Military Review

Our strength is that we are few. The main reason for the advantages of Russian civilization over European

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Our strength is that we are few. The main reason for the advantages of Russian civilization over European

13.11.07 I spoke with a public conversation before the activists of the new - in fact, just beginning to form - the federal youth organization "NET". The format of a public conversation has been settled for a long time: half an hour or an hour I improvise about what worries me the most at the moment, but it seems to me interesting for those who have gathered; Then I answer questions for an hour or two (until these questions or the rental time of the hall end). In this case, basically he told why Russian civilization (and the fact that Russia represents an independent civilization itself, doubts, perhaps, that most naively liberals) is better than European and what is the difference. The topic was so interested in the leadership of the organization that I was offered a talk on the same topic with regional assets. 2013.12.02 held a conversation in Vladivostok. I hope that in the coming year I will be able to go somewhere several times. Or maybe the topic will be interested not only in “NETWORK” - and the geography of speeches will expand.


It is clear that improvisation in the mode of the flow of associations strings onto the red thread many details associated with some current events or with the further development of previously expressed thoughts. Therefore, even conversations on the same main topic are noticeably different. The text below, which includes the main theses of the plot stated in the title, is also written along a stream of associations, with many extensive digressions. Of course, every time you return to this topic, the story will look different.

***

My reasoning about the advantages of Russian civilization over European civilization is largely based on the idea read in Myths about Russia by Vladimir Rostislavovich Medinsky (by the way, in my opinion, the first in many years Minister of Culture of the Russian Federation who deserved this work). He noted that the population density in Russia was always (even when it did not even reach the Volga, and the whole stretched along the Amber Road - from the Varangians to the Greeks) was several times less than in any European country to the west of it. Accordingly, the value of each human life was many times higher.

This is manifested, in particular, in our attitude to many significant figures of domestic and world stories. The most famous example is Ivan IV Vasilyevich Ryurikov, who received after his grandfather Ivan III Vasilyevich the nickname “Grozny” (the grandfather eventually went down in history as Ivan the Great). I wrote about him and his era in the article “Joseph Richardovich. About dumping guilt on the predecessor. " According to our concepts, he is the fiercest tyrant. To the extent that - the only among the all-Russian rulers! - The monument to the Millennium of Russia installed in Veliky Novgorod by the work of sculptor Mikhail Osipovich Mikeshin installed in Veliky Novgorod (with the participation of sculptor Ivan Nikolaevich Schröder and architect Victor Eduard Alexandrovich Gartman) did not get into the city

By the way, the millennium of Russia on this monument is counted from the moment of Rurik’s ascension to the grand throne to reign in Novgorod. For rulers who were related to Rurik (at least along the female line, like the Romanovs), is a natural starting point. In fact, a single state along the Amber Road arose a couple of centuries earlier.

What is interesting - arose, first of all, thanks to the efforts of the Greek merchants. Then feudalism established throughout Europe. At each convenient place sat cool tillage and tore up three skins from all who could reach. From the local I took a little smaller, so that they did not die of hunger and he had someone to rob next time. But with the passers-by he was boundless in full. To him, they are the second time, most likely, will not be caught. For a similar reason, the quality of food in station restaurants is usually worse than in stationary ones: the passenger liked the food or he was sick all the way, anyway, he most likely will not get to this restaurant again. Sly Greeks are tired of detaching every goon with a gang. So they decided to feed one steep so as to bash only him, and for this he extinguished all the out-of-line people on the route. They chose the Kiev tillage because the northern branch of the Silk Road passed through Kiev, so that money accumulated in this place also from there, and the Greeks had to pay less to grow a serious enough gang. So it turned out to be a single large state at a time when, in the rest of Europe, everyone was squabbling with everyone. This story is briefly described in my article "Russia from the Varangians to the Greeks." It is available in the “National Issues” chapter of the “Policy” section of my site.

Be that as it may, Ivan the Terrible is considered a bloody outlaw. In fact, he personally compiled a list for commemoration in the church - three and a half thousand noble personalities executed according to his orders. In addition, with each of them, several relatives and accomplices died, so it’s all about the fact that Ivan Vasilyevich used about fifteen thousand souls as his conscience. Monstrously a lot!

Only at the same time as Ivan IV were many other rulers. For example, Charles IX Henrych Valois became famous for, among other things, the St. Bartholomew's night organized by him. For this one night - on the eve of St. Bartholomew's Day - in France, thirty thousand Protestants were killed at his filing (they were called Huguenots there - according to the French pronunciation of the German Eidgenosse - fellow ally; this variation of Christianity came to France from Switzerland). Twice as much as for all the activities of Ivan the Terrible. Moreover, among the Protestants there were a lot of high nobles who did not want to share their incomes with a distant Pope, so that Charles, as regards the destruction of particularly prominent compatriots, pretty much surpassed Ivan. And no one considers him a bloody tyrant. By European standards, the usual ruler, seriously caring for the unity of his country. Nothing special.

Coincided with the reign of Ivan the Terrible and a significant part of the English dynasty Tudor. The founder of the dynasty - Henry VII Edmundovich - a particularly outstanding personality. His portrait was expressively painted by William Jonovich Shakespeare in the play “Richard III”. True, there this portrait is endowed with the title Richard III Richardovich York. No wonder: it was Henri who overthrew Richard, and almost all of Shakespeare's work took place at Tüdor, so he had to advertise them. But almost all the vileness attributed to Richard in the play are written off from Henry. I would especially note one of his tricks. In the war between the Scarlet and White Roses (Henri Tüdor is related to both the Yorks and Lancaster, so many supported him to end this civil war) all the kings calculated their rule from the moment the predecessor was overthrown. Henry started counting from the moment he raised the insurgency. Thus, all those who supported the legal authority were declared traitors with all the ensuing consequences, including the execution and confiscation of property.

I note: the king is Henry, not Henry. Our modern written tradition has developed mainly in the XVII – XVIII centuries with the active participation of natives of the south of Russia, and in the South Russian dialects the sound "G" represents a ringing version not of sound "K", as in the center and in the north, but sound "X". Therefore, we usually convey the initial "X" in European words with the letter "G": we write "Helvetius" and "Hitler", although the carriers of these surnames quite clearly pronounced them as "Helvetius" and "Hitler")

The son of this wonderful king, Henri VIII Henrich, is best known for his six wives. Two of them, he was executed, two more divorced. The church refused to approve his divorce from his first wife. Then he proclaimed himself the head of the Catholics of England. To this day, the British kings concurrently lead the local church. At the same time, he took advantage of a convenient excuse and plundered monasteries.

By the way, according to the Christian canons no more than three marriages were allowed. Ivan IV faced a similar problem: the church refused to approve his fourth marriage. He received a special conciliation resolution, vowing that in the two weeks between the wedding and the sudden death of his third wife, he never went up on her bed because of her illness. True, historians count three more of his wives, but the information about them is rather contradictory. In any case, he didn’t kill any wife: he sent those who got sick to monasteries, and both of those who died during his life, if they didn’t die by their own death, certainly from his dynastic rivalry poisoning.

But the most famous act of Henry VIII is far from the most dangerous. The law on vagrancy, adopted by him, creatively developing the already very long tradition of British laws on the poor, had much more consequences.

The first, a decree on workers from 1349.06.18 Edward III Eduardovich Plantagenet, ordered the labor of all able-bodied people (who are now outraged by the Soviet persecution of parasites?) And the maintenance of wages that were before the plague of 1348 – 50. The plague claimed about 0.3 – 0.4 population of the country, and the poor affected much more than the rich (the poor are much more difficult to isolate from contact with potential carriers of infection). Entrepreneurs are faced with a shortage of labor and the natural growth of desired wages: when demand exceeds supply, price exceeds value. The law helped to preserve the former - profitable rich - the distribution of wealth levels.

The aforementioned Henry VII faced another problem - an excess of labor. Under him - in 1495 - the parliament ordered “to seize all such vagrants, idlers and suspicious people and chain them into pads [that is, firmly fix arms and legs, so that the person was in an unnatural posture without the ability to move. - approx. auth.] and keep them like that for three days and three nights on bread and water; and after these three days and three nights they set them free, ordering that they no longer appear in the city. ” Obviously, this did not solve the problem: people just wandered to another place hoping to find work there. Therefore, Henry VIII in 1530 strengthened the impact: a person without a certain place of residence and a certain occupation, who did not show signs of disability, was subject to flogging. Patients, invalids and old people, however, were allowed to ask alms from 1531. A regular whipping can soon be made sick and even disabled.

Of course, corporal punishment increased competition for jobs, and the price of labor in England dropped noticeably. But there was almost no increase in jobs due to this (hello to our liberals, who assure that too high salaries generate unemployment). Therefore, the children of Henry VIII had to continue the search for ways to reduce vagrancy.

Under Edward VI - the main character of the novel “The Prince and the Pauper” by Samuel Langhorn John-Marshall Klemens aka Mark Twain - a new law was adopted in 1547. The tramp begging for alms fell to penal servitude for two years and received a V letter stamp so that he could be identified when recaptured: in this case he was executed. The king did not have time to assess the long-term results of the law: 1553.07.06, in 16 years, he died of tuberculosis.

Mary I almost did not intervene in the fate of the poor, but she tried to restore the Catholic religion in the country with submission to Rome. Many church and secular figures who have already felt the taste of money that previously went to the papal treasury, opposed. Since February, they began to execute 1555-th (mostly - to burn at the stake). Before the death of the Queen 1558.11.17 - for more than three years - about three hundred people. The result is quite modest by European standards - probably because of this contrast with the norm, Maria got the nickname “bloody” (the famous layered cocktail named vodka and tomato juice is named after her) as snidechildren call the fat guy a sliver.

But Elizabeth I extended to all the vagrants measures taken by her brother to beggars: anyone caught in vagrancy was pierced with an ear. The annoying beggars, as well as stubborn (that is, caught again), were hung up. According to approximate (poor people did not really think then) estimates of historians, at least 80 thousand people were executed for vagrancy - about 1 / 50 was the maximum population of the country during this period - in a time comparable to the time of the Soviet government, when the total number of executed for political reasons or those who died in prison after conviction for the same reasons — about one and a half million — were somewhat less than the 1 / 100 population of the USSR on the 1937 year (and if you count the dead for reasons that can be somehow linked to oh or expulsion - about two million).

Elizabeth had other records.

She - the only one of all monarchs - officially invested in pirate expeditions (and received a huge profit from them). True, the fleet that grew on these expeditions successfully destroyed as many as eight (!) Invincible Armadas — sea expeditions prepared by Spain to support Catholic Ireland and capture England. The defeat of the first Armada entered the history, because not only in Spain, but also in all of Europe at that time at the time of its sending, everyone was sure that its victory over England was inevitable. Eight failures in a row finally convinced even the Spaniards themselves: the resources of their empire, significantly reduced by these failures, would have to be directed not to seize the new, but to retain the already acquired (which allowed the empire to hold on for a couple of centuries almost within its previous borders).

She is the first who officially executed the monarch, even if he was deposed by his own subjects. Mary Jamesovna Stewart ruled Scotland formally from infancy: she was born 1642.12.08, and her father James V Jamesovich died 1642.12.14. She got the real power of 1561.08.19, having managed to be married before (from 1558.04.24 to 1560.12.05) to the king of France (with 1559.07.10) Francois II Anriche Valois (1544.01.19 – 1560.12.05). But already in 1567, another conspiracy against her went open (promoted by rumors that she herself organized the murder of her second husband to marry a third), and 1567.06.15 loyal to her troops fled, and 1567.07.24 renounced the throne in the benefit of his son from the second marriage of James VI Heinrich Stuart. 1568.05.02 she tried to regain power, but after the defeat of 1568.05.13 her small army fled to England, to her aunt: Mary was great-granddaughter, and Elizabeth was Henry VII's granddaughter Edmundovich Tjudor. But there, she was almost under arrest in Shaffield Castle: Elizabeth was considered illegitimate by Catholic notions, and Mary had more rights to the throne (and the kings of France — and she was a queen and there! —Seed for this throne, for William I Robertovich of Normandy before the conquest of England - 1066.10.14 under Hastings, he defeated the troops of Harold II Godwinovich Wessex - was a vassal of the French king). Numerous conspirators against Elizabeth found a symbol for the enthronement (and the experience of Mary’s rule in Scotland gave them reason to hope that they could keep her under control, threatening a new overthrow). The next group of conspirators entered into a correspondence with Mary, they were discovered (and according to many, the conspiracy was organized) by the British counterintelligence officers, Mary was brought to justice and 1587.02.08 was executed. Before the crowned heads were killed only secretly, so Elizabeth created a dangerous precedent: the crown was no longer saved from the chopping block.

Elizabeth went down in history under the nickname of the Virgin (in her honor is named the British colony of Virginia in the New World, which became 1776.07.04 one of the 13 of the United States of America). Naturally, no one checked it on the gynecological chair. But she was not in official marriages; many alleged lovers did not confirm these assumptions either by word or by noticeable action; in her pregnancy did not notice. As a result, after her death, the Tüdor dynasty was interrupted, and the aforementioned King of Scotland, James VI Heinrich Stuart, was concurrently King James I of England (there is a joke about this: “How many kings were crowned in Westminster Abbey? One: James I. They are officially becoming kings after the coronation, and only he was king before her ”). By the way, his son Charles I fell victim to a precedent created by Elizabeth: overthrown by his parliament in a civil war, he was executed by 1603.03.24.

But in terms of the total number of casualties, all the conspiracies that Elizabeth defeated, and even the battles with the Spanish Armadas, do not seem to achieve the result of the law on vagrancy finalized by her.

True, with the same Elizabeth, laws were passed (in 1597-m and 1601-m) that systematized help for the disabled (at the expense of local residents, of course: there wasn’t enough to spend government money on them). Yes, and a persistent tramp person was recognized after he was offered a normal job with average market pay three times, and he refused it. But judging by the abundance of executed, then the average market payment meant starvation - no less true than in the loop, but slower and more painful. When there are significantly more people willing to work than job opportunities, the market lowers pay to a level that does not guarantee not only the reproduction of labor, but even survival.

Where are these jobs?

Back in the midst of the War of the Scarlet and White Roses in the Netherlands (which then belonged to Spain, since it was ruled by representatives of the same Habsburg dynasty as in the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation), manufacturing weaving began to flourish. Increased demand for English wool. It has become profitable to turn arable land into pastures for sheep. But this opportunity was limited: most agricultural land was on long-term lease - often for several centuries already. But at the end of the war - already under Henry VII - the situation stabilized so much that they began to build manufactories in England itself, without fear of their destruction. Wool has become so in demand that all laws and customs that limit the conversion of tillage to pasture, were forgotten or circumvented. The simplest method turned out to be enclosing lands belonging to lords, but remaining in the common use of the peasants — for example, roads from villages to fields. And the lords themselves could fence the fields: I, of course, do not forbid plowing - but my fence, and do not touch it. By the year of 1500, at least 4 / 10 of agricultural lands in England were fenced off. Therefore, the whole era of the ruin of the peasants called "enclosing." Although there were other ways to survive the peasants from the land - for example, raising rents at the slightest opportunity (for example, when renegotiating an agreement with the heirs of the former tenant after his death). Newly built manufactories demanded working hands - but in an incomparably smaller number than the former generous fields of good old England. Hence the enormous unemployment.

True, some historians believe that the main cause of unemployment is not enclosing, but the growth of the country's population in the 16th century from 2.5 to 4 million. The labor market was crowded. Moreover, from time to time fields became more profitable than pastures: a growing population needed at least bread to feed. But in my opinion, the then abundance of land suitable for cultivation, could absorb almost the entire mass of new workers: almost all of them were born in villages or small towns and from childhood were accustomed to rural work. So an excess of the people alone would hardly have caused such consequences. We are accustomed to presenting a picture of agrarian overpopulation in Central Russia in the era from the abolition of serfdom in 1861 to collectivization in 1929 – 33: then the average allotment for one peasant provided only survival from half-starvation. But a significant part of the problems of that time is connected with the fact that the size of the plot did not allow the use of already existing efficient high-performance agricultural equipment. Therefore, in fact, collectivization was needed. The English climate is noticeably more favorable for agriculture, and there even the simplest technologies provided a far better harvest than in the center of Russia. Therefore, the then England could well feed all of its population if it were given the opportunity to rule over its land. In general, it is possible to overfill the labor market only if the exorbitant part of the funds earned by those who are already working, beyond what is necessary for their own existence and reproduction, is taken to the side instead of creating new jobs.

Nevertheless, the very idea of ​​a surplus of population expressed by these historians is, in my opinion, very typical not only for England, but also for all European culture. Indeed, there are almost always more people there than tasks that they are given from the outside. And self-activity, an independent search for a field of activity constantly stumbles upon external constraints. Thus, the workshop system in medieval Europe allowed for any serious work only after many years of study - that is, in fact, supporting work for the master for a small fee - and passing the exam, when the chef d'oevre is the main thing - meticulously evaluated by those who saw the newcomer above all the competitor itself. And it’s impossible to go wherever your eyes look like in Russia: every piece of land belongs to someone who wants to squeeze out their income from it with someone else’s hands. Even today, the intensely advertised freedom of entrepreneurship is sufficient to look at the set of regulations for each type of occupation in order to understand: the vaunted small business survives for the time being, insofar as it does not prevent the powerful people from making a profit (moreover, small business relies primarily on self-exploitation that is, the willingness of a small entrepreneur to work much more than an employee of the same profile, in the hope of getting at least a little more than his salary).

But in our homeland people are always substantially less than is needed to solve the obvious tasks before us. Starting with the task of defense: a country devoid of natural obstacles on extended borders with obviously hostile neighbors has to spend incomparably more forces on self-defense than these neighbors on attacks.

Even the above agrarian overpopulation was very conditional. In the eastern part of the Russian Empire, by that time there was enough land suitable for effective cultivation. The resettlement there was inhibited, in fact, artificially: first by serfdom, then by preserving the community’s mutual responsibility for tax arrears of each member, finally (when Peter Arkadyevich Stolypin broke the community — which threatened the physical survival of each peasant — and tried to organize a mass movement of peasants for East) by the disastrous disarray of the bureaucracy, which by that time had accumulated confidence in its indispensability and, accordingly, lost the desire to work in full force.

By the way, the same decline of the management machine manifested itself in many other ways, collectively giving rise to the decline of the empire, known to us mainly due to defeat from Japan under conditions guaranteeing victory with elementary competent actions of command and political leadership, and the inability of the domestic industry to adapt to the requirements of the First World War. . The idea of ​​changing the country's top leader in the midst of the hardest hostilities, which gave rise to a coup in March (according to the Julian calendar - February) 1917, could also hardly have appeared during normal work - and the normal sense of self - of managers.

In Soviet times, the agrarian overpopulation ended technocraticly — industrial jobs were created for tens of millions of peasants. Legendary industrialization was accompanied by an equally legendary collectivization: the smallest peasant holdings — sometimes a little wider than the boundary grooves between them — were combined into sites large enough so that they could work with large and high-performance equipment. This equipment itself was placed on machine-tractor stations (MTS), large enough to cover the processing of the surrounding lands enough to maintain full repair services and purchase new equipment. After a certain initial period of working out optimal ways for workers of collectivized villages to interact with themselves and with external partners (alas, this period was marked by considerable disruptions and even greater famine - to study it, refer to the book of Elena Anatolyevna Prudnikova and Ivan Ivanovich Chigirin “The Mythology of the Holodomor”) in the countryside has grown at times. The peasants for the first time in a good century were able to eat their fill and supply food to the continuously growing city. Yes, and the city grew just because the need of the village in the workforce has decreased significantly.

Unfortunately, under Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev, MTS was destroyed, and all their property was forcibly sold to collective farms - owned by everyone who works in them - and the Soviet - state ones. A significant part of these collective and state farms did not have enough income to independently maintain all the land needed for processing: after all, one MTS served, as a rule, a good dozen nearby agricultural enterprises, that is, it could use fewer machines per unit of cultivated area. However, the history of Khrushchev's numerous attempts to ruin everything — including agriculture — the country's economy deserves a separate discussion.

The fact that collectivization is dictated primarily by technical - and not political! - necessity, it is clear from the experience of the United States of America. In them for a long time family farms were the basis of food production. Their areas were much larger than the holdings of peasants in the center of Russia, since the continent was mastered by relatively few at first migrants. According to the law adopted by 1862.05.20 and entered into force 1863.01.01, every citizen of MUH who did not fight for the South against the North could get 160 acres (65 hectares) for the $ 10 registration fee, and through 5 years of work on this land, it became his property. But by the middle of the 1920-x tractors and harvesters appeared, too expensive to buy for the income from such a plot and too productive to be limited to. The task of adapting the relations of production to the new productive forces was solved by the first Great Depression, which began with 1929.10.24. In its initial period, agricultural products fell sharply in price, because the average citizen could not afford the old food - incomes fell! Farmers could not repay loans based on previous earnings and pay taxes. Since the owners suddenly became inefficient, their property went up to auctions and passed into the hands of those who could afford such costs. And former farmers, at best, have become farm laborers and seasonal workers of the new owners: there was enough efficiency for working with increased voltage and lower wages. True, the new owners needed far fewer workers than they had worked on the same land before: everything was done for the introduction of new high-performance equipment. And the new industrial enterprises of the MUH, unlike the USSR, did not create: in the conditions of depression, even the old ones stopped. So, tens of millions of farmers have gone around the world — churning out the price of labor (as John Ernst John-Ernstovich Steinbeck described very expressively in The Grapes of Wrath, published in 1939; truth, he received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1962) for other works, but the Pulitzer Prize in 1940 is received for this almost documentary novel) and to look for a charitable soup. The demographic decline (that is, the difference between the actual population and the estimate calculated from the previous and subsequent growth rates) over the 1930s in the MUH amounts to 5 – 10 million people - however, modern researchers have found many explanations for this that are not related to the terrible words “death from hunger and / or its consequences. "

The industrialization of the USSR, of course, is in no way caused by the charitable desire to attach peasants liberated by technical progress in the countryside somewhere. It is also generated by hard necessity. At the 1-th All-Union Conference of Socialist Industry Workers Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili 1931.02.04 said: “We are lagging behind the advanced countries by 50 – 100 years. We have to cover this distance in 10 years. Either we do it, or they will crush us. ” He made a mistake in estimating the distance for less than five months: the Great Patriotic War began 1941.06.22. And in this war we overwhelmed the enemy - contrary to popular opinion - not with the bodies of our soldiers, but with shells from military equipment produced by new factories.

The very fable "bodies filled up" was composed again by bearers of European culture. Back in the First World War, without a shadow of a doubt, they drove the soldiers in droves to machine guns. Legends of Finnish (in the Winter War) and German (in the Great Patriotic War) machine gunners, going crazy about the need to shoot more and more new soldiers, climbing their dead comrades over the mountain - the echo of the battles of the First World War: the means of defense for several years became much stronger than the means of attack, and the generals were looking for ways to reduce this gap at any cost (as I have often written, they always pay any price from someone else’s pocket). But on the Russian front, the positional impasse was barely felt, and rather quickly ways of successful breakthrough were developed. German assault detachments, in the second half of the war, gnawed the French trenches with their minimum losses, arose in the light of the experience of Russian plasters. And the breakthrough of the Austrian front 1916.06.03 commanded by cavalry general Alexei Alexeyevich Brusilov, although 1916.08.13 already stopped at 80 – 120 kilometers to the west (the then transport did not allow quickly to organize a full supply of so deeply advanced troops), went down in history as an example of a successful offensive with almost equal forces (in the strip of the Russian South-Western Front, at first there were about 512 thousand Russian servicemen against about 420 thousand German and Austrian) on a deeply echeloned and well fortified new defense. By the way, the statistics of losses in this breakthrough proved the effectiveness of the domestic technology of military operations: Russia lost about 500 thousand people (of which 62 thousand were killed or died from wounds, 40 thousand were missing, the rest were wounded), and its opponents are about one and a half million ( among those killed or died from wounds (300 thousand, captured 500 thousand).

By the way, I note: the Suvorov rule “fighting is not a number, but an ability” refers to the individual training of a soldier - the legendary “Science to win” describes the methods of training and organizing the life of the rank and file. The leadership skills, first of all, consist in organizing numbers - choosing the key direction of combat operations and concentrating forces on it that are substantially superior to the enemy. In particular, Brusilov, not having enough information to select a single direction (and fearing the closure of the breakthrough with flank attacks by the enemy), organized 13 offensive points at once, and then maneuvered with forces, advancing where resistance had weakened. Although many opponents consider this tactic to be a manifestation of weakness: they say, he did not dare to beat at one point. However, these opponents cannot boast comparable own successes.

I well remember my grave mistake. I immediately believed in the first book of Vladimir Bogdanovich Rezun, who riveted the pseudonym "Viktor Suvorov" upon himself, unconditionally. She played an important role in the formation of my protracted anti-Sovietism. True, already in his second book I saw contradictions not only with the first book (which is inevitable in the development of research), but also inside the text (which proves the fallacy of some part of the reasoning). And while reading the third book I firmly understood: the author is not mistaken, but quite deliberately lies. Alas, to my shame, I did not understand the way of lying. Only the book of Aleksey Valerievich Isaev “Antisuvorov” explained to me: Rezun systematically applies tactical rules at a strategic level. For example, he says: a successful offensive requires a three-fold superiority in strength - Germany did not have such superiority over the USSR, which means that Germany was not going to attack the USSR. True, the USSR also did not have three times superiority over Germany - but Rezun is silent about this, painting only Tanks and airplanes: in their number we really exceeded the Germans. But the main thing is that triple superiority is needed only at the tactical level, in the battle that has already begun. The strategist can provide in the chosen place at least threefold, at least tenfold superiority. Consider a numerical example. You have ten divisions, I have eight. I leave half of mine against each of your divisions: you nowhere have three times superiority, and you will not risk attacking. I am collecting the three divisions I have released against yours, adding to the half of the division already there. With a three-fold advantage, I erase your division from the front line. Then I freely walk around your unprotected rear, cutting off the rest of your divisions from supplies and thereby depriving them of combat readiness, so that each of them will easily cope with the half of the division left by me.

True, Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov most often did not have a numerical superiority even in the course of an already established battle. For example, in one of his most famous battles - in the area of ​​the Rymnik River - under his command there were about 7 thousands of Russian troops and 18 thousands of Austrian, and in each of the four Turkish fortified camps there were at least 20 thousands of fighters, and three groups were so close to a friend that represented, in fact, a single force. But here advantage of individual training has affected. And even more - the superiority of the organization: when the cavalry broke into the main camp through an unfinished fortification, the Turks fell into a panic, and Russian troops, under similar circumstances, more than once rallied and beat the broken enemy until he managed to accumulate strength. So the rule of triple overweight works only with other things being equal.

This rule is explained quite simply. One of the pioneers of automotive engineering and aerodynamics, Frederick William Henry-Jonovich Lanchester, while still at NNUMX, derived two equations that allow us to estimate the ratio of the speeds of combat losses. If each of the participants in a combat collision can reach only to the opponents closest to him or if each of the opposing sides firing irrelevant fire on the areas occupied by the other party, this ratio is inversely proportional to the ratio of the parties' numbers. arms everyone can, in principle, hit each participant from the other side and tries to shoot aiming at targets not yet hit, the ratio of loss rates is inversely proportional to the ratio of squares of numbers. The smaller side loses strength faster, the ratio does not change in its favor - and the speed of its losses increases. Having integrated the equation, we get: if at the initial moment of the battle the balance of forces was 3 to 1, then by the moment of complete destruction of the weaker side, the strongest in a collision on cold weapons would lose less than 1 / 10 in their numbers, and on the gunshot - less than 1 / 20. By military standards, such losses are acceptable, because they practically do not violate the organizational structure of the troops, which means that they do not weaken their combat capability.

From here, by the way, it is clear why Hannibal Hamilkarovich Bark won at Cannes. The surrounded Romans were crowded together. Only a tiny fraction of them - at the edge of the crowd - fought the Carthaginians. And they had longer spears than the Roman ones, and for every Roman who was actually involved in the battle, there was an 3 – 4 enemy from different ranks of the Carthaginian system. Therefore, at any given moment, the Carthaginians had the advantage, sufficient for an almost unpunished extermination of the enemy, and did not allow the Romans to reorganize to bring the main mass of forces into operation. Now the mechanism for destroying those surrounded is different: they are cut off from all types of supplies and quickly lose their combat capability (and even a large part of the rear services that are not at all adapted to direct contact with the enemy, is under attack and quickly collapses). But the general principle is the same: the surrounding can oppose to the surrounding only a small fraction of his strength, and therefore loses in the Lanchester equation.

The Lanchester equations also explain why, with equal (and sufficiently long-range) weapons, better trained and / or guided troops win: they can concentrate fire by quickly knocking out one target after another, while the fire of a weakly organized opponent is sprayed, and the probability of being hit by this fire is less .

For example, the fate of the battle of Tsushima decided maneuver Admiral Nakagoro (with 13 years - Heyhatiro) Kichidzemonovicha Togo his ships, well-trained joint maneuvers, crossed the course of the squadron Zinovy ​​Petrovich Rozhdestvensky, able to move only wakefield systems, because throughout the vast path through three oceans ships were brought only coal stock on the shortest route by an economic move and they could not be trained in joint maneuvering at combat speeds. The lead ship of the Russian system was under the concentrated fire of all 6 Japanese battleships and 6 armored cruisers and quickly collapsed. The Russian ships, deprived of a single command (for then the radio was still in its infancy, did not raise flag signals on a ship under heavy fire), sprayed their fire throughout the enemy, and the probability of hitting every Japanese ship was rather small. There were many other factors that determined the ratio of losses in that battle. For example, Russian shells were optimized for deep penetration into particularly vulnerable and therefore armored parts of an enemy ship at a distance of a couple of miles, and the Japanese shot from a greater distance with land mines, whose action on the unarmored bulk of the board almost did not depend on the distance. But without Japanese coverage of the Russian head, the result would have been far less sad: all Japanese ships remained in service, and from 14 Russian ships of the main line - 8 squadron battleships, 3 coast guard battleship, 3 armored cruisers - died (or were flooded by crews because of the impossibility resistance) 6 squadron battleships, 1 battleship coastal defense, 3 armored cruisers, and the rest surrendered.

The last was for the Russian fleet unheard of: before in all of its history only 2-3 ships were captured. This, however, is not surprising: our enemy at sea was most often Turkey, whose fleet did not have a high degree of organization (after all, the Turks went to the Mediterranean Sea during the comparative decline of all its other neighbors, and therefore for a very long time they enjoyed an undeniably huge numerical superiority). This was revealed even in the battle near the port of Navpakt, that is, Shipbuilding (in the Middle Ages - Lepanto) 1571.10.07: the Turkish fleet was almost equal to the fleet of the united Europe, but died almost completely, while the Holy League lost a little more than 1/20 of its forces ( By the way, Miguel Rodrigovich de Cervantes Saavedra was injured in the battle in his left hand, injuring his nerves so that he could not use it until the end of his life; he had to be retrained as a writer; perhaps without this battle there would have been no Don Quixote). And this is despite the fact that the range of the then sea guns was several times greater than the length of the ships themselves, so the outcome of the battle was decided in close combat and boarding - hand-to-hand battles on the decks of ships that hitched side to side. But even against such a background, the result of, for example, the Chesme battle of 1770.07.05–07 is impressive: the Turkish squadron, twice superior to the Russian one (16 battleships and 6 frigates versus 9 and 3, respectively), was driven into Chesma Bay, and there it was partially shot, partially it was burned by fireboats - small rowing boats with a supply of gunpowder and tar (their crews hoped to have time to leave on boats before the wick burns out). In three days, 11 Russian sailors and about ten thousand Turkish were killed. The flaming Turkish fleet is depicted on the victory medal, and one word is stamped over it - “byl” (Russian spelling was formed when each syllable was open, that is, ended with a vowel, and the letter b originally meant a very short sound О, and b - such the short sound is E; even during the Mongol-Tatar yoke, the pronunciation norm changed and the ultra-short sounds completely disappeared, leaving only the softness of the sound in front of b and a short pause in the place of b, but the spelling with traces of the final b was canceled only in 1918).

Of course, the losses of the Turks in many other battles were not so strikingly different from the Russians: the best ratio for them is the 10 of their own dead on the Russian 1. A similar alignment in the wars with the Persians: even with fifty-fold numerical superiority, they turned out to be bits. By the way, the same Persians and Turks invariably beat the Arabs, when those were not headed by European mentors like the legendary Thomas Edward Thomas Lawovich, known as Lawrence of Arabia. This not only indicates the result of a possible Russian clash with the Arabs (for example, when anti-Syrian militants attempt to attack the Russian base in Tartus), but also proves the importance of proper organization of troops and competent command of them.

But the Russians are distinguished by the highest stamina and, when confronted with troops, are equally - and even noticeably better - organized.

King of Prussia Frederick II Karl Friedrich-Vilhelmovich Hohenzollern, nicknamed for numerous successful wars by Frederick the Great, said in his heart: a Russian soldier needs two bullets: one to kill and the second to bring down. In the Seven Years War, he beat everyone except the Russians: even with a perfectly conducted Prussian maneuver, being surrounded, with defeated carts, with fleeing generals, our troops rallied and the slender ranks of Prussian troops overturned with a strong bayonet. While Russia was ruled by Elizabeth I Petrovna Romanova (daughter of Peter the Great), East Prussia became part of Russia (and the great philosopher Immanuel Johann-Georgovich Kant, like all the inhabitants of Konigsberg, took the oath of allegiance - so in 1945 we got back what we already owned), and in Berlin visited Russian troops. Only after the death of the officially childless Empress 1762.01.05, the son of her sister Anna Peter III Fyodorovich Romanov returned everything to the King who was conquered by Russia, whom he used to admire when Karl Peter Ulrich Karl-Fridrikhovich zu Holstein-Gottorp von Unterwalden was called.

Preserved Russian resistance in subsequent wars. I will not list all - I will note only the Great Patriotic War.

The Soviet troops, who were surrounded, fought to the last opportunity, tried to break through to their own, or even went into the partisans. The enormous (about half of the total personnel at the beginning of the war - but, of course, among the prisoners were mobilized) the number of Soviet prisoners in the initial couple of months of military operations is explained not by moral weakness, but by the rapid exhaustion of fuel and ammunition in intense battles and the inability to transport them along the roads controlled by German aviation. Only a negligible fraction of those surrendered voluntarily surrendered, which is noted in German documents pierced by amazement: the Poles and the French, who found themselves in a similar position, surrendered to the Germans immediately.

In 1942, the main thrust of the German strike was the Caucasus (a strike on Stalingrad initially had only to prevent the delivery of Soviet reinforcements). In the first months of the year there were also intense battles in the Crimea. In both of these places, military units were actively used, where a large proportion were mobilized in the South Caucasus. Accumulated statistics combat resistance of national formations. Purely Armenian military units were not inferior to those of purely Russian (in the military sense, Ukrainians and Belarusians were no different from other Russians). Purely Georgian were not bad in the offensive, but in case of serious difficulties they are prone to retreat, and the retreat easily turned into a stampede. Purely Azerbaijani did not represent any significant combat value. The parts where all these three nations were represented in about equally, showed almost the same resilience as the Russians — obviously, the representatives of each nation tried to prove their courage to the others. The units where the Russians were at least half were not at all different from the Russians in battle.

This is again explicable. Russians from time immemorial have become accustomed to acting in the minority, or even alone. And on the plain, where the enemy has no natural obstacles, and there is almost nowhere to hide from him. If the enemy is on horseback, then the environment is a natural state, albeit an unpleasant one. And the only chance to prevent enemies in your native village is to kill them so much that after your death the rest will have neither the strength nor the ability to move on. A Russian, like Fight Cat, is a serviceman of an officer’s assault troop detachment in Arkady and Boris Natanovich Strugatsky’s novel "The Underworld Man" - "there is a combat unit in itself capable of coping with any conceivable and inconceivable surprise and turning it to honor and glory." In the mountains, it is almost impossible to surround the enemy: there are always trails or at least slopes that are rather uneven to find support and leave on them - modern climbers manage to overcome even vertical walls. Therefore, it makes no sense to fight to the last: it is much easier to hide in your village, where the enemy, not so accustomed to the mountains, most likely simply will not reach. And if you still get it - then, most likely, on a narrow path you will have to fight again one on one, without fear of a detour and a backstab. Unless the Armenians, who had long ago mastered the northeastern part of the relatively flat Anatolian Highland, who lived there even under Turkish rule and were forced out by the Turks only during the First World War, in the early Middle Ages acquired defense skills that were comparatively similar to the Russians.

With all this rigidity in battle, the Russians are extremely humane after the battle.

Napoleon Karlovich Buonaparte, retreating from Russia according to the Old Smolensk road ravaged by his own foragers (Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov’s troops didn’t let him into the well-fed southern regions): in our opinion it was just slush ) ordered the destruction of Russian prisoners, although his advisers warned: after such a military crime, the Russians would be given the right to answer the same. They did not answer: almost all of the captured soldiers of the enemy were dressed, shod, warmed, fed, and many later remained in Russia as home teachers, cooks, and in other nourishing places.

In the Middle Ages, when the concepts of the country and the people were not even properly formulated, the transition to the side of the victor was considered the norm. So, Alexander Yaroslavich Ryurikov - Alexander Nevsky - without hesitation accepted the supremacy of Batu Dzhuyevich Borte-Chinov (his grandfather Temuchzhin Yesuegeevich - title holder of Genghis Khan, that is, the ruler, great as the sea - a descendant of the semi-legendary Borte-Chino, whose ancestors are unknown) and even fraternized with his son Sartak, and all then European nobility accepted his deed as the norm. Accordingly, the prisoners in those days easily became under the new army banner. But in Russia, this tradition of taking prisoners as troops has been preserved even when in Europe it has already changed its loyalty to the oath (and the content of prisoners resulting from it in the camps). True, they did not force them to fight with their compatriots: Germans and Swedes were sent to the south and east, steppe nomads to the western border.

Our liberal younger brothers in reason love to accuse the USSR of not signing the Hague Convention of 1929 on the maintenance of prisoners of war. Like, it gave the Germans the right to mock Soviet prisoners and destroy them with all available means (of which, however, overwork and insufficient food were the most accessible, as always). Meanwhile, the convention itself obliged the states that signed it to comply with it in relation to all prisoners - including from the states that did not join it. That is, the Germans knowingly violated this convention and knew about it. But this is not even the main thing. It is much more important that the USSR immediately after the appearance of the convention announced that it would abide by all of it, with the exception of clauses directly contradicting Soviet laws: it ordered to keep prisoners of different religions separately - and in the USSR the church was separated from the state, that is, the state had no right however, to distinguish between people of different faiths - and to keep the commanding staff separate from the private and with additional benefits - and in the USSR class distinctions were not allowed. In diplomacy, this is called accession with reservations - a very common option. The USSR did indeed comply with the entire convention, except for the two points mentioned (and did not prevent the prisoners from separating themselves by faith or military rank).

True, in 1943, the Germans accused the USSR of destroying 1940 in the spring of several thousand Polish officers captured by 1939.09.17 – 23, when, after fleeing the Polish government from the territory of the country without announcing this or appointing successors (according to international customs, ) Soviet troops occupied the Russian lands occupied by Poland in 1920. Later, in 1990, the top Soviet leaders admitted this accusation. Moreover, it was stated that the Poles had been shot not only near the Katyn village of the Smolensk Region, but also near the village of Mednoye Kalininskaya - now the Tver Region - and near Pyatikhatok, the Kharkov Region. In all, thousands of corpses were hanged on 22 - all Polish officers, whose fate after the military shake-up did not preserve unambiguous information. I will not go into all the absurdities and inconsistencies of this version here: details can be found on the Truth about Katyn website. I will only note: in the collection “Official materials about the massacre in Katyn”, published by the Germans themselves in 1943, there are descriptions and even photographs of material evidence that unequivocally incriminating the Germans themselves in the shooting of these same prisoners near Katyn in August – September of 1941. and in the areas of Medny and Pyatikhatok not a single Polish prisoner was buried: all objects of Polish origin found there by Polish archaeologists at the beginning of 1990, these same archaeologists there were brought and planted there. So Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, suggesting that the USSR could in principle thus avenge a few tens of thousands of Soviet prisoners of war killed by Poles in 1920, is wrong: revenge is not a Russian custom. In general, the outline of the relationship between Russians and Poles and the details of the Katyn forgery are briefly, but distinctly, set forth in the book by Elena Anatolyevna Prudnikova and Ivan Ivanovich Chigirin “Katyn. A lie that has become history. ” I boast: one of the proofs is a photograph of the cartridges found in the Katyn grave, which were obviously produced in Germany not earlier than the summer of 1940, that is, after the date of the shooting declared by the Germans, is described in the book with a quote from one of my speeches on the Internet TV channel of Cyril & Methodius. Of course, I did not notice this discrepancy - I was just lucky enough to state it briefly and clearly.

However, the fighting, we also tried to lead humanely. Thus, General Alexei Petrovich Yermolov for taking hostages and burning entire villages during the Caucasian War was branded as a savage and tyrant, although he only reproduced a small part of the actions of the French who conquered Algeria in the same years, and the British, half a century earlier subdued India, and then gradually mastered Africa. In justification, Yermolov should be noted: this was how he behaved only with those tribes where there was not even a hint of state power, but military democracy acted: those who are stronger at the moment will follow. In the same place, where the tradition of submission to the decision made by the previously established ruler had already been formed, Yermolov agreed with this ruler on traditional for Russia - but absolutely not characteristic of European conquerors - conditions: preserving the old customs in everything that does not directly contradict the general Russian laws, the minimum taxation (much less than at the time of independence: after all, the main source of expenses — defense — was assumed by a great power), the right of new subjects to live anywhere in the empire, to engage in any work, get any education, etc.

Not all nations adopted such an approach: two or three Caucasian tribes emigrated with their full complement, another ten or so divided between Russia and foreign countries - on average, in half. But the majority ultimately found the Russian laws more useful than mountain customs. And some, taking advantage of the opportunities provided by the empire, were completely assimilated: many of today's Caucasians differ from other Russians, perhaps by the origin of their last names. But Russians are generally assimilatory people. Where is remembered by the chroniclers chud and merya? Now they are the same inalienable ancestors of the Russians, like the Drevlyans and the Krivichi, remembered by the same chroniclers. It is understandable: if there are few people, it is much more useful to draw a stranger into your family than to find out who will survive whom.

No wonder the first international conference on the humanization of the laws and customs of war was convened by the Russian emperor Nikolai II Alexandrovich Romanov.

Our pistols, rifles and guns shoot in such harsh conditions (heat, frost, dust, rain, dirt and sand inside and out), which the weapon of any other manufacturer refuses. A recent proposal by former Defense Minister Anatoly Eduardovich Serdyukov to consider the possibility of purchasing any foreign small arms for the armed forces of the Russian Federation stumbled upon an obvious objection: not a single sample purchased could not withstand the standard conditions of state tests. This is again a consequence of the small number of Russians. When a battle is conducted by a large enough group, the failure of one barrel will be compensated by the rest. If the fighters once and twice obchelsya - every shot is vital.

The same Russian rarity brought up the willingness to help another without thinking: if I came across someone who needs help, it is unlikely that someone else would come to him, so there’s no need to wait for further help, but we must act immediately. In Europe, where the population density is much higher, it is customary to first ask if it is your help that is needed or if a person is waiting for some kind of coordinated or just more acceptable support for him. It's funny how this tradition changed on our roads as the fleet grew. Back in 1970, near any one who stopped on the side of the road without a visible target, they immediately began to slow down and ask what exactly was to be helped. And now, most likely, they will pass by without thinking: it’s so clear that a person has already caused an emergency stop or is waiting for a friend — also by car.

Russians are not only always ready for mutual help, but also know how to quickly organize themselves. In any group that has gathered for a common cause, leaders and narrow specialists in specific areas of action, masters of the widest profile, and people in the field who are ready to support everyone, almost instantly stand out. Even peasants who worked alone or on families from time immemorial, in a matter of years learned the skill of joint coordinated work. True, this was facilitated not only by the skill of artel cooperation in the outlying fields and the twenty-five thousand workers sent to the village by the communist party to transfer their own personal experience of complicity in the division of labor, but also the consequences of the first couple of years of collectivization, when everyone hoped to transfer more to others and use , for example, someone else's working cattle, previously scored and eating your own. As a result, the next drought turned into hunger, approximately equal to 1891 and 1921 years combined. The demographic decline in the population of the USSR — that is, let me remind you, the difference between the actual population and the calculation based on the growth rates in the calm years before and after the event — was about three million people, including a million and a half in my small homeland, Ukraine. The current official rulings on this account are called three million victims in Ukraine and seven - throughout the Union. But this is a consequence of a methodical error. The decisions take into account the demographic decline only in regions hit by hunger. But along with collectivization, industrialization was going on - the country created machinery for the village and jobs for those who would be freed up by new machinery and new technology. The demographic statistics of new industrial areas then indicate: four million people from starving regions moved to new places where they got jobs and food. And when the peasants figured out how to work together, the mass hunger strikes, which previously hit the country three times in each decade, stopped. They even stopped remembering starvation death. A catastrophic famine with a demographic loss of about a million occurred only in 1946 – 7, a consequence of World War II, when not only millions of workers died, but agricultural machinery production also stopped, so the next drought coincided with the exhaustion of the safety margin of most of the remaining tractors and combines.

The combination of Russian individualism with the ability to work together and subordinate their interests to the requirements of a common cause seems paradoxical. But people scattered over a huge area, gathering occasionally and for a short time, simply cannot act otherwise: you must first rely on yourself, and if you are lucky enough to get ready, you must quickly use the opportunities that have opened up and not try to drag the blanket over you.

Glorified by Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, world responsiveness - the willingness to take any achievements of other cultures to heart and immediately begin to develop them as our own - is also generated by our small number: others get into the village very rarely, so you need to listen carefully to their words and look into the deeds in order to find something useful for themselves and immediately adapt it to local conditions.

Another consequence of the low density of Russians is universalism, the desire for versatility of skills and knowledge. In Europe, it is easy to find a specialist nearby who is focused on a specific task. In our country, it is often easier to understand her than to look for someone who already knows how to cope with it. They have the highest praise "master of golden hands," we have - "master of all trades."

Accordingly, the training system is built in such a way as to facilitate an independent search for solutions. It is based on the assimilation of basic principles and only then, on this solid basis, the acquisition of skills. This system - with the corresponding philosophical justification - was formed in Germany by the middle of the XIX century, but brought to perfection in the USSR by the middle of the XX.

All the diversity of the world we observe is a consequence of the interaction of relatively few fundamental laws. As science develops, many of the rules that previously appeared to be independent are just special cases of more general principles.

For example, the electric and magnetic fields were originally investigated as independent entities, but the efforts of several generations of experimenters at the end of the 18th and first half of the 19th centuries revealed their connections, and James Clerk John-Klerkovich Maxwell found the mathematical expression of this relationship, and based on his equations, many fundamentally new electromagnetic phenomena — for example, the waves underlying all radio communications and optics. In the 20th century, weak and strong interactions of elementary particles were discovered, and it was proved that the weak interaction has a similar nature with an electromagnetic one. There was even the term "electro-weak" - and right there appeared theories uniting with him strong interaction. The recent discovery in the Large Hadron Collider of the effects of collisions of particles corresponding to the picture assumed in the existence of the Higgs boson has become a serious argument in favor of one of the groups of these theories, but the groups competing with it cannot yet be considered refuted. However, it is already clear: sooner or later, a unified theory encompassing the electro-weak and strong interaction will be built. And theorists are already working on the possibility of including in a single description gravity, which binds together the entire Universe. All four existing interactions that determine the very existence of the world and the whole diversity of its features are manifestations of the same fundamental regularity, which has already been studied well.

Understanding the fundamental laws is not just interesting - it is also very useful. One of the creators of the first encyclopedia in the world - French - Claude Adrien Jean-Claude-Adrienovich Schweitzer (he translated his surname into Latin - Helvetius) - two and a half centuries ago said: “knowledge of some principles easily compensates for the ignorance of some facts” (and Ever since encyclopedias try to write about principles first of all and add facts as needed, for example, biographies, since birth dates are random). Of course, for such compensation it is also necessary to be able to derive facts from principles. But when this skill is mastered - from one principle it is possible to derive incomparably more facts than we could have known and learned separately.

To remember that a triangle with sides 3, 4 and 5 is rectangular, it will take a little less effort than to comprehend one of the myriad of proofs of the most famous of the many theorems of Pythagoras Mnesarkhovich of Samos (and the mathematical and philosophical school created by him). And the knowledge of the equality of the square of the hypotenuse to the sum of the squares of the legs, together with the knowledge of some of the simplest elements of the theory of integer equations created by Diophantus of Alexandria (alas, historians have not yet figured out his patronymic name), makes it possible to compose formulas for calculating the entire infinite set of right-angled triangles with an integer aspect ratio (and even very prime: any pair of integers m and n (m> n) gives a right-angled triangle with sides m2 - n2, 2mn, m2 + n2).

My (and my brother Vladimir - unlike me, clever) father, Professor Alexander Anatolyevich Wasserman has been engaged for more than half a century, among other things, in developing methods for drawing up equations of state - formulas relating pressure, temperature and density of a substance. The equation is derived from the results of several hundred (for materials that are especially important in science and technology — thousands) of experiments. Then, it is possible to calculate the properties (and not only density, but many others) at any point, for some reason, interested the scientist or engineer. It is difficult, time consuming and expensive to conduct experiments at all these points (and with some combinations of conditions it is almost impossible). The equation itself includes several tens of coefficients — it is incomparably simpler to write them down than to work with experimental data tables. Yes, and you can even calculate properties at a particular point using the equation. True, for some particularly important substances, for convenience, properties tables are calculated, calculated on the basis of the same equations of state (for example, tables compiled with the participation of the father occupy a dozen thick volumes). But as more and more compact personal computing tools spread, the tables are replaced by calculation systems that directly use the equations (the father again was involved in the development of several such systems).

From these examples it is clear: understanding the pattern requires incomparably less effort than memorizing at least a small fraction of the facts drawn from it. Factocentric education is a monstrous waste of forces and means.

In addition, a person who is familiar with the facts, but does not know the laws generating these facts, cannot distinguish a new reliable fact from an error and even conscious disinformation. But it was precisely this that became the main reason for the mass planting of factocentrism instead of the already mastered higher level - the understanding of the principles. After all, in the current commerce - not to mention the current policy - there are too many people willing and able to benefit from the mass deception of everyone who can reach it. It is clear that they are very disturbed by people who are able to independently recognize deception. Therefore, all over the world, law-centered education is being crowded out long ago and clearly outdated facto-centric (as, indeed, in many other areas - from the relapse of capitalism in most socialist countries to the reinforced planting of different forms of belief in the supernatural - a rollback to the past is observed).

When I was studying, a typical program of a Soviet technical university as a whole looked like this. In the first course, the fundamentals of the most general sciences were studied - mathematics, physics, chemistry (although philosophy was studied in the second year: from the humanities and social disciplines, the first went through the history of the CPSU, and most often reduced it to a dry list of various inclinations because it is understandable just on the basis of other sciences, passed later: philosophy - in the second year, political economy - in the third, scientific communism, that is, the theory of development and change of social formations - in the fourth, based on its current and I try to understand, I think that just the history of the CPSU had to endure in the fourth year, respectively, moving the rest a year earlier). The second course went to those aspects of the general sciences that are directly in contact with the direction of the university, and some more specific disciplines related to this area. At the third, the sciences that were directly used in the field of activity for this university and this faculty were studied. The fourth focused on gaining the skills of this activity - from laboratory work to independent research. Finally, the fifth course was taken by pre-diploma practice and a thesis project.

Let's compare it with the Bologna system, which is currently fashionable. In theoretically perfect form, it looks like this. For four years the undergraduate degree has been training the student for specific recipes in his chosen field. Then, if he didn’t go to work right away, for two years the magistracy teaches him the basics of the sciences from which the previously studied recipes flow. Thus, the bachelor does not know and does not understand the nature of the recipes he has memorized, but he applies them blindly and with any change in the subject area — for example, the appearance of new types of technology — he has to go to refresher courses (which is beneficial for their owners and teachers Bachelor and / or his employers). The master in two years manages to forget the lion's share of what they drove into him at the undergraduate degree (it is very difficult to memorize without understanding) and is not suitable for immediate practical work.

The consequences are already known. In the European universities now teachers from the former USSR are very much appreciated. Indeed, in Europe, they began to implant this system long before 1999.06.19 in Bologna representatives of 29 countries signed an agreement recognizing it to be the only true and binding one (now 47 countries from 49 ratify the cultural convention written in 1954) Council of Europe). The bulk of European teachers are already bolognaised in their heads. They do not represent educational value. Serious experts have to take where there was no Bologna. True, along the way, with the filing of the same Council of Europe - destructive not only in this respect - it is being intensively implanted in our country. Where to get specialists, when the post-Soviet space too is completely zolonized, no one (neither in Europe nor, unfortunately, in our Ministry for the Elimination of Education and Science) thinks like accomplices of insane tea-drinking in the story of Charles Latuidia Charles Dodgson aka Lewis Carroll “Alice in the Country Wonders ”, as the dishes were smoked, they were transplanted to empty seats at the table, without thinking about what would happen when the clean cups and plates ran out.

I suppose if we consider any other significant - and not purely external - difference between Russians from Europeans (and from Asians), we will be able to identify a similar chain of cause-effect relationships that goes back to the relatively low population density of Russia. After my lectures on this topic, I have repeatedly answered questions regarding such differences, and invariably found such chains. I hope this will work in the future.

So I will not go over the differences anymore - perhaps I have already considered almost everything that is really important. It now remains to find out why I am talking not only about the differences, but about the advantages of Russian civilization over European. And why do I talk about Russian civilization as opposed to the fashionable statement today that there is a single path of development where Western Europe and North America have advanced further, and all countries and peoples who are not trying to catch up on this path are uncivilized.

The last thought was most clearly expressed in 1992 by Francis Yoshihirovich Fukuyama. His book, The End of History and the Last Man, states: after the collapse of socialism, the spread of liberal democracy in the whole world is inevitable, and this is where the evolution of society and culture will end.

But next year Samuel Phillips Richard-Tomasovich Huntington published an article entitled “The Clash of Civilizations”, and in 1996, he published a book with the same title. He singled out a dozen civilizations. Of these, nine (alphabetically: African, Buddhist, Western, Hindu, Islamic, Latin American, Chinese, Orthodox, Japanese) exist and interact at the moment. In his opinion, the main historical contradictions arise between civilizations (which, in my opinion, is incomplete: for example, both world wars originated within the same Western civilization). He predicted, in particular, the confrontation of Islam and the West and advised that representatives of all civilizations should be included in the UN Security Council. In his opinion, civilizations that rely on one clearly distinguished state, rather than being distributed among dozens of equivalent, are more stable - therefore Orthodoxy and Buddhism, in his opinion, is stronger than Islam, and Western civilization is alive as long as it has an unconditional hegemon (now it’s the United States America, before them - the British Empire, previously - the Spanish).

Huntington is not original. The coexistence and interaction of civilizations was considered long before it. For example, Arnold Joseph Harri-Volpich Toynbee counted more than two dozen civilizations in human history, not counting those that did not form if there were preconditions for emergence (for example, Far Eastern Christianity, combining missionary sermons with local customs, was quickly destroyed by spiritual and secular authorities, because way of subordination of peoples alien foreign influence) or stopped in development. By the way, Toynbee divides the Orthodox civilization into two essentially different branches - the original (in Greece, in the Balkans) and the Russian.

So, there are always a lot of civilizations, and the outcome of their competition cannot be predicted with Fukuyama confidence. The opposite opinion - about the unconditional and final victory of Europe as a whole and of the United States of America (as the extreme expression of the European tradition) in particular - in our country is defended only by the inhabitants of Moscow and St. Petersburg: in these megacities population density is comparable to that of Europe. the task is easy to find a specialist who is ready to solve it, and therefore the psychology of the inhabitants is similar to the European one. But neither Moscow nor St. Petersburg can exist without all of Russia (even the current Russian Federation is too small for them). Therefore, it is necessary to focus not on them, but on Russia as a whole - with its small number of people, abundance of tasks and awareness of the diversity of decision options (that is, the multiplicity of possible civilizations).

Does this mean that all civilizations are equal? Should one admit unconditionally fashionable multiculturalism today, which proclaims drumming as valuable as classical ballet, and female circumcision - the amputation of the clitoris - as honorable as a monogamous marriage?

One of the creators and pillars of libertarianism — the only true proclaimed doctrine of the unconditional utility of economic freedom of the individual without any regard for society — Friedrich Avgustovich von Hayek in the book Pernicious Self-Reliance describes the evolution of society as a result of the competition of different groups that adhere to different customs. Whose customs turned out to be more useful at a given time and place - that group survives and spreads further. It is funny that the singer of individualism considers societies as the subjects of development. But at least the criterion of comparison of civilizations, proposed by him, is clear: who has lived longer, longer and stronger, he is right.

From this point of view, the Russian civilization is undoubtedly among the best: although we are many times smaller than all our neighbors, we have occupied the largest part of the planet among all the states - 1 / 6 - inhabited land (even in the current state of temporary disintegration of the country, one of its parts is the Russian Federation - takes 1 / 7). True, our lands are of low value for agriculture. But we have the world's largest forest reserves, not to mention minerals: not only are they more than any other country, but in addition we are easier to develop them than many other countries, just because we don’t have to worry too much about agriculture.

It should be noted that almost all of these lands are occupied peacefully. Serious resistance to the Russians was provided perhaps by the Chukchi - their martial arts are still carefully studied by specialists - and some tribes of the North Caucasus. Mountains in general bring up the readiness to feed on force - the local nature there is too poor, there are too few feeding possibilities. Therefore, the mountaineers of the whole world are similar in character to each other much more than their flat neighbors. For example, the Gascon Charles Ogier Bertranovich de Baz de Castelmore d'Artagnan, who came to Paris to join the royal musketeers, is very similar to a typical Chechen who is trying to enter a security agency in Moscow, and the noble robber Scotland Rob Roy Donalditch Graff, the school graduate class teacher in Moscow, the school graduate class teacher in Moscow. , indistinguishable from the many equally noble robbers from the Georgian novels.

We almost always had to fight in self-defense. The prophetic Oleg avenged the unreasonable Khazars for the systematic overlap of our trade: they controlled a large part of the Silk Road and did not want to compete with Amber. In the North Caucasus, we first fought off raids on flat fields and pastures: the hungry highlanders tried to plunder crops that were unthinkably generous by the standards of almost barren rocks. Cossacks in their essence are precisely irregular frontier troops. Then he had to climb the mountains to block the raids in the bud. But seriously, we took up the mountaineers only when Armenia and Georgia asked Russia to include them in their structure to protect them from systematic extermination by Turkey and Persia. The mountaineers plundered caravans going through the passes to new lands — they had to completely occupy the Caucasus in order to subordinate the robbers to the laws. For a similar reason, Central Asia was conquered: the local nomads drove the Russians into slavery. Even the partition of Poland was a matter of necessity: the local gentry simply did not imagine any other way of feeding than to conquer all the new lands (and when the neighbors were too strong, the nobles robbed each other; hitting an armed raid on a neighbor's estate was considered noble fun; the last hitting Adam Bernard Mikolaevich Mickiewicz sang in the poem “Pan Tadeusz” - the Poles still consider it to be a glorious memory of nobleman freedom, destroyed by evil, which had already happened after the division and pacified by the appearance of the Russian infantry company. and Muscovites). True, the gentry can also be understood: the peasants died out too quickly - how can you not become extinct, if from Monday to Saturday is inclusively engaged in serfdom, that is, you work in the state economy, and you only work in your land on Saturday and Sunday night? Sundays on Mondays (well, on Sunday it’s impossible to work at all - holy day). It was necessary for the gentry to get everything new cattle - this word originally meant working cattle. For comparison: since the birth of serfdom in Russia, the law prohibited the serfdom for more than three days a week, so that the peasants had time not only to feed the nobles, but also themselves. Naturally, the Russian peasants resisted the Polish invasions by all available means.

And those who were not fortunate enough to be in the Polish government regularly rebelled. The next uprising began in 1648 as an ordinary disassembly between the gentry Chaplinsky and Khmelnitsky, the Cossacks joined the Khmelnitsky, demanding an increase in the number of people included in the register for issuing bureaucratic allowances - this happened there more than once. But, unexpectedly for the Cossacks themselves, they were supported by so many buckwheat farmers, that is, simple peasants, that the uprising turned into a natural war, and it became clear that after such a bloodshed, the Poles would not agree. Zinoviy Mikhailovich Khmelnitsky (he was baptized exactly as Zinovy, and Bogdan was a nickname) had to spend almost all the trophies gained during the capture of Dunkirk, where he was a mercenary under the command of that same d'Artagnan, to bribe deacons of the Posolsky order, that is, in the recount for our days, the heads of departments of the ministry of foreign affairs of Russia, so that they will finally agree to let his petition on accepting lands controlled by Cossacks into Russian citizenship be on instances. Russia resisted for a long time: it only four decades ago came out of the Time of Troubles, and the experience of that time was not encouraging in the upcoming struggle with Poland. But the words “We of the Russian people and the Orthodox faith” that constantly repeated in the petitions of not only Khmelnitsky himself, but also of several of his predecessors, finally worked: they don’t give up their Russians. 1654.01.18 (on the Julian calendar - 8) in Pereyaslav, the Cossack Council decided to switch to Russian citizenship. Poland, as one would expect, immediately began a war with Russia, so the liberation of all Russian lands occupied by Poles and Lithuanians, while the Horde controlled the main part of Russia, took almost another century and a half (and if you take into account Galicia and Subcarpathian Russia, almost two). But I repeat once again: on the Russian side, it was the liberation of their lands and their people, and not aggression.

How did we manage to systematically defeat all those who encroach on our lands - not only backward ones like the mountaineers and nomads, but also formally progressive ones like the Poles, the French and the Germans?

Already mentioned, Toynbee considers the main distinctive feature of each civilization to be the usual format for answering a call. In particular, the Russian civilization, in his words, when a threat appears, first shrinks, as it were, away from it, but then expands just as sharply, absorbs the source of the threat into itself and turns it into one of its sources of strength.

Isn't it very similar to the worldwide responsiveness described by Dostoevsky? The feeling of the value of every life, every manifestation of culture, every course of action generates a willingness to constantly check all these options and manifestations for usefulness, a willingness to find a common language with each person, to find him the most suitable place in the common cause.

It is almost impossible to destroy such a civilization: if it does not disappear overnight (say, as a result of a nuclear war), then sooner or later it will find a way to turn any threat into its part (or at least organize mutually beneficial interaction with it; so Germany defeated by us in the Great Patriotic War, she realized the reason for the appearance of the Russian inscription "the ruins of the Reichstag is satisfied" and became - first of all its eastern part, and after reunification, and all of it - one of the most friendly countries of the European Union tion of).

In 1941, the main strike force of the German invasion was tank groups with an optimal ratio of the tanks themselves, self-propelled artillery, fast artillery tractors, infantry on armored personnel carriers and trucks, and supply trucks. This ratio the Germans have worked in previous large campaigns - Polish and French. Soviet tank corps, which almost did not have other types of equipment, other than tanks, could not withstand such a perfect military machine. But already in 1943, our tank armies had a composition, if not as successful as the German one (no one, except the Germans, had at that time well-established mass production of sufficiently effective armored personnel carriers), then at least acceptable for a deep breakthrough. Even the Battle of Kursk was completed not by the stamina of our defense (the Germans still managed to gnaw, for both their attacks on the wings of the Kursk arc were very concentrated, but we simply did not have time to transfer the troops from calm sectors to the direction of German movement), but a deep breakthrough of the Soviet troops to the north arc. After that, the Germans failed to prevent any of our breakthroughs: their troops, like ours in 1941, either got encircled or retreated under its threat.

A quarter of a century ago, our country seemed to have collapsed under the weight of sophisticated economic and propaganda pressure from outside. And what? Now the most popular foreign channel in the world is Russia Today (for example, in the United States of America it is watched much more than by the BBC or al Jazzira), and its creator and permanent leader Margarita Simonian Simonyan has become part-time editor-in-chief of the same name “Russia Today”, created on the spot by the openly pro-American Russian Information Agency “News". Russian industrialists are actively buying overseas production (it’s funny that in the accounts of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, all our investments abroad are in the form of capital flight, hence the constant moaning about the monstrous amount of this leakage), so only frankly non-economic measures can prevent our expansion: , the ruined General Motors tried to sell Opel, but as soon as our KamAZ wanted to buy it, the American government immediately allocated a huge subsidy to GM so that the company would refuse to sell.

Now the main threat for us comes from overseas. I myself am not averse to speculate about the Russian inscription “The ruins of the Capitol are satisfied” or the Stalin Strait between Canada and Mexico. But given the historical experience, I believe: the United States of America after its defeat in the economic war (and its signs were seen even when the Russian Federation recovered from the 1998.08.17 default) will reconsider their views leading to the current impasse, cleaned of leadership who could not such a revision will become, if not ally to us, fully, then at least as friendly as Germany or Italy, which also felt our power in the Great Patriotic War.

Optimistic. But the support of this optimism is our entire Russian civilization, which has become better than its neighbors, precisely because for many centuries we have had - and in the foreseeable future - per unit of occupied area is much smaller than our neighbors.
Author:
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  1. delfinN
    delfinN 18 January 2014 11: 13
    +22
    It was under Peter I that 5508 years of Russian history disappeared
    1. strannik595
      strannik595 19 January 2014 08: 01
      .
      A cool goddess sat at every convenient place and tore three skins from everyone he could reach. He took a little less from the locals so that they would not die of hunger and he had someone to rob the next time. But with the riders I messed around in full. For the second time, they most likely will not get him. For a similar reason, the quality of food in station restaurants is usually worse than in stationary ones: the passenger liked the food or he then gets sick all the way - all the same, he most likely will not get into this restaurant again. Sly Greeks are tired of unfastening every redneck with a gang. So they decided to feed one tough guy so that only he could cough up, and for that he extinguished all the chaos along the route. They chose the Kiev godfather because the northern branch of the Silk Road passed through Kiev, so that money also accumulated from this place, and for the cultivation of a serious enough gang, the Greeks had to pay less.

      Be that as it may, Ivan the Terrible is considered a bloody messenger. In fact, he personally compiled a list for commemoration in the church - three and a half thousand noble figures executed according to his orders. In addition, several relatives and accomplices died with each of them.
      ........... did not read further, was he invited to read lectures in the zone? so there are people with a deeper and more diverse intellect with an appropriate level of perception ... so he believes that for modern Russian youth, representatives of the Russian special civilization (from his words), such a language is needed here? .... there are no words winked just killed on the spot ... cattle
      1. tor11121
        tor11121 19 January 2014 09: 55
        +37
        And in vain. it is easy to write and very intelligible. The sentence of each phrase is felt. everything is justified and reasoned.
        1. predator.3
          predator.3 19 January 2014 15: 51
          +6
          Quote: tor11121
          And in vain. it is easy to write and very intelligible. The sentence of each phrase is felt. everything is justified and reasoned.

          I agree with you, of course Wasserman wrote in his ironic style, but historically reliable, for which +!
          1. S_mirnov
            S_mirnov 19 January 2014 20: 03
            -5
            The very title of the article already sounds silly! "Our strength is that we are few."
            If there is little population on a large territory, then sooner or later those who have a lot of population and little territory will come and take away our land. It has always been that way.
            Do not dare with the help of nuclear weapons, so they will take bacteriological or GMO.
            "
            Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of September 23.09.2013, 839 N1 in accordance with Article 2014 of the Federal Law "On State Regulation in the Field of Genetic Engineering Activities" approved the rules for state registration of genetically modified organisms intended for release into the environment, as well as products obtained from using such organisms or containing such organisms. The date of entry into force of the resolution is July XNUMX, XNUMX (except for a number of provisions).
            More details: http://primamedia.ru/news/dv/09.01.2014/327804/viraschivanie-gmo-produktov-v-ros
            sii --- skritiy-genotsid --- ekspert.html "

            It seems that Wasserman is not a stupid person, but why carry frank nonsense in the pursuit of rating articles? Like, the louder the headline, the more they catch it? Stupid populism - offends readers, IMHO.
            1. ed65b
              ed65b 19 January 2014 20: 33
              +12
              Quote: S_mirnov
              If there is little population on a large territory, then sooner or later those who have a lot of population and little territory will come and take away our land. It has always been that way.

              It has never been so, never. You either deliberately lie, or just a dvoeshnik on history.
              1. S_mirnov
                S_mirnov 19 January 2014 20: 51
                -5
                Yes? And what happened to Sparta? Punic wars, remember!
                1. The comment was deleted.
                2. JIaIIoTb
                  JIaIIoTb 20 January 2014 00: 48
                  +3
                  Quote: S_mirnov
                  Yes? And what happened to Sparta? Punic wars, remember!


                  It was not with us when ... if we squeezed the land from us, then we regretted it very much. And this is a historical fact.
              2. Aleksey_K
                Aleksey_K 19 January 2014 22: 03
                -9
                It has never been so, never. You either deliberately lie, or just a dvoeshnik on history.

                Well, and the d-league history! But why are the Swiss, Austrians, some Hungarians and some still still fluttering in German? Why did you forget your tongues? Why do many Slavs in Europe write in Latin? This is you dvoechnik.
              3. The comment was deleted.
              4. JIaIIoTb
                JIaIIoTb 20 January 2014 00: 50
                +4
                Quote: ed65b
                Quote: S_mirnov
                If there is little population on a large territory, then sooner or later those who have a lot of population and little territory will come and take away our land. It has always been that way.

                It has never been so, never. You either deliberately lie, or just a dvoeshnik on history.


                He is lying deliberately. Read his writings on other issues.
            2. PPL
              PPL 19 January 2014 20: 48
              +1
              Quote: S_mirnov
              ... will take away our land ...

              For now, only the lands themselves are being stupidly distributed (there are few examples, but everyone knows about them).
              And if not "our land", then you probably meant America and the indigenous population? Here I agree, it was.
            3. GorynychZmey78
              GorynychZmey78 19 January 2014 21: 08
              +4
              S_mirnov
              The very title of the article already sounds silly! "Our strength is that we are few."
              If there is little population on a large territory, then sooner or later those who have a lot of population and little territory will come and take away our land. It has always been that way.
              Do not dare with the help of nuclear weapons, so they will take bacteriological or GMO.


              I absolutely agree with your words!
              Yes, GMOs can turn out to be much more powerful weapons than we can imagine
              after all, we don’t know anything about its operation, it is an invisible slow weapon designed to reduce the population of precisely subsequent generations! for example, it can cause infertility not among Tago who used GMOs but among his great-grandchildren!
              because really nothing prevents large corporations from introducing into the catering system, let’s say, magdonalds of different types of gene variations! while remaining obsessively unnoticed, because world advertising and the money invested in all of this is huge and they are doing their job and simply no one can even oppose anything to these forces even if he makes it his life’s goal! it’s even a terrible nuclear weapon, it will be a silent silent legal weapon, and yes it’s kindly used by the people with pleasure!
              there is such a science fiction novel (heritage) written by former officer gro Tarmashev. just on this topic (GMO products)
              very well and affordable everything stated can be written specifically for the young generation, where fiction is closely intertwined with really possible scenarios
              personally, the novel made a strong impression on me!
              1. S_mirnov
                S_mirnov 19 January 2014 21: 40
                +5
                Quote: GorynychZmey78
                Yes, GMOs can turn out to be much more powerful weapons than we can imagine
                because we know almost nothing about its action

                I know for sure that GMO crops are not reproduced, i.e. for a new sowing, seed must be purchased annually from the manufacturer (USA). Moreover, indigenous crops will not be able to grow on lands from under GMOs. Either we buy GMOs or weeds grow. There is no exact data on the impact of GMOs on the population’s gene pool, but rather they are actively hushed up, but the fact is that nothing good.

                Quote: GorynychZmey78
                very well and affordable everything stated can be written specifically for the young generation, where fiction is closely intertwined with really possible scenarios
                personally, the novel made a strong impression on me!

                I agree, the work is called "Legacy", very instructive.
                I can also advise - Alexey Kolentiev "Partisans of the third world"
                Berkem Al Atomi "Marauder" is a very expected future. With a modern political course.
            4. nevopros
              nevopros 19 January 2014 22: 47
              +2
              Minus you. Populism from Wasserman is your speculation. Do you have any fears that someone will only replicate the title of the article with the note "Wasserman recommends ... to degenerate" ??? Wasserman differs from others in that he draws conclusions from facts.

              And yet ... Who, interestingly, is going to live in Siberia and the Far East? Chinese? Over the past 5000 years (or 7 with a penny), they have not ventured to settle here.

              "A holy place is never empty" - this is definitely not about the north of Eurasia, a specific mentality should be developed among the population living here (to hold a huge territory in a small group).
              1. S_mirnov
                S_mirnov 19 January 2014 22: 52
                -8
                Quote: nevopros
                And yet ... Who, interestingly, is going to live in Siberia and the Far East? Chinese?

                You can see right away that you know very little about the number of Chinese in the territory of the Russian Federation in the Far East. Take an interest in the Internet, do not be lazy!
                1. S_mirnov
                  S_mirnov 20 January 2014 11: 50
                  +1
                  probably these are aliens wink
                  "A huge dump of solid household waste was discovered near the village of Novonikolsk in the Ussuriysk urban district. Zhang Haitselyun, a vegetable grower from China, filled up a plot of land intended for agricultural work with agricultural and household waste, creating a garbage dump with an area of ​​10 thousand square meters. These violations were identified by the employees of the land control of the Rosselkhoznadzor during the survey of agricultural land. "
                  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aCpMVYgYK28#t=6
                2. nevopros
                  nevopros 21 January 2014 17: 36
                  +1
                  A couple of millions in Siberia? Are you talking about this? I have heard enough of the emotional misinformation worse than Khramchikhin. They are ALWAYS not going to live here - this region is not distinguished by hospitality, it is difficult to get acclimatized - life will not be enough.

                  Z.Y. I live in Eastern Siberia and am familiar with the situation.
              2. Lapotnik
                Lapotnik 20 January 2014 12: 28
                +4
                Interestingly, here the pluses cast doubt on the fact that China you see, did not occupy our territories, and below is a post about the Veles book, which tells in particular about the wars with China over the territory of pluses mountain.

                Strange people.

                For years now I have considered China one of the most dangerous "friends" of Russia. Unlike the impudent Europioids and Anglo-Saxons, they act much more covertly and quietly. It is banal - joint projects for the development of farms, the extraction of natural resources.

                PS about poaching, especially regarding deforestation, you can probably keep silent.
                1. nevopros
                  nevopros 21 January 2014 21: 44
                  +1
                  In the 90s, a geopolitical battle was lost. The question is: to whom did you lose? Who turned out to be more sophisticated? It is easier to understand the Chinese "veils" - there is logic and a minimum of emotions. This is our geopolitical partner and friend. Temporary. The Negro has his own area of ​​interest and other goals. Survival.
                  IMHO.
              3. The comment was deleted.
          2. anarh
            anarh 19 January 2014 23: 08
            0
            Not reliable
            but it is LIKE.
            those. like the truth, but it is not.
            DO NOT ATTRACT THE TASTE OF NOODLES,
            It will be hung on the ears.
        2. anarh
          anarh 19 January 2014 23: 03
          0
          Quote: tor11121
          the thoughtfulness of each phrase is felt. everything is justified and reasoned.

          Reasoning in what?
          In how, under a digestible sauce, to present that your ancestors are gangster godfathers,
          acting at the direction of smart trading people.
          And you (we) yourself deserve to communicate with us on a semi-rogue "hair dryer" to facilitate the assimilation of the material?
          Those. do you like this appeal from Wasserman?
          I’m not very happy with it.
          Huge minus article.
          Everything falls into place.
          ARTICLE WRITTEN FAR FROM ANOTHER RUSSIA.
        3. aksakal
          aksakal 20 January 2014 10: 33
          +1
          Quote: tor11121
          And in vain. it is easy to write and very intelligible. The sentence of each phrase is felt. everything is justified and reasoned.

          - I liked it too. I will also note that the flip side of the small number, or rather, the low density of the population of Russians, is the neglect of environmental issues. And why, if there are so many open spaces and nature for one chela that you can not take a steam bath? "I know from the forest! You see, my father is chopping, but I'm taking him away! (A woodcutting ax was heard from the forest). This is from the memoirs of some German classic about Russia, I went once, was very impressed .-))). What kind of ecology? It became cold - went into the forest and chopped as much as necessary!
          I recently moved here because of the numerous children from my Almaty to the small village of Baganashil in the mountains, Almaty residents know that there is noticeably less population density and therefore the relations between neighbors are completely different - exactly as Onotole described in SABZH, everything is exactly like that - )))). Onotole in his role, HEAD! I respect. And what about the use of extreme youth slang in other places of the SABZH (not to be confused with the Zon one - it is completely different!) - well, firstly, I did not notice a strong inappropriateness in the fabric of the SABZH, and secondly, it adds a certain amount of humor to the narrative, and you need to treat this with excessive neatness, better discern the main thing that the author wanted to say, let's discuss it. Because of this, to give up reading an interesting historical excursion and immediately condemn - according to the principle "I did not read, but I condemn, because there is used slang!" - well then, go to where grandfather Makar did not drive calves and do not bother to discuss here the main message of SABZH.
      2. ziqzaq
        ziqzaq 19 January 2014 11: 56
        +5
        Quote: strannik595
        ........... did not read further, was he invited to read lectures in the zone?

        Calm comrade, calmer ... Be simple, and people will reach for you .... As they say do not judge, but you will not be judged ..
        1. strannik595
          strannik595 19 January 2014 22: 21
          0
          Calm comrade, calmer ... Be simple, and people will reach for you.
          ....... I don’t want anyone to reach out to me for some reason laughing
          What to do if now the youth understands the language of the `` zone '' and the Komedy Clab better.
          ..... and to think that modern Russian youth better understands only the language of the zone and the gum club is to humiliate it and deny the right to further existence of Russian civilization, the author of the article advocates the features and strength of it
          1. aksakal
            aksakal 20 January 2014 10: 10
            -3
            Quote: strannik595
            and to think that modern Russian youth better understands only the language of the zone and the gum club is to humiliate it and deny the right to further existence of Russian civilization, the features and strength of which the author of the article advocates
            - I partly agree with your indignation, but this is not a Zon language, this is a youth slang nonesh. Don't be a prude, but accept this slang. Themselves at one time allowed themselves in relation to their own parents to express themselves like "laces in a glass." This is from the youth slang of the youth of the 60s "hippies", and tapericha is trying to instill in her children a love for the refined Russian language! So, listen to me carefully - find a time machine, go back to the past, change yourself young to "the right boy with a good tongue, without any laces in the stalk", then come back here and you can forbid new youth to use the "cattle language" -)))) ... Otherwise, you have no such right. You can sin in your youth with the language, but you forbid today's youth? Hmm, you will insist, I will explain more popularly. Accept youth as they are, you have no other. You guessed that this is not for you personally, but in general for the generation - perhaps you were the "right combed boy" with a volume of Dostoevsky under your arm ... -)))). Oh my, how I loved to catch these around the corner! What confused eyes they had. Well, okay, we're distracted.
            Let's not make ourselves into really bigots, turn into purebreds and stuff. In your sincerity, in your desire to be clean, I DO NOT BELIEVE. And if so, then you will look like those fascist officers who loved Bach very much, read Goethe and at the same time ... Well, you yourself know ... Do not be like yourself. You’ll be instructing me - I remember my youth and will make out in you that attached chmyr with a volume of books under your arm ... With all the consequences.
            1. dmb
              dmb 20 January 2014 11: 49
              0
              Dear "aksakal". And you can ask why you liked to "catch these around the corner!" Does it have something to do with the fact that they read Dostoevsky? Judging by your commentary, you believe that if young people have mastered the language of the "zone", this should be welcomed. I disagree with you. It is unlikely that you speak this language with your own children (there are still children, and they swear). So why Wasserman, "carrying good and light") and being a "role model", speaks in the language of "thieves." Now for the essence of the article. Wasserman's rare confusion, usually not peculiar. Collected everything: from the state. construction, battle tactics, the course of the history of Europe and Russia, to the Higgs boson and the education system. In the primitive it sounds like this: we are good, they are bad. How easy it would be to live in the world if such a division were a reality. However, some live like that. Therefore, the fact that the Gestapo listened to Bach allows them to enroll the latter as a reptile. True, they forget that our "liberfreunds" did not disdain Orthodox icons either. It seems to me that with such verbosity Wasserman is trying to disguise a simple conclusion from what he said; Russia-USSR became a great power, followed by half the world, thanks to the socialist path of development. At least when he mentions industrialization, collectivization, education, the development of science, defense, he rightly writes that they are better than what the capitalist West did. And he does not draw a conclusion for a simple reason, if there is one, no federal network will invite him with lectures, because the current capitalist government does not like this conclusion very much. It is clearly not in her favor.
              1. aksakal
                aksakal 20 January 2014 16: 07
                -1
                Quote: dmb
                Dear "aksakal". And you can ask why you liked to "catch these around the corner!" Does it have something to do with the fact that they read Dostoevsky?

                - but I’m not going to deny it and look white and fluffy in front of you, I was a kid from a working village, and he remained. And just in the neighborhood not far from my place of residence there was a street where those who are now called the golden youth lived. They did not always go with a volume of Dostoevsky. They could be with a violin or something else cool - you know how cool it strum when it collapses? You can call me bydlyatina, I don’t give a damn about your opinion. If a guy can’t stand up for himself, the price is worthless. For myself, well, what would you know - I almost know this Dostoevsky by heart, but why I don’t advertise this knowledge along with a fashionable hairstyle. Is the idea clear?
                Quote: dmb
                being a "role model", speaks the language of "thieves".

                you should figure out how the language of the thieves differs from the banal youth slang. For example, the word "bash" is used by young people instead of the word to pay among themselves everywhere, except when they have to communicate with people like you. But all this brings a touch of insincerity, officiousness, falsehood. In addition, the word "bash" more accurately conveys the negative connotation of this operation, when you are FORCED TO PAY, when they are forced to pay! Therefore, this is how negatively to sharply treat slang - sometimes you need to burn with young people in a language they understand.
            2. anarh
              anarh 20 January 2014 13: 00
              +1
              Quote: aksakal
              but it’s not Zonov’s language, it’s not youth slang.

              Here, as far as I understand, not young people gather at all.
              And with what fright we should take their slank.
              Actually, our fathers did not accept our then "Newspeak" either.
              And they were very right.
              Dope in his youth is not a reason to support the dope of young people.
              They must be kept from dope.
              Strange, really, you are an "aksakal": you urge the young people to go.
              Strange, right.
          2. aksakal
            aksakal 20 January 2014 10: 37
            -3
            Quote: strannik595
            for some reason I don’t want someone reaching for me

            - okay, I agree, instead of reaching out to you I can kick. Rudeness for rudeness - you expressed disdain for my potential sympathy for you, did not give a damn about it - my answer is quite natural. I always do that. Don't you like it? Me too, when they tell me my "hello!" - "I'm not a hoach to greet me!" Well then, come here, we will explain the rules of conduct! is my usual answer. So it's more difficult about the fact that "I don't want to be drawn to me" - after all, we may not reach out. Like it?
            1. strannik595
              strannik595 20 January 2014 12: 32
              0
              Oh my god, how I loved to catch such around the corner! .. Will to instruct - I remember my youth and I will make out that you chmyrya with a volume of books under the arm ... With all the consequences .... I can kick. Satisfied? Rudeness to rudeness
              buddy, why are you dropping it? very brave? my phone number is 8 (953) 355-71-39, call, take care of your feet, otherwise there’s nothing to kick, literate
              1. anarh
                anarh 20 January 2014 13: 23
                +1
                Quote: strannik595
                buddy, why are you dropping it? very brave?

                So "aksakal".
                Also in marshall pagons.
                1. strannik595
                  strannik595 20 January 2014 13: 59
                  0

                  So "aksakal".
                  Also in marshall pagons.
                  in, in .... and then these saxauls are offended when they are chased for courteous behavior upon arrival in Russia wink
            2. anarh
              anarh 20 January 2014 13: 36
              +1
              Quote: aksakal
              - okay, I agree, instead of reaching for you I can kick. Arranges?

              Wai, wai, wai.
              What a strange, terrible and impolite "aksakal".
              But F.I.Dostoevsky still read.
      3. Victor-M
        Victor-M 19 January 2014 16: 14
        +2
        Quote: strannik595
        .. did not read further

        And why, everyone is looking for what is closer to him in the written.
      4. Umnichka
        Umnichka 19 January 2014 19: 53
        -7
        Thorough reasoning ... Looks like very metropolitan ...
      5. Umnichka
        Umnichka 19 January 2014 19: 53
        -5
        Thorough reasoning ... Looks like very metropolitan ...
      6. papas-57
        papas-57 19 January 2014 21: 35
        -5
        What to do if now the youth understands the language of the `` zone '' and the Komedy Clab better.
        1. anarh
          anarh 20 January 2014 13: 16
          +1
          Quote: papas-57
          What to do if now the youth understands the language of the `` zone '' and the Komedy Clab better.

          Of course, you need to go down to their level.
          NEED TO LIFT, NOT DROP.
      7. slavlav
        slavlav 20 January 2014 00: 02
        0
        I, too, after these lines of language and grammar stopped reading negative
        1. anarh
          anarh 20 January 2014 13: 18
          0
          Quote: slavlav
          I, too, after these lines of language and grammar stopped reading

          To no avail.
          Veiled articles of enemies need to be read.
      8. saber1357
        saber1357 20 January 2014 01: 55
        +2
        Oh, hello to the workers of the solar kibutz! What if Wasserman writes the truth, so in the kibbutz they immediately riot and say "superficially"? I would call this strange strannik595 an anti-Semite (although he is an employee of the solar kibbutz).
      9. Geisenberg
        Geisenberg 20 January 2014 03: 45
        +1
        Quote: strannik595
        .. did not read further, was he invited to read lectures in the zone?


        But in vain. Possession of thieves' concepts greatly facilitates everyday existence - the likelihood of falling into the wonderful by dullness and Loch’s greyhound is reduced.

        Ontole. Skull of world size. As soon as he arranged by suit, it was thus most convenient for presentation.

        In general, it is well written, and most importantly interesting. I like to read such powerful texts.
        1. aksakal
          aksakal 20 January 2014 10: 20
          0
          Quote: Geisenberg
          But in vain. Possession of thieves' concepts greatly facilitates everyday existence - the likelihood of falling into the wondrous by dullness and Loch’s greyhound is reduced

          - the more languages ​​you speak, the better it is for you. You're right.
    2. vezunchik
      vezunchik 19 January 2014 10: 55
      +3
      exactly. DAM loves to move time, maybe we will return to the Slavic time calculus ???
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. tronin.maxim
      tronin.maxim 19 January 2014 11: 09
      +29
      Quote: delfinN
      5508 years of Russian history disappeared

      No, much more has disappeared! For reference: BOOK OF VELESA: Another interesting document is the so-called Veles book. The last entries in it were made by Novgorod sorcerers at the end of the 20th century. The book covers more than XNUMX thousand years of the history of the Slavs. It refers to the great cooling that arose as a result of the disaster. It was caused by the fall of the fragments of the Small Moon - Fata during the war between the metropolis - Great Russia and the province that came out from under the "parental guardianship" - Antlania - Atlantis.

      A sharp cooling and climate change throughout Siberia and the Far Vaststock forced a huge number of ancient Slavs to leave the metropolis and move to the unoccupied lands of Europe, which led to a significant weakening of the metropolis itself. This was tried by the southern neighbors - the Arim, the inhabitants of Arimia (as the ancient races called ancient China in those days!) The war was difficult and unequal, but nevertheless the Great Rassenin defeated Arimia. This event happened 7511 years ago. The victory was so significant and heavy, that the Creation Day (conclusion of a peace treaty), September 22 according to the Christian calendar, our ancestors chose as a new, turning point of reference for their history. According to this Slavic calendar, summer is now (year) 7513 from SM (Creation). So , Russian history has more than 7,5 thousand years of a new era that came after victory in a difficult war with
      Ancient China in the past was called not only Arimia, but also the country of the Great Dragon. This figurative name of the country has been preserved to this day. In the Old Russian language, the dragon was called the Serpent, and in the modern language this word was transformed into "serpent". Probably, everyone remembers Russian folk tales in which Ivan Tsarevich defeats the three-headed, six-headed and finally the nine-headed Serpent Gorynych in order to free Vasilisa the Beautiful. Each of the Russian fairy tales ended with a line: "The tale is a lie, but there is a hint in it, a lesson for good young man." What lesson does this tale teach? In it, under the image of Vasilisa the Beautiful, the image of the Motherland, the Mother, is “hidden”. Under Ivan Tsarevich - a collective image of Russian knights liberating their homeland from enemies: the Serpent Gorynych, the Great Dragon, the troops of Arimia, in other words - China. This fairy tale immortalized the victory over China, the warrior (now known as George the Victorious), piercing the dragon-serpent with a spear, became its symbol. However, it does not matter what this symbol is called now - its essence remains the same: the Great Victory of Russian (Slavic) weapons over the enemy 7511 years ago.
      But, unfortunately, for some reason, everyone unanimously “forgot” about this victory, “the men of Russian historical science tell us Slavs that we de climbed out of our shores at the turn of the XNUMXth – XNUMXth centuries and were so primitive that even our statehood did not have! And only "enlightened Europe" helped and "taught" us how to live. Learning something good is never a sin, but is that the question? Recall that in the middle of the XI century, according to the Christian calendar, the daughter of Yaroy-Lava the Wise, Princess Anna, became the French queen. The princess, who came from the “wild” Kievan Rus, believed that she was in “enlightened” Europe. She perceived Paris as a large village, to which there is documentary evidence - her letters. Princess Anna brought Sulakadzaev’s library with her to this remote province. It was this man who made the first translation into modern Russian of the part of books from which he returned to Russia only in the XNUMXth century. They ended up in Sulakadzaev’s library. It’s just a little bit, but how much great history there was before the war with China! WE HAVE FORCES ON THE EARTH who want to permanently erase our past, but they did not succeed, everything is back to square one.
      1. Basarev
        Basarev 19 January 2014 14: 36
        -1
        Looks like a war of the Atlanteans and Hyperboreans ...
        1. Albert1988
          Albert1988 19 January 2014 15: 37
          +1
          20000 years of history ??? Is it nothing that 20000 years ago, most of the territory of Ancient Rus was covered by a glacier, and various species of mammoths, woolly rhinos and other glacial fauna lived on the remaining territory?
          But seriously, the first people appeared on the territory of European Russia about 7000 years ago. Appeared - in the sense of entrenched, some continued to migrate further to Siberia ...
          1. tor11121
            tor11121 19 January 2014 16: 13
            +3
            Karama is an early Paleolithic site of an ancient man in the south of the Altai Territory, in the valley of the Anuy River. It was discovered in 2001, 3 km upstream from the mouth of the Karama River [1] [2].
            The parking lot is located in Soloneshensky district, 15 km downstream of Anuya from Denisovskaya cave [3].
            The archaeological materials of Karama are represented by tools typical of the Early Paleolithic era, and represent an industry of pebble type. In technical terms, they are characterized by techniques of unsystematic and parallel cleaving of workpieces. The Early Paleolithic pebble industry of Karama indicates the population of the Altai territory with populations of Homo erectus, which came from Africa with the first migration wave [4].
            Findings of pebbled articles of the Karama site date back to the Lower Pleistocene. According to the totality of materials from palynological analysis and other analytical data, the time of accumulation of deposits occurred in the range of 600-800 thousand years ago. Karama is the oldest known location in North and Central Asia, allowing you to trace the first migration of an ancient person from Africa to East Asia [5]. Wikipedia!
            1. The comment was deleted.
            2. atalef
              atalef 19 January 2014 16: 23
              -2
              Quote: tor11121
              Findings of pebbled articles of the Karama site date back to the Lower Pleistocene. According to the totality of materials from palynological analysis and other analytical data, the time of accumulation of deposits occurred in the range of 600-800 thousand years ago. Karama is the oldest known location in North and Central Asia, allowing you to trace the first migration of an ancient person from Africa to East Asia [5].

              You should not call an ancient person - a person (in our concept), in his eyes he was not far from a humanoid monkey
              If we are talking about Man, then we need to talk about Intelligent Man, and he
              The main anthropological features of man that distinguish them from paleoanthropes and archanthropes are a voluminous brain skull with a high arch, a vertically rising forehead, the absence of an infraorbital cushion, and a well-developed chin protrusion.

              Fossil humans had a slightly more massive skeleton than modern humans. Ancient people created a rich Late Paleolithic culture (a variety of tools made of stone, bone and horns, dwellings, sewn clothes, polychrome painting on the walls of caves, sculpture, engraving on bones and horn). The oldest known bone remains of neoanthropes are dated by the radiocarbon method at 39 thousand years, but it is most likely that neoanthropes arose 70-60 thousand years ago.
              1. anarh
                anarh 19 January 2014 23: 26
                +5
                Those. in Israel Darwin's theory of man-apes in use?
                Or is it rubbish only for gentiles?
              2. tor11121
                tor11121 20 January 2014 06: 43
                0
                Reason, a question of the psyche and subjectivity. Well, it is more likely to Kant, to his ideas of practical reason.
            3. Albert1988
              Albert1988 19 January 2014 18: 54
              -3
              Quote: Albert1988
              According to the aggregate of palynological analysis materials and other analytical data, the accumulation time of deposits occurred in the range of 600-800 thousand years

              You see, the species Homo Sapience arose according to the latest data something about 70000 years ago, some anthropologists really call a longer term - 150000 - 170000. And 600 - 800 thousand years ago, hominids could live in this area, but this is not really people in the modern sense, as well as advanced monkeys with apparently the beginnings of the second signaling system. You yourself write
              Quote: tor11121
              Homo erectus

              and this, you know, is not a reasonable person at all. And our view in these places appeared as I already wrote - about 7000 years ago))))
            4. Aleksey_K
              Aleksey_K 19 January 2014 22: 17
              +6
              When a cataclysm occurs (nuclear or cosmogonic), part of the people (units) will survive in territories where food and water can be found. In the absence of electricity, gasoline, gas, tools and engineers who can make tools, you personally will also rock rocks to make a tip to the spear, because You can’t make a bow, it needs technology. The knowledge is lost. Over the centuries, future people will dig up your bones and stone tips and think about it - you were an erectus or walked on all fours. Are you from Africa or from America! And they will consider that from Africa, because they also managed to find stone tips.
          2. ele1285
            ele1285 19 January 2014 17: 39
            0
            Quote: Albert1988
            20000 years of history ??? But seriously, the first people appeared on the territory of European Russia about 7000 years ago.

            You have no flight of imagination and trepidation of the soul. And I do not trust the official science "archeology". She certainly works for the brazen Saxons. Yes, somewhere near Voronezh there are parking lots of people who, according to official data, are about 20 tons. this occasion was founded.
            1. Bronis
              Bronis 19 January 2014 18: 45
              -3
              Quote: ele1285
              Yes, somewhere near Voronezh there are parking lots for people who, according to official figures, have about 20t.let. In addition, a museum has been founded in this regard.

              This, sorry, judging by your dating is somewhere Mesolithic. The midst of the Stone Age. They are related to Ancient Russia as mammoths to pterodactyls. Archeology studies ancient man ...
              1. ele1285
                ele1285 19 January 2014 19: 57
                +2
                Quote: Bronis
                They are related to Ancient Russia as mammoths to pterodactyls. Archeology studies ancient man ...

                Are you absolutely sure that they have NO relation to the Slavs? Or are you the ultimate truth? You have very arrogant conclusions.
              2. 11111mail.ru
                11111mail.ru 19 January 2014 19: 59
                0
                Quote: Bronis
                This, sorry, judging by your dating somewhere Mesolithic

                20 thousand is still a Paleolithic (Solutre-Madeleine transition). Sungir. The works of O.N. Bader, somewhere 21-24 thousand. And the Mesolithic, by the way, is the appearance of a simple onion and the appearance of ichthyophagy with an upper dating limit of no higher than 18 thousand. Next is the Neolithic revolution
              3. Setrac
                Setrac 19 January 2014 20: 25
                +2
                Quote: Bronis
                This, sorry, judging by your dating is somewhere Mesolithic. The midst of the Stone Age. They are related to Ancient Russia as mammoths to pterodactyls. Archeology studies ancient man ...

                You see, dear, the Mesolithic is there or not, but the parking near Voronezh is homo sapiens, and not some Neanderthals or other homids there. Moreover, homo sapiens is Indo-European type
                1. Albert1988
                  Albert1988 19 January 2014 21: 17
                  -1
                  Quote: Setrac
                  You see, dear, the Mesolithic there or not, but parking near Voronezh

                  So we are talking about Altai, and not about Voronezh))))
                2. 11111mail.ru
                  11111mail.ru 21 January 2014 18: 38
                  0
                  Quote: Setrac
                  You see, dear, the Mesolithic is there or not, but the parking near Voronezh is homo sapiens, and not some Neanderthals or other homids there. Moreover, homo sapiens is Indo-European type

                  Sorry, I have no confirmation of your qualifications as an archaeologist, as well as in what capacity you personally participated in any archaeological excavations. I personally dug at O. N. Bader on the "Sungir" (Paleolithic-21-23 thousand YE-уеs egoy) South-W from the city of Vladimir, a quarry of the Kirzavod, 1973, "Mesolithic" - Xun-1, Xun- 2 RB, Bakalinsky district north of the village of Bakaly about 6,5 km. 1967, Eneolithic - in the same place, but was not included in the reports of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, but there was a suspicion of PALEOLITH on the territory of the BASSR, unfortunately it was washed away by the flood of 1968. tribe "ZEMLEROYKA HIKH" 1968 A request to real archaeologists to "haggle" the so-called. "experts" on this resource!
            2. Albert1988
              Albert1988 19 January 2014 18: 58
              0
              Quote: ele1285
              She certainly works for arrogant Saxons

              Believe me, "science" cannot work for the insolent Saxons, it is not an animated concept, I do not argue, some committed "specialists" can work for their point of view, by the way, such insolent Saxon gentlemen are actively promoting the point of view that until the X century Only "bears" lived in Russia, serious domestic researchers name just the date of the emergence of the Slavic ethnos and culture a maximum of about 5000 years ago, the period must be said is not very short within the framework of human history))))
              1. ele1285
                ele1285 19 January 2014 20: 02
                +2
                Quote: Albert1988
                Believe me, "science" cannot work for the impudent Saxons, it is not an animated concept

                Science can work for anyone, Hitler is an example of this. If politics starts to run in science, then who does this science work for? The Nobile Committee confirms this. And remember the slogan - "science for the service of the people."
                And even in archeology, and even more so in history, you can distort the facts like that, Mom don't cry. Kazan recently celebrated 1000 years on the basis of an Arab coin found there. Is this 100% proof? Norman theory of Rurik. You can say that in the Slavic language there was a word "thrown" - flour, bread. In German - brot. Vasser is generally a wrong pronunciation of the Slavic "water", we conclude that we taught the Germans to use the wheel and wash.
                Archeology is simply a COMPARATIVE science with a few exceptions. How can you prove that the pyramids are 5 thousand years old, not 10 or 15. How can you prove that humanity originated in Africa? They excavated the Scythian mound. Greek vessels that are about 3000 years old are buried in it. also belong to this period. Read Academician Rybakov, he writes very interestingly about this. Some suggestions.
                1. Albert1988
                  Albert1988 19 January 2014 21: 21
                  0
                  Quote: ele1285
                  Science can work for anyone, Hitler’s example

                  If you mean all kinds of racial theories, then this is not a science, just like Lysenkoism in our country and other similar things ...
                  Quote: ele1285
                  Archeology is just a COMPARATIVE science with a few exceptions.

                  Excuse me, then you have absolutely no idea about MODERN archeology ...
                  Quote: ele1285
                  Norman Rurik theory

                  Its INCONSISTENCY has long been proved and I will emphasize it by ACADEMIC scientists !!!! Me, incidentally, at Moscow State University. Lomonosov professor at the Faculty of History read at a lecture that Norman theory is nothing more than a political invention of Peter I, why did he need it, read my post below)))
                  1. ele1285
                    ele1285 19 January 2014 21: 41
                    0
                    Quote: Albert1988
                    If you mean all kinds of racial theories, then this is not a science, just like Lysenkoism in our country and other similar things ...

                    It's kind of strange that you reason. Only you decide what is science and what is not. For Hitler, the racial theory was also science. Lysenko was also an academician. And about "MODERN archeology ..." which does not have sufficient funding is somehow generally sad to hear.
                    Quote: Albert1988

                    Me, incidentally, at Moscow State University. Lomonosov professor at the Faculty of History lectured that the Norman theory was nothing more than a political invention of Peter I, why he had it, read my post below)))

                    I think there will be no less authoritative scientists who will prove the opposite. So everything is in comparison. Try to look with not a blind eye.
                    1. Albert1988
                      Albert1988 19 January 2014 22: 13
                      +1
                      Quote: ele1285
                      Only you decide what is science and what is not. For Hitler, racial theory was also a science.

                      No, what science is and what is not determined by a clear set of criteria - science is in the modern sense empirical knowledge based on data from an analysis of the results of an experiment or analysis of any information sources (read historical documents), and the documents themselves may be subject to analysis, for example age, ink / paper technology, etc.
                      Quote: ele1285
                      For Hitler, racial theory was also a science.

                      Recent historical data indicate that Hitler was primarily a cynical liar, so racial theory was probably nothing more than a tool for him to justify his dirty deeds. And even if he considered it a science sincerely, it was not a science anyway, since he used the adjustment of the results to concepts that had already been invented, and this science categorically does not allow this!
                      Quote: ele1285
                      Lysenko was also an academician

                      Unfortunately, yes, but Lysenko was in reality a "political provocateur", and most likely a specially sent one ...
                      Quote: ele1285
                      And about "MODERN archeology ..." which does not have sufficient funding is somehow generally sad to hear.

                      This I spoke about our country, where, unfortunately, the larger and more economically important branches of science suffer from a severe lack of funding, and as a result of the inability to timely implement the most advanced research methods (
                      Quote: ele1285
                      I think there will be no less authoritative scientists who will prove the opposite.

                      You can prove anything: the rezun proves very convincingly that the USSR unleashed the Second World War, but at the same time this is the most arrogant lie according to the method of Dr. Goebbels ...
                      I mean, the scientist (in this case, the historian) should first of all look for the facts, information about some historical period / person, and then build theories based on the analysis of these facts.
                      And first, do not come up with the theory that he likes, and then look for facts that confirm it ...
                      1. The comment was deleted.
                      2. ele1285
                        ele1285 19 January 2014 22: 33
                        0
                        Quote: Albert1988
                        Unfortunately yes, but Lysenko was in reality

                        I mean, the scientist (in this case, the historian) should first of all look for the facts, information about some historical period / person, and then build theories based on the analysis of these facts.
                        And first, do not come up with the theory that he likes, and then look for facts that confirm it ...

                        We almost came to a common opinion. Lysenko, as a scientist was necessary. Everything is in comparison. Everything should not go smoothly in science.
                        At first, scientists are looking for facts, and then they come up with a theory, I think a lot. Vanity is common to everyone.
                        And the humanities themselves are primarily in the service of politics. Including philosophy, history (archeology as one of the sections) and literature.
                        And the reason is just a clown from the story on which I am sorry for the time spent.

                        Thank you interesting to discuss. Regards.
                      3. Albert1988
                        Albert1988 19 January 2014 23: 01
                        +1
                        Quote: ele1285
                        .Lysenko, as a scientist was necessary. Everything is in comparison. In science, everything should not be smooth.

                        To be honest, I didn’t understand this high thought a bit? After all, I think you are well aware that as a result of Lysenko’s activity, not only the Soviet genetic school, which was the second largest and largest in the world after the American one, was defeated, but also a terrible blow was dealt to developmental biology, and in entering the applied sphere of selection, which very seriously threw back Soviet and Russian biology ...
                        Quote: ele1285
                        At first, scientists are looking for facts, and then they come up with a theory, I think a lot. Vanity is common to everyone.

                        Again, it’s not very clear, to be honest - that’s the way to do it: first find the facts (of course, not excluding the preliminary working hypothesis), and only then build concepts on the basis of them. The vain gentlemen are just trying to fit the facts into the theory they like ...
                      4. ele1285
                        ele1285 20 January 2014 00: 20
                        0
                        Quote: Albert1988

                        To be honest, I didn’t understand this high thought a bit? After all, I think you are well aware that as a result of Lysenko’s activity, not only the Soviet genetic school, which was the second largest and largest in the world after the American one, was defeated, but also a terrible blow was dealt to developmental biology, and in entering the applied sphere of selection, which very seriously threw back Soviet and Russian biology ...

                        Again, it’s not very clear, to be honest - that’s the way to do it: first find the facts (of course, not excluding the preliminary working hypothesis), and only then build concepts on the basis of them. The vain gentlemen are just trying to fit the facts into the theory they like ...

                        I’m talking about the scientist Lysenko, and not about the consequences. He is like that pike in the river for crucian carp.
                        Well, what about the second is not clear? There are more vain people than "fans" from science, and they play the first violin (in the humanities). For grants, titles and orders they recognize what they want. Cited the 1000th anniversary of Kazan as an example.
                        Best regards
                      5. aksakal
                        aksakal 20 January 2014 10: 44
                        +1
                        Quote: ele1285
                        I'm talking about the scientist Lysenko, and not about the consequences. He's like that pike in the river for a crucian carp. Well, what about the second is not clear? There are more vain people than "fans" of science, and they play the first violin (in the humanities). For grants , titles and orders recognize whatever you want. Cited the 1000th anniversary of Kazan as an example.

                        - this is not the same Lysenko, who gave out as a criterion for distinguishing the living from the inanimate: "all living things want to eat!" Yes he is, this Lysenko.
                      6. Albert1988
                        Albert1988 20 January 2014 19: 10
                        +1
                        Quote: ele1285
                        I’m talking about the scientist Lysenko, and not about the consequences. He is like that pike in the river for crucian carp.

                        So the fact of the matter is that a scientist is first of all an intellectual heritage left by him, then the results of his scientific activity, expanding knowledge about some issue. For example, the domestic geneticist A.S. Serebrovsky, among other things, proved that a gene is not a bead on a string, but an extended stretch of DNA, that mutations in different parts of it can have different effects. Before him, it was believed that a gene was just a "point on the chromosome", and a mutation is the removal of this "point", although many facts contradicted this, but apart from Serebrovsky and his colleagues, no one could explain this?
                        And what remains after Lysenko? The answer is the destruction of the national school of genetics and, as a result, our catastrophic lag in this area from the rest of the world, although before that we had not only begun to catch up with the Morgan school, but also ahead of it in many ways! Even in 1937, the students of Morgan Möller and Stertevant came to the USSR to learn new methods from Soviet geneticists! Can you imagine this now?
                        Therefore, it can be clearly stated - the activity of Lysenko was unconditionally harmful, and he was not a pike in a river with crucians, but a pest, an outright pest that they fought so hard in those days ...
                        Quote: ele1285
                        There are more vain people than science “geeks”, and they play first violin (in the humanities).

                        Well, in fact, not everything is so bad - there are also a lot of serious scientists, but unfortunately, serious historical works are rarely popularized and become known only to a relatively small circle of people, but like a lot of incompetent, but very vain scribes, as you rightly noted, "for grants "they write everything they don't get, and, unfortunately, it lies on our shelves and its people buy and read ...
                        Hence the result sad
                2. Stanislas
                  Stanislas 19 January 2014 22: 34
                  +1
                  Quote: Albert1988
                  the scientist (in this case, the historian) should first of all look for the facts, information about some historical period / person, and then build theories based on the analysis of these facts.
                  Everything is exactly the opposite: hypothesis - controversy (thesis and antithesis) - facts - theory. A hypothesis confirmed by facts and passed through the crucible of criticism becomes a theory. Without the conceptual scheme, which is already contained in the hypothesis, facts can be collected "to the blue brooms." Scattered information in itself is not even facts; fact is that which confirms or refutes some hypothesis or theory. If, for example, someone inflates and flies, this can become a fact only because there is a theory (or hypothesis) according to which a person cannot fly simply by inflating, and this case just refutes this hypothesis.
                3. Albert1988
                  Albert1988 19 January 2014 22: 56
                  +1
                  Quote: Stanislav
                  Everything is exactly the opposite: hypothesis - controversy (thesis and antithesis) - facts - theory.

                  The hypothesis in this case is only a technical assumption - first we look at what is already known on this topic and formulate what we want to know, look more specifically and formulate how it is POSSIBLE, everything can be arranged there, and then we check in practice, it’s me and wanted to say, just simplified too, my fault.
                  As for the facts as just confirming and refuting the hypothesis - I do not quite agree - the fact is essentially a world phenomenon that we observe - for example, a mutation of a certain gene caused a complete halt in plant growth - an observed fact, and the hypothesis that this gene induces the growth of a plant organism. Accordingly, a transgenic line of plants is made for confirmation, in which this gene works with terrible force and we get hefty thick plants, this is also a fact, and it confirms our hypothesis, and if suddenly no enhanced growth is observed, it refutes, and note these facts may exist without hypotheses))))
                  Only there are gentlemen who, for example, really like the theory that, for example, Fedor Alekseevich would be a better king than his brother, the future Peter the Great, and only those facts that confirm this position are searched and included in the analysis. In science, this is absolutely impossible to do! For this is no longer science, but subgonometry ...
                4. Stanislas
                  Stanislas 20 January 2014 09: 13
                  +1
                  Quote: Albert1988
                  there are gentlemen who, for example, really like the theory that, for example, Fedor Alekseevich would be a better king than his future brother Peter the Great
                  We call a theory completely different: your example does not attract not only a theory, but even a scientific hypothesis, because, in order to remain scientific, it must certainly be testable. And the fantasy on the conditionally subjunctive theme "who would be the best king" is not testable in principle. hi
                5. Albert1988
                  Albert1988 20 January 2014 18: 42
                  0
                  Quote: Stanislav
                  your example does not draw not only on the theory, but even on the scientific hypothesis, because in order to remain scientific, it must certainly be verified.

                  so I just gave this example as an anti-scientific concept! Not so long ago I just stumbled upon the opus of a "famous historian and writer" who was talking in all seriousness about Fyodor and Pyotr Alekseevich - they say the first is "better" than the second in everything!
              2. Stanislas
                Stanislas 20 January 2014 09: 54
                +1
                Here is a normal example.
                Quote: Albert1988
                the hypothesis is that this gene induces the growth of a plant organism.
                The path of scientific research is as follows: first - the theory that genes are a set of instructions for building proteins that affect the formation, growth, reproduction and death of an organism; then, on its basis, two initially unrelated phenomena - gene mutation and cessation of growth - are hypothetically linked; this hypothesis is tested in observation (for example, in an experiment) and, if confirmed, turns into a scientific fact, moreover, until someone puts forward a new hypothesis that allows observing additional conditions, setting up an experiment differently, etc., which can lead to falsification of this fact. As, for example, at one time, American surgeons, based on Darwin's theory, were so convinced of the "fact" that appendicitis is a rudimentary organ that they offered a service to remove it from babies in maternity hospitals in order to save it from possible troubles in the future. Many years later, this provision was recognized as a mistake, and the corresponding operations were declared crippling. The pancake-like shape of the Earth, the non-cellular structure of the brain, and much more were once considered indisputable and proven facts. Empirically, a person can observe only that in relation to which he has semantic constructs (dogmas, hypotheses, theories, etc.), in contrast to an animal, in which a sensory picture receives integrity and causes an appropriate reaction thanks to emotion without any rational meaning. These are the facts based on modern scientific methodology.
              3. Albert1988
                Albert1988 20 January 2014 18: 55
                +1
                I absolutely agree - you have perfectly and fully explained the same thing as I wanted to say. Are you not a positivist philosopher for an hour? wink
  • polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 19 January 2014 19: 54
    +4
    The place near Voronezh is called Kastenki, recent excavation data indicate that I was 7-10 thousand years older than previously assumed.
    1. Albert1988
      Albert1988 19 January 2014 21: 24
      0
      Quote: polkovnik manuch
      by 7-10 thousand years than previously expected.

      It depends on what methods the analysis was conducted in. In our archeology, unfortunately, due to lack of funding, they often use extremely outdated methods that give huge errors.
  • negeroi
    negeroi 19 January 2014 21: 21
    -4
    Just don’t sing and don’t dance. But didn’t that Russia as a tribe appeared only 1000 years ago? And the Slavs didn’t genetically exist 5 thousand years ago. However, it doesn’t matter to those who believe in fairy tales. it and 7000 thousand years ago, there is serious evidence that China as a state appeared only one and a half thousand years ago, and not as a state, but as fragmented principalities. But of course, they came up with fairy tales about the fact that they are de ancient and de everything in the world but they didn’t even think up to themselves that they were 5 thousand. Of course, you’re cooler than the Chinese, you can immediately see the Slavic’s creativity, it’s better than the Chinese, he’s twisted it intricately, he’ll put all the tales together. remind you that you are not in kindergarten, there are solid adult men around. Yes, I know it's useless.
    1. Albert1988
      Albert1988 19 January 2014 21: 38
      +1
      Well, you, comrade, too abruptly, the Slavs just somewhere about 5000 years ago and stood out as an ethnic group, this is confirmed by genetic data, they really united into a single state about 1000 years ago. China, of course, did not exist for 5000 years - civilization just emerged there at that time and the Ktai people themselves admit it, and 1500 years ago, several kingdoms arose on the territory of China, which much later united Qin Shihuang Di. And the fact that the Chinese consider their history "continuous" - they have the right, because on their territory there were no major changes in the ethnic group living there, as happened with Egypt and Europe. By the way, no large invasions of alien ethnic groups were observed on the territory of Russia, so we can also consider our history "continuously" as the Chinese))
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. negeroi
        negeroi 19 January 2014 22: 24
        -1
        I agree, it’s harsh. However, you must agree that you have at least some conscience. It’s extremely disrespectful for adult men to tell demagogical tales. Moreover, even respecting someone else’s opinion is difficult to make a move, because there is no personal opinion, if you exclude nationalistic self-praise , all this is a set of other people's tales, songs from other people's words and tales.

        In the territory of Russia? If you do not take into account the 2 waves of the invasion of the Ogres, the resettlement of the Bulgars, and as it turned out recently, the Jews. Although you were right they were before.
        1. Albert1988
          Albert1988 19 January 2014 23: 05
          0
          Well, nothing, it is encouraging that after the introduction of a single history textbook, at least some kind of order in people’s heads about history forms))))
  • The comment was deleted.
  • anarh
    anarh 19 January 2014 23: 19
    +2
    Quote: tronin.maxim
    For reference: BOOK OF VELESA


    VELESOV BOOK - a text first published in the 1950s by Russian emigrants Yu. P. Mirolyubov and Al. Chicken (A. A. Kurenkov) in San Francisco. According to Mirolyubov’s stories, he was written off from wooden planks lost during the war, allegedly created around the XNUMXth century.

    NOTES ANYTHING?

    And that only one person saw the originals?
    Twelve centuries existed before him, and he scorched a scum, but before that translated?

    And what was published in the USA in 1950?

    I'm worried
    1. Albert1988
      Albert1988 19 January 2014 23: 24
      0
      Quote: anarh
      I'm worried

      Well, in a good way, it alarms anyone who knows anything about history as a science))))
  • Moga
    Moga 20 January 2014 00: 20
    +1
    I am sincerely convinced that the Great People have a Great History, and not what is described in modern history textbooks and fits into the head of our children.

    However, the Veles book is not the source of that story, and if you look at the issue in detail, it is a crude fake of Mirolyubov, for which there is irrefutable evidence. Moreover, this book, the fruit of his fantasies, as many linguists who have studied photos with text from the book’s plates also confirm.
  • saber1357
    saber1357 20 January 2014 01: 59
    +1
    Oh, the friends of the kibbutz workers - neopagans with a book of veles and spreading noodles for Ivanov, who do not remember their history, went into action. But tell such a defender of Hyperborea, for example, the phrase "Russian Orthodox Church", so he will spit out poisonous saliva out of hatred for Wasserman (English humor, laugh here).
  • egor2t
    egor2t 20 January 2014 11: 54
    +1
    Interesting! I didn’t know, but I smelled it with my heart
  • AntonR7
    AntonR7 19 January 2014 16: 06
    +1
    our history has not disappeared, but the chronology has changed, do not confuse.
  • Bronis
    Bronis 19 January 2014 18: 34
    +3
    Quote: delfinN
    It was under Peter I that 5508 years of Russian history disappeared

    In the sense of the reckoning from Creation abolished? laughing
    Everyone has always been involved in correcting history. Politics interprets "momentary necessity" ... it was so before Peter, so it was with him and after him. And he did not rewrite history. It, in fact, was written in the XVIII-XIX centuries. In the West, a century and a half earlier. But, in both cases, they relied on a few written sources - chronicles and scraps of evidence. The annals were also the fruit of politics. so the history of chagall and march side by side with politics
    1. Albert1988
      Albert1988 19 January 2014 19: 03
      +1
      Quote: Bronis
      Chronicles were also the fruit of politics. so the story walked and walks side by side with politics

      It is precisely that in China, Emperor Qin Shihuang-Di ordered to destroy all books written before his reign, that the European monarchs did the same. Our Great Petya is no exception - he had to bring his pedigree right up to Octavian Augustus himself, well, to stand on a par with the monarchs of Europe - they also led their dynasties from poor Augustus))) And for this it was only necessary to turn the ancestor Romanov family - Grand Duchess, nicknamed Mare in a certain descendant of the Romans Combilus! And of course, it was necessary to eliminate all the chronicles where this same Mare was mentioned, that's all, and no secret conspiracy ...
      1. Bronis
        Bronis 19 January 2014 20: 00
        -1
        Exactly. The problem is that the "tradition" continues. Some are trying to reduce our history to the level of misunderstanding and just filth. Others speculate on history, weave Hyperborea with Atlantis and, foaming at the mouth, prove that Russia is almost 50 thousand years old. All this undermines interest in historical science, and simply ruins it.
  • saber1357
    saber1357 20 January 2014 02: 01
    +1
    Well, yes, only Russia remained, at least in some form. And the chances that "hurray we are breaking the Swedes bend" would have been quite the opposite, were quite great, without Peter's reforms.
  • 225chay
    225chay 20 January 2014 09: 26
    +1
    Quote: delfinN
    It was under Peter I that 5508 years of Russian history disappeared


    The strength of Russia and our salvation in large families, in respect for elders, respect for children, unity of all indigenous peoples ...
  • Ingvar 72
    Ingvar 72 18 January 2014 15: 39
    +8
    Strong article. Although a Jew, Wasserman is handsome.
    I immediately believed in the first book of Vladimir Bogdanovich Rezun, who had riveted the pseudonym Viktor Suvorov upon himself, unconditionally.
    Rezun wrote to see under the dictation of experts, the first book is read in a binge, and is written truthfully. See for the seed. hi
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 19 January 2014 09: 03
      +13
      Wasserman never departs from the canvas, which he himself illuminates. A man who does not have a lot of post-Soviet writers from history or political science. He has his own point of view on everything, and is always ironly reasoned and supported by facts.
    2. ele1285
      ele1285 19 January 2014 09: 05
      +27
      Quote: Ingvar 72
      Strong article. Although a Jew, Wasserman.

      Stalin said to himself that he was a Russian Georgian, and Wasserman 100% Russian Jew in the best sense.
      1. Sakmagon
        Sakmagon 19 January 2014 10: 29
        +17
        Although a Jew, Wasserman is handsome

        And for me - just a SMART MAN!
        There, where I come from, there has always been a great mixture of nationalities, and the worker is hell (mines and metallurgy). Do not believe me - a Jew worked with me in a mine. Plowed like dad Carlo!
        Therefore, we always had 2 nationality in the Donbass - either you are a good person, or w. NATIONALITY, CASE OF EYES AND BELIEF OF ROLE DOES NOT PLAY.
        And how "stuck" with you - a Jew, a Jew ...
        The enemy of Russia is a railway engineer, not a Jew! ZIONISM = FASCISM = NAZISM
        And, by the way, after many years of exile "walk" in the Russian Empire, after, in ALL of his speeches, Stalin said - "WE, RUSSIANS ,,,"!
        1. Basarev
          Basarev 19 January 2014 14: 39
          +4
          Here I am about the same thing - a Jew and a Liquid - are not synonyms!
          1. aksakal
            aksakal 20 January 2014 10: 53
            0
            Quote: Basarev
            Here I am about the same thing - a Jew and a Liquid - are not synonyms!
            - the trouble is that there are no clear criteria - markers to distinguish one from the other -)))). According to the words, to distinguish is not the case, in words you can say anything. Judging by deeds - it is possible, but more often it is too late
            to change something, when you have correctly come to the conclusion that that type is DANGEROUS
            Quote: Basarev
            Liquid

            . For example, according to the act - successful raider seizure of a powerful enterprise, you came to the conclusion that the one who carried out this seizure -
            Quote: Basarev
            Liquid
            . So you will not do anything! But try - not you, but he will already wipe you off the face of the earth, because he already has a social status, and resources, and the police have already been lured. There is only one way out - in the early stages, somehow to calculate such, but there is no methodology! So I agree - I have nothing against the Jews, but I hate the Zionists. But I do not know how to distinguish them from each other in the initial stages.
        2. anarh
          anarh 20 January 2014 00: 11
          -1
          Quote: Sacmagon
          And for me - just a SMART MAN!

          Nobody says that is stupid.
          Bad enemies are only in the movies.
      2. anarh
        anarh 20 January 2014 00: 05
        0
        Quote: ele1285
        Stalin said to himself that he was a Russian Georgian, and Wasserman 100% Russian Jew in the best sense.

        Where did you see the good point?

        In the perverse logic, according to which cockroaches have ears growing on their legs, because, being deprived of their legs, they (unlike control specimens) do not run away with a strong bang.
        And all Russian originality comes down to a low density of residence?
        But what about the Eskimos?

        Are the assurances of the cook so important to you that the noodles that he hangs on his ears are easily digestible?
        The recipe is simple: he spiced up the concoction with a couple of hurray, patriotic slogans supported by "fenei" (the goyim would not understand otherwise) and voila, you can hang it up.
        1. aksakal
          aksakal 20 January 2014 11: 03
          0
          Quote: anarh
          And all Russian originality comes down to a low density of residence?

          - The mentality of the people is created by living conditions, didn’t you know? Onotole did not claim that all Russian originality boils down to this; he noted some traits of mentality and explained why they appeared.
          True, the Kazakhs also have this, for example, quickly helping the whole world to help a fellow tribesman who has got into a difficult situation is called "ASAR" - as if literally "ALL THE WORLD".
          And Kazakhs also have a habit - while the crowd gathered at some event or celebration, (when will you still gather?), You need to use and solve some old problem of yours, which is solved only with a large number of people - this is also a parable due to the small population density. Do Russians have analogues in mentality? I don’t know here.
          But I wouldn’t water Onotole for this, he didn’t drive the whole Russian identity into it, but some features - that increased collectivism ...
          1. anarh
            anarh 20 January 2014 13: 54
            +1
            Quote: aksakal
            - The mentality of the people is created by living conditions, didn’t you know?

            Frankly, I did not know.
            What affects is suspected.
            And the fact that the spirit of the people is created ONLY by the living conditions, honestly, I did not know.

            Quote: aksakal
            But I wouldn’t water Onotole for this, he didn’t drive the whole Russian identity into it, but some features - that increased collectivism ...

            A very ingenious phrase from Russian words, could not figure it out.
            By the way, why not Onotole and not Anatoly?
            All the same, you didn’t read F.I.Dostoevsky in vain.
            Although I understand: all my free time was spent on catching and kicking readers.
            1. Setrac
              Setrac 20 January 2014 15: 15
              +1
              Quote: anarh
              Frankly, I did not know.
              What affects is suspected.
              And the fact that the spirit of the people is created ONLY by the living conditions, honestly, I did not know.

              Exactly so, the blacks settled in Russia and their children will be Russian, not in color, but in spirit, otherwise they will not survive in the harsh conditions of the Russian climate. Being determines consciousness.
              1. PPL
                PPL 20 January 2014 22: 45
                0
                blacks settled in Russia and their children will be Russian, not in color, but in spirit, otherwise they will not survive in the harsh conditions of the Russian climate.

                Are you hinting at Pushkin? hi Good example, I put +
  • andrei332809
    andrei332809 19 January 2014 07: 00
    +9
    always like to read this jew. good
  • makarov
    makarov 19 January 2014 07: 44
    +10
    I read it with interest, I have diverse conclusions, so I do not comment on the material itself. I will say one thing that some paragraphs point to the commonality of Wasserman's views with his own regarding his enthusiasm for the works of V.S.
    1. 11111mail.ru
      11111mail.ru 19 January 2014 09: 17
      +1
      Quote: makarov
      Wasserman’s views with his own relatively passion for the works of V.S. Pikul - a talented writer and patriot.

      I also admire (periodically re-read) Valentin Savvich Pikul’s books. I agree with your attitude towards him. However: where in the text of the above article is mentioned V.S.Pikul?
      1. alex-cn
        alex-cn 19 January 2014 10: 02
        +3
        There is no need to mention it in the text, it is still a writer, they are not referred to in political science, but they have the same deeply patriotic and Russian worldview, their honor and praise!
        1. 11111mail.ru
          11111mail.ru 19 January 2014 10: 23
          0
          Quote: alex-cn
          There is no need to mention it in the text, it is still a writer, they are not referred to in political science

          Sailors have a rule established by S.O. Makarov: “We write what we observe and what we don’t observe, we don’t write”.
          It was this rule that I had in mind: there was no mention of V.S. Pikul in an article by A.A. Wasserman, so do not mention it in vain!
          1. makarov
            makarov 19 January 2014 17: 12
            0
            SW ergo-hence; bak - the first three letters of the settlement of the place of birth, If you are Visserman, then you have changed a lot laughing
            1. 11111mail.ru
              11111mail.ru 19 January 2014 20: 06
              0
              Quote: makarov
              If you are Vysserman, then you have changed a lot.

              Do not respect A.A. Wasserman, so this is the matter of your conscience. As a matter of fact, the unanswered question for you is placed two positions below (12:02 in time). Arguments have probably run out, since your facts are not reliable!
      2. makarov
        makarov 19 January 2014 10: 14
        +3
        The name of Savvich is not directly mentioned, but his descriptions and conclusions: - The Prussian king Frederick II Karl Friedrich-Wilhelmovich Hohenzollern, nicknamed for numerous successful wars by Frederick the Great, said in his hearts: two bullets are needed on a Russian soldier: one to kill and the second to kill knock down ..

        and further in the text, and not only this fact, but also others cited by Wasserman
        1. 11111mail.ru
          11111mail.ru 19 January 2014 12: 02
          +1
          Quote: makarov
          said in hearts: two bullets are needed on a Russian soldier: one to kill and one to tumble ..

          With all due respect to VS Pikul, the phrase "Der grossse Friedrich" given in the book "With the Pen and the Sword" in the chapter "DECLINATIONS" sounds differently: "It is not enough to kill a Russian - a Russian must also be knocked down!" Tashkent "Ukituvchi" 1989 p. 188, last paragraph.
          Didn’t you see the difference?
  • major071
    major071 19 January 2014 08: 02
    +20
    The smartest man. good Always discusses serious topics with a touch of humor. I especially like it when Western "figures" add a middle name. laughing
  • Grif
    Grif 19 January 2014 08: 56
    +15
    I am proud that I am Russian.
    1. PPL
      PPL 19 January 2014 09: 06
      .
      Quote: Grif
      I am proud that I am Russian.

      And what about nationality? Usually proud of achievements, and
      those who are proud of their nationality are proud of nothing more. negative
      1. vezunchik
        vezunchik 19 January 2014 11: 02
        +5
        RUSSIAN is not a nationality, it is a soul. Many foreigners living in Russia or having their roots in the west considered themselves RUSSIAN !!! And which of us can call ourselves purebred ?? RUSSIA as a big boiler, many nationalities are brewing here, but in the end is RUSSIAN SOUL !!!
        1. AntonR7
          AntonR7 19 January 2014 16: 08
          +2
          Nevertheless, Russian is a nationality.
      2. The comment was deleted.
        1. zart_arn
          zart_arn 19 January 2014 12: 02
          +7
          Quote: Grif
          I am proud that I am Russian.

          Even as a Russian nationalist, I can say that the cultural and economic achievements of the people, your personal achievements, but not your belonging to them, can be a matter of pride. Sorry, this does not apply to you, but I will give a comparison - there is a drunken bichara drunk in the mud under the fence and yells that he is Russian. To be proud that you are Russian is the same as to be proud that you are blonde or brunette, you inherited it. Therefore, I partially agree with the statement
          Quote: vezunchik
          RUSSIAN is not a nationality, it is a soul.

          but only partly, for RUSSIAN, it is still a nationality. At the same time, our genetic origin, in fact, practically does not matter. A.S. Pushkin is an example of this - give an example of greater Russianness. A counterweight
          RUSSIA as a big boiler, many nationalities are brewing here, but in the end is the RUSSIAN SOUL
          I will give an example of the so-called. “persons”, Russians by passport, origin and place of residence, but by no means are an example of a “RUSSIAN SOUL” to us and by their behavior evoke only a reaction of hostility and rejection.
          Now, with regard to the article - "Fear the Danes, who bring gifts" and exalt us as the very best. So why the hell are we the best in this .opa? Gnobim, we despise each other, we try to ... steal what is bad, we crap where we live. Having a huge amount of resources per capita, we shamelessly sift through them. We need to work on ourselves and work - this is the conclusion that suggests itself and not to rely on Vanka the Terrible, the axis of the Caucasus, Vovka St. Petersburg or whatever. We will become the best when, in spite of all sorts of vans, pins, struggles, bears, vovoks, we will be able to do our job better than anyone else, be proud of the results of our activities and put the aforementioned persons and not only them on the reign and remove them.
        2. Platov
          Platov 19 January 2014 12: 28
          +2
          RUSSIAN is not a nationality, to be Russian is a vocation.
      3. Russ69
        Russ69 19 January 2014 15: 41
        +2
        Quote: PPZ
        And what about nationality? Usually proud of achievements, and
        those who are proud of their nationality are proud of nothing more.

        If you call yourself Russian, then you identify yourself with Russia. And Russia has something to be proud of ...
  • plotnikov561956
    plotnikov561956 19 January 2014 09: 20
    +6
    Quote: PPZ
    And what about nationality? Usually proud of achievements, and
    those who are proud of their nationality are proud of nothing more.

    Nationality implies genetic memory, as well as blood memory ... and it is very good that a person said so
    1. PPL
      PPL 19 January 2014 10: 34
      +3
      Nationality implies genetic memory, like blood memory ...

      In this case, one can and should be proud of their ancestors and their deeds. And to be grateful for the experience that they passed on to their descendants ...
    2. AntonR7
      AntonR7 19 January 2014 16: 10
      +1
      I do not agree, the achievement of the nation is a matter of pride because each of us does what he can for the country. I hope.
  • UVB
    UVB 19 January 2014 09: 43
    +1
    Found a small inaccuracy in the article: in the battle of Tsushima, the main forces of the Japanese were 4 armadillos and 8 armored cruisers, not 6 of them each. And A. Wasserman personally respect, smart head! Always amazed at his erudition.
  • 11111mail.ru
    11111mail.ru 19 January 2014 09: 45
    +1
    Optimistic. But the support of this optimism is our entire Russian civilization, which has become better than its neighbors, precisely because for many centuries we have had - and in the foreseeable future - per unit of occupied area is much smaller than our neighbors.

    Something I don't like his idea. Especially in light of the statements of the "Iron Lady" about the sufficiency for Russia of a population of 15-20 million people. And he also indicated the source of inspiration:
    My discussion about the advantages of Russian civilization over European is largely based on the idea read in Myths about Russia by Vladimir Rostislavovich Medinsky (by the way, in my opinion, the first Minister of Culture of the Russian Federation for many years to deserve this work).

    If so ! Minister! sees only a plus in the small population, which means that our managers have adopted the idea indicated by Margaret Thatcher.
    It's nice that he, as an intelligent person, is able to admit mistakes:
    I well remember my grave mistake. I immediately believed in the first book of Vladimir Bogdanovich Rezun, who had riveted the pseudonym Viktor Suvorov upon himself, unconditionally. She played an important role in the development of my protracted anti-Sovietism.

    Conclusion: the protracted anti-Sovietism of this undoubtedly clever person is growing stronger!
  • DZ_98_B
    DZ_98_B 19 January 2014 09: 48
    +2
    Use jargon, I think this is disrespect. yet this is not a lecture for juvenile delinquents. and Vaserman .. I read the first book and became an anti-Soviet. read the third book became a Stalinist. read the sixth book, who will it be?
    1. AK-47
      AK-47 19 January 2014 11: 39
      0
      Quote: DZ_98_B
      ... read the first book became an anti-Soviet. read the third book became a Stalinist. read the sixth book, who will it be?

      Weather vane, has long been.
    2. Patton5
      Patton5 19 January 2014 12: 01
      +7
      Rezun's opuses appeared at the dawn of "democracy" in Russia and were perceived as a revelation, as an alternative to "soviet" propaganda. At that time we were as naive as children (I exaggerate), now we are already beaten and many have learned to "separate the seeds from the chaff" ... I confess I myself was an ardent admirer of Rezun, argued with a history teacher at the university about the reasons for industrialization. Now I would completely admit that I was wrong, but we are human beings and we tend to make mistakes, even for such smart heads as Wasserman. Honor and respect to the author!
  • grotto
    grotto 19 January 2014 09: 59
    -3
    Great article. No wonder Moses gave his people, including the ability to analyze.
  • Kibalchish
    Kibalchish 19 January 2014 10: 11
    -4
    If Russia is worse than Europe, then the level of prices and life is not comparable with us? Mr. Wasserman found his niche among thinkers fed by power. Everything Russian is good, everything Western is bad ... have already passed.
    1. Patton5
      Patton5 19 January 2014 12: 06
      0
      If Russia is worse than Europe, then the level of prices and life is not comparable with us?
      Dear friend, this is just a consequence of the fact that they are trying to teach us how to live according to European patterns
  • mountain
    mountain 19 January 2014 10: 12
    +1
    I never get tired of wondering, mind, well-read, knowledge and logic, of this person. And how many of these do we have, but not in business? Thank you so much for the article, read and re-read. THANK!
    1. anarh
      anarh 20 January 2014 00: 27
      +1
      Quote: mountain
      I never get tired of wondering, mind, well-read, knowledge and logic, of this person. And how many of these do we have, but not in business?

      Why did you decide that you weren’t doing it?
      Just think that in the case.
      The question is: Russian? American? Israeli?
      Take your time with the answer, it is ambiguous.
  • anteus2011
    anteus2011 19 January 2014 10: 17
    +1
    Wasserman, well done!
  • SRC P-15
    SRC P-15 19 January 2014 10: 36
    +5
    From the article we can conclude: for every tricky western ass, there is a Russian threaded bolt. laughing
    1. Corsair5912
      Corsair5912 19 January 2014 17: 47
      +1
      Quote: СРЦ П-15
      From the article we can conclude: for every tricky western ass, there is a Russian threaded bolt.

      Our strength in swimming trunks!
      the slogan of metallurgists.
      1. The comment was deleted.
  • demotivator
    demotivator 19 January 2014 10: 46
    +4
    Our strength is that we are few. The main reason for the advantages of Russian civilization over European

    Alogism, of some kind. According to Wasserman - we are strong, and the reason for our strength is that "we are few." Aha! Probably, it should be said further - if we want to become even stronger, then we must continue to decrease. This is exactly what the notorious Thatcher wanted - 15 million Russians is quite enough for Russia, so it seems she said.
    Now about Medinsky, "the best minister of culture in Russia."
    ... Medinsky (by the way, in my opinion, the first Minister of Culture of the Russian Federation for many years to earn this work).

    Here Wasserman completely falls out of the number of well-read and literate people. Has he never heard of Ekaterina Alekseevna Furtseva, who for 14 years headed the USSR Ministry of Culture? And the famous actors Nikolai Nikolayevich Gubenko and Yuri Methodievich Solomin, who also did not know who were in this post once? I don’t presume to say that Medinsky is bad as a minister, but to consider him the only one who “deserves this post” is stupid and unfair.
    In the comments, every post, the statement - "I respect Wasserman", "Wasseraman is the head", etc. I also respect Wasserman, at least for his encyclopedic knowledge, but I categorically cannot agree with the conclusion that the fewer of us Russians there are, the better!
    More onda Wasserman Russophobic nonsense:
    In fact, a single state along the Amber Road arose a couple of centuries earlier.
    What is interesting - arose primarily due to the efforts of Greek merchants.

    Like this! It turns out that we should say thanks to the Greeks for creating a state for us, even a couple of centuries earlier than official history believes.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 19 January 2014 11: 05
      +3
      Dear, you probably read the article diagonally? Or do you have a perception of material problems? Did you start reading from this?
      He noted that the population density in Russia always (even when it did not reach the Volga, but stretched along the Amber Road - from the Varangians to the Greeks) was several times lower than in any European country west of it. Accordingly, the value of each human life was many times higher.

      So these are the words of Medinsky, but not Furtseva or Solomin. And you called this Russophobic nonsense ... Read carefully!
    2. Patton5
      Patton5 19 January 2014 12: 16
      +3
      It seems to me that you are fundamentally wrong, because you ascribe to the author what he did not say, namely
      that the fewer Russians we have, the better
      the author says that the reason for the strength of Russian civilization is that throughout its history it was small in number, relative to the territory it occupied (as I understand it). But everyone has the right to a personal opinion
    3. DMB-78
      DMB-78 19 January 2014 14: 05
      0
      well, you don’t need to talk about Furtsev as a Honored Minister of Culture. here it is just for our culture has done much more bad than good
  • Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 19 January 2014 10: 49
    +4
    The article is interesting. Written in lively Russian language, it is easy to read and interesting (much more interesting than many "analysts" with their tables and graphical calculations). It is supported by solid logical conclusions and facts.
    Personally, I only had questions regarding the correctness of the pre-Petrine era, but this is only based on my other views on Russian history.
    The military tactics of warfare deserves a separate article altogether. I can only add that almost all the victories of German weapons in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War were based on the full interaction of the military branches, where everyone was busy with his own business. the Germans had to revise their system of troop deployment. And later, with the acquisition of some skills in combat and, together with the Russian mentality, the superiority of the Germans was leveled. The further course of history is known.
    And I think that the Russian mentality is much more human and stronger than the Western one. The future belongs to us, if only we do not drive ourselves into a dead end under the pressure of satanic, mercantile and 3,14darastic views of the "exclusive" and "tolerant" parts of humanity hi
    1. Genur
      Genur 19 January 2014 21: 16
      +2
      Rurikovich.
      I wanted to put "+", but refrained from evaluating when I read about "squaring the circle" ...
      1. Rurikovich
        Rurikovich 20 January 2014 08: 04
        +1
        I'm not offenced smile .Ved everyone looks at the world through the prism of their ideals, in accordance with the state of mind and the number of years lived. Therefore, how to interpret certain things and with what words to name them is everyone's personal business.
        "+" from me for arguing my choice and straightforwardness.
        To each his own. hi
  • demotivator
    demotivator 19 January 2014 10: 53
    +8
    Quote: grotto
    No wonder Moses gave his people, including the ability to analyze.

    Moses gave the Jews the Ten Commandments of God, which all Jews must observe. And it’s not only Jews who have the ability to analyze. Why offend walking other nations?
  • Sergey Medvedev
    Sergey Medvedev 19 January 2014 11: 07
    +6
    I agree with many words of Anatoly Aleksandrovich Wasserman, except for one idea "it's good that there aren't many Russians." The current reduction in our number does not suit me categorically. It would be necessary to breed up to 500 million people, including Ukrainians and Belarusians. The earth is enough for us.
    1. 225chay
      225chay 20 January 2014 08: 35
      0
      Quote: Sergei Medvedev
      I agree with many words of Anatoly Aleksandrovich Wasserman, except for one idea "it's good that there aren't many Russians." The current reduction in our number does not suit me categorically. It would be necessary to breed up to 500 million people, including Ukrainians and Belarusians. The earth is enough for us.

      Our open spaces will feed a billion compatriots without problems
  • creak
    creak 19 January 2014 11: 17
    +4
    It seems that with all his erudition, Wasserman should not try to grasp the immensity within the framework of one article ... Since we are on a military site I would like to note the following ... For example, in order to competently judge the complex issues of military construction and the reasons our defeat in the initial period of the Second World War, general erudition is not enough ... I will give an example - in 1941 there were no tank corps in the Red Army, there were mechanized ones, which included tank and mechanized divisions ... The thesis that the corps of the initial period of the war except tanks almost no other technique was untenable. According to the state, the mechanized corps included, in addition to tanks, 268 armored vehicles, 172 artillery pieces, 186 mortars, over 5 thousand vehicles, 1679 motorcycles. Of course, not all of the corps were equipped to their full strength, but there were also some where everything was more satisfactory, for example, in the Kiev military district. There were several reasons for the defeats, which came together and led to the disaster of 1941. There was enough equipment, the question was its proper use, the ability to manage troops in a rapidly changing environment, the organization of the interaction of available forces and means - this, unlike the Wehrmacht in the initial period there was a problem ... Well, as for the BTR, except Germany, they were produced in large quantities in the USA and England, only about 5 thousand units were delivered to the USSR as part of Lend-Lease. And the data on almost continuous Wehrmacht motorization is one of the common myths - (infantry usually traveled on foot), as about almost continuous armament of German infantry ... The causes of victories and defeats are determined not only by the presence of equipment, in 1941. our new tanks were an order of magnitude superior to the German ones and in the border districts there were, according to various sources, more than one and a half thousand ...
  • Monge
    Monge 19 January 2014 11: 22
    0
    More articles are needed on the site!
  • Semurg
    Semurg 19 January 2014 11: 37
    -3
    I read it interestingly. Now they are writing a new unified history of Russia, and that would give Wasserman the right to edit this story, since he has knowledge and logic. True, in about eleven years some people will begin to cry that again the history was written to them by foreigners then Germans and in this case Jews laughing .
    1. alone
      alone 19 January 2014 11: 54
      0
      Quote: Semurg
      I read it interestingly. Now they are writing a new unified history of Russia, and that would give Wasserman the right to edit this story, since he has knowledge and logic. True, in about eleven years some people will begin to cry that again the history was written to them by foreigners then Germans and in this case Jews.


      laughing especially considering the nationality of Wasserman.
      They will say Israel is guilty again and everywhere these Jews harm us all)) lol
      1. Vitaly Anisimov
        Vitaly Anisimov 19 January 2014 12: 40
        +3
        Quote: lonely
        Quote: Semurg
        I read it interestingly. Now they are writing a new unified history of Russia, and that would give Wasserman the right to edit this story, since he has knowledge and logic. True, in about eleven years some people will begin to cry that again the history was written to them by foreigners then Germans and in this case Jews.


        laughing especially considering the nationality of Wasserman.
        They will say Israel is guilty again and everywhere these Jews harm us all)) lol

        Well, why do they harm ..))) If you control them and do not let them into power (a lot of good things are done .. unlike others) bully Israel is practically a project of the USSR (Stalin planned something there .. and then everything got out of control))) But not really ..
    2. anarh
      anarh 20 January 2014 14: 04
      +1
      Quote: Semurg
      Now they are writing a new unified history of Russia, and that would give Wasserman the right to edit this story, since he has knowledge and logic.

      Let it be better for Kazakhstan to write, to us - without need.
      And it will be pleasant for you: such beauty is worn off - you yourself will be surprised.
  • skyil
    skyil 19 January 2014 11: 45
    -2
    I read all the comments !? However, whoever believes that the nation has nothing to do with it is wrong or doesn’t know whose it is. Wasserman is a smart guy, and most importantly he doesn’t break like some political w ***! to power, absolutely own point of view with iron arguments. Respect to him.
  • Pirr
    Pirr 19 January 2014 12: 05
    -6
    No one considers the present Greeks or current Italians the descendants of those same ancient Greeks and ancient Romans. Modern Greece - 192 years, modern Italy - 152 years. Russia alone is one thousand years old. Is it because your society is so painfully divided into Soviet and anti-Soviet, nationalists and liberals that you constantly drag out the old ideological phantoms from the rich and contradictory past of the countries that have settled on oblivion that have settled on your land - Kievan Rus, the Moscow kingdom, the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Either Minin and Pozharsky emerge, then Stalin, then Vladimir the Holy, then Alexander Nevsky, then the Writers' Union, then Stolypin, then the patriarch Germogen, then the TRP complex, then Dzerzhinsky, then the new martyrs shot by him, then Vologda butter, or doctor’s sausage. This is an utter brew of historical myths, nostalgic memories, naive credulity and deep complexes, peppered with wild illiteracy, now they are trying to turn it into a national idea and even teach at school. Will not work. Russians are the same descendants of the giants of the past as the current carriage driver Dostoevsky or the tongue-tied owner of the leisure center Lermontov are descendants of the classics of Russian literature. For this reason, Ms. Mizulina wants to introduce Orthodox Russia by law - to enter Orthodoxy into the constitution as a “guiding and directing force”, as if we write in - and everything will be as on Vasnetsov's frescoes and Shishkin's paintings. Will not be. I am convinced that Russia will find its identity and will calm down when it understands that the secular nature of the state, freedom of conscience, freedom of the press and assembly, fair elections, a fair trial, respect for the rights of various minorities - this is the Russian way. And there is no other. In any case, it was the pursuit of these values ​​that stood behind the events of 1991. And to one degree or another - behind the events of 1905 and 1917. In the XX century, the Russian Empire fell, then the Soviet Union, which destroyed it, also collapsed. The Russian Federation will undoubtedly fall apart if it does not set foot on that only true “Russian path”, from which the country is constantly being turned down into the frenzy of a cannibalistic social experiment, then into kleptocracy with a bell ringing.
    1. Corsair5912
      Corsair5912 19 January 2014 13: 17
      +5
      Quote: Pirr
      No one considers the present Greeks or current Italians the descendants of those same ancient Greeks and ancient Romans. Modern Greece - 192 of the year, modern Italy - 152 of the year. Russia alone is one thousand years old. Is it because your society is so painfully divided into Soviet and anti-Soviet, nationalists and liberals that you constantly drag out the old ideological phantoms from the rich and contradictory past of the countries that have settled on oblivion that have settled on your land - Kievan Rus, the Moscow kingdom, the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.

      The Greeks and Romans were slaughtered or assimilated by foreign invaders as early as the 1 millennium A.D. so do not compare them with the Russian people living on their Russian plain for more than 40 000 years, according to archeology and anthropology.
      Our society is not split anywhere, and the various beliefs that exist are not a sign of a split, but evidence of a high educational level and the intellectual development of the population. Only the zombie media of the ignorant Yankees savages have a single faith in their exclusivity and their monopoly on democracy.
      Russia, Great Russia, the Russian Empire, the USSR are just different historical stages of the same country, populated by the same Russian people, with a single genetics, culture and language. The Russian 21 century will easily understand the Russian 11 century.
      It is in France, Italy, Greece, England that the inhabitants of the 11 and 21 centuries will not understand each other, peoples have changed.
      In real life, there was no Kievan Rus and the Muscovite kingdom; these are the unsuccessful terms of the far-off ignorant pseudo-historians. There was a united Russia with a conditional capital in Kiev, and after it, Great Russia with a capital in Moscow.
      Nobody talks about London England, Krakow Poland or the Kingdom of Madrid and Paris.
      1. Robin
        Robin 19 January 2014 13: 51
        -2
        Quote: Corsair5912
        The Greeks and Romans were slaughtered or assimilated by foreign invaders as early as the 1 millennium A.D. so do not compare them with the Russian people living on their Russian plain for more than 40 000 years, according to archeology and anthropology.

        Quote: Corsair5912
        Russian of the 21st century can easily understand Russian of the 11th century.

        A kind request, singer of Neanderthal Russia, to translate this text of the 11 century. Great Wise, you are ours.
        1. Corsair5912
          Corsair5912 19 January 2014 14: 26
          +4
          Quote: Robin
          A kind request, singer of Neanderthal Russia, to translate this text of the 11 century. Great Wise, you are ours.

          No need to distort, the font in writing is subject to much greater changes than living spoken language.
          so are the Slovo ·s · comedos across the Dnieper · and drug addicts Pol аne · and friends of Derevlѧne · take the presents in lѣšѣh · and friends ѣ bridal parties between Pripyut and Dvina · and drugie ане raš ·ошош Already flowing into the Dvina · Name Polota · ѿ all nicknamed Polochanѣ · Words ѣ same name ѣ about ѡzer Ilmer · and nickname ѧ own name и and made the city и and narekosha and Novgorod а and friends of the same ош sodos na Desnко and и Sѣvero · and tako razidesѧ Slovenesk ꙗзꙑкъ · тѣмь and about vasѧ Slovenskaꙗ diploma. Tale of Bygone Years 11-12 Century

          Diva, calling on the treetop of the tree, tells the land to listen to the land, Know, and Pomorie, and Posulia, and Surozh, and Korsun, and you, Tymutorokansky vomit! And the Polovtsi, by unprepared roads, had gone to Don the Great: to bury the telgas at midnight, and the swans to repose.
          Igor kon Don conducts. Already more than a bird grazed by him in Dubia, inject a thunderstorm into the rain in Yarugam; Orly klektom on the bone, ZVRI is called, the foxes are bored on the joint shields.
          O Russian land! Already for the hello! A word about Igor's regiment 12 century
      2. Krass
        Krass 20 January 2014 02: 20
        -3
        Quote: Corsair5912
        them with the Russian people living on their Russian plain for more than 40 years, according to archeology and anthropology.

        And why not 40 million years ago? After all, it’s prettier ... And, in general, the great people are Ivan da Marya! (Where are Adam and Eve!). Shnobelevskaya in history - to the studio!
  • AK-47
    AK-47 19 January 2014 12: 17
    +1
    History teaches us only what historians compose.

    what
  • pan_nor
    pan_nor 19 January 2014 12: 23
    0
    the great thing is history. Story. it is a pity that no one will recognize her - outside this site ...
  • Corsair5912
    Corsair5912 19 January 2014 12: 23
    +2
    In fact, a single state along the Amber Road arose a couple of centuries earlier.
    What is interesting - arose primarily due to the efforts of Greek merchants.

    Our completely ignorant intellectuals have some kind of filthy centuries-old tradition, to humiliate the Russian people, ascribing its achievements to foreigners.
    The population density of Russia was not high, it was determined by the low productivity of the non-black soil and climatic conditions, but the territory of settlement and the population were huge.
    None of the Greeks had anything to do with the Amber Road, it was founded by Novgorodians, who transported their own and Western European goods to Byzantium, and they did not drive the empty way back.
    Kiev became rich and strengthened due to duties levied on merchants.
    A single Russian state existed long before the appearance of Greek settlements in the Black Sea. It may not have been an absolute monarchy, but it was strong, rich and populous enough to build gigantic defensive structures (serpent ramparts II-VII century BC) on its borders and repel the raids of wild nomads.
    1. Robin
      Robin 19 January 2014 22: 01
      -4
      Quote: Corsair5912
      A single Russian state existed long before the appearance of Greek settlements in the Black Sea. It may not have been an absolute monarchy, but it was strong, rich and populous enough to build gigantic defensive structures (serpent ramparts II-VII century BC) on its borders and repel the raids of wild nomads.

      So you are also a thimbler. They ripped off a map from Wikipedia, but forwarded it in the 2nd - 7th century. n. era, for the 2nd - 7th century BC. era. Congratulations, citizen, you have lied! and the truth is, what is 1400 years for history, one spit! Soon your "united Russian state" will be older than planet Earth, and Russians will fly to it from Mars. What is not a rocket The Kremlin's Spasskaya Tower! With such a quote, any "fool will accept" you without specifying the diagnosis!
      1. atalef
        atalef 19 January 2014 22: 12
        -2
        Quote: Robin
        Quote: Corsair5912
        A single Russian state existed long before the appearance of Greek settlements in the Black Sea. It may not have been an absolute monarchy, but it was strong, rich and populous enough to build gigantic defensive structures (serpent ramparts II-VII century BC) on its borders and repel the raids of wild nomads.
        So you are also a thimbler. They ripped off a map from Wikipedia, but forwarded it in the 2nd - 7th century. n. era, for the 2nd - 7th century BC. era. Congratulations, citizen, you have lied! and the truth is, what is 1400 years for history, one spit! Soon your "united Russian state" will be older than planet Earth, and Russians will fly to it from Mars. What is not a rocket The Kremlin's Spasskaya Tower! With such a quote, any "fool will accept" you without specifying the diagnosis!

        So he is still not enough. Only 7th century BC. in general, I could have sent it to the 70th. He’s still a storyteller. And to redo the links in his own way - not the first time for him.
  • old rocket man
    old rocket man 19 January 2014 12: 35
    +5
    Quote: DZ_98_B
    read the first book became anti-Soviet. read the third book became a Stalinist. read the sixth book, who will it be?


    And what difference does it make to whom he will become? Moreover, he may or may not.
    Judge a person by his deeds, by facts, and not by your assumptions. And the fact that a person changes his worldview under the influence of facts and new knowledge speaks of his mind and honesty.
    Fidelity to the idea should be based on knowledge and conviction, and not on stupid faith, fanaticism has no future, no agreements are possible with fanatics.
    I also changed my attitude towards Wasserman, along with his changes, and I find it quite natural.
    And therefore, hands off Wasserman hi
    1. anarh
      anarh 19 January 2014 22: 53
      +1
      Quote: Old Rocketman
      And therefore, hands off Wasserman


      You are very mistaken about Wasserman.
      You spilled the oil, but you agree that the ancestors are called bandit godfathers, and that the whole uniqueness of the people is reduced to a low density of residence.
      The article is a huge MINUS.
  • Sergey Sitnikov
    Sergey Sitnikov 19 January 2014 12: 35
    -3
    I have always been, to some extent, satisfied with Stalin’s policies)))) there have been so many nations in my city that pretty girls and for every taste - nature loves gene cocktails !!!
    1. Igarr
      Igarr 19 January 2014 20: 06
      -1
      And where is it?
      In the Baltic Kaliningrad?
      Or Russian Eagle?
      or Baku azerbaijani?
      Or Soviet Tashkent?
      ...
      Women of the territory of the Russian Empire are the most pi ..... oh, women in the world !!!
  • runway
    runway 19 January 2014 12: 36
    +2
    If the cost of the article depends on its volume, then the desire of the author is very understandable.
    I do not agree with the general conclusion of the author and support in this DEMOTIVATOR. And in order not to repeat myself, I want to remind the distinguished participants in the discussion, the well-known parable about the broom. Dying, the father gathered all his sons and invited them to break the stick. They easily did it. But when the father gathered all the twigs together, none of them could break this broom. Conclusion: in addition to the economic power of the state, any country will be invincible only with sufficient mobilization reserves. Which are never redundant.
    Following the logic of the author, one can even get to the aspiration of the haters of Russia - to leave such an amount of the population that would be sufficient only for servicing gas and oil pipes.
    1. anarh
      anarh 20 January 2014 14: 13
      +1
      Quote: piston
      Following the logic of the author, one can even get to the aspiration of the haters of Russia - to leave such an amount of the population that would be sufficient only for servicing gas and oil pipes.

      All right
      That is what the whole logic of the article is directed at.
      And then the pants are full of joy: OUR JEWISH, OUR JEWISH.
      Yes, what is SMART.
      That's right: smart, Jew.
      But NOT OUR.
  • Platov
    Platov 19 January 2014 12: 41
    0
    I put a plus a lot of interesting things, although I didn’t finish my eyes, the font is small. Save, come back again and again. Wasserman is a prospect.
    1. Patton5
      Patton5 19 January 2014 12: 52
      +1
      There is such a function in the browser as a scale, in the opera, for example, hold down Ctrl and press +, - most likely in others as well
    2. Genur
      Genur 19 January 2014 21: 25
      -2
      I read Wasserman and Heard his VOICE, so convincingly he expresses his thoughts.
  • wax
    wax 19 January 2014 12: 44
    +3
    Our problem is that we are FEW! Unfortunately, the raids of envious people from the west and east to the fat lands of the Russians and tsarist "gifts" to the western relatives of the Russian tsars in the form of hundreds of thousands and millions of peasant sons for their wars, as well as brutal collectivization, bled Russia. Now perestroika and reforms, undertaken in a shock, are trying to complete the rout of Russian civilization. The same fate befell Germany, but as a result of its aggressiveness in foreign policy on the European continent, which was successfully fueled by the Anglo-Saxons, who were inferior to both the Germans and the Russians in terms of the wealth of the human factor capable of spreading its influence throughout the world. Also, the military genius of France, Napoleon, brought such demographic damage to his country that now there is tolerant chaos from foreigners. As for responsiveness, its origins are not in the demographic factor (which is easy to overturn, referring to the history of many small countries) and not in the low density of the population of territories, but in climatic conditions that predetermine the culture of mutual assistance in simple everyday situations and the community organization of the life of settlements.
    1. AntonR7
      AntonR7 19 January 2014 16: 13
      0
      the fact that in France there are many foreigners of Napoleon’s guilt, let it be known that the Arabs and others flooded into France after the 2nd because Europe needed a slave. power.
  • Ram chandra
    Ram chandra 19 January 2014 12: 56
    +1
    Thank you, I always wanted to find out in words why the Russians are so strong. And about the Chukchi - interested!
  • Ilya Onegin
    Ilya Onegin 19 January 2014 13: 04
    +2
    I completely agree with the article. In my opinion, Wasserman is the only smart Jewish scholar in Russia. Only he is able not to yell what they say because of the cordon, but to think normally.
    Of course, Russia is a civilization country. The main foundations of this civilization are the friendship of peoples, faiths and parties. Patriotism. Internationalism. Unacceptability of the geofascist all-valued values. Collectivism. As Wasserman correctly noted, our advantage is that we are few, and therefore our human lives are more expensive than in the West. Oddly enough, Russia gained most of the great victories when the enemy had a numerical superiority.
  • Vitaly Anisimov
    Vitaly Anisimov 19 January 2014 13: 13
    0
    Quote: Ram Chandra
    Thank you, I always wanted to find out in words why the Russians are so strong. And about the Chukchi - interested!

    Here is a joke:
    I ask the Chukchi But you can fight with the Chinese ..?
    Chukchi: We can ..!
    Yes, how are there a billion of them and you are very small ..?
    Chukchi: eh .. however many will have to bury ..
    laughing
    And here's another interesting parallel .. Leningrad Moscow Stalingrad ... Red line .. straight! The severe peasants of the Urals of Siberia .. they came with mats to ask Russia again ... they want to .. And the divisions went on a big fuck to Paris, Berlin .. (it’s a pity that they stopped ..)))
  • Volga
    Volga 19 January 2014 13: 31
    +2
    About Russia, Kungurov writes about the same in his book "Kievan Rus", only there the initiators of the control of trade routes were not the Greeks, but the Novgorod principality and Yaroslav Vsevolodovich (father of Alexander Yaroslavovich "Nevsky") a feast of help from the Golden Horde.
    1. PPL
      PPL 19 January 2014 14: 46
      +2
      Kungurov Aleksey is not a historian - a journalist, editor-in-chief of the newspaper Volniy Gorod, Noyabrsk, Tyumen Region.
      His "historical works" are not new, they were clearly created under the influence of what Fomenko and Nosovsky read, who, in turn, developed the theory set forth by Nikolai Morozov in the essay "Christ. The History of Mankind in Natural Science Illumination".
      The reading is fascinating, but controversial, like the article by Anatoly Wasserman. You should not completely trust such "historians".
    2. Corsair5912
      Corsair5912 19 January 2014 16: 39
      +3
      Quote: Volga
      About Russia, Kungurov writes about the same in his book "Kievan Rus", only there the initiator of the control of trade routes were not the Greeks, but the Novgorod principality and Yaroslav Vsevolodovich (father of Alexander Yaroslavovich "Nevsky") a feast of help from the Golden Horde.

      This, sorry, Olga, is complete nonsense.
      The trade route "from the Varangians to the Greeks" was closed after the capture and plundering of Constantinople by the crusaders in 1204, Alexander Nevsky's father was born in 1191, and the Golden Horde was formed in 1237.
      Kiev lost its influence, a new trade route to the East went through Moscow along the Oka and Volga to the Caspian Sea, and Moscow strengthened.
      1. Igarr
        Igarr 19 January 2014 20: 20
        +1
        In, in ....
        what else and to whom to explain?
        "... the trade route to the countries of the East passed through ...... along the Oka, the Volga to the Caspian Sea ...."
        ...
        It is forgotten that the Oka and Desna (the river flowing to the Dnieper) are located nearby, in the Bryansk region.
        They forget to ask about the chronology of the ports of the White Sea.
        Forget to ask pool to pool transfers..the river of the Baltic drain, the rivers of the Caspian drain and the rivers of the White Sea ...
        They forget to remember that since then, how many years have passed?
        They forget to remember - and with what fright did the Volga-Baltic Canal begin to cost? ... Belomorkanal?
        Hydrography is a very nasty science .... very detailed ..... geography, hydrography and geodetic knowledge are required.
        ...
        I’m gonna blink .... there was a way from Arab to Bangkok .... along the Persian Bay, Ganges, Brahmaputra, a bunch of streams in Tibet, along the Mekong ..... refute?
  • Vitaly Anisimov
    Vitaly Anisimov 19 January 2014 13: 33
    +8
    Quote: Ilya Onegin
    I completely agree with the article. In my opinion, Wasserman is the only smart Jewish scholar in Russia. Only he is able not to yell what they say because of the cordon, but to think normally.

    They know how to poke around in the Russian soul .. And then Russia is choked with loot and humiliated blood .. I would carefully read such articles by men .. I have such a feeling, to be honest ..
    1. Sour
      Sour 19 January 2014 14: 04
      +5
      Quote: MIKHAN
      And then Russia is stolen and humiliated by blood ... I would have carefully read such articles by men .. I have such a feeling, to be honest ..

      Thank. Everything to the point.
      1. Vitaly Anisimov
        Vitaly Anisimov 19 January 2014 14: 10
        +1
        Quote: Sour
        Quote: MIKHAN
        And then Russia is stolen and humiliated by blood ... I would have carefully read such articles by men .. I have such a feeling, to be honest ..

        Thank. Everything to the point.

        Yes, not at all .. we have this feeling at the genetic level basically .. It seems that everything is written correctly, at least scream .. (but don’t believe inside the worms again, the brains will be looted and cut out by the dust ..)
    2. Volkhov
      Volkhov 19 January 2014 16: 49
      +1
      Yes, a completely distorted picture of the world in Jewish interests. From the family of the cleverest guidebook compiler (traditional craft - you only need accuracy, helpers and circulation with income are provided).
      And choking is already underway - water and blood.
  • Neophyte
    Neophyte 19 January 2014 13: 41
    -5
    It is a pity that the liberals do not allow such people to enter the committee for writing the history of Russia.
    All of Anatoly’s articles are flawless in logic. It’s good that we have such intellectuals.
  • Grbear
    Grbear 19 January 2014 13: 44
    0
    It is interesting to observe his convolutions of thought, as a virtuoso juggler who throws objects that do not fly, according to general opinion. I do not fully state it, but my consent is not required.

    Read it, how to play chess with a new person. Grinds the brains.
  • Alexandr0id
    Alexandr0id 19 January 2014 14: 01
    +13
    Wasserman again for his own - giving away patronymics to European monarchs, why? time to apply - it may go beyond humor, but constantly - it is no longer funny. anyway.
    the main advantage of the Russian state, the basis of its power has always been the size of the Russian population. there have never been few Russians. comparing population density is initially incorrect, because this position very much differs from region to region even in the European part, if the central regions are densely populated, then Karelia, Murmansk, Arkhangelsk regions are mainly along the railway. smearing the numbers over all square kilometers gives an incorrect idea of ​​the underpopulation of Russia.
    so, the huge population of Russia was the key to its expansion and transformation into an empire, in the 16th century the Moscow kingdom began to expand eastward, to where this population was many times smaller, the largest opponent on the path of expansion was the Kazan Khanate at 11-12 times inferior in numbers to the Moscow kingdom (450 thousand vs 5 million), and if we take into account the loyal (Tatar) population of the khanate, then 25 times (210 thousand vs 5 million). the Astrakhan Khanate is 200 times (25 thousand), the Siberian Khanate is 125 times (40 thousand, of which about 12 thousand Tatars) in the 17th century, 7 mln Russia expands beyond the Urals, where the largest people are the Yakuts (40 thousand).
    Ukraine's transition to Russian citizenship is dramatically changing the demographic situation in Eastern Europe. if before that time the population of the post-political speech was 11 million people, and of Russia - 7 million, then Russia with Little Russia is already 11 million against the "Poles" who have shrunk to 7 million. from that time on, the speech has gone to decline and decay. the main enemy in the west actually self-destructed.
    The expansion of Russia to the south due to the militancy of the local population became possible only from the end of the 18 century, when the Russian population exceeded 20 million, and accordingly the recruitment capabilities for conducting large-scale military operations increased significantly. the main adversary in the south is the Crimean Khanate (about 450 thousand of the Tatar population at the end of the 18 century) and its boss is the Ottoman Empire, with which it was equal in size. only in OI out of 24 million the Turks themselves amounted to about 5 million people, and together with the loyal Tatars, Kurds and Albanians - a maximum of 7 million (30%), and in Russia Russian (large, small and white) population - 90%.
    in the 19 century, Russian conquests spread to the Caucasus and Central Asia. The census of the 1897 year shows that the entire population of the Caucasus and Central Asia is 17 million people, i.e. 13,5% of the population ri.
    from all this we can conclude that the root cause of the power of Russia is the demographic prevalence of the Russian (including in its broad concept) population over neighbors and foreigners within the country. the loss of such demographic dominance inevitably leads to the loss of domestic and foreign policy significance and influence.
    Why prove about individual qualities, about opposition to more numerous adversaries? after all, Suvorov's "not in number, but in skill" refers to the period when the army consisted of purely professional soldiers recruited for 20-25 years, and in such quantities that no country of the then world could afford (China does not count, because it was not, and there were a few Manchus and their Qing dynasty).
    in the remaining cases, we always won by mass, the ability to suffer significantly greater human losses than the enemy, which often acted sobering and frightening on our opponents. quite a normal military doctrine for such a populous country. 2 tumens of Subudai and Jebe or 10000 hoplites of the Klearch - this is not our case. individual episodes that did happen do not change the overall picture.
    our strength in demography.
    1. Ram chandra
      Ram chandra 19 January 2014 22: 08
      +1
      Bravo!
      "Your comment text is too short ..."
  • DMB-78
    DMB-78 19 January 2014 14: 10
    -2
    judging by the comments, everyone in this article saw what he wanted to see. and judging by the many positive reviews, the article is really written competently and reasonedly.
    1. Vitaly Anisimov
      Vitaly Anisimov 19 January 2014 14: 40
      +1
      Quote: DMB-78
      judging by the comments, everyone in this article saw what he wanted to see. and judging by the many positive reviews, the article is really written competently and reasonedly.

      I correctly agree to the account. Clings. 7
  • Ilya Onegin
    Ilya Onegin 19 January 2014 14: 22
    +2
    Quote: MIKHAN
    Quote: Sour
    Quote: MIKHAN
    And then Russia is stolen and humiliated by blood ... I would have carefully read such articles by men .. I have such a feeling, to be honest ..

    Thank. Everything to the point.

    Yes, not at all .. we have this feeling at the genetic level basically .. It seems that everything is written correctly, at least scream .. (but don’t believe inside the worms again, the brains will be looted and cut out by the dust ..)

    And when we - Russians - are called byld, is this a sign of spiritual kindness to us? wassat
    1. Sour
      Sour 19 January 2014 14: 41
      +6
      Quote: Ilya Onegin
      is it a sign of kindness to us?

      At least this is not relaxing or misleading.
      When the enemy is on the way, screaming for a kilometer "I am your enemy !!!", then he is not as dangerous as a more cunning enemy.
      The most dangerous thing is that enemy who pretends to be his own on the board, but in between, in an oily tone, throws ideas that lead him astray.
      1. AK-47
        AK-47 19 January 2014 17: 46
        +4
        Quote: Sour
        The most dangerous thing is that enemy who pretends to be his own on the board, but in between, in an oily tone, throws ideas that lead him astray.

        Exactly. There are no disinterested Jews, their goal is to make confusion, drive a wedge.
        1. anarh
          anarh 20 January 2014 00: 40
          +1
          Quote: AK-47
          Exactly. There are no disinterested Jews, their goal is to make confusion, drive a wedge.

          Well, maybe it does.
          But not this one.
          I used to read it. Everything is fine, but I felt something was wrong.
          And then all at once everything fell into place, as I saw about gangster godfathers.
          So it means how Wasserman sees our ancestors and accordingly treats us.
          A smart person (about Wasserman) - but he lost his caution.

  • Vitaly Anisimov
    Vitaly Anisimov 19 January 2014 14: 35
    +1
    Quote: Ilya Onegin
    Quote: MIKHAN
    Quote: Sour
    Quote: MIKHAN
    And then Russia is stolen and humiliated by blood ... I would have carefully read such articles by men .. I have such a feeling, to be honest ..

    Thank. Everything to the point.

    Yes, not at all .. we have this feeling at the genetic level basically .. It seems that everything is written correctly, at least scream .. (but don’t believe inside the worms again, the brains will be looted and cut out by the dust ..)

    And when we - Russians - are called byld, is this a sign of spiritual kindness to us? wassat

    I minus you .. just .. We are called differently, they call me names .. that's not the point ... They bark and howl at Russia across all borders (and the most offensive huskies yap inside and wave their tails ..) .. We are silent and are building up our influence and military power .. (and only then we will begin to castrate ..))) bully
  • Vitaly Anisimov
    Vitaly Anisimov 19 January 2014 15: 03
    0
    Quote: MIKHAN
    Quote: DMB-78
    judging by the comments, everyone in this article saw what he wanted to see. and judging by the many positive reviews, the article is really written competently and reasonedly.

    I correctly agree to the account. It clings ..7

    I actually posed the question ... heh heh hey oh well bully
  • Ilya Onegin
    Ilya Onegin 19 January 2014 15: 28
    +1
    Quote: MIKHAN
    Quote: Ilya Onegin
    Quote: MIKHAN
    Quote: Sour
    Quote: MIKHAN
    And then Russia is stolen and humiliated by blood ... I would have carefully read such articles by men .. I have such a feeling, to be honest ..

    Thank. Everything to the point.

    Yes, not at all .. we have this feeling at the genetic level basically .. It seems that everything is written correctly, at least scream .. (but don’t believe inside the worms again, the brains will be looted and cut out by the dust ..)

    And when we - Russians - are called byld, is this a sign of spiritual kindness to us? wassat

    I minus you .. just .. We are called differently, they call me names .. that's not the point ... They bark and howl at Russia across all borders (and the most offensive huskies yap inside and wave their tails ..) .. We are silent and are building up our influence and military power .. (and only then we will begin to castrate ..))) bully

    In our history, our enemies have always emphasized Russian Civilization and History. Or do not remember Biron, Leibu Bronstein and Gorbachev?
  • Chuvash
    Chuvash 19 January 2014 15: 30
    0
    Interesting article! Thanks to the author!
    Reasoning was particularly pleasing: Stalin's Strait - between Mexico and Canada laughing
    1. Corsair5912
      Corsair5912 19 January 2014 16: 45
      +3
      Quote: Chuvash
      Interesting article! Thanks to the author!
      Reasoning was particularly pleasing: Stalin's Strait - between Mexico and Canada

      Echoes of the folk epic:
      The soldiers were hoppy, the tear was rolling,
      The trophy sang a tape recorder,
      And on his chest glowed
      Medal for the city of Washington.
  • Barakuda
    Barakuda 19 January 2014 15: 51
    -2
    In many ways he is right, but often the gift of God with the fried eggs confuses! Although the article is interesting ... it makes you think about some issues (although here and so everyone has a brain).
  • Salamander
    Salamander 19 January 2014 15: 59
    -1
    The article is VERY long, but interesting, "+". By the way, about Elizabeth 1 of England. There is a version that she was a man (I myself could hardly believe). And there are almost no arguments against this version. Here is a sensible article on this topic (despite the website, it is really sensible):
    http://paranormal-news.ru/news/koroleva_elizaveta_i_byla_muzhchinoj/2012-07-06-4

    986
    1. Salamander
      Salamander 19 January 2014 19: 03
      0
      Well, of course, minus - it’s always possible, but for some reason it’s impossible to explain ... Wow, what a sadness crying
      1. Salamander
        Salamander 19 January 2014 23: 43
        0
        Ndaa ... the instinct to minus "without declaring war" is unkillable ...
        laughing laughing laughing
  • Setrac
    Setrac 19 January 2014 16: 07
    +2
    Brevity is the soul of wit. This is not Weserman's sister.
    1. Victor-M
      Victor-M 19 January 2014 16: 29
      0
      Quote: Setrac
      Brevity is the soul of wit.

      Just not for those who are used to thinking straightforwardly, according to a given pattern.
  • Barakuda
    Barakuda 19 January 2014 16: 17
    +3
    "WE HAVE FORCES ON EARTH who want to finally erase our past, but they did not succeed, everything returns to normal"
    It is not necessary to look for these forces - 70% of any "parliament" or "duma", Owners-parasites of the largest banks, corporations, etc. And I actually am not surprised by the hatred of property owners, in the 1st Civil and dispossession of kulaks, for example. Moses did not succeed, for example, The people, somehow simple, keep the past in blood and ancestral memory.
    1. Victor-M
      Victor-M 19 January 2014 16: 39
      -2
      Quote: Barracuda
      It is not necessary to look for these forces - 70% of any "parliament" or "duma", Owners-parasites of the largest banks, corporations, etc.

      So it turns out that everyone should be on the same social level of life support, work equally in the industries of all sectors, while the most responsible should sit in the parliaments (in their free time from work) and adopt laws and other decisions.