Military Review

China: Buys, Copies, Produces

Rearmament strategy of the army and fleet China is based both on imports of arms and military equipment and on its own developments

According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), total arms costs in the world in 2012 amounted to 1,75 trillion dollars, which is 0,5 percent less than in 2011, and this decline is observed for the first time since 1998. A new steady trend is being formed: a decrease in military budgets in developed countries, such as the USA, Australia, Canada, and Japan, and a simultaneous increase in indicators in the countries of Asia, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa, and Latin America. The military budget of the People’s Republic of China is currently the second in the world after the United States and has increased by 2012 percent in 7,8 year - to 11,5 billion dollars. According to the analytical report “Military Balance-2013” by the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) Military Balance-2013, it will continue to grow.

In 2012 – 2013, the bulk of China’s military allocations came from the development of new weapons programs in order to modernize and increase the combat capabilities of the People’s Liberation Army of China (PLA). As the regional and international interests of the country expand, the international obligations of its armed forces are expanding, especially for peacekeeping, the fight against piracy, humanitarian aid, disaster relief and joint maneuvers. In addition to promoting the modernization of the PLA, the goal of these commitments appears to be to create China’s political connections and reduce international concern about its growing influence, especially in Asia. All these tasks require an increase in the combat effectiveness of the PLA.

Among the most notable events of 2012, experts called the launch of the first Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning. It was created on the basis of the corps of the unfinished Soviet heavy aircraft carrier (TAKR) Varyag and will achieve combat readiness in a few years. Modernization of the ship and intensive training of the crew and crews of the air group clearly show Beijing's intention to strengthen the aircraft carrier capabilities of the Navy. In this regard, experts are vigorously discussing whether the Ministry of Defense of the PRC will agree to train naval pilots at the Ukrainian (formerly Soviet) ground test and training complex aviation (Thread), given that the Russian Navy refused to use it. The Verkhovna Rada should pass a bill according to which the Ukrainian military department will be able to lease the complex to Beijing. Analysts consider the main aircraft of the Chinese carrier-based aircraft J-15 ("Jian-15") an unlicensed copy of the Russian Su-33K. Liaoning itself is very similar in its characteristics to the Admiral Kuznetsov TAKR. As a result, the training process for Chinese pilots is greatly simplified. Although the center for training marine aviation at the Yan Liang airbase near the city of Xian is actively developing, the PLA is very interested in training at the NITKA training ground, as China was developing its only aircraft carrier with minimal foreign assistance. Self-training of crews for him increases the risk of disasters and delays the time of putting the ship into operation.

At the same time, the national naval forces pay great attention to deck helicopters. In the 2012 year, flights from Liaonin of Z-8 early warning radar (DRLO) machines manufactured by Changhe Aircraft Industries Corporation (Changhe Aircraft Industries Corporation, Changhe) were recorded. The helicopter is a licensed copy of the Super-Frelon SA-321 (Super Frelon) produced by Eurocopter. In addition, China purchased the Russian Ka-31 and Ka-28 companies Kamov. The successes of the Middle Kingdom in the development of tactics of naval aviation groups to protect ships from air and surface threats are not yet known.

The country is also developing aircraft AWACS JZY-01. In July, photographs of his prototype were published on 2012. However, experts did not agree on whether it would be used on a Chinese aircraft carrier, but most believe that the aircraft has this capability. The spectrum of combat missions JZY-01 is similar to the American HACO E-2 “Hawkeye” (Hawkeye) aircraft. The amount of training for taking off and landing on an aircraft carrier aircraft J-15. According to the Military Balance-2013, during the tests, anti-ship missiles (ASM) were used. This suggests that the fighter in the event of a conflict will be used, inter alia, to combat ship groups. The same source reports that Liaonin is equipped with an active phased-array radar (AFAR) and three-dimensional (3D) radar Sea Eagle radar. The onboard armament of the ship includes four FL-3000N Flying Leopard anti-aircraft missile systems (FMS) with 18 missile ammunition, as well as two anti-submarine systems for 12 missiles each. Brand of weapons is not called. Experts believe that the Liaoning can be placed (or already installed) RCC.

Total modernization

In addition to the aircraft carrier, the Chinese military-industrial complex (DIC) implements a wide range of extremely interesting projects. In July, 2012-th photos appeared launcher, which is supposed to be used to launch cruise missiles DH-10, intended for strikes against ground targets. Land version of this weapons put into operation in 2006 – 2008 years, the aviation is in development and will be brought soon.

China: Buys, Copies, Produces

The 052D Luyang III destroyers creation program continues, the first images of which were published on the water in August 3. Observers were able to distinguish 2012 vertical launchers (TLU) of missiles of indeterminate type and designation. It is currently unknown whether the Navy will build one or two destroyers, so that each mini-series becomes more advanced within its class, or, on the contrary, will begin mass production. Most likely the second option, since China has reached maximum capacity in shipbuilding. Then the ships of obsolete classes (for example, the destroyer of the 64C project) will be gradually upgraded to match the level of new combat units.

Experts have previously noted the absence of overseas naval bases and ship replenishment ships (TFCC) as vulnerabilities of the PLA Navy. But in March and May 2012 of the year, the Chinese launched two Fuci-class payload stations, immediately doubling the number of these vessels. Beijing attaches great importance to the protection of the coastal zone. In the first half of the 2012 Navy, the country received six frigates of the 056 project. They can be used in the fight against submarines, which are now actively buying neighbors in the Asia-Pacific region (APR). A Y-8FQ (or GX-6) marine patrol aircraft is also being developed against submarines. It was first shown in November 2011. According to foreign sources, he made the first test flight no later than January 2013.

“Military Balance-2013” draws attention to the fact that China, in protecting its interests, uses not only the strengthening of military power, but also more peaceful means. This refers to economic pressure and paramilitary organizations. For example, auxiliary unarmed ships of the PRC Marine Observatory (MNF), which were repeatedly used in attempts to achieve sovereignty over a number of islands in the South China Sea. That is, Beijing has the tools to demonstrate its intentions without fear of a significant increase in tension in the APR. In general, the MNF is given considerable attention and by the end of 2018, its ranks can replenish 36 vessels. There is also the practice of transferring this organization to ships withdrawn from the PLA Navy. In particular, in the 2012, the MNS received two frigates and two auxiliary vessels, which had previously belonged to the fleet. China has four more maritime organizations. These are the command for the protection of the rights of fisheries (CPRA), the Maritime Safety Administration (ABM), the Coast Guard Service (SBO), and the General Customs Administration (GTA). The MNF and KOPR vessels are used more often than others, and together with the ABM operate in foreign ports (the SSO and GTA vessels mainly in coastal waters).

China is also developing submarine ballistic missiles. JL-2 SLBMs with a range of 7500 kilometers should reach alert in the current year, significantly strengthening the PLA Navy. Now the Navy has three nuclear submarines with ballistic missiles (SSBN) project 094 ("Jin", Jin). By 2020, their number will increase to five. In addition, projects are continuing 096 (SSBN) and 095 (nuclear submarines with missile-torpedo weapons). According to a number of reports, ballistic anti-ship missiles DF-21D, advanced versions of DF-21, with a range of 1500 kilometers are created. Back in 2010, representatives of the Republic of China in Taiwan claimed that a number of PLA units had been replenished with new medium-range ballistic missiles (RSD) DF-16.

In July, 2012, some US officials said that the People's Republic of China had conducted an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) test, DF-41. It can be the first Chinese product that can hit targets in the Americas. It is assumed that the ICBM will be equipped with a separable warhead with individual targeting of warheads to specified targets (MIRV), which will significantly increase the effectiveness of its use. However, it is still unknown whether there is an MFRD of the DF-31A rocket at the most long-range missile currently available.

For the Air Force, Beijing continues to develop J-11 (Jian-11) type fighters, especially its attack version J-16 (Jian-16). Two prototypes of the J-20 fighter are being tested, the third prototype was shown in October of the 2012. Flights of this type of aircraft caused concern to Japan in August 2013. The development of the inconspicuous J-21 or J-31 fighter is interesting. Finally, the outdated types of aircraft are being replaced by the J-10 medium fighter.

The capabilities of the military transport aviation (PLA) of the PLA are increased by acquiring the Il-76 military transport aircraft (BTC) from Belarus. Negotiations with Russia on their supply were interrupted, as Moscow was unable to ensure the assembly of the required number of vehicles in the stipulated time frame. According to the experts of the Military Balance-2013, a contract for the supply of an upgraded version of the IL-76MD-90А (known as the IL-476) may be concluded soon. In addition, the PLA Air Force is developing its own PTS Y-20. Difficulties with the development of programs to strengthen the VTA may affect the creation of early warning airplanes and refueling aircraft. Currently, only five DRLO KJ-2000 aircraft have been built, while the corresponding version of the H-6 (Soviet Tu-16) remains the main tanker.

The Ground Forces (SV) have priority in planning defense expenditures, although significant sums are allocated for the re-equipment of the fleet, aviation and missile forces and artillery (MFA). According to experts, this indicates that the Chinese strategy has changed significantly. The main function of the army is the defense of borders, which confirms a clear separation between the military police and the armed forces. The main operational unit of the SV now became a brigade, not a division. Depending on the weapons, there are three types - light, medium, heavy.

New technology in the army enters constantly. In 2010, Mobile Land Systems, a South African company (Mobile Land Systems), bought 11 demolition proof machines (Mine-Resistant Ambush-Protected) and related technologies. In June, the Chinese company Norinko (2012) introduced a new infantry fighting vehicle (BMP), the 8M, in June. Supposedly, it used South African technology, as usually the Chinese defense industry protects its equipment with hinged armor on bolts, and in 8M photographs it is not visible. It is not yet decided whether the new BMPs will be adopted by the army and military police or will they be produced for export. Special attention is also given to second-generation anti-tank missile systems (ATGW) with guided projectiles through wires and a laser beam. Programs are being developed to create various BMPs, including light ones. In 2012, the BMP ZBD-08 began to arrive in the army. Like its predecessor, the ZBD-04, outwardly it resembles the Soviet and Russian BMP-1 and -2, but has improved armor protection and the main tool. The ZBD-08 chassis is also used for the production of other types of equipment such as the ZBD-09 wheeled armored personnel carrier and the ZBD-05 amphibious amphibious assault vehicle.

Colleagues forever

In addition to the implementation of their own weapons projects, the purchase of foreign weapons plays an important role in strengthening Chinese military power. The above information about the most interesting developments of the Chinese defense industry clearly demonstrates the importance of import. In one of the reports of the US Department of Defense, which is quoted in the report “Development and Modernization of the Chinese Armed Forces. A look from the West "of the Center for Strategic and International Studies CSIS (Center for Strategic and International Studies), says:" China relies on foreign technology, procuring key dual-use components and focuses on its own R & D to modernize the national armed forces. "

Although the country has significantly reduced imports in absolute and relative terms since the middle of the 2000, it still acquires ready-made military systems, activates development of defense production with foreign participation, licensed production and reverse engineering (reproduction of products by copying). In addition, China is engaged in cyber espionage against certain types of weapons, for example, American F-35 fighter jets. Probably, the trend will continue over the next few years due to continuing difficulties in the development of key technologies, according to Western experts.

As noted in the SIPRI report for 2012 year, the Chinese defense industry began to produce several new types of weapons and reduced dependence on foreign supplies. While in 2003 – 2007, Beijing was the largest importer of military products in the world market, in 2008 – 2012, it moved into second place with 7,5 billion dollars, reducing purchases by 47 percent. SIPRI notes that new Chinese weapons systems continue to be based on a significant number of foreign components. About the first aircraft carrier already mentioned above. The most popular mass-produced fighters J-10 and J-11 are used by the Russian turbojet two-circuit engines (turbofan) AL-31FN and there are many such examples.

The Pentagon’s 2013 report for the year noted that Russia remains the main supplier of weapons and logistics to China, including advanced fighters, helicopters, missile systems, submarines, destroyers, as well as licenses for the production of certain types. In confirmation it is worth citing some more examples. Since 1996, Russia has exported a total of 76 Su-27 (36 Su-27SK and 40 Su-27UPC) under three contracts — two for 24 and one for 28 machines. In the same 1996, the parties signed an agreement worth 150 million dollars on the transfer of technologies and components to China, as well as providing the necessary technical support for the production of Su-27. Under the terms, Moscow pledged to help the Chinese enterprise Shenyang Aviation Company (Shenyang Aviation Company - SAC) in setting up the production line and launching the 200 Su-27 over the next 15 years. Engines, radars, avionics and weapons systems were purchased directly from Russia. Beijing also received 38 multipurpose fighter Su-30MKK and 24 fighter Su-30MK2 for PLA Navy.

Currently, the parties are negotiating the supply of multipurpose generation X-NUMX Su-35 ++. Initially, China wished to purchase the 4 fighter, which was enshrined in the first version of the contract. But during the negotiations, the stated number of aircraft can be changed in any direction, sources in the Russian defense-industrial complex say. Deliveries are expected from the second half of 24. The agreement also provides for the creation in China, with the help of Russian companies, of a service and technical center (STC) for servicing the Su-2014. Avionics and avionics equipment for the model is produced by the concern Radioelectronic Technologies (KRET). A company representative said that the Chinese side will receive only the hardware, and mathematical control algorithms will not be supplied. It is also about the technology of the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) and the latest radar system "Irbis".

Supplies of Russian fighters played a key role in the development of the Chinese military aircraft industry. A decade ago, not a single competitive combat fighter was produced there, and now JF-17 and J-10 are being exploited. Probably, they are comparable with the most modern world models. At the same time, China is releasing cheaper fighters based on the classic MiG-21, copies of the Russian Su-27 under the name J-11B and the deck fighter Su-33 - J-15. Specialists from two competing aircraft companies, Chengdu and Shenyang, have already built prototypes of the new generation of fighters, the J-20 and J-31, using stealth technology (Stealth). For them, the range of aircraft rockets has been expanded, new generation equipment has been developed, including an airborne radar with an active phased antenna array (radar with AFAR) and an infrared search and sight system.

To date, Beijing has acquired 12 non-nuclear submarines (NNS) from the 877ECM and KNOX 636 projects with a variety of weapons. In particular, Russian technologies have found application in the Chinese project 041 (class "Yuan"), which has been under way since 2004. At the start of the 2013, the PLA Navy has four submarines (330, 331, 332, 333). One submarine in construction, construction of three more boats is planned. China is now interested in acquiring new Amur-1650, the development of the central design bureau of marine equipment (CDB MT) Rubin. According to experts of the US Congressional Research Service, attention to Amur is associated with plans to further explore world-class submarine technology and incorporate them into its own developments.

According to the representative of the TsBB MT "Rubin", the company together with Rosoboronexport is already negotiating with Beijing about the creation of submarines based on the Amur submarines, there is a corresponding framework contract signed by Rosoboronexport. “China is not interested in the purchase of submarines. Most likely, it will be a question of selective interaction by special technologies for designing individual components, ”he stressed.

China also received several C-300 anti-aircraft missile systems (ZRS) divisions, and now, according to the London weekly Jaynes Defense Weekly, referring to the Director of the Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation (FSMTC of Russia) Alexander Fomin, intends to acquire C-400 ZRS at the start of the 2015 of the year. But even in 2010, representatives of the Russian defense industrial complex noted problems with production at the enterprises of the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern, which makes it impossible to supply any systems at least until 2017. The publication also clarifies that first a certain number of C-400 should be made for the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation to replace obsolete C-300.

According to the head of Rosoboronexport, Anatoly Isaikin, the People's Republic of China is on the list of prospective buyers of the new Yak-130 training and combat aircraft developed and manufactured by Irkut. In 2012, Beijing also ordered the Mi-55 17 transport helicopters. Meanwhile, the CSIS report noted that in addition to official contracts, the Chinese use a wide, well-organized collection network from foreign sources of information on sensitive technologies and controlled exports. Many companies of the national defense industry complex carry out research work in the military and civilian sphere. These state-affiliated enterprises and scientific research institutes under the guise of civilian research provide the PLA with access to technological advances. Chinese specialists actively participate in scientific conferences and symposia, firms organize joint production and research. If it concerns key technologies in the field of national security, state-controlled equipment and other logistical support (MTO), which is inaccessible for commercial use, then Beijing uses intelligence services and other covert methods, including cyber espionage.

Copy work

American analysts are concerned that the priority of China’s strategy of acquiring advanced technologies is civil-military integration policy with the goal of developing dual-use innovations and developing an industrial base. The PRC of the PRC developed through integration with expanding civilian sectors of the economy, science and technology, especially with those that have access to foreign technologies. We are talking about advanced aviation, space, avionics and flight control systems, software codes, traveling wave tubes (TWT), night vision devices (NVD), monolithic microwave integrated circuits, information and cybernetic technologies.

Differentiation of civilian and military products in China is very complex due to non-transparent corporate structures, hidden owners of assets and relations of personnel with the central government. Some commercial enterprises are associated with scientific research institutes of the army and government structures such as the State Commission for the Control and Monitoring of Assets. The acquisition of dual-use goods poses serious problems when it comes to a comprehensive picture of the technological capabilities of the PLA. The predominance of state-run companies in combination with state secrecy makes it difficult to track the use of individual products. Judging from the annual reports of the Pentagon, it seems likely that China will systematically exploit dual-use items for military purposes.

Washington fears that the participation of the PLA in observer status at international exercises using American equipment and weapons under certain circumstances may lead to unintended consequences and unauthorized disclosure of data. “Tiananmen Sanctions” The United States prohibits the transfer to China of US military supplies, defense services, technical data and / or technology, as well as disclosure of information on them. In addition, the law on the control of the export of arms and the manual on the international arms trade characterize China as a country for which the US prohibits the transfer or export of military equipment, including technical data, and services in the defense industry.

In general, specialists have the impression that Beijing no longer relies on imports to modernize its army. The country's industry demonstrates the ability to engage in virtually all sectors without external assistance; there has been a tendency to reduce the technological gap between the most developed Western countries. However, a sudden cessation of purchases abroad can significantly delay the systemic rearmament of the army. Probably, dependence on reverse engineering (reproduction), and de facto from foreign arms will last at least one more decade, experts conclude. Many modern Chinese weapons systems, especially aircraft, are imported from Russia (Su-27 and Su-30) or are copies of Russian developments. In addition, much of the local development systems are based on foreign technologies. In particular, helicopters, radar stations and aircraft engines are developed, imported or manufactured under licenses with extensive use of Russian and European technologies. Also a pressing issue for the PRC is the quality of military products using the reverse engineering method. Experts rate it as very low, which makes it difficult for high-tech weapons to adapt to the PLA.

Quickly, secretly and cheaply

Partially imports of foreign weapons are compensated by the export of Chinese weapons products. This is a small segment in the trade balance of a huge power, but the growth rates are impressive. Between 2002 – 2006 and 2007 – 2011, the export of Chinese weapons grew by 95 percent. At the beginning of 2013, SIPRI announced that China is in fifth place on the list of the world's largest arms exporters. According to estimates of the Pentagon in 2007 – 2011, the Celestial Empire has signed contracts for the supply of conventional weapons for various purposes with a total value of 11 billion dollars. In 2012, the PRC demonstrated the Yilun UAV, which may also be sold on the foreign market. From the beginning of 2012, it was assumed that Chinese arms exports will grow at a slower pace as defense industry develops. The main consumers of Chinese drug products are countries in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and the largest partner is Pakistan. Beijing not only exports finished products there, but also participates in joint weapons programs, such as the JF-17 Thunder fighter (Thunder), frigates with helicopters aboard the F-22P, the K-8 Karakorum jet missiles, the F- 7, ARLO aircraft, MBT, air-to-air missiles, anti-ship missiles, light armored vehicles.

Sub-Saharan African countries see China as a supplier of low-cost weapons, whose political influence is less compared to other exporters. For Beijing, in turn, such trade is important as a comprehensive means of improving trade relations, guaranteeing access to national resources (especially oil), increasing influence in the region, strengthening international status. Unauthorized deliveries of Chinese weapons to African states are a matter of concern for the United States and the United Nations. In June, 2012, an attempt was made to regulate the market for small arms by signing a relevant agreement.

As noted in one of the reports of the Congressional Research Service, China did not enter the world arms trade market until the start of the Iran-Iraq war (1980 – 1988). The main characteristic of exports was its general availability, weapons were supplied under any conditions and in any number of participants in hostilities, regardless of the presence of an international embargo. So the Chinese arms business has become regional, focused on the third world. In 2005, the amount of multilateral contracts was estimated at 2,7 billion dollars, at 2007 –– 2,5, at 2008 – 2011 –– 2 billion. Already in the next fiscal year, the country signed agreements for the supply of defense products in the amount of 2,1 billion. Basically, the Chinese sell small weapon systems and components to them. For example, anti-ship missiles are shipped to Iran, anti-tank missile systems are delivered to Pakistan. China is a member of the “Missile Technology Export Control Regime” and its business in this area may adversely affect attempts to limit the turnover of advanced systems for various purposes. Nevertheless, most of the products are significantly inferior to the Russian and Western counterparts in manufacturability and quality. Therefore, prospects for China in the near future are dubious to become the main supplier of weapons to developing countries.
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  1. delfinN
    delfinN 17 January 2014 13: 59
    Strong pegs scored in the markets of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Now, judging by the table, Venezuela is taken.
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 17 January 2014 15: 12
      And not only. It is criminal to not expand the influence of China.
      The United States prohibits the transfer to China of US military supplies, defense services, technical data and / or technology, as well as the disclosure of information thereon.
      And ours still sell them the latest models, the subject of disagreement is only the number of deliveries.
      1. Vovka levka
        Vovka levka 17 January 2014 18: 10
        Quote: Ingvar 72
        And ours still sell them the latest models, the subject of disagreement is only the number of deliveries.

        It borders on recklessness (it's so humble). Putting a club in the hands of a big neighbor who has problems with resources that they just need to survive is just not smart. And the resources are nearby, a little to the north. But in China, the ability to present is deeply rooted. As the saying goes, "Loot wins".
        1. sledgehammer102
          sledgehammer102 17 January 2014 19: 28
          Quote: Ingvar 72
          And ours still sell them the latest models, the subject of disagreement is only the number of deliveries.

          Well, if something is delivered abroad, then from the letters E - export option. So, if you buy a hundred aircraft, then you can sell without problems.

          Quote: Vovka Levka
          Giving a big neighbor a club that has problems with the resources that they need simply to survive is simply not smart.

          And he is sitting in the Ministry of Defense and Rosoboronexport))) And the problems of China with resources will be solved in Africa and in the Russian Federation, but only in an economic way, and not in any military way, since it deals not with Taiwan, but with a nuclear power. And all the speculations about the traditional war with China are nothing more than another portion of coal in the dying fire of the "Chinese threat."
          1. Vovka levka
            Vovka levka 17 January 2014 20: 06
            Quote: sledgehammer102

            And he is sitting in the Ministry of Defense and Rosoboronexport))) And the problems of China with resources will be solved in Africa and in the Russian Federation, but only in an economic way, and not in any military way, since it deals not with Taiwan, but with a nuclear power. And all the speculations about the traditional war with China are nothing more than another portion of coal in the dying fire of the "Chinese threat."

            Who is against it? There will be no classical war, there will be a purchase of resources at a price that will be beneficial to China, and no one will jump especially. For the Chinese have no fear of loss, for them it’s just statistics, just statistics and nothing more.
    2. densh
      densh 17 January 2014 18: 36
      Quote: delfinN
      In the Pakistan market

      China has taken firm hold of Pakistan since the time of our Afghan war — and at the suggestion of the United States — it supplied arms, advisers, and trained officers in its schools. Now it has borne fruit. The USA has been ousted from Pakistan. China controls the Pakistani army and intelligence services.
      1. alone
        alone 17 January 2014 22: 39
        China: Buys, Copies, Produces

        Yes, China buys, copies, produces and does it for the good of its country and people. Moreover, they have developed such a frantic pace that the rest simply turned into observers.
  2. Roman 1977
    Roman 1977 17 January 2014 14: 03
    It is interesting to see the evolution of the Chinese aircraft industry:
    Shenyang J-5 (F-5) - copy of the MiG-17

    Shenyang J-6 (F-6) - copy of the MiG-19

    Q-5 (A-5) Fantan- upgraded MiG-19, the first Chinese tactical nuclear carrier aircraft

    Chengdu J-7 - copy of the MiG-21

    after this, the breakdown of relations between China and the USSR, and based on the MiG-23 purchased in Egypt and information about the Su-15, J-8 appeared, and then its modification J-8II, modernized by the Americans
    1. Roman 1977
      Roman 1977 17 January 2014 14: 13
      Then the normalization of relations with the USSR, the supply of technology by Russia:
      Multipurpose fighter-bomber - JH-7 (FBC-1) Flying Leopard. In its appearance, you can easily guess the features of the "Jaguar", shock modifications of the "Phantom" or "Tornado" - famous in the past classic fighter-bombers, now finally leaving the reserve. This is not surprising if you remember that the creation of the machine began exactly then, more than 30 years ago. The start of designing a new H-1973 bomber for the aviation of the Chinese army and navy in 7 coincided with the entry into the final stage of the Yugoslav-Romanian fighter-bomber program, which had the Anglo-French Jaguar as a role model. In those years, Yugoslavia, Romania and China were united by a common hostility to the USSR, so the mutual exchange of military technologies was very intensive. Europeans also encouraged "the weakest links of the Iron Curtain" to the best of their ability. The Chinese took the main decisions of the Yugoslav-Romanian design and reincarnated them in the guise of a twin-engine vehicle with a radar, recalculating and increasing it by about one and a half times for the new power plant - the English Rolls-Royce Spey Mk.202 / 203 engine. The official public debut of the aircraft took place at the air show in Zhuhai in 1998. That is, 25 (!) Years have passed from the moment of development to the adoption of the aircraft.

      So far, the only Chinese serial aircraft more or less meeting modern requirements is the J-10, created on the basis of Israeli developments under the Lavi program with the Russian AL-31F engine

      And then the next clones of the Su-27-J-11, Su-30-J-16 and the carrier-based Su-33, the prototype of which the T-10K was "kindly" sold to China by fraternal Ukraine in 2005.

      As they say find the 10 differences ...
      1. S-200
        S-200 17 January 2014 17: 09
        Well, I have a question ...
        Are they an absolutely imbecile-degenerating nation not capable of scientific and technical creativity?
        do not rush to minus ...
        For centuries, China has been in terrible stagnation ....
        and only the last 40-50 years have been trying to stupidly "mess up" world innovations, not giving the world in return ANYTHING significant!
        1. Ingvar 72
          Ingvar 72 17 January 2014 17: 22
          Quote: S-200
          Are they an absolutely imbecile-degenerating nation not capable of scientific and technical creativity?

          The Chinese have always been a good slave, with no particular complaints. It seems to me that from the point of view of the theory of the golden billion, it is the Chinese that are planned to be left as the main labor force. White is worse for this because more freedom-loving. By the way, this can explain the artificially created degradation of the population of Europe and the genocide of the Russian people. hi
        2. dustycat
          dustycat 17 January 2014 18: 36
          A little more Chinese will learn Russian and begin to invent themselves.
          As soon as they can learn to think in Russian.
  3. delfinN
    delfinN 17 January 2014 14: 44
    And like a crown of copy
  4. sergey72
    sergey72 17 January 2014 15: 47
    There is an inaccuracy in the title of the article; they forgot to put the word STEALTH ahead ...
  5. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv 17 January 2014 15: 52
    The Chinese, radishes, have done well in copying. It must be admitted.

    And dafayte China we will sell the drawing of the secret tank, let them copy and sell ...
    But ... we will not say about the "file" (otherwise, they will collect something sensible with a fool).
    1. S-200
      S-200 17 January 2014 17: 14
      it doesn’t happen ..."Tukhach - 734" what
  6. Vitaly Anisimov
    Vitaly Anisimov 17 January 2014 15: 53
    China is a huge 3D printer .. on a global scalelaughing
    1. Sibiriya
      Sibiriya 17 January 2014 16: 02
      A copy is a copy:
      Russian Kalashnikov and
      The Chinese chasm is huge, etc. etc.
  7. svoi
    svoi 17 January 2014 16: 21
    How many warm feelings are caused by Ukrainians, Varyag, NITKA, Su33, Chinese, at least opponents, and with this, brothers and opponents are not needed.
    1. Cristall
      Cristall 18 January 2014 16: 00
      the RF has no less "feats".
      While the problems from such "sales" are much more. But I will not step on the corn. And I do not advise you.
  8. Arh
    Arh 17 January 2014 17: 02
    These copied the Su-35, one reassuringly worked for a long time on drying and did not immediately fly! ! ! )))
  9. RUSS
    RUSS 17 January 2014 17: 07
    It is difficult to become a master if you did not have a master teacher, the Chinese do not have a normal school of "masters", maybe someday it will be - learning from their mistakes and copying, but without continuity this is a long process.

    And it would be nice for the Chinese to know that theft is evil and sin for which you have to answer.
    1. Vitaly Anisimov
      Vitaly Anisimov 17 January 2014 17: 49
      Quote: RUSS
      It is difficult to become a master if you did not have a master teacher, the Chinese do not have a normal school of "masters", maybe someday it will be - learning from their mistakes and copying, but without continuity this is a long process.

      And it would be nice for the Chinese to know that theft is evil and sin for which you have to answer.

      Alas, I don’t completely agree with you .. The USSR in the beginning also all started with copying (our Kulibins simply improved it all by trial and error) The result of the first man was launched into space .. China is going in this direction .. the country is closed and no one knows the way what they have (but a breakthrough in technology is evident) The nation is ancient and efficient .. aspiring to world leadership (although I honestly would not want China to take the place of world leader ..) blood will flow a lot .. these comrades without brakes when they feel the power ( such a feeling) .. In Russia, I hope this is understood ..
  10. calocha
    calocha 17 January 2014 17: 36
    Soon, China will shut up everyone’s belt .. Missiles are experiencing flying ... 10 mach. You can laugh at them, but you need to think about it ... with our corruption they can afford all the secrets !!!
  11. Strashila
    Strashila 17 January 2014 17: 55
    According to Russian folk wisdom ... the affectionate calf of two queens sucks ... here the Chinese comrades have access to Russian and Western technologies ... they are trying to mix how this works, the second thing is done, they try and work, the main thing is that I am compensating for the experience gained lack of knowledge.
  12. bpa1949
    bpa1949 17 January 2014 18: 10
    What should I say? China purposefully goes in front in all areas of activity and it does not matter to them which way. They spat at all.
  13. makarov
    makarov 17 January 2014 18: 34
    just to quote.

    In particular, the Chinese for a long time
    showed interest in the ground test and training complex
    NITKA aviation in the Crimea, and even visited it through the Ministry of Defense. also in
    2008-2009, on the instructions of the Chinese special services, two groups of spies tried
    steal the construction technology of the thread, but the SBU managed to disrupt these plans
    and detain criminals at the crime scene. However, soon
    it was reported that China is building a similar complex on its territory,
    on the island of Huludao.
  14. Ross
    Ross 17 January 2014 19: 38
    Quote: Ingvar 72
    It is criminal to not expand the influence of China.

    The Chinese are prudent and cunning. For them, there is only the Middle Kingdom and there can be no friendship with them.
    After seeing in Asia how the local peoples relate to them, you begin to understand a lot. In Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, more than 70% of the economy is owned by the Chinese. Already. It is not yet known which is better, the global hegemony of the USA or China.
  15. moremansf
    moremansf 17 January 2014 19: 47
    China's defense industry has recently made great strides due to its restructuring at the end of the 20 century. Earlier, the Chinese defense industry was divided in the Soviet style. That is, the isolation between research and development and the production complex was obvious. When the product was developed, the Ministry of Industry as part of the commission on science, technology and industry for national defense appointed a plant for the construction of equipment. But when the company received the projects (drawings), problems began because the plant itself was not directly involved in the project at the development stage.
    The Chinese leadership saw that this was not in the national interest. One of the first reforms was the decision to allow the military to take a central role in overseeing the defense industry. If you do not have end users, especially military consumers and the centralized consumer communities, then you will never be new. You will only have industry administrators focusing only on their own interests. These functions were performed in our country by military acceptance, which, with the light hand of individual "reformers!" Was practically destroyed and the whole process was allowed to take its course, which subsequently affected the timing and quality of production of equipment and weapons.
  16. moremansf
    moremansf 17 January 2014 19: 52
    Encouraged by Russia's passive acceptance of violations of intellectual property rights in relation to SU-27, China embarked on an innovative path, the first step of which was the development of “additional innovations”. As can be seen from the J-10A project, it is still a front-line fighter, this includes the development of a basic platform, and then gradual refinement and improvement, a batch from a batch. J-10A initially contains many Russian and Israeli components, which are gradually being replaced by Chinese.
  17. Victor Wolz
    Victor Wolz 17 January 2014 22: 58
    Our government behaves like a concierge Ludwig Aristarkhovich in our Russia, doesn’t give a shit, and then asks everyone who did this ??
  18. Cristall
    Cristall 18 January 2014 16: 04
    US hegemony is still okay, there are 350 million of them. And the same 1.3 billion is growing.
    Hegemony and expansion is what scares. And they do it quietly, not impudently like the west, but like Asians, quietly. And we sleep lightly. Accustomed to seeing them as "Asians"