Military Review

Non-lethal warfare agents

24



100 will soon be over the years, since the first gas-balloon attack with chlorine in April 1915. Over the years, the toxicity of toxic substances compared to the chlorine used at that time increased approximately 1900 times.



The variety of toxic substances that have been adopted, differing from each other in their physicochemical properties and state of aggregation, the nature of the toxic effect and levels of toxicity, significantly complicates the creation of chemical protection agents, especially antidote drugs, indication and warning systems.



Gas masks and sets of skin protection equipment, even the newest ones, have an adverse effect on people, depriving them of normal mobility due to the aggravating effect and gas mask, and skin protection equipment, causing unbearable thermal loads, limiting visibility and other perceptions necessary to control combat means and communication with each other. Because of the need to conduct degassing of contaminated equipment and personnel, in some cases, the withdrawal of troops from combat is required. There is no doubt that modern chemical weapon It is a formidable weapon and, especially, when used against troops and civilians who do not have adequate means of chemical defense, a significant combat effect can be achieved.



Chlorine, phosgene, mustard gas and other originally used gases can be called toxic substances of the 1st World War. Organophosphorus poisonous substances can rightfully be called chemical weapons of World War II. And the point is not so much that their discovery and development fell on the years of this war and the first post-war years. It was during the years of the last World War that they could most fully display their damaging properties, toxic substances of nerve-paralytic action. For their effective use, vulnerable targets were evident - the positions of troops saturated with openly disposed manpower. In those years, several thousand people concentrated on front-breakthrough areas on each square kilometer, and moreover, they did not have full-fledged anti-chemical protection. For the use of chemical shells and aerial bombs, the necessary artillery combat groups and aviation.



The entry into the arsenals of armaments of organophosphorus toxic substances of the nerve agent marked apogee in the development of chemical weapons. A further increase in its combat power does not occur and is not predicted in the future. Receiving new toxic substances, which in terms of toxicity would be superior to modern poisonous substances of lethal effect and at the same time possess optimum physicochemical properties (liquid state, moderate volatility, ability to cause damage when exposed through the skin, ability to be absorbed into porous materials and paint and varnish coatings and etc.) is excluded. This conclusion is supported by the experience of developing chemical weapons over the past sixty years. Even binary ammunition created in 70-ies and those were loaded with sarin and other poisonous substances, obtained approximately 30 years ago.



Over the past decade, fundamental changes have occurred in weapons systems. The fighting qualities of conventional weapons have sharply increased, primarily due to the entry into service of high-precision weapons, capable of defeating individual targets and even finding the required targets of destruction among others thanks to "intelligent" control and guidance systems.

This, as well as the end of the Cold War and the extremely negative social attitudes towards chemical warfare agents, led to the conclusion of the International Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in 1993, which entered into force on April 29 on 1997.



They turned out to be interested in the elimination of chemical weapons, as it is not strange for the countries where the largest stocks of toxic agents were accumulated. The probability of a “big war” was minimized, in these conditions, nuclear weapons as a means of deterrence became quite enough. The withdrawal of toxic substances outside of international law has become beneficial to countries with nuclear arsenals, since chemical weapons were considered by many odious regimes as an atomic bomb for the poor.

INCAPASITANTS

Substances used by “law enforcement agencies” for “riot control” did not fall under the scope of the convention.
Incapacitants include a large group of physiologically active substances with different toxic effects. Unlike lethal substances, disabling doses of incapacitants are hundreds or more times lower than their lethal doses. Therefore, in the case of the use of these substances with military or police purposes, it is possible to avoid the occurrence of fatalities. Incapacitants include irritants and disregulators. Irritants were used during the First World War, but they have not lost their significance until now.



In the early days of 50, a technology was developed at the British Chemical Research Center in Porton Down to obtain a new irritant who received the CS code. Since 1961, it is in service with the American army. Later it entered service with the army and police of several other countries.



Substance CS was used in large quantities during the Vietnam War. The substance CS is far more irritating than the irritants of the 1 World War I period - adamsite (DM) and chloroacetophenone (CN). It is widely used by the police and in civilian self-defense means.



Among the commoners is widespread opinion about the "harmlessness" of this substance. However, this is far from the case. In case of poisoning with large doses or with prolonged exposure, severe health damage is possible, up to the burn of the respiratory tract.



Contact with eyes can cause severe corneal burns with partial or complete loss of vision. A number of researchers have noted among people who have repeatedly come under the influence of “tear gas” a sharp decrease in immunity.



In the year 1962, an irritating substance CR was received in Switzerland, 10 times more effective than CS. It was adopted by the army and police of Great Britain and the USA.



At elevated concentrations, its smoke causes intolerable irritation of the respiratory organs and eyes, as well as the skin of the whole body. In a state of vapor or aerosol, the CR substance has a powerful tear effect in combination with a nettle, burning effect. A few seconds after contact with the atmosphere containing the vapor and aerosol of the substance CR, an intolerable burning of the eyes, mouth and nose, as well as tearing, blurred vision, irritation of the upper respiratory tract and burning of the skin appear.



When a drop of CR solution gets onto the skin, there is a sharp pain in the skin that lasts for several hours. Compared to other synthetic irritants, CR creates a greater discomfort for victims.

Irritants were not included in the composition of chemical weapons by its definition given in the text of the chemical convention 1993 of the year. The convention only calls on its parties not to use these chemicals during hostilities.

Non-lethal warfare agents


In fact, with the help of newer irritants and other substances of temporarily excretory actions that are not subject to prohibition, in the near future, overcoming of a gas mask can be achieved when an agent’s breakthrough through a gas mask and the airway irritation caused by it makes it impossible to remain in the gas mask because of a violation of the regime breathing, by virtue of which the victim will be forced to rip the gas mask off his face and expose himself to the detrimental effect of hundreds of thousands of times higher concentrations of irritant in the surrounding atmosphere re.



Irritants by their complex of properties may be of interest as substances for the exhaustion of enemy manpower. Under the conditions of a chemical convention, they can be further developed, since their development is not prohibited. On the other hand, with the current state of the system of anti-chemical defense of troops, the task of destroying manpower may not be feasible and therefore the task of not destroying the enemy’s manpower, which can be solved not only with the use of poisonous substances, will come to the fore.



In the 50-s among the supporters of increasing chemical weapons there was a fascination with the idea of ​​"bloodless war". Conducted the development of new substances designed to temporarily disable a significant part of the troops and the enemy population. Some of these substances are capable of incapacitating people by sending them into a world of dreams, full of depression or meaningless euphoria. ” It was, therefore, about the use of substances that cause mental disorders, disrupt the normal perception of the affected world, and even deprive people of reason.

The natural substance of the hallucinogenic effect of LSD has the described effect, but it is not available for production in significant quantities. In the United Kingdom, the United States and Czechoslovakia, full-scale tests of LSD actions on military personnel were conducted to determine the effect of this substance on the ability of those participating in the experiment to perform combat missions. The effect of LSD is very similar to the effects of alcohol intoxication.

After an organized search for substances of a similar effect on the psyche, in the United States a choice was made in favor of the substance under the code BZ. It was in service with the American army and was used in experimental form in Vietnam.



Under normal conditions, substance BZ is solid and fairly stable. It was intended for use in the form of smoke generated by burning a pyrotechnic mixture containing BZ.
Intoxication of people with BZ substance is characterized by pronounced depression of the psyche and a violation of orientation in the environment. Toxic effects develop gradually, reaching a maximum in 30-60 minutes. The first symptoms of a lesion are palpitations, dizziness, muscle weakness, and dilated pupils. After about half an hour, there is a weakening of attention and memory, a decrease in reaction to external stimuli, a loss of orientation, psychomotor agitation, periodically alternating with hallucinations. Through 1 — 4 hours, severe tachycardia, vomiting, confusion, loss of contact with the surrounding world are noted. In a subsequent outbreak of anger, committing acts inadequate to the circumstances, and impairment of consciousness with partial or complete loss of memory are possible. The state of poisoning persists until 4 — 5 days, and residual mental disorders can persist until 2 — 3's weeks.


Field test equipment for BZ equipped ammunition at Edgewood range, USA


There are still doubts as to how predictable the behavior of an adversary is after exposure to substances of a psychochemical action, and whether the adversary will not fight more boldly and aggressively. In any case, the BZ substance was removed from the weapons of the US Army, and in other armies the matter did not reach its adoption.

EMETICS

A group of emetic with a strong vomiting effect, form synthetic substances and toxins. Among synthetic emetikov the threat of military use may be derived from apomorphine, aminotetralin and some polycyclic nitrogen-containing compounds. The most famous natural emetic is staphylococcal enterotoxin B.

The military use of natural emetic is associated with the likelihood of causing deaths to people with poor health, which can be avoided by using synthetic emetic. Synthetic, and natural emetic are able to cause vomiting and other symptoms of damage in various ways of their entry into the body, including inhalation. In victims, transiently begins irrepressible vomiting, accompanied by diarrhea. In this state, people can not perform certain tasks or combat missions. Due to the release of emetic masses, affected by emetic are forced to drop the gas mask regardless of whether the attacking agent is present or absent in the surrounding atmosphere.

bioregulators

Recently there have been publications concerning the prospects for the creation of a biochemical or hormonal weapon, which is based on the use of endogenous bioregulators. According to experts in the body of warm-blooded animals, there are up to 10 thousands of bioregulators of various chemical nature and functional purpose. Under the control of bioregulators there are mental state, mood and emotions, sensation and perception, mental abilities, body temperature and blood pressure, growth and regeneration of tissues, etc. Disorders occurring in the imbalance of bioregulators, leading to loss of health and health and even death.
Bioregulators are not subject to the prohibition of both chemical and biological conventions. Research, as well as the production of bioregulators and their analogues in the interests of health care, can be used to cover the work on the creation of biochemical weapons in circumvention of conventions.

NARCOTIC ANALGETICS

A group of narcotic analgesics is formed by morphine and fentanyl derivatives, which have an immobilizing effect. The advantages of substances with morphine-like action are their high activity, safety in use, as well as the fast-on and steady disabling effect. In 70-80-years, artificially synthesized substances of this group with extremely high “shock” effects were obtained. Carfentanil, sufentanil, alfentanil and lofentanil, which are of interest as potential toxic substances, were synthesized.

Carfentanil is one of the most active substances from the entire group of studied fentanyl derivatives. It shows its activity in various ways of its entry into the body, including the inhalation of vapor or aerosol. As a result of one-minute inhalation of the vapors of Carfentanil, immobilization occurs with loss of consciousness.

Narcotic analgesics are in service with the special services. The case of their use during a special operation related to the October 26 2002 terrorist act on Dubrovka in Moscow, also referred to as Nord-Ost, was widely publicized.



In the course of the storming of the building with hostages held by Chechen rebels, a narcotic analgesic was used. The main justification for the need to use gas in the course of a special operation to free hostages of gas is that terrorists have weapons and explosive devices, in the event of which all hostages could have died. The drug released into the building did not affect everyone for a number of reasons: some hostages remained conscious, and some terrorists continued to shoot for 20 minutes, but the explosion did not occur and all the terrorists were neutralized as a result.



Of the 916 people taken hostage, according to official figures, 130 people died as a result of exposure to agents. The exact composition used by the security forces during the storming of the gas remains unknown. Specialists from the laboratory of scientific and technological foundations of security in Salisbury (UK) believe that the aerosol consisted of two analgesics - carfentanil and remifentanil. According to the official statement of the FSB, “special prescription based on fentanyl derivatives” was applied at Dubrovka. Officially, the main cause of death of a large number of hostages is called “exacerbation of chronic diseases.”

It is worth noting here that, according to the disabling action, the most active of narcotic analgesics in terms of their level of action achieve the effect of nerve agents. They are quite capable, if necessary, to replace non-conventional agents.

When suddenly applied, when the enemy is taken by surprise, the effect of narcotic analgesics can be overwhelming. Even in small doses, the action of the substance is knocked out - the living force that was attacked after a few minutes loses its ability to resist. In case of overdose, death occurs, which apparently happened to the dead in the "Nord-Ost".

According to the incapacitating action, the most active of narcotic analgesics reach the level of toxic substances of a nerve agent.


Disabling doses of the most active known incapacitants and non-lethal toxic substances


The list of drugs of various actions that can be used as chemical warfare agents is continuously replenished as a product of a “by-product” research process when creating various medicines and plant protection products (this is how the nerve agents were discovered in Germany in the 30-s). They never stopped and, apparently, work in this area in state secret laboratories will not stop. There is a high probability of creating new poisons that are not subject to the provisions of the 1993 chemical convention of the year.

This can serve as a motive for switching scientific teams of military departments and industry from the direction of development and production of deadly chemical agents to the search for and creation of new types of chemical weapons in circumvention of the convention.

Based on:
http://rudocs.exdat.com/docs/index-19796.html
http://mirmystic.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=2695&mobile=mobile
ALEXANDROV V.A., EMELYANOV V.I. Poisonous substances. Moscow, Military Publishing, 1990
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24 comments
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  1. Hort
    Hort 4 February 2014 07: 59
    0
    "not lethal" is from the word "fly"?

    If not, then "non-lethal" writeтsya together.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 4 February 2014 12: 38
      0
      you are Ukrainian along the way, only in the Ukrainian language there is a phrase - "lethal apparatus" - in normal language it is an aircraft -
      do not grimace please
      1. Hort
        Hort 4 February 2014 14: 24
        0
        I wrote my explanation below.
  2. VohaAhov
    VohaAhov 4 February 2014 08: 22
    +3
    Quote: hort
    "not lethal" is from the word "fly"?

    If not, then "non-lethal" writeтsya together.

    Lethal means deadly.
    1. Hort
      Hort 4 February 2014 12: 44
      0
      Yes, I know) It's just that the title of the article was with an error. In the light of today's progressive general illiteracy, it already on a subconscious level evokes "class hatred" laughing
      But let's write it off to autocorrect, because when typing, auto-spell check the word "non-lethal" is underlined as an error)

      According to the article: In general, it is very informative and useful, plus)
  3. igordok
    igordok 4 February 2014 09: 16
    0
    As indicated in the article, from non-lethal action, you can roam, it depends on the dose. The table shows the non-excreting dose. a semi-lethal dose (LD50).
    Semi-lethal dose - the average dose of a substance that causes the death of half of the members of the test group. One of the most widely used hazard indicators for toxic and moderately toxic substances.
  4. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign 4 February 2014 10: 09
    +6
    Thanks for the educational program for "dummies". And then the last time the lessons on POMP were already a long time ago. And here it is so lively enough and with details.
    Who served in the RCHB, colleagues? Please comment ...
    1. Bongo
      4 February 2014 12: 54
      +6
      Military chemists are unlikely to help here, due to the fact that most of the above substances were not in service with the military. Here the opinion of the "law enforcement officers" is more likely to be needed. From my practice I can add that it is a big mistake to try to rinse the eyes and skin with water after exposure to CS and CN substances. This only increases the severity of the injury, since these chemicals do not dissolve in water and their evaporation is blocked. They are best removed with an air stream or a swab soaked in organic solvent.
  5. fennekRUS
    fennekRUS 4 February 2014 11: 12
    +4
    the selection looks literate. plus
  6. badger1974
    badger1974 4 February 2014 13: 05
    +4
    I "got acquainted" as an incapacitant of the Bird cherry type in the 90th year at a mass disco "makhache". then our ranks were pressed after the enemy used aerosol, and the use was massive, our trouser belts and gas cables faded in the snot, by the way, there were no tears from the eyes, namely snot, photophobia was felt for three days, a spasmodic dry cough accompanied another week, the result , in the subsequent groups were divided into provocative and shock,
    Now the question is for the author, by the 90s, was chloroacetophenone produced in the USSR? or did it come from abroad (purchased)? is there such an infa
    1. Bongo
      4 February 2014 13: 10
      +4
      Production in the USSR, if I am not mistaken, began in the 70s, at least by the time of the Olympics the Cheryomukha was already in service with the police.
      1. badger1974
        badger1974 4 February 2014 14: 09
        +2
        and then it seemed to us that such a might be Tok ma in the bourgeois West.
        then the convention will be circumvented at the expense of non-lethal agents;
        1. Bongo
          4 February 2014 14: 16
          +3
          Quote: badger1974
          then the convention will be circumvented at the expense of non-lethal agents;

          As an option, it is technically quite possible, if desired.
          1. badger1974
            badger1974 4 February 2014 16: 58
            +2
            I think this is not an option or a desire for chemical laboratories, it is an echo of the starting pistol from 1993, the finish line will be torn when our world is unipolar, that is, under one control, there is no such non-lethal and lethal substance - it is always poisonous substance, another convention is required, 1993 is a false start with an acceptable outcome for large pharmaceutical corporations, primarily North American and European ones, thanks to the author, which I suspected was true
            1. Bongo
              5 February 2014 03: 22
              +4
              Quote: badger1974
              1993 is a fake start with an acceptable outcome for large pharmaceutical corporations, primarily North American and European,

              Volodya, don't be so categorical, a big plus of the current convention is that huge stocks of chemical weapons accumulated during the Cold War have been eliminated. First of all, the most dangerous are nerve agents.
              Chemical weapons are at least partially outlawed, although "loopholes" of course remain
              1. badger1974
                badger1974 5 February 2014 10: 01
                +2
                on the one hand, yes. indeed, something needs to be done with the accumulated, but on the other hand, star-striped with hangers-ons, as always, cunningly acted, dropping the old OM left a bunch of loopholes and holes in this agreement for the new OM-without loss of technology, unlike the former USSR, something the same thing happened in the WWS, they dumped the old stuff leaving modern means of delivery of nuclear warheads, unlike the USSR, which generally curtailed some promising missile programs
    2. romandostalo
      romandostalo 8 December 2016 04: 22
      0
      It may have been produced, but there was still chloropicrin with a similar effect.
  7. JackTheRipper
    JackTheRipper 4 February 2014 13: 21
    -2
    A very relevant article, we need such gases to disperse the same "Maidans" in the future, as soon as they occur in the world.
    1. Bongo
      4 February 2014 13: 27
      +4
      I believe that the problems in the state should be resolved by peaceful methods, and the main task of the authorities is not to bring the situation to the point of using "special means" to disperse the "Maidans". Weapons, including chemical weapons, do not yet guarantee a "lifetime reign". Here we can recall the same Saddam Hussein, who actively used chemical warfare agents against the citizens of his country.
    2. badger1974
      badger1974 4 February 2014 14: 03
      +4
      they should not be dispersed by bird cherry, but early preventive maintenance should be carried out within strict limits within the constitution, and not to throw everything on its own as the guarantor of the outskirts of the constitution did, then non-lethal gases are useless
      1. Bongo
        4 February 2014 15: 42
        +3
        One way or another, these substances will continue to develop.
        CS and CN have very little effect on dogs; aerosols with extract from cayenne pepper are very effective against animals.
        1. badger1974
          badger1974 4 February 2014 17: 03
          0
          Well, dogs usually get scared of ultra-high frequencies of sound, whistles with a bend of the tongue usually kashmarish dogs, haven’t tried them on bullets, but fighting stafors are frightened, though they quickly come to their senses, well, here the fur rescues, interestingly and how does the high frequency of sound affect bears?
          1. allexx83
            allexx83 4 February 2014 23: 44
            +3
            My pit bull didn’t get scared, only got angry. To scare the dog away, the sound must be continuous
            1. badger1974
              badger1974 5 February 2014 00: 46
              +3
              I say, furs are light, you need to have more, about a rubber hot-water bottle like a ball to burst
          2. Bongo
            5 February 2014 03: 26
            +4
            The sound of a shot with a simultaneous hit of a bullet is good for bears. Photos from the personal collection.
  8. 5pgpat5
    5pgpat5 4 February 2014 15: 25
    +1
    on the Maidan some kind of fun-stupefying substances are used.
    1. Bongo
      4 February 2014 15: 29
      +2
      Yeah, it's called "vodka" laughing
    2. badger1974
      badger1974 4 February 2014 17: 11
      +2
      LSD and amphitomin, plus kvass-gas, a hellish mixture, sobering only a blow to the head by a "democratizer", a helmet is not a hindrance in skillful hands
  9. allexx83
    allexx83 4 February 2014 23: 46
    +1
    And dioxins - what a beast? Articles are good, informative.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 5 February 2014 00: 42
      +2
      http://topwar.ru/index.php?newsid=38326 почитай на досуге, пользительно
    2. Bongo
      5 February 2014 03: 35
      +4
      Dioxins-organochlorine substances, very persistent, can infect the area for a very long time. They were never used as "combat" ones because of their unsatisfactory physical and chemical properties. May be formed during chlorination of drinking water if it is contaminated with organic matter. Dioxins - have powerful mutagenic, immunosuppressive, carcinogenic, teratogenic and embryotoxic effects. They are poorly degraded and accumulate both in the human body and in the biosphere of the planet, including air, water, food. The lethal dose for these substances reaches 10-6 g per 1 kg of live weight, which is significantly less than the same value for some chemical warfare agents, for example, for soman, sarin and herd (about 10-3 g / kg).
  10. internatio
    internatio 12 March 2014 07: 23
    0
    We are looking for an antidote. After a crush, the Armed Forces of Crimea had one victim under 50 years with the following symptoms: pressure 220/120 (!); impaired coordination of movements (gait and speech); high intracranial (in words - eyes are squeezed out of the skull); violation of RAM (forgot the name and surname of a friend); tinnitus (this is clear!); some increased nervous excitement (loud speech, gestures, accelerated gait). This occurred an hour after the drug was sprayed from a black spray in an amount less than the match head on the nasal mucosa. Write in a personal.
  11. Snoop
    Snoop 25 May 2014 18: 19
    0
    Useful article.
  12. romandostalo
    romandostalo 8 December 2016 04: 15
    0
    Yes it is interesting, especially analgesics, thanks!