Military Review

US sanctions against Iran and the Iranian response

25
US sanctions against Iran and the Iranian response



Economic sanctions or the threat of economic sanctions is one of the main instruments of Western international policy, primarily the United States. This tool is used to pressure other countries even more often than weapon or the threat of weapons.

Iran as an object of economic sanctions

The classic object of sanctions is Iran. Since 1979, when the Shah was overthrown in Tehran, the United States has invariably held Iran at the sight of its economic sanctions. There were bans on the import of Iranian oil, the export of a wide range of goods from high-tech equipment to medicines, payment and settlement and other operations with banks in Iran, as well as currency reserves of Iran were frozen. By the end of last year, the frozen foreign currency reserves of Iran in foreign banks were estimated at 100 billion.

For Iran, it was an ordeal. Especially after Washington forced the European Union to stop importing Iranian oil. From the middle of 2012 to the beginning of 2014, the daily export of black gold from Iran fell from 2 million barrels to 1 million. Recently introduced new sanctions weakened other sectors of the economy, including the once very successful automotive industry in Iran. It has traditionally been in second place after the oil industry, back in 2011, it created almost 10% of GDP, and almost 1 million people worked in the automotive industry. In 2011, Iran produced 1500 thousand new cars, today production has dropped to 800 thousand. Today, this industry is on the verge of collapse, because in 2011, the import of automotive equipment and some components has been banned.

Civil was in decline aviation. Since 1979, Iran has been cut off from the market for new Western aircraft and parts. The national airline of Iran maintains its fleet of aircraft using improvised spare parts and purchasing obsolete Soviet aircraft from some CIS countries. It is no longer necessary to say that there is an acute shortage of some industrial consumer goods, medical equipment, medicines and some food products in the country.

Geneva talks and economic sanctions against Iran

After the change of president in Iran, in Geneva, negotiations began on Tehran’s nuclear program, which in the West is called the main cause of economic sanctions. 24 November 2013 was signed an agreement between Iran and the six international mediators (five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany). The essence of the agreement: Iran stops uranium enrichment above the level of 5%, and the West partially lifts sanctions and, above all, thaws 4,4 billion dollars placed in foreign banks. In addition, it allows Iran to import certain goods. The Six also promised not to introduce new sanctions from the UN, the EU or the US. The Geneva decisions have already led to the first results. In early February, 2014, Iran received a tranche of $ 500 million from its assets frozen by Western banks.

The decision of the “six” of 24 in November last year generated great interest from business circles in a number of countries. The delegations of Great Britain, France, Italy, Austria, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Turkey and many other countries reached Iran. Iran still had a very limited number of business partners: China, Russia, India. Now businessmen of other countries considered that they should act quickly and seize the Iranian Klondike. Iran has about 80 millions of consumers and an economy with a gross domestic product of about 500 billion dollars, the third largest in the region after Turkey and Saudi Arabia.

The easing of sanctions is a reversible process.

However, not all so simple. First, we are talking only about the partial dismantling of sanctions. Less than 4% of Iran’s foreign reserves are subject to unblocking. There are still bans on the export of oil. The range of goods allowed for import into Iran is very limited. Secondly, US President Obama has repeated many times that decisions taken on Iran have the property of "reversibility." Simply put, at any moment the West can return to its original positions in a circle of sanctions if it considers that Iran is not fulfilling the Geneva accords.

Both in Congress and in the US government, the positions of supporters of maintaining pressure on Tehran are very strong. The statement at the US Senate Foreign Affairs Committee’s hearings on the resolution of Iran’s nuclear problem, Deputy Finance Minister David Cohen, is remarkable. He oversees the fight against the financing of terrorism and financial intelligence. D. Cohen said that, despite the achievement by the permanent five of the UN Security Council and Germany of a preliminary agreement with Tehran, "the architecture of the central sanctions remains firmly in place." “We continue to enforce: our oil sanctions, which have led to a reduction in Iranian oil exports of 60% over the past two years; our financial sanctions that allowed blocking Iran’s assets in other countries; our banking sanctions, in effect, "cutting off" Iran’s banking sector from the global financial system; of our sanctions for substantial investments in Iran’s energy sector, which has complicated oil and gas production, ”said David Cohen. Further, the US Treasury Secretary continued: “In order to achieve the preservation of sanctions pressure, we actively interact with foreign banks, companies and colleagues in governments ... In the framework of such efforts, over the past six weeks I traveled to the UK, Germany, Austria, Turkey and the UAE, directing the next signal: Iran is not open for business. ” According to D. Cohen, Washington "is ready to use its tools against any violator of US sanctions, wherever it may be." In the upper chamber of the congress, such a statement received great approval. A legislative initiative is already being prepared there, providing for the restoration of full economic sanctions against Tehran. US Deputy Secretary of State Wendy Sherman clarified that the current easing of the sanctions regime against Iran is “temporary, limited and targeted.” US Secretary of State John Kerry in January 2014 at a meeting with French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius, referring to the French trade delegation’s trip to Iran, which was exploring the possibility of contracting and investing in the Iranian economy, warned that this kind of European business activity was premature.

Economic sanctions and Iranian-Russian economic relations

The instability of the situation around Iran is well felt both in this country and in those countries that are its traditional trade and economic partners. Nevertheless, barter deals are in full swing, trade is conducted using gold and the national currencies of the partner countries as a means of calculation. Until recently, Iran traded with Turkey using gold (it is unknown if it uses it today after Washington imposed a ban on settlements in gold). China pays for Iranian oil with yuan, India for rupees.

At the very beginning of 2014, there were reports in the media that an agreement was reached between Tehran and Moscow on a large barter scheme. Russia will receive daily 500 million barrels of oil from Iran, and in exchange will supply various goods for production and consumer purposes. Sources do not disclose the details of this agreement. In particular, it is not completely clear whether this scheme will be used after all restrictions on the export of Iranian oil are lifted, or whether it will be used even if such restrictions remain. Russia itself is one of the largest exporters of black gold, so the point of the scheme is that the Russian side is ready to act as a trading intermediary, re-export Iranian oil and purchase goods necessary for Tehran for the resulting currency.

This information is very excited official Washington. Wendy Sherman, deputy secretary of state for political affairs, said at the hearing in the upper house of the US Congress about the upcoming Russian-Iranian agreement: “We are quite clear that any actions like this agreement between Russia and Iran can lead to sanctions and create a huge risk. .. which significantly complicates, if not disrupts at all, the achievement of a comprehensive agreement, ”she added, referring to the negotiations on Iran’s nuclear program. There are many statements in the American press calling on the US government in the event of launching such a scheme of trade and economic cooperation between Russia and Iran to return to the initial economic sanctions against Iran, as well as to impose sanctions against Russia. It should be noted that Washington has repeatedly threatened Russia with the imposition of economic sanctions. For example, during the military confrontation of Russia with Georgia in August 2008 of the year. There were threats last year in connection with Russian support for Syria. Never, however, did the threats come to life. For Washington, the economic and political costs of imposing sanctions against Russia are too great.

But Iran, most likely, will have to continue to use the "gray" schemes in trade. For the easing of sanctions is “temporary, limited and pinpoint.” In the eyes of Washington, Iran’s nuclear program is in some sense only a pretext for returning Tehran to the orbit of its economic and political influence at the negotiating table. Including again to drive Iran into the system of petrodollar. Paradoxically, with all its sanctions against Iran, Washington only achieved that this largest oil-producing country got rid of the shackles of the petrodollar standard that appeared forty years ago. And today, Iran would rather agree to curtail its nuclear program, than to once again obey the oil dictatorship of Washington ...
Author:
Originator:
http://www.fondsk.ru/news/2014/02/13/sankcii-usa-protiv-irana-i-iranskij-otvet-25713.html
25 comments
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  1. Stalker
    Stalker 14 February 2014 15: 32
    +8
    It's time to pay attention to US sanctions no more than the annoying buzz of a dung flies ...
    Especially after Washington forced the European Union to abandon imports of Iranian oil
    1. Geisenberg
      Geisenberg 15 February 2014 00: 14
      0
      Quote: Stalker
      It's time to pay attention to US sanctions no more than the annoying buzz of a dung flies ...
      Especially after Washington forced the European Union to abandon imports of Iranian oil


      These goats. In the hands of the world payment system. With its help, any seller and buyer of a global scale becomes a pauper at the press of a button. So there is no alternative sanction system to the United States.
      1. Sirocco
        Sirocco 15 February 2014 01: 58
        0
        Quote: Geisenberg
        So there is no alternative sanction system to the United States.
        Muammar Gaddafi just paid with his life for trying to create an alternative in the form of a gold dinar. Cerberus is standing guard over his papers.
  2. Natalia
    Natalia 14 February 2014 15: 40
    +11
    The more Americans press on Iran, the closer Iran is to Russia.)
    Such an ally as Iran is very important for Russia in this region, but firstly, it is something that harms cryptanite for Suadites and Israel (Israelis do not be offended, I love you) ... and secondly, these are the prospects for the expansion of OUR pro-Russian blocs like the CSTO , TS, etc.)

    The United States has recently crushed Syria, puffed puffed puffed .... and with Iran they will generally tear the navels.)
    1. aksakal
      aksakal 14 February 2014 21: 52
      +3
      Quote: Natalia
      the Israelis do not be offended I love you
      - Ely-Pali, not only did the cunning manage to seize practically all the property of Russia and practically all the media space of Russia in the dashing 90s, women also love them. And this is despite their frenzied attacks on Russian women ... Especially outrageous are the attacks of the "Israelis" on the very young champion of the current Olympics. And all of them, like drunks, forgive something! Truly, the soul of a Russian woman is darkness, neither the horse can figure it out there, nor the burning hut there can be illuminated ... In short, we smoke on the sidelines request
  3. asadov
    asadov 14 February 2014 15: 52
    +3
    Sell ​​Iran domestic products more and not be intermediaries.
    1. AVV
      AVV 14 February 2014 21: 34
      +1
      Quote: asadov
      Sell ​​Iran domestic products more and not be intermediaries.

      Pay less to the states, and act in our own interests !!! Lay an oil pipe along the bottom of the Caspian Sea and re-export oil, in exchange for our and imported products !!!
  4. Mails
    Mails 14 February 2014 15: 53
    +2
    VIDEO interesting with summing up the work of Ambassador McFaul.
    In the search engine: "Who drove the US ambassador from Russia."

    or
    http://video.sibnet.ru/video1378675-R_S_R__R_S_R_R_R_R_R__R_R_S_R_R__R_RER__ReR_

    _R_R_S_S_ReRe /

    for example
    1. Foxmara
      Foxmara 14 February 2014 17: 00
      +4
      I thought that since Navalny had not met McFaul in Russia, I had not been to the embassy either. I looked again. And I dug up an amazing fact: "The editorial staff of the Openspace.ru website was included in the list of" Heroes of 2010 "" for work behind enemy lines "and took first place in the voting of site visitors. That is, it was accidentally merged into the USA .. laughing "And it turned out that he went to the US Embassy for instructions ... in Estonia. It was encrypted, of course, but the identity was already known and he was identified. (July 2012)" eyewitnesses claim that Navalny was seen in the area of ​​Olympia and Kentmanni Street, where, As everyone knows, the US Embassy is located and the curators sit, who guide and advise politicians and the Estonian government. Probably just walking by. :) "" chort beat! " bully
  5. Lk17619
    Lk17619 14 February 2014 15: 56
    +3
    If Iran is independent of the US petrodollar influence, then this is generally wonderful for them !!! If forecasts for the fall of the dollar come true, Iran will become the richest country in the world and the Iran crisis will not affect. But Russia needs to work more and trade with this country. There are huge economic and geopolitical opportunities for Russia.
    1. Foxmara
      Foxmara 14 February 2014 16: 38
      +3
      The United States has carved itself. They wanted to put pressure on the nuclear program, but got a refusal to trade oil for bucks. Probably they could not do anything more for the fall of their own economy. But no, they could. Quarrel with the Saudis and Qatar. And, it seems, a grumbling grunt from there has already been heard.
  6. Andrey57
    Andrey57 14 February 2014 15: 58
    +5
    С
    The United States has recently crushed Syria, puffed puffed puffed .... and with Iran they will generally tear the navels.)


    With Iran, the navel will be torn only in one case, if Russia puts a "link" on all mattress sanctions and actively undertakes to supply Iran with everything it can. from what is produced in Russia.
    1. vadson
      vadson 14 February 2014 22: 39
      0
      I agree, but what to take in return? oil? Duc in the first place has its own and even more its price will only lower. and secondly, we sell it for bucks, not all of course, so this is the same thing - supporting the US economy. But besides oil, what does Iran have? Why should they give our products to them? just? gold? it is not so much, it will end anyway
      question!
      I’ll add, in my opinion, it would make sense if the Iranian currency was self-sufficient and freely convertible, would be in demand. but the pack has a dollar with its oil system in exchange for paper this will not
  7. Yuri Y.
    Yuri Y. 14 February 2014 16: 14
    +2
    It was a difficult test for Iran

    Yes, we recall our children's toys, led by G. Onishchenko. And then they abandon the primacy of democracy. Not good. Sin.
    And today, Iran would rather agree to curtail its nuclear program, than again submit to Washington’s petrodollar dictate ...

    When sinners start with us
  8. Duke
    Duke 14 February 2014 16: 15
    +3
    The more Americans press on Iran, the closer Iran is to Russia.)
    Such an ally as Iran is very important for Russia in this region, but firstly, it is something that harms cryptanite for Suadites and Israel (Israelis do not be offended, I love you) ... and secondly, these are the prospects for the expansion of OUR pro-Russian blocs like the CSTO , TS, etc.)

    I think that after the Olympics we will give a decent answer to the United States. Natalia Respect.
  9. Stinger
    Stinger 14 February 2014 17: 18
    +2
    It’s high time to give to hand lovers of sanctions. It’s a good move to agree with interested countries to buy the goods Iran needs and exchange them for Iranian oil with the subsequent resale of this oil to the states. To their own sanctions, in the face.
    1. vadson
      vadson 14 February 2014 22: 50
      0
      and the United States still printed wrappers and do not care for them at all.
  10. Ross
    Ross 14 February 2014 17: 34
    +2
    Quote: Stalker
    It's time to pay attention to US sanctions no more than the annoying buzz of a dung flies ...
    Especially after Washington forced the European Union to abandon imports of Iranian oil

    All US pressure arises as soon as it jumps off the dollar. The Fed is the true owner of the Yankees.
  11. Bootlegger
    Bootlegger 14 February 2014 18: 12
    0
    it is time for the Americans to impose sanctions for violating human rights.
  12. Semen Semyonitch
    Semen Semyonitch 14 February 2014 18: 30
    +2
    ... Russia will receive daily 500 million barrels of oil from Iran ...

    We ourselves extract 10 million per day, but here 500 million ???
    1. Bezz
      Bezz 14 February 2014 19: 18
      +3
      Quote: Semyon Semyonich
      We ourselves extract 10 million per day, but here 500 million ???

      The usual blooper. They plan up to 500 thousand barrels per day. Not everything is clear. Throughout history, there was no period of "Russian-Iranian love", but the United States "was friends" with Iran for a long time, until the overthrow of the Shah. It should not be forgotten that Islamic Iran will "throw" any "infidels" if it suits it.
  13. medvedleopard
    medvedleopard 14 February 2014 20: 09
    +1
    Why do they all go there wassat and I’ll tell these evil American senators need world domination, they stole 200 billion dollars fool .
    Iran has already signed a contract with Russia for equipment to supply oil to China! soldier
    usa terrorist number 1! am
  14. Patriot23
    Patriot23 14 February 2014 20: 20
    +1
    Why are the United States scared of the whole world by economic sanctions? because the rich put their money in American banks? I would never give my savings to a foreign bank ....
    1. Boa kaa
      Boa kaa 14 February 2014 23: 50
      +1
      Quote: Patriot23
      Why are the United States scared of the whole world by economic sanctions? because the rich put their money in American banks? I would never give my savings to a foreign bank ....

      Variants of answer:
      Therefore, you are not rich ...
      Because there is nothing to put there ...
      Because our ruble is the most stable currency in the world ...
      Because the yuan (euro) announced the gold and currency motto ...
      Because for free funds I buy drag metals ...
      Underline whatever applicable.
  15. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 14 February 2014 22: 14
    +1
    About the Union incl. militarily with Iran, no one is talking, but military-technical and economic cooperation with him is developing, Lavrov with GDP is gaining many advantages here, and if the "oil-for-consumer goods" contract is earned, it is a bomb! (building an oil-loading fleet for the Caspian , new refineries, a bunch of new jobs. And a couple of countries nearby, will be forced to think immediately).
  16. Andrey Peter
    Andrey Peter 14 February 2014 23: 12
    0
    Quote: Stalker
    It's time to pay attention to US sanctions no more than the annoying buzz of a dung flies ...

    Yes, I completely agree, but the whole economy? TIRED am Maybe it's already enough to play the politically correct game where the West and the United States have no principles? And not only other countries, but the Americans themselves already understand this, while European countries do not understand at all. The United States leads all the confusion, but they themselves do not want to fight, but only sponsor provocations. Take the same "Maidan" - yes, it will bring both profits to Europe and a headache. It turns out that the United States deliberately confronts not only Ukraine with Russia, but at the same time creates problems for all European states. The principle of divide and rule is more effective in another country! I don't like to write a lot, otherwise fantasy will lead to communism good
  17. alone
    alone 14 February 2014 23: 39
    -1
    To be honest, the author has overestimated Iran’s economic opportunities. They undoubtedly have a very developed oil and gas sector. They also have a good agricultural sector and everything connected with it. Iran’s machines are poor, it is designed for domestic consumption. The export component is extremely limited. And there is also a serious economy in Iran problem. This is an outflow of capital. Medium and large businesses are trying to withdraw capital abroad, moreover, by any available and inaccessible methods.