1 of 2014, a new integrated structure - the Central Research Institute of the East Kazakhstani Army.
Development of advanced weapons
Not everything is so rosy with the state of affairs in the development and production of advanced armaments and military equipment at the head enterprises of the military-industrial complex responsible for this — OAO Almaz-Antey GSKB named after Academician A.A. Raspletin (EU ZRO PVO-PRO), OAO Concern "RTI-Systems" (SPRN) and OJSC "Corporation Kometa" (CEN).
By the decisions of the military industrial complex 2007 and 2009, the creation of the entire range of EU fifth-generation anti-missile defense weapons was assigned to Almaz-Antey. In 2010, technical projects of ultra-short range, medium-range, long-range anti-aircraft missile systems, as well as directional energy weapons and control systems were successfully completed and adopted by the relevant state commissions.
However, to date, in violation of the deadlines approved in 2010, state testing of any of the necessary anti-aircraft guided missiles has not been completed, no system has yet been commissioned, and their mass production has not begun.
The prices of development have also significantly increased, while the profit of the enterprise over the past three years has decreased tenfold.
Much better is the situation in the concern "RTI-systems", completed in 2013 year, the development and put on combat duty new radar meter and decimeter wavelength ranges. The Voronezh-VP airborne radar in Irkutsk, which was put on test combat duty, detected launches of ballistic missiles and launch vehicles of spacecraft launched from China, and the Voronezh-DM radar station in Armavir discovered a small-sized target in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Thus, the characteristics stated in the design of systems have been confirmed. The main difficulty in this area, in my opinion, is the potential practice of combat use associated with the geography of the locations of individual systems.
Creation of the aerospace defense system in the technical aspect
Aerospace defense is one of the main strategic components of a country's national security and its role is constantly increasing, and the creation of an aerospace defense system of the Russian Federation is a national task comparable in its complexity to the creation of nuclear weapons.
Under these conditions, the need to create a unified aerospace defense system as a further development at a fundamentally higher in all respects level of the fifth generation air defense missile defense system currently being created according to my plan.
The greatest threat to the security of the Russian Federation, coming from the aerospace sphere, is represented by intercontinental ballistic missiles in nuclear, and soon non-nuclear equipment; medium and short range ballistic missiles; long-range cruise missiles of sea, air and land-based nuclear and non-nuclear equipment; manned and unmanned attack and reconnaissance aviation systems; sea-based missile defense systems with developed SM-3, Block-2 type interceptor missiles and ground variants of such complexes.
In the period before 2020, additional threats are expected to appear due to the adoption of unmanned X-37В type spacecraft, hypersonic aircraft, aerospace planes and planning warheads of air-launched missiles.
Proposals for the creation of the EU EKR were prepared by us together with the concern "RTI-systems" and FSUE "Kometa" and in brief were as follows.
The criteria for the effectiveness of a unified system of aerospace defense are
maximum prevented damage to the population, facilities and the Armed Forces;
guaranteed provision of the required time for a missile attack warning from all missile-dangerous areas;
minimum damage to domestic SNF.
The main directions of development of the EU EKO are:
development and integration of radar, optical-location and radio equipment of space, air, land and sea-based in a single information and intelligence system to achieve a "positive information balance" over the enemy;
introduction of the principles of situational management in the ACS of the aerospace defense with building it on a network-centric basis, with a distributed decision support system at all levels of the aerospace control;
development of means of functional suppression and destruction of ground-based, surface, air and space-based SVKNs that interact with each other, with the implementation of a unified interface;
ensuring high survivability and operational and technical reliability, operational restoration during combat operations;
implementation of an adaptive robotic structure that solves the task of distributing and concentrating informational and percussion assets in given directions, taking into account the results of continuous assessment of the state of its troops and enemy troops.
The EU EKO is a single integrated modular structure with an open architecture, complexing the tools and systems already in service, modern weapons and military equipment and future weapons of the future. It consists of three main subsystems: the information-intelligence subsystem, the subsystem of shock-fire destruction and functional suppression, the subsystem of command and control and communications, and two auxiliary: subsystem of maintenance and functional control subsystem and training.
The EU EKO is a harmonious compromise between the tactical and technical characteristics required to defeat promising means of SVKN, the needs of our military in terms of command and combat use and the objective capabilities of modern science and defense industry.
And there is enough theoretical controversy about what is aerospace defense - a system or weapons? It is my deep conviction that the aerospace defense system is a global defensive weapon in the hands of a warrior — the Ministry of Defense and the General Staff of the Russian Federation — created and manufactured by the gunsmith — the Russian military-industrial complex. And it is desirable to use this weapon outside the territory of Russia.
Who should create the EU EKO
For the second year, military construction of the EKR Troops in the Ministry of Defense is in full swing. At the same time, there is a lag in the relevant integration processes in the defense industry. This is quite unusual. In Soviet times, the scientific and technical idea in the defense industry was traditionally born in accordance with the requirements of the military customer, cooperation was formed, its practical implementation began, and then the corresponding changes in the structure of the Armed Forces took place. Now the opposite. This, in my opinion, is subjective and is the result of local interests rather than interests of the cause.
The question of creating an integrated structure of the aerospace defense in the military-industrial complex - the unified center of the aerospace defense or the strategic armament of the aerospace defense concern, somehow, has long been overripe. The relevant proposals for the formation of the system integrator of East Kazakhstan region, agreed with the concern "RTI-systems" and the Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Central Research Institute" Kometa ", were prepared and reported by us in a timely manner. I will state them in brief. The purpose of creating the EC of the East Kazakhstan region is to form a scientifically and economically sound, organizationally legally issued, high-tech diversified complex of the domestic scientific and industrial base, providing equipment of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation with means of warfare, allowing to achieve guaranteed superiority in the aerospace sphere in the preparation and management military action using the country's aerospace defense system.
The main, let us say, “semantic players” in this matter are all the same leading developers: Almaz-Antey State Design Bureau named after Academician A.A. Raspletin, RTI-Systems Concern and Federal State Unitary Enterprise Central Research Institute “Kometa”, scientific and technical whose potential is comparable. New in the near future is unlikely to appear.
The exhaustive list of possible options for the integration and creation of the EC EKO is as follows:
1. On the basis of the newly created legal entity.
2. On the basis of the management company "Concern air defense" Almaz-Antey ".
3. On the basis of the management company "Concern RTIS".
4. On the basis of the existing basic interspecific head developer “State Design Bureau Almaz-Antey named after Academician A. A. Raspletin”.
5. Mixed version.
Without giving an analysis of these options here, I will only say that the final position agreed upon was to form an EC of the East Kazakhstan region based on the A. Raspletin GSKB “Almaz-Antey” on the basis of the agreement on strategic partnership already signed at that time. Concern "RTI-Systems" and the Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Scientific Research Institute" Kometa "with the coordinating role of the State Design Bureau" Almaz-Antey ".
Without going into the subtleties of the legal and economic nature of the possible options for building this or that integrated structure, I will only mention some basic principles in which I am deeply convinced.
1. The unconditional primacy of the state in the matter of building the aerospace defense of Russia should be ensured. That is, the state should have at least a controlling stake in the holding being created.
2. It is necessary to avoid building a holding on the basis of a newly created or already existing bureaucratic superstructure or stratum - as someone likes. We will finally lead the case to the deadlock of total dilettantism and the profanation of "sawyers and reshalschikov", far from science and technology.
3. The participation of private companies in the holding company as interested in the engines of real progress, rather than formally powdered reporting, is strongly encouraged. As well as small, completely private innovation and venture enterprises - points of growth at the second and third levels of cooperation.
And stop ritual dancing around this issue, which has been going on for more than three years. As the saying goes, "or dancing, or singing." The state should, as soon as possible, make a final and prudent decision that ignores subjective aspirations and intrigues. Time does not wait.
Strategic development of air defense-pro-vko
In conclusion, I want to try to look into tomorrow, and maybe the day after tomorrow, the development of our direction.
Mankind has always strived upward and always the engine of this aspiration was a weapon. This is a trivial evidence. Starting with slings, bows and arrows as the first air-to-air weapons and catapults as earth-to-earth weapons, today we are seriously discussing the practice of creating a unified Russian aerospace defense system.
Where will engineering and military thought go next? Obviously, along the same extrapolated trajectory - above and further.
Speaking about the retrospective of the VKO-PRO-air defense chain, I would remind you that some time ago, the limit of the air defense systems was 25 kilometers in height and 50 kilometers in range of damage. Currently, systems are being developed that reach the heights of more than 200 kilometers, and the range of others is already almost global. After all, globalization is a lot not only of civilizational products and geopolitics, it is also a tendency to create global weapons. And if today the global nature of the tactical and technical characteristics of military and non-military systems operating in the aerospace sphere is the possibility of their application at any point on Earth, then in the short term, globality will be understood as all near-Earth space and this range of altitudes and distances will only increase to deep space.
However, before this, it is necessary to solve the problem of integrating and integrating all existing information and intelligence aids of various departmental affiliations: the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Emergency Situations, observatories, meteorological stations, satellite constellations and others. Only such Global Information Integration will be able to provide a single global information-combat environment, a mantle of reflection of an aerospace strike. I emphasize that a strike, not an attack, since it is already necessary to lay down the dual purpose of the future space weapons ideology. The “interplanetary squabbles” will inevitably end if a real external threat of a non-military strike from space occurs. In the meantime, we are inactive, bound by international agreements on "peaceful space", which no one, except us, does not fulfill. The militarization of space is inevitable. Moreover, it is vital. And the formula of the strategic development of the industry is as follows: “From the Air Defense-PRO-VKO through Global Information Integration to the Combat Cosmonautics”.
In the medium term, it is up to the astronauts to become the forward detachment of the aerospace defense of our country and turn from testers-researchers and engineers into warriors and defenders of the Fatherland. And in the long run - and all of humanity on an international scale.