Military Review

How Russia became the figure of England in the big game against France

How Russia became the figure of England in the big game against France At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, Russia and France were drawn into a series of bloody conflicts. Moreover, both great powers had no common borders and serious contradictions that needed to be resolved. weapons. Russian and French soldiers killed each other in the open spaces of Europe - from the Ionian Islands and Italy to Holland and Germany. These wars ended only in 1815, when Napoleon Bonaparte suffered a final defeat. Interestingly, many prominent French and Russian military leaders and statesmen, including Napoleon, Pavel Petrovich and Kutuzov, understood the depth of the strategic error, but could not do anything about it. Russia and France did not gain from this confrontation, losing precious time, strength, resources and people.

But it cannot be said that there was no player in the political arena who would have received a huge gain from this confrontation. All dividends from this struggle went to England. Russia shackled the main geopolitical enemy of England at that time - France. Paris could not solve the problems of unification of Western Europe and gradually lost its independence in foreign policy, “playing” for the British. The results for France were sad - the futile Eastern (Crimean) campaign, the hardest losses in the First World War, the inglorious collapse in the Second World War and the gradual degradation of modern times. London beat Paris in the hard struggle of the end of the XVIII - beginning of the XIX centuries. And the main trump card of the British in this struggle was Russia. Russian soldiers dotted the fields of Western Europe with their bones and undermined the potential of France.

Unfortunately, the Russian rulers, and especially Alexander I, were not up to par. They dragged Russia into someone else's game. Russia's struggle with France did not meet Russian national interests. Russia was advantageous confrontation on the line: France - England and France - Austria, Prussia. This struggle depleted Western Europe - at that time, the main geopolitical opponent of Russia, gave time to St. Petersburg to focus on internal development, the development of already existing vast territories (in order to include new regions in the South and Far East). In reality, the Russians became cannon fodder in England.

The revolution in France and the grand eastern plans of Catherine II

In 1789, a revolution took place in France. It led to the largest breaking and reorganization of the socio-political system of France. The old order was almost completely broken, France from the monarchy became a republic. Later, the monarchy was restored more than once, but in general, the social and political system of the French state underwent a strong transformation. The long process of restructuring Europe has entered a new stage.

France was far away, and the internal events in this state practically did not touch Russia in any way. It was possible to trade both with a monarchy, and with republic. However, the Russian Empress Catherine II reacted to this event extremely painfully. She was extremely indignant at the events in France. Her angry words quickly spread throughout Europe. She called the National Assembly deputies intriguing, unworthy of this title "canals", which can be compared with the rebel Pugachev. Moreover, the Russian empress called for intervention, acting as one of the initiators of the anti-French coalition: “The weakening of the monarchist power in France endangers all other monarchies. For my part, I am ready to resist by all means. It's time to act and take up arms. ” Catherine even began funding the mercenary army, which was created by French immigrants and counter-revolutionary nobility.

On the other hand, Ekaterina Alekseevna is obviously cunning. She did not think much of Louis XVI: "He's drunk every night, and he is ruled over by anyone who wants it." In addition, the Russian empress understood the benefits of the intervention of Vienna and Berlin in the affairs of France. 4 December 1791, the empress told her secretary Khrapovitsky: “I break my head to move the Viennese and Berlin courts into French affairs ... to bring them into business in order to have free hands myself. I have a lot of unfinished enterprises, and I need these yards to be occupied and not interfere with me ”. Petersburg was beneficial to distract Vienna and Berlin from Polish affairs. Austria needed to be diverted from the Balkan Peninsula and the future of the Ottoman Empire. Catherine had extensive plans for the future of the Ottoman territories. In particular, it was supposed to completely expel the Ottomans from Europe, to recreate the Byzantine Empire - under the protectorate of Russia.

In the summer of 1792, Austro-Prussian troops invaded France. The period of "revolutionary wars" began. Among the enemies of France were not only Austria and Prussia, but also England, Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, and the Netherlands. All the attention of Western Europe was riveted on this war. And at this time, Russia was preparing for a decisive throw on Constantinople. The best forces of the army and fleet pulled together not to the west for a campaign in France, but to the south. In 1793, 145 officers and 2 thousand sailors were transferred from the Baltic Fleet to the Black Sea. At the shipyards of Kherson and Nikolaev, 50 gunboats and 72 rowing vessels of various classes were laid (they were needed for transporting troops and various cargoes). By navigation in 1793, the Black Sea Fleet had 19 ships, 6 frigates, 105 gunboats and 25 sea boats of the Black Sea Cossacks. The decree on the preparation of the Black Sea Fleet said: “The walls can embrace the Tsarsgradsky flame” (in the Chesmensky battle of 1770, the Russian fleet almost completely destroyed or captured the ships of the Ottoman fleet). At the beginning of 1793, a new commander-in-chief, Alexander Suvorov, arrived in Kherson. In the St. Petersburg mint, master T. Ivanov secretly minted medals, on the one side of which the empress was depicted, on the other a flaming Constantinople, a falling minaret with a crescent moon and a radiant cross in the clouds.

The operation to seize Constantinople and the straits failed due to the affairs of the Second Section of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1793), and then the Polish uprising of the 1794 of the year and the Third Section of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1795). Catherine was forced to postpone the eastern plans, Suvorov was sent to fight the Poles. However, Ekaterina Alekseevna did not forget about her plans. In 1796, the Persian campaign began (Punishing non-peaceful Persia - 1796 campaign of the year). The troops under the command of Valerian Zubov captured Derbent, Baku, and successfully moved deep into Persia. The road to South Azerbaijan and Tehran was open. Cossacks Platov carried out long-range reconnaissance. In general, the Persian campaign was won. The Persians surrendered one territory after another, resistance was minimal. In the long term, the possibility of Russian access to the Indian Ocean opened up. Another operation was planned for 1797 year: Zubov was to move troops to Constantinople through Anatolia. At the same time, the Russian troops under the command of Suvorov were to make a shot at Tsargrad through the Balkans, and the Black Sea Fleet, under the command of Ushakov, to conduct the Bosporus landing operation. These plans did not come true because of the death of the Empress.

At the time of Catherine began to develop a plan for a campaign in India. In 1791, the French émigré Marquis de Saint-Genis proposed to the Russian empress a plan for a campaign to India through Bukhara and Kabul. The place of concentration of Russian troops was to be Orenburg. Catherine Alekseevna was supposed to publish a manifesto on the restoration of the Mughal Empire. The plan was not implemented, but it aroused great interest among the Empress.

At the same time, St. Petersburg undertook intensified maneuvers on the misinformation of European powers. Catherine publicly knocked together a coalition to fight the French Jacobins, organized public hysteria about the execution of French monarchs. To divert England in February 1795, in St. Petersburg, the allied defensive Russian-English agreement on mutual assistance in case of war with an unnamed enemy was signed. According to him, St. Petersburg pledged to expose for England in the event of a war with one of the European powers 12-thousand. corps (10 thousand infantry and 2 thousand cavalry). England promised annual monetary assistance in 0,5 million rubles and food and clothing maintenance of Russian troops. Whether Catherine was going to fulfill this contract is unknown, but in any case the corps of 12 thousand soldiers for the Russian Empire then had little significance. In the wars against Turkey, much more powerful military units were operating. In addition, at the beginning of 1795 navigation, Ekaterina sent a squadron of Vice Admiral Khanykov to the North Sea, consisting of 12 battleships and 8 frigates. This squadron was supposed to protect merchant ships and block the coast of Holland. In 1796, part of the ships of the squadron under the command of Khanykov returned to the Baltic, the best ships under command of Rear Admiral Makarov remained off the coast of England. Russian squad took part in the suppression of the uprising of British sailors. For this, the British king George III Makarov was awarded a gold sword, and the emperor Paul - the Order of St.. Anna 1 degree.

Politics of Pavel Petrovich

At the end of 1795, a triple alliance against France was concluded between Russia, England and Austria, and an expeditionary corps was being prepared in Russia. However, the death of Catherine radically changed the policy of Russia. Emperor Paul I did not send an expeditionary corps to help Austria, and declared to his allies that Russia was exhausted by previous wars. Russia left the anti-French coalition. Initially, Emperor Paul wanted to pursue a peaceful policy and limit French military successes through diplomatic measures. Pavel Petrovich stopped the preparation of the Bosphorus operation, withdrew the Zubov Expeditionary Corps from Persia, and brought Makarov’s squadron from the Mediterranean. Pavel I critically evaluated the principles of Catherine in foreign policy, and decided to revise them radically.

In the first months of his reign, the new emperor carefully watched the events in Europe, trying not to interfere in them. In 1796-1797 there has been a serious success of France. The talented French general Napoleon Bonaparte led a brilliant Italian campaign. Austrian armies one after another were defeated and the 17 of October in Campo Formio was concluded peace of France with Austria, who ended the War of the First Coalition. France emerged victorious, although England continued to fight. Austria refused the Netherlands, recognized the left bank of the Rhine as the frontier of France. France went to the Ionian Islands. The Vizals of France were the Tsizalpinsky Republic and the Ligurian Republic. Austria received as compensation the city of Venice and the Venetian lands on the left bank of the Adige River, as well as the Venetian possessions in Istria and Dalmatia.

Paul reacted calmly to this French victory. When the Austrian Ambassador Kobenzel made it clear that the truce of Austria and France could still be broken if Petersburg provided military assistance to Vienna. The Russian emperor shrugged and said: “You have not suffered enough defeats yet?” However, around this time around the Russian emperor they began to twist the intrigue that was supposed to make Russia an enemy of France. A representative of the French émigrés arrived to Pavel and asked for asylum, appealing to the mercy of the Russian sovereign. Under the terms of the world, Austria could no longer keep on its territory French emigre troops, commanded by Prince Louis-Joseph de Bourbon-Conde. “Russian Don Quixote”, as Napoleon called Pavel, undoubtedly invited the French to Russia. French troops were stationed in Podolia and Volyn. Prince Louis Conde, his son and grandson were warmly received in Petersburg. The contender for the French crown Count Provence (Louis XVIII) settled in Mitau and received a pension in 200 thousand rubles.

At the same time, a conspiracy of the Poles in Vilna was fabricated, allegedly supported by the French. There was no serious conspiracy, but it caused Paul to be very annoyed. A major role in drawing Russia into the war with France was also played by the Knights of Malta. Pavel, sharing the chivalrous ideals of honor and glory, in 1797, declared himself the protector of the most ancient order of Malta (continued the tradition of the Hospitallers). In 1798, Napoleon captured Malta on his way to Egypt. Pavel Petrovich gave the Knights refuge in St. Petersburg and December 16. 1798 was elected Grand Master of the Order of Malta (Grand Master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem). In Russia, they established the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (Maltese Cross), which during the reign of Paul was considered the highest distinction awarded for civil and military merit. Paul issued a decree accepting the island of Malta under the protection of the Russian Empire. The island of Malta was supposed to be the province of Russia. It was supposed to create a naval base to ensure the interests of Russia in the Mediterranean and southern Europe.

Thus, various subjective factors forced Pavel Petrovich to start a war with France. Malta, which was not Russian territory since ancient times, could not be called land, for which it was worth starting a bloody war with the French. Russia could easily join much larger territories in the south and east, and without war and special efforts.

War with france

In August, the Russian squadron, under the command of Ushakov — the 1798 of the battleships, the 6 frigates and other ships — moved to the Bosphorus. In the autumn of 7, the Russian ships passed through the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles, entered the Mediterranean Sea, and then the Adriatic, where, in cooperation with the Turkish fleet, began an operation to seize the Ionian Islands. The Russian emperor decided not to limit himself to sending the Russian squadron to the Mediterranean and December 1798 18, St. Petersburg concluded a preliminary agreement with London on the restoration of the union. Russia pledged to send 1798-thousand to Europe for military operations. the army, and England, for its part, agreed to provide a one-time cash subsidy in 45 thousand pounds sterling and pay monthly 225 thousand pounds sterling. Interestingly, the Europeans demanded from Russia not only soldiers, but also a commander - Suvorov. At the end of 75, the ambassadors of England and Austria almost ultimatum demanded the appointment of Alexander Suvorov as commander of the Russian troops, which would be directed against France.

In addition to sending a squadron of Ushakov to the Mediterranean, Russian ships were sent to the North Sea to help the British fleet. In April, 1798, Makarov received an order with 5 battleships to go to the connection with the British. In June, the squadron was in Copenhagen, in July it merged with the English squadron. Then the Makarov squadron was strengthened, bringing its composition to the 18 battleships, 10 frigates. A squadron of Chichagov from the Baltic and a detachment of Baratynsky from Arkhangelsk arrived. Both compounds experienced serious difficulties during the transition, almost all ships received more or less serious damage. The Russian ships returned home by September 1800.

By order of the Russian emperor, 17,5-thousand was formed. corps under the command of General Hermann von Fersen for landing in Holland. Together with the English troops, he had to repel the conquered Holland from the French and restore the former power of the Princes of Orange there. The Dutch expedition 1799 of the year ended in complete failure. Local conditions contributed to the defensive side, the French and the Dutch supporting them had many good defensive positions, the terrain was very difficult for offensive actions. Autumn bad weather further worsened the situation, flooding the lowlands and turning them into swamps. The Russian expeditionary corps was not a single whole - not only divisions and brigades were formed just before landing on ships, but even separate reunion-grenadier battalions of soldiers from people of different parts. The commanders did not know their subordinates. There were no carriers, horses were not brought, cavalrymen remained dismounted, great difficulties were with the transportation of guns. Big problems were with the supply of troops. During the battle, Russian and British troops acted separately, a simultaneous strike did not work. As a result, the battle of Bergen ended with the defeat of the Russians and the British, the generals Herman and Stallions were captured. The remaining forces, with the permission of the French General Brune, were evacuated. Of the failed expedition, only England gained the favor, the British were able to capture the Dutch fleet.

The actions of the squadron of Ushakov on the Adriatic and the army of Suvorov in Italy were much more successful. Russian sailors under the command of Ushakov, with the support of the Ottomans, occupied the Ionian islands of Kythira, Zakynthos, Kefalonia and Lefkada, and stormed the powerful fortress of Corfu. Then the Russian marines successfully operated in southern Italy. Suvorov defeated the French troops in Northern Italy, made an amazing Swiss campaign. The exploits were brilliant. Ushakov, Suvorov, Russian soldiers and sailors once again showed the world the amazing fighting qualities of a Russian man. However, from the point of view of the national interests of Russia, it was a waste of power. Russian fought for the interests of others. All benefits were received by London and Vienna.

The gap between Russia and former allies and the world with France

Gradually, Pavel Petrovich realized all the stupidity of the war he started against France. The Austrians and the British used Russians as cannon fodder, solving their national problems. By the fall of 1799, Vienna and London decided that the campaign had been won, and they hurried to deprive the Russian laurels of victory. This is the reason for the already unnecessary throw of A. Suvorov’s troops into Switzerland, although it would be wiser to leave them in Italy and begin preparations for a strike against France.

Interestingly, the successes of Suvorov in Italy in some respects saved Napoleon from admitting defeat. The British destroyed the French fleet in Aboukir and deprived the French army in Egypt of communication with the metropolis (Battle of the pyramids. Egyptian campaign of Bonaparte). Egypt did not have an industry that could supply the French army with everything necessary, and the supply of reinforcements has now ceased. The army of Napoleon had quite a bit of time, then it was necessary to surrender to the British and the Turks. Napoleon awaited shameful capitulation. After the heavy defeats of the French troops in Italy, Napoleon was able to actually abandon the army in Egypt (on his own initiative, deserting), and return to France. The French people, tired of the theft and chatter of the ruling elite, the war, annoyed by defeat, fearing the invasion of Suvorov’s army, took Napoleon’s seizure of power with a bang.

It is difficult for Napoleon to deny the existence of strategic thinking, he immediately drew attention to the absurdity of the situation: Russia was at war with a country that does not have a common border with it and no matter of dispute in general, except for views on the form of government. As soon as he received the powers of the first consul, Napoleon set the rapprochement with Russia as the most important foreign policy task of the government. “We do not demand from the Prussian king neither army nor union; we ask him to provide only one service - to reconcile us with Russia, - wrote the great Frenchman in January 1800 of the year. The same thoughts came to Paul. On a report from 28 on January 1800, the Russian envoy in Berlin Krudner, who reported on a French probe through Berlin about a possible peace with Russia, the Russian emperor wrote: “As for rapprochement with France, I wouldn’t want anything better me, especially as a counterweight to Austria. "

5 September 1800, the French surrendered to the British in Malta. Petersburg immediately demanded that London consent to the landing of Russian troops in Malta. London was silent. In November, Pavel sequestrated British goods in Russian shops and stores, banned the sale of British goods in Russia, stopped debt payments to the British, appointed officials to eliminate debt settlements between Russian and English merchants. Diplomatic relations between the powers were interrupted. 4 — December 6 The 1800 of the year was formalized by a union treaty between Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Denmark. With regard to England, the policy of armed neutrality was proclaimed, renewing the 1780 system of the year on a broader scale. The situation went to war between the northern powers and England. The British government allowed its ships to seize ships belonging to the hostile coalition states. In response to these actions, the Danes occupied Hamburg, and the Prussians occupied Hannover. The Allies imposed an embargo on the export of goods to England (even before the blockade of Napoleon), and especially grain, in the hope that the lack of bread would make England more friendly. Many ports in Western Europe were closed to English ships.

London tried to use provocation. The English ambassador to Florence visited the Russian envoy Mozenigo and said that England has no views of Corsica and that, in his opinion, "the conquest of Corsica would be of great importance to his imperial majesty." Thus, London offered Petersburg to replace Malta with Corsica. And given the fact that Corsica was the birthplace of Napoleon, the provocation took on an even more negative connotation. It is clear that Pavel Petrovich did not succumb to such crude provocation.

To be continued ...
Articles from this series:
How Russia became the figure of England in the big game against France
How Russia became the figure of England in the big game against France. Part of 2
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  1. Peaceful military
    Peaceful military 21 October 2013 09: 34 New
    It is funny that the revolutionary anti-monarchist Napoleon Bonaparte declared himself a monarch. wassat
    As for the "Big Game" (Kipling), the Naglo-Saxons did not stop it. There is a good study about this by M. Leontiev:
    1. Walker1975
      Walker1975 21 October 2013 16: 46 New
      It is funny that the son of a lawyer, then a sergeant, then a revolutionary general and, finally, the French marshal Bernadotte became the king of Sweden and the founder of the existing dynasty in our time. I heard that after death, a tattoo was discovered on the body of the king of Sweden: death to kings and tyrants. This is the irony of fate.
      1. Peaceful military
        Peaceful military 21 October 2013 16: 58 New
        Quote: Walker1975
        It is funny that the son of a lawyer, then a sergeant, then a revolutionary general and, finally, the French marshal Bernadotte became the king of Sweden and the founder of the existing dynasty in our time. I heard that after death, a tattoo was discovered on the body of the king of Sweden: death to kings and tyrants. This is the irony of fate.

        Yes Yes Yes... wassat
        And it was funny to see at the divorce of the Swedish royal guard, as part of the guard of women and blacks. wassat
  2. fklj
    fklj 21 October 2013 09: 42 New
    The role of Paul 1 in Russian history is ambiguous. We know little about him.
    Discoveries Ahead.
    1. Beech
      Beech 21 October 2013 23: 30 New
      That's for sure ... unfortunately the story is written for the sake of who is currently in power, and this is not only in our country ... it’s a pity that we know how to destroy better than to save ...
  3. alekseyal
    alekseyal 21 October 2013 09: 49 New
    The fact that the British participated in the conspiracy against Paul I is a historical fact.
    After this, a Russian detachment was immediately recalled from a campaign in India (a colony of England).
    England has always tried to eliminate the threat to itself and its competitors through conspiracies and intelligence operations.
    1. Walker1975
      Walker1975 21 October 2013 16: 52 New
      And their strategic competitors could not oppose them and neutralize their actions. Question: why?
  4. Sergey Medvedev
    Sergey Medvedev 21 October 2013 11: 13 New
    With all the shortcomings of our time, there is one undoubted plus: arrogant Saxons are not our friends and allies.
    1. Gomunkul
      Gomunkul 21 October 2013 11: 57 New
      They never hid it. Any union of Russia with England is, first of all, the protection of the interests of England at the expense of Russia. The assassination of Paul I, the revolution of 1917 (the list goes on ...)
      1. fklj
        fklj 21 October 2013 12: 22 New
        1917 revolution

        Well, you’ve grabbed it. Russia and without England had enough problems for 1917.
        1. alekseyal
          alekseyal 21 October 2013 13: 07 New
          The death of the Russian Empire in 1917 was not an accident, just as the Soviet Union did not accidentally crumble. In both cases, a powerful external force initiated the collapse of Russia, using scoundrels and fools who, for money or beautiful promises, eventually destroyed their own country.

          The history of this greatest catastrophe is still largely mysterious, and there are many more questions than answers. Germany, which is still blamed, was nothing more than an instrument, and then in the same way became a victim of its revolution. February 1917 is the beginning of the Russian catastrophe of the twentieth century, the consequences of which were overcome at too high a price.

          But when we forgot how the geopolitical enemies of Russia destroyed our country, the situation of decay and chaos repeated itself again. In both cases, this force was covered by false clothes of “alliance” and “universal values”. And today, their “ideological” descendants, heavily funded from abroad, are again ready to provoke a revolution in Russia.

          1. fklj
            fklj 21 October 2013 13: 13 New
            In 1991 - I do not argue. And the role of external factors in 1917 is often exaggerated.
            Our ancestors made the history of their country, not uncles from Albion.
            1. Beech
              Beech 21 October 2013 23: 26 New
              So in the ninety-first not from the moon sent rulers and others lol
        2. Trapperxnumx
          Trapperxnumx 21 October 2013 13: 15 New
          Quote: fklj
          1917 revolution

          Well, you’ve grabbed it. Russia and without England had enough problems for 1917.

          Of course, there were enough problems, but in 1917 everyone had enough of them, the Germans were not very far from Paris, in France all men were drafted into the army almost without exception, the losses were simply monstrous for them, but there was no revolution there. And even in Germany and Austria-Hungary, which was besieged from all sides and starving, there was no revolution in 1917. There were many problems in Russia, but without a "push" from the outside they would have been overcome sooner or later.
          1. fklj
            fklj 21 October 2013 13: 30 New
            Russia is not Storage, not Germany. Its European standards can not be measured.
            but without a "push" from the outside, they would sooner or later be overcome

            You will be surprised, but they have been overcome! The revolution.
            There is no place for "would" in history. You can think of millions of options for its move, but these will be just assumptions.
    2. fklj
      fklj 21 October 2013 12: 26 New
      It would be nice if it were like that
  5. Bezarius
    Bezarius 21 October 2013 11: 29 New
    "Ekaterina Alekseevna was supposed to issue a manifesto on the restoration of the Mughal empire."
    I would like to learn more from this place.
  6. ivshubarin
    ivshubarin 21 October 2013 13: 07 New
    Angles and now around the world shit
  7. Dimon-chik-79
    Dimon-chik-79 21 October 2013 13: 50 New
    For mistakes, stupid miscalculations and exorbitant ambitions of the rulers of the Russian soldier always paid with his blood!
    All the same, Alexander III was right about something. The Russian tsar "caught okushki" and put x * r on external movements, and the country was getting richer at this time. And no warrior, no one!
  8. vagabo
    vagabo 21 October 2013 14: 56 New
    Well, if without emotion (it’s clear that we have nothing to love England for), then, IMHO, Napoleonic France was a more serious threat for Russia (both for the state as a whole and for the monarchical regime in particular) at that particular historical moment. The author himself writes about the disruption of Bonaparte’s plans to create a united Europe. But in fact, he still created it, after which he immediately fell upon Russia. The leadership of our country to the end tried to maneuver between London and Paris. I think the understanding that we did not need a big war was obvious to Alexander. As for the anti-English sentiments of M.I. Kutuzov, it is not necessary to pull them out of the historical context. He was against going to Europe, because he believed that France should not be finished off, which is more advantageous to maintain as a counterweight to England. Nothing personal.
    1. loisop
      loisop 21 October 2013 15: 59 New
      Quote: vagabo
      Bonaparte’s plans for a united Europe. But in fact, he still created it, after which he immediately fell upon Russia.

      And that is precisely why in 1805 Napoleon unconditionally released all our prisoners, demonstratively holding out his hand of friendship to Alexander. But here our sovereign refused to ratify the peace concluded in Paris.
      In 1807, the Neman River and further Russian territory lay in front of the victorious Bonaparte.

      Quote: vagabo
      after which he immediately fell upon Russia.

      On a raft in the middle of the Nemunas (the border between RI and overgrown France) on June 25, 1807, a meeting of two emperors took place. The agreement reached on the division of spheres of influence was called the Tilsit Peace.
      November 21, 1806 Napoleon signs the Continental Blockade Decree. "The British Isles are declared in a state of blockade, both by land and by sea. All trade and all communication with them is prohibited ... No ship coming from England or her colonies ... will not be accepted into any port."

      Quote: vagabo
      after which he immediately fell upon Russia.

      in October 1807, the 27th French army, under the command of General Andosz Junot, moved through Spanish territory to Portugal, and at the end of November the French were already entering Lisbon.

      Somehow bend over to attack Russia from Lisbon.

      The emperors met one more time - in September 1808 in Erfurt. Napoleon recognized Russia's right to Finland as friendly support and mutual respect, and Russia recognized France’s right to Spain. In addition, Napoleon gave his consent to the full annexation of Russia to Moldova and Wallachia.

      Napoleon November 10, 1808 caused the Spaniards a terrible defeat at Burgos.

      it is he who attacks Russia.

      Due to the fact that the Austrians were the first to start the war, Alexander could not help Napoleon, in accordance with the agreement, but still he really did not want to fight. The solution Alexander found in this situation was perhaps the most correct in his political life. 20 thousand were sent to the Austrian border in Volyn. the Russian corps, which simply quietly and peacefully stood at the frontiers and did not participate in hostilities. For this help, which did not require the shedding of blood, Russia received Eastern Galicia, the last region inhabited by the Slavic Russian-Ukrainian population.

      In 1810, Alexander refused Napoleon, asking for the hands of Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna.
      OOOO !!! This is generally arch-powerful anti-Russian witchcraft !!
  9. Tyumen
    Tyumen 21 October 2013 15: 26 New
    In the Battle of the French Pyramids, simple self-confidence failed. The fleet in the Abukir bay is located
    like at home, they lifted food from the holds to ventilate, heaped up the decks, the teams went ashore for water.
    Suddenly Nelson's fleet rolled into the bay and shot everyone, as in a shooting gallery. Only one ship was saved, sort of like
    Nelson specially released it.
  10. George
    George 21 October 2013 22: 31 New
    No comment.
  11. Ross
    Ross 22 October 2013 00: 17 New
    Quote: alekseyal
    The fact that the British participated in the conspiracy against Paul I is a historical fact.
    After this, a Russian detachment was immediately recalled from a campaign in India (a colony of England).
    England has always tried to eliminate the threat to itself and its competitors through conspiracies and intelligence operations.

    She has been doing this all the last 300 years. And even from the time of Peter.